|Cartilage Imaging: Clinical & Translational Research Applications|
|Longitudinal Evaluation of Cartilage Degeneration in
ACL-Injured Knees Using MR T1rho Quantification – a Preliminary Study
Xiaojuan Li1, Jonathan Cheng1, Radu I. Bolbos1, C Benjamin Ma1, Thomas M. Link1, Sharmila Majumdar1
1University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California , USA
Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries tend to develop osteoarthritis despite ACL reconstruction. The goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate cartilage degeneration in ACL-injured knees using MR T1rho relaxation time quantification. Six patients with acute ACL injuries were scanned at 3T at baseline (prior to surgery), two-week, six-month and one-year after ACL reconstruction. Significantly elevated T1rho were observed in bone-marrow-edema-like-lesion (BMEL)-overlying cartilage at both baseline and one-year follow-up, despite significant decrease of BMEL volume at one-year (P < 0.05). This preliminary data suggested that there is potential early degeneration in cartilage of ACL-injured knees.
The Value of Pre-Contrast T1 Measurement for DGEMRIC
Wei Li1, Rachel Scheidegger1, Ying Wu1, Robert R. Edelman1, Pottumarthi V. Prasad V. Prasad1
1Evanston Hospital and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Evanston, Illinois, USA
This study was to evaluate if δ R1, which needs the use of combination of pre- and post-contrast acquisition, can provide better differentiation of osteoarthritis (OA) with healthy subjects for dGEMRIC. Pre- and post-contrast T1 measurements were performed in 17 OA patients and 14 healthy subjects with 2D IR-FSE or/and 3D LL techniques. High correlation was observed between T1Gd and δ R1. δ R1 does slightly improve the differentiation of OA from healthy subjects. This modest improvement needs to be weighed against the additional cost and effort in acquiring T1pre.
Reproducibility of DGEMRIC in the Human Knee Joint at
Juhani Multanen1, Erkki Rauvala2, Eveliina Lammentausta2, Risto Ojala2, Ilkka Kiviranta3, Arja Häkkinen1, Ari Heinonen1, Miika T. Nieminen2, 4
1University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; 2Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 3Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 4University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Long-term reproducibility of the dGEMRIC technique was studied in single slice measurements of the central lateral femoral condyle and underlying tibial cartilage in the sagittal plane, and in central patellar cartilage in the axial plane. dGEMRIC measurements in ten asymptomatic volunteers were repeated three times with average interval of 5 days. The absolute reproducibility, as measured by RMS coefficient of variation was 4.2%, 5.5% and 4.8% for bulk cartilage in the slice for femur, tibia and patella, respectively. The reproducibility at various topographical locations for superficial and deep cartilage ROIs ranged between 4.7-12.9% while the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.45-0.98.
|Single Section Versus Volumetric Analysis of DGEMRIC
Scans in a Longitudinal Multicenter MultivendorTrial : The A9001140
Nitya Krishnan1, Bradley Wyman2, Robert Buck3, Marie-Pierre Hellio3, Saara Totterman4, Jose Tamez4, Deborah Burstein1
1Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA; 3Pfizer Global Research and Development, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; 4VirtualScopics, Rochester, New York, USA
This study analyzes a subset (control n=31, OA n=22) of the A9001140 longitudinal multicenter, multivendor trial at 3T. Good correlations were found between results utilizing analysis of a single section from each condyle versus analysis of the entire cartilage region. Similar to single site, 1.5T trials, cartilage from KLG0 knees had higher dGEMRIC indices than KLG3. A slight increase in dGEMRIC index was seen at 6-month compared to baseline in KLG0. Further analysis of remaining subjects and time points may help in planning future clinical trials.
|Comparison of Quantitative Imaging of Cartilage for
Osteoarthritis: T2, T1rho, DGEMRIC, and Contrast-Enhanced CT
Carmen Taylor1, Julio Carballido-Gamio1, Sharmila Majumdar1, Xiaojuan Li1
1UCSF, San Francisco, California , USA
This work compares MRI (T1, T2, T1rho) and contrast-enhanced CT in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, in the presence and absence of gadolinium-based contrast agent. T2 values correlated moderately well with postcontrast T1 and T1rho values. Postcontrast T1 was found to correlate equivalently well with T1rho and T2, but contrast-enhanced CT values correlated better with T1rho and postcontrast T1 better than T2. Both T1rho and T2 values were significantly different before and after contrast addition.
Evaluation of Cartilage Repair with T2 and DGEMRIC Up
to Two Years After Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation
Lauri Mattila1, Jatta E. Kurkijärvi2, Risto Ojala1, Marianne Haapea1, Osmo Tervonen1, 3, Ilkka Kiviranta4, Miika T. Nieminen1, 3
1Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 2University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; 3University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; 4Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a method for repairing focal chondral defects. Combined T2 relaxation time measurements and dGEMRIC at 1.5T were used to study ACT repair at 5±1, 12±2 and 23±1 months after the ACT operation. T2 measurements suggest that the collagen orientation of ACT graft tissue has not regained the 3-D collagen architecture typical to articular cartilage in two years. Proteoglycan replenishment, as measured by dGEMRIC, can reach normal levels during the first six months after the operation and significant changes in PG levels may not occur thereafter.
Magnetization Transfer Contrast and T2 Relaxation in
the Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue at 3T MRI
Goetz Hannes Welsch1, Siegfried Trattnig1, Sebastian Quirbach1, Stefan Marlovits1, Stephan Domayer1, Oliver Bieri2, Klaus Scheffler2, Tallal Charles Mamisch3
1Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
Magnetization Contrast Imaging (MTC) has shown its benefits in neuroradiology, however it also has its potential in musculoskeletal-MRI of cartilage repair tissue. The purpose of this initial study was to show the potential of MTC in the assessment of healthy articular cartilage as well as cartilage repair tissue after different cartilage repair procedures and compare it to widely used T2 mapping at 3 Tesla MRI. Furthermore as a visible zonal variation has been seen to add additional information in T2 relaxation evaluation of articular cartilage, within MTC deep and superficial cartilage aspects were assessed to elucidate a possible zonal difference.
Effect of Joint Loading on T2 Relaxation and DGEMRIC
of Knee Cartilage in Marathon Trainers
Miika T. Nieminen1, 2, Outi Parviainen1, Marianne Haapea1, Tatu Kokkonen3, Juha Isolehto4, Ilkka Kiviranta3
1Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 2University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; 3Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 4University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
The effect of intensive long-term running training on articular cartilage was studied in human marathon trainers. T2 relaxation time and dGEMRIC measurements at 1.5T were performed at baseline and 6-months follow-up, controlled by biomechanical joint loading measurements. Training resulted in subtle but significant local changes in T2 and dGERMIC in the femoral and tibial load bearing compartments. The T2 results show a trend towards prolonged values after intensive training but also when the quality of loading is stressful for the joint.
Quantitative T2 Mapping of Knee Cartilage: Initial
Results on the Differentiation of Healthy and Altered Articular
Cartilage of the Knee by Means of Unloading
Tallal Charles Mamisch1, Goetz Hannes Welsch2, Sebastian Quirbach2, Stefan Marlovits2, Siegfried Trattnig2
1University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland; 2Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
The biomechanical constitution of articular cartilage is changed during loading. However these changes are reported to diminish during unloading. The aim of this study was to use quantitative cartilage T2 mapping and its zonal assessment for the evaluation of unloading during a one hour MR scan as a potential new tool in the differentiation of healthy and altered articular cartilage within the knee. In an initial study, a subtraction of the pre- and post-unloading T2 maps could visualize cartilage changes between healthy cartilage and cartilage defects or cartilage repair tissue.
Cartilage Deformation Under Load in a Human Cadaveric
Hip Measured with 7.0T QMRI
Laura L. Greaves1, Michael Gilbart1, Andrew Yung1, Piotr Kozlowski1, David R. Wilson1
1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
The feasibility and repeatability of measuring cartilage deformation at the hip under a physiological load was assessed with 7.0T qMRI. A human cadaveric hip was axially compressed in a custom pneumatic loading device. Imaging was performed with a fat-suppressed 3D FLASH sequence and a resolution of 0.11x 0.11 x 1 mm was achieved. Mean cartilage compression was 0.71 mm (34%) after 3 hr 45 min, error due to repeatability was 0.13 mm (3.4%). We successfully measured cartilage deformation in the hip and the overall magnitude of deformation was far greater than our resolution and error due to repeatability.