Neurodegenerative Disorders
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Thursday 13:30-15:30

                  1087.     Comparison of Quantitative MT and T2 Properties of White Matter Lesions in Alzheimer's Disease

Kimberly L. Desmond1, Greg J. Stanisz1,2, Wendy Oakden1, Nancy Lobaugh1,2

1Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Quantitative MRI techniques have been applied in order to investigate whether white matter lesions in Alzheimer’s disease can be differentiated from those occurring in the normal population. In this work we compare the myelin water fraction measured with CPMG to the magnetization transfer exchange constant, R, T2b (T2 relaxation time of the semisolid pool) and M0b (semisolid pool fraction relative to bulk water) in white matter hyperintensities, as derived from a pulsed magnetization transfer experiment.

                  1088.     Comparing MRI and CSF Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease: Intergroup Discrimination and Predicting Clinical Change

Prashanthi Vemuri1, Heather J. Wiste1, Stephen D. Weigand1, Leslie M. Shaw2, John Q. Trojanowski2, Michael Weiner3, Ronald C. Petersen1, Clifford R. Jack Jr1

1Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA; 2University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; 3University of California at San Francisco

MRI and CSF biomarkers that closely reflect the underlying biology add value to clinical assessment as well as to the understanding of mechanisms underlying Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our objective was to assess the correlations of both MRI and cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers with clinical diagnosis and cognitive performance at baseline, and also assess the ability of these disease indicators to predict future cognitive decline. We examined these questions using data from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study which consists of a large database of cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD with both CSF and MRI.

                  1089.     In Vivo Localized Two Dimensional MR Spectroscopy to Compare the Neurochemical Profile in Wild-Type and Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Niels Braakman1, Firat Kara1, Mark A. van Buchem2, Reinhard Schliebs3, Huub J.M. de Groot1, A Alia1

1Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Leiden, P.O. Box 9502, Netherlands; 2Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; 3Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

In this study we employed in vivo localized two dimensional (2D) MRS to map the neurochemical changes in transgenic mouse model of AD as compared to control mouse. The combination of the optimized 2D L-COSY sequence, high field strength (9.4T) and strong gradient system allowed clear detection of cross-peaks of several brain metabolites allowing their direct unambiguous chemical shift assignments in vivo. Significant changes in various neurometabolites are evident in 2D spectra obtained from the brain of transgenic mice as compared to control mice. The neurochemical changes observed in AD brain and their relation with AD pathology will be discussed.

                  1090.     In Vivo and Post-Mortem Detection of Amyloid Plaques with a Non-Specific Gadolinium Contrast Agent

Alexandra Emmanuelle Petiet1,2, Anne Bertrand2, Christopher J. Wiggins2, Diane Houitte3, Thomas Debeir1, Thomas Rooney1, Marc Dhenain2,3

1CNS, Sanofi-Aventis, Vitry-sur-Seine, France; 2DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; 3Mircen, CNRS URA 2210, Orsay, France

The potential for magnetic resonance microscopy to detect amyloid plaque deposits, one of the lesions of Alzheimer's disease, has previously been demonstrated. One of the challenges in imaging plaques is to achieve high-enough resolution and contrast to resolve 50-micron large lesions. This study showed that the use of a contrast agent allowed individual plaque detection at very high resolution (23 x 23 x 90 microns) on T2-weighted scans of fixed transgenic mouse brains. The method was extended to live mice using intracerebroventricular injections and showed that plaques can be resolved at 50 x 50 x 200 microns.

                  1091.     Direct Visualization of β-Amyloid Plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain Tissue Using Clinical Field Strength MRI

Hagen H. Kitzler1, John A. Ronald1, Yuanxin Chen1, Robert R. Hammond2, Brian K. Rutt1

1Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Neuropathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

We investigated the capability of high-resolution 3T MR using three-dimensional Fast Imaging Employing STeady state Acquisition (FIESTA) for the detection of β-amyloid plaques in fixed brain specimens from Alzheimers Disease (AD) patients. Focal spherical signal voids were found in neuro-anatomical locations characteristic for the disease, and correlated with β-amyloid plaques identified in registered histological and immuno-histological sections stained for both iron and β-amyloid protein. Here we present the first successful attempt at direct imaging of amyloid plaques in human AD brain tissue using clinical field-strength MR imaging system supported by a specialized gradient insert.

                  1092.     Early Detection of Amyloid Plaques in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Ryan Chamberlain1, Stephen D. Weigand2, Malgorzata Marjanska1, Denise Reyes3, Tom M. Wengenack4, Gregory Preboske3, Angela Snyder1, Geoffry L. Curran4, Christine O'Brien4, Joseph F. Poduslo4, Michael Garwood1, Clifford R. Jack3

1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience, and Biochemistry/Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

A novel MRI pulse sequence was used to image individual amyloid plaques two months earlier than previously reported. Eleven transgenic mice were imaged once per month from 3 to 11 months of age to determine the earliest age at which plaques can be detected. The multi-asymmetric spin-echo pulse sequence could reliably detect plaques at 7 months of age.

                  1093.     Regional Shape Changes of the Striatum and Thalamus in Alzheimer's Disease; a Morphometrical MRI Study

Laura Willemijn de Jong1, Luca Ferrarini2, Jeroen van der Grond, Julien Milles, E.L.E.M Bollen3, Rudy Westendorp4, H Middelkoop5, J. Reiber, Mark van Buchem

1Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Holland, Netherlands; 2Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; 3Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center; 4Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center; 5Neuropsychology, Leiden University Medical Center

The aim of this study was to compare the shape of the large deep grey matter structures (i.e. the caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum and thalamus) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease to controls without cognitive deficits. For this purpose, 3T MR scans of 35 AD patients and 35 matched controls were automatically segmented using FIRST (FSL); their volumes were compared, and a shape analysis technique was used to highlight local shape changes between the groups and estimate their significance. This study revealed significant regional atrophic changes in the medial caudate nucleus, antero-medial thalamus and ventral putamen in patients with AD.

                  1094.     Multiple MRI Measures in the Characterization of Patients with Early Alzheimer Disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment - Relative Sparing of the Occipital Lobes

Achim Gass1, Steven Smith2, Jochen Hirsch1, Michael Amann1, Matthias Guenther3, Brandon Whitcher4, Michael Chappell2, Anil Rao4, Mark Woolrich2, Mark Sollberger5, Markus Herdener6, Paul M. Matthews4, Andreas U. Monsch6

1Neurology/Neuroradiology, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Oxford University Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), UK; 3mediri GmbH, Germany; 4Imperial College, London and GSK Clinical Imaging Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, UK; 5Neurology, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Memory Clinic, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

As part of a monocentric biomarker study we investigated 204 subjects (121m 83f, mean age 72 years 50-89 years, healthy elderly (n=61), subjects with dMCI (n=65) and early Alzheimer disease (AD) (n=78). A 60 minutes MRI protocol was developed on a 3T Allegra head only MR system. MRI includes structural, diffusion, ASL perfusion. The difference between NC subjects and patients (AD, MCI) were more pronounced than the difference between MCI subjects and AD patients on global and grey matter atrophy measures, white matter diffusivity measures, and brain perfusion results, while the occipital lobes remain less affected in both AD and MCI.

                  1095.     Characterizing White Matter Disruption in Alzheimer Disease Patients

Xin Fan1, Kristin Martin-Cook2, Myron F. Weiner3, Hao Huang1,4

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Departmetn of Neurology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Alzheimer disease is a progressive brain disease of older adults. Fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to detect subtle structural white matter abnormalities in persons with Alzheimer disease (AD). We hypothesized that many cerebral white matter tracts would be affected in AD patients with disease progression. In this study, we employed a new automated protocol to quantify structural change in all the major white matter tracts with voxel-based morphometry coupled with a digital white matter atlas and were able to confirm our hypothesis.

                  1096.     DTI Characteristics of Amnestic and Non-Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

Kejal Kantarci1, Ramesh T. Avula1, Ali R. Samikoglu1, Maria M. Shiung1, Scott A. Przybelski2, Stephen D. Weigand2, Heidi A. Ward1, Prashanthi Vemuri1, David S. Knopman3, Bradley F. Boeve3, Ronald C. Petersen3, Clifford R. Jack, Jr. 1

1Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Patients with the amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our objective was to determine the characteristic DTI profiles of the aMCI and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) subtypes. Hippocampal ADC was increased in patients with aMCI, and posterior cingulum tract FA was decreased in patients with aMCI and naMCI compared to cognitively normal subjects. Elevated hippocampal ADC most likely represents hippocampal neurodegeneration and a high frequency of early AD pathology in aMCI patients. Normal hippocampal ADC in the naMCI subtype suggest that other pathologies may be responsible for cognitive impairment some naMCI patients.

                  1097.     Diffusion Tensor Imaging Characteristics of Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer’s Disease

Kejal Kantarci1, Ramesh T. Avula1, Ali R. Samikoglu1, Maria M. Shiung1, Scott A. Przybelski2, Stephen D. Weigand2, Heidi A. Ward1, Prashanthi Vemuri1, David S. Knopman3, Bradley F. Boeve3, Ronald C. Petersen3, Clifford R. Jack, Jr. 1

1Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

We determined the regional DTI characteristics of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) compared to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cognitively normal elderly (CN). Cortical ADC was higher in amygdala in patients with DLB (n=24) and AD (n=24) than CN (n=24). ADC was higher in the hippocampus, the rest of the temporal lobe and the posterior cingulum tract in AD than DLB and CN. Posterior cingulum tract FA was lower in patients with AD than DLB and CN. Regional DTI changes were consistent with the expected pattern of neurodegenerative pathological involvement in DLB and AD.

                  1098.     Selection of Appropriate Fractional Anisotropy (FA) Threshold for Tract Based Diffusion Tensor Analysis of Uncinate Fascicles in Alzheimer Disease.

Toshiaki Taoka1, Toshiaki Akashi1, Toshiteru Miyasaka1, Hiroyuki Nakagawa1, Kaoru Myochin1, Satoru Iwasaki2, Kimihiko Kichikawa1

1Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2Radiology, Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Japan

Tract based analysis of white matter tract is a useful method to analyze pathological change in selected tract and fractional anisotropy (FA) threshold is set when drawing tractography and has influence in drawn tractography. This FA threshold had influence for measured value of FA and ADC along the tract. For tract based analysis of degenerative disease, appropriate selection of FA threshold to draw tractography is important for effective and meaningful evaluation. In the case with analysis of uncinate fasciculus in AD, FA threshold of 0.15 and 0.2 showed better discrimination among different severity of AD both for FA and ADC.

                  1099.     Evaluation of Fibers in Limbic Circuits by Tract-Specific Diffusion Tensor Analysis. -Accessing Severity of Alzheimer Disease.

Toshiaki Taoka1, Toshiaki Akashi1, Toshiteru Miyasaka1, Hiroyuki Nakagawa1, Kaoru Myochin1, Satoru Iwasaki2, Kimihiko Kichikawa1

1Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2Radiology, Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Japan

The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in fibers of limbic circuit using tract-based diffusion tensor analysis as an indicator of severity of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Increased diffusivity and decreased diffusion anisotropy in limbic circuits correlated to the severity of AD and MCI. Degeneration of white matter fiber tracts secondary to neuronal loss in the associative cortex may be one of the reasons of these AD associated changes in limbic circuits. Decreased FA and increased ADC may be useful as a marker for severity of AD.

                  1100.     Decreased Granger Causality Strength Between the Right and Left Hippocampal Network in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

Guangyu Chen1, Wenjun Li1, Chunming Xie1, Piero Antuono2, Shi-Jiang Li1

1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 2Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA

The multivariate granger causality (GC) mapping was applied to investigate the effective casual connectivity

                  1101.     Global ROI-Based Functional Connectivity MRI (FcMRI) Analysis for Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease

Shi-Jiang Li1, Barney Douglas Ward1, Piero Antuono2, Zhilin Wu1, Jennifer Jones2, Mei-Jie Zhang3

1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 2Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA

In contrast to the traditional approach of examining functional connectivity for a few, prespecified, ROIs, we performed a global functional connectivity analysis by considering all ROI pairs from a large ensemble of anatomically predefined ROIs to determine classification of Alzheimer’s disease.

                  1102.     Detection of Changes in Functional Connectivity MRI (FcMRI) Following Aricept® Treatment in Subjects with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

Shi-Jiang Li1, Barney Douglas Ward1, Piero Antuono2, Zhilin Wu1, Jennifer Jones2, Thomas McRae3

1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 2Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA

A method for global ROI-based functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) discrimination of Alzheimer’s (AD) vs. normal healthy (control) study subjects was applied to observe changes in functional connectivity for mild AD study subjects following 3 months of Aricept® administration.

                  1103.     Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: Combined ASL Blood Flow Measurement and Morphometric Imaging

Takashi Yoshiura1, Akio Hiwatashi1, Koji Yamashita1, Eiki Nagao1, Hironori Kamano1, Yukihisa Takayama1, Osamu Togao1, Tuvshinjargal Dashjamts1, Tomoyuki Noguchi1, Ivan Zimine1, Tomoyuki Okuaki2, Hiroshi Honda1

1Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan

We compared diagnostic performances of ASL CBF measurement, morphometric measurement and combined two methods in detecting Alzheimerfs disease (AD). Twenty AD patients and 23 healthy control subjects were studied using quantitative ASL and high-resolution structural imaging. Discrimination of AD patients from control subjects was performed based on mean CBF in the hypoperfused area and gray matter density in the atrophied region. Diagnostic accuracy for ASL CBF, gray matter density and their combination were 86.0%, 88.4% and 93.0 %, respectively. Results suggest combination of ASL CBF measurement and morphometric imaging can provide better diagnostic accuracy than either of the two alone.

                  1104.     Cerebrovascular Disease Associated White Matter Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease

Liya Wang1,2, Felicia C. Goldstein3, Longchuan Li4, James J. Lah3, Allan I. Levey3 I. Levey3, Hui Mao1

1Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China; 3Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine; 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

This presentation reports a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of white matter changes that may associate to the cerebrovascular disease, a risk factor of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the AD patients with and without T2 hyperintense lesions were obtained and compared. AD patients with cerebrovascular disease demonstrated statistically significant decreases in FA values in the right parietal, left frontal and right frontal regions, suggesting that the cerebrovascular disease is closely associated with DTI measured WM changes in AD.

                  1105.     Enhanced Regional CBF in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease After Three Months of Aricept® Treatment

Wenjun Li1, Chunming Xie1,2, Zhilin Wu1, Jennifer Jones3, Piero Antuono3, Thomas McRae4, Shi-Jiang Li1,5

1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 2Neurology, School of Clinical Medicine, Southeaset University, Nanjing, Jiang Su, China; 3Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 4Pfizer, Inc.; 5Psychiatry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Aricept® treatment on CBF perfusion in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI (ASL-MRI) [3] to measure regional CBF.

                  1106.     White Matter Abnormality in Dementia with Lewy Bodies: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

Kuniaki Kiuchi1, Masayuki Morikawa1, Toshiaki Taoka2, Soichiro Kitamura3, Tomohisa Nagashima1, Kazumichi Hashimoto1, Jun Kosaka1, Yuichiro Inoue1, Makoto Inoue1, Kimihiko Kichikawa2, Toshifumi Kishimoto1

1Psychiatry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 3Neuropsychiatry, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan

Introduction: We investigate white matter using diffusion tensor tractography between subjects with Alzheimerfs disease (AD) and dementia with lewy bodies (DLB). Method: 15 AD, 15 DLB, and 16 controls underwent diffusion tensor tractography. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values along the nerve bundles in white matter. Result: In the posterior cingulum bundle (PCB) and uncinate fasciculus (UNC), significant differences were observed between AD and controls. DLB exhibited significantly lower FA and higher ADC values in the PCB relative to NC. Conclusion: Subjects with AD and DLB exhibit white matter abnormality relative to controls.

                  1107.     Identifying Cerebrovascular  Versus Parenchymal Disease Components in Dementia with Rest-Stress CASL MRI

Georg Deutsch1, David G. Clark2, Amol Pednekar3, Beverly Corbitt1, Jan den Hollander4

1Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Philips Medical Systems NA, Bothell, WA, USA; 4Vascular Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmngham, Birmingham, AL, USA

The role of vascular disease in dementia, including in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), has become more controversial lately, with growing evidence that vascular disease is present among many subjects with pathologically proved AD. Some new models propose that subclinical vascular disease may provide an environment conducive to AD or that there may even be a more causal relationship. We have shown that regions of reduced metabolic activity show more substantial increases in rCBF during CO2 or Diamox stress compared to healthy tissue. We now provide preliminary data using CASL MRI based measurement of quantitative rCBF on 7 dementia cases, that cerebrovascular stress procedures can help confirm the diagnosis of a primary degenerative dementia and help discriminate between vascular disease and primary degenerative processes through an almost paradoxical effect on cerebrovascular reactivity.

                  1108.     Arterial Spin Labeling in the Identification of Abnormal Perfusion Patterns in Early, Drug-Naïve Parkinson's Disease

Tracy Robert Melzer1,2, Richard Watts1,3, Michael R. MacAskill1,2, Ross Keenan4, Ajit Shankaranarayanan5, David C. Alsop6, Charlotte Graham1,2, Leslie Livingston1,2, John C. Dalrymple-Alford1,7, Tim J. Anderson1,2

1Van der Veer Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand; 2Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; 4Christchurch Radiology Group, Christchurch, New Zealand; 5GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 6Beth Israel Deconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 7Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Pseudo Continuous ASL was used to investigate cerebral blood flow in eight drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and 16 controls. Principal component analysis resulted in a set of perfusion covariance patterns that successfully distinguished between patients and controls. The pattern was characterized by hypoperfusion in the bilateral posterior parietal-occipital region, extending anteriorly to include precentral and postcentral gyri, middle frontal gyrus, posterior medial cortex (principally precuneus) and left middle temporal lobe. The expression of this ASL derived perfusion pattern offers a potential early biomarker in PD that may also have value in presymptomatic individuals at risk of developing PD.

                  1109.     A DTI Analysis of Limbic System Structural Integrity and Global Cognitive Status in Parkinson’s Disease

Tracy Robert Melzer1,2, Richard Watts1,3, Michael R. MacAskill1,2, Ross Keenan4, Charlotte Graham1,2, Leslie Livingston1,2, John C. Dalrymple-Alford1,3, Tim J. Anderson1,2

1Van der Veer Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand; 2University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; 4Christchurch Radiology Group, Christchurch, New Zealand

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate structural changes in key components of the limbic system as potential biomarkers in the progression of cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mean Diffusivity (MD) and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values in 30 PD patients (categorized into cognitively intact (PDU), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementing (PDD)) and 20 controls were analyzed in a region-of-interest analysis that revealed significant differences between PDD and controls and PDD and PDU. Furthermore, DTI values correlated with cognitive measures. DTI is a promising method to evaluate and potentially track anatomical substrates of cognitive decline in PD.

                  1110.     Increased Cerebral Grey Matter Volume and Density in Early Parkinson's Disease

Hong Yang1, Yi-Lei Zhao1, Jun-Feng Xu1, Xu-Ning Zheng2, Dong-qiang Liu3, Min-ming Zhang1

1Department of Radiology , First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 2Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 3State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University. Beijing, Chi, Beijing, China

The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of volume and concentration in cerebral grey matter in patients with early Parkinson¡¯s disease (PD) using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol. Twenty-one patients were compared with an equivalent number of age- and gender- matched controls. 3D T1-weighted images of the whole brain were acquired, followed by data processing using SPM5 software. The PD patient group exhibited increased grey matter concentration in right middle frontal gyrus and increased grey matter volume in the left middle frontal area and the right cuneous area, a finding that has not been reported in the literature.

                  1111.     Preliminary Study of the Brain in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Using Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

Lin Ma1, Mengyu Liu1

1Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China

Hypointense signal, also known as ¡°motor dark line¡±, are frequently seen in bilateral precentral gyri in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The reason for the low signal remains unknown. SWI was used to explore the possible susceptibility differences between ALS patients and normal controls in this prospectively designed study. The result showed the phase shift value was significantly lower in ALS patients than in controls only in precentral gyri, indicating that substances with stronger susceptibility may exist in precentral gyri in ALS.

                  1112.     Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Sporadic and Familial (D90A SOD1) Forms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Biba Stanton1, Daisy Shinhmar2, Vicky Williams1, Camilla Blain1, Martin Turner3, Vincent Giampietro2, Marco Catani2, Steve Williams1, Nigel Leigh1, P M. Andersen4, Andy Simmons1,2

1Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK; 2Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK; 3John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK; 4Umea University Hospital, Sweden

We tested the hypothesis that patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) homozygous for the D90A SOD1 mutation (homD90A) show less extensive white matter damage compared to sporadic cases. A voxel-based technique was used to compare diffusion tensor imaging data in 20 patients with sporadic ALS, 6 homD90A patients and 21 controls. homD90A patients showed lower MD and higher FA in motor and extra-motor pathways despite similar disease severity. DTI may provide a useful in vivo method of assessing WM pathology across phenotype and genotype.

                  1113.     High-Resolution Longitudinal Voxel-Based Morphometric Study in ALS

Don Charles Bigler1, Yaman Aksu2, Helen E. Stephens3, Jeffrey Vesek4, Kevin R. Scott3, Claire Flaherty-Craig3, Jianli Wang4, Paul J. Eslinger3,4, Zachary Simmons3, Qing X. Yang4,5

1Bioengineering, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA; 2Electrical Engineering, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3Neurology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA; 4Radiology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA; 5Neurosurgery, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA

This work presents results for a longitudinal high-resolution voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using RAVENS images. Images were acquired at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A significant negative correlation of gray matter (GM) volume with time was detected in the pre-central gyrus. Negative GM volume correlations were also seen in the superior parietal lobule and the middle temporal gyrus. White matter (WM) volume loss was detected within regions of the parietal lobe and middle temporal lobe. No significant longitudinal volume increases were seen within the ventricles.

                  1114.     Elevated Myo-Inositol Reflects Activation of Astroglia and Microglia  in Cognitive Impaired HIV Patients

Ute Feger1, Mary Ricardo- Dukelow2, Thomas Ernst1, Vivek Nerurkar3, Esther Volper3, Steve Buchthal1, Helenna Nakama1, Linda Chang1

1University of Hawaii, JABSOM, Neuroscience and MR Research Program, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of Hawaii, JABSOM,  Neuroscience and MR Research Program, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3University of Hawaii, JABSOM, Asia-Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Honolulu, HI, USA

Decline in cognitive function is one of the known complications of HIV infection.1H MR spectroscopy and cytokine measurement in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were performed on 27 HIV subjects and 7 seronegative controls. HIV subjects with cognitive impairment (HIV+CI) showed higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in CSF and higher myo-inositol in the parietal grey matter than HIV subjects with normal cognition and controls. Moreover, CSF IL-8 correlated with brain myo-inositol levels in HIV+CI, suggesting astroglial and microglial activation. CSF IL-8 measurements and brain MRS may be used as combined biomarkers for disease prognosis and progression.

                  1115.     Factor Analysis of Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging Data in HIV Infection: Regional Patterns of Involvement and Relationship to Cognitive Status

Mona Adel Mohamed1, Margaret R. Lentz2, Vallent Lee2, Mahaveer Degaonkar1, Elkan Halpern2, Ned Sacktor3, Peter B. Barker1, Martin G. Pomper1

1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; 3Neurology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA

Through factor analysis of proton MR spectroscopic imaging data in HIV infection, metabolite patterns can reveal differences between HIV status and severity of HIV-associated dementia, and provide information on the spatial distribution of metabolic changes within these subjects. A choline (Cho) factor was found to differentiate subjects by serostatus (elevated Cho scores across white and deep gray matter regions). An NAA factor (decreased NAA score across white matter regions) could differentiate subjects by dementia status. These results suggest early white matter involvement (glial cell proliferation, Cho increase) in HIV infection, and later neuronal dysfunction (NAA decreases) associated with dementia.

                  1116.     Abnormal T2’ Relaxation Rates as a Measure of Iron Concentration in HIV-Positive Subjects

Eric Keith Baxter1, Linda Chang2, Thomas Ernst2, Victor Andrew Stenger

1Electrical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Ewa Beach, HI, USA; 2Queens Medical Center, USA

As the brain ages, iron deposition in subcortical structures may play an important role in the mental health of patients. This is especially true in patients with degenerative brain diseases such as HIV. Analysis of R2’ relaxation rates in HIV positive and negative subjects (ages 20 to 70 years) demonstrated increased iron content with age in subcortical brain structures, higher iron content in the thalamus of HIV subjects, and interactions between HIV status and age. The findings suggest that iron deposition may predominately affect the putamen and thalamus of HIV subjects, and contribute to brain degeneration in younger HIV patients.

                  1117.     Increased Brain Diffusion Detected Using DWI-MR in Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

Susan Kraft1, Susan VandeWoude1, Dan Bucy1, Mark Brown2, Annette Bachand3, Lisbeth Sestina3, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann3, John Elder4

1Colorado State University, Fort Collins , CO, USA; 2Physics Consulting Services for MRI and MRS, Arvada, CO, USA; 3Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; 4Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

MR diffusion weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were used 4 months post-inoculation to study the neuropathophysiology associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats inoculated with either a neurotropic viral strain (FIV-A-PPR) or an immunopathogenic strain (FIV-C-PG). No abnormalities were visualized on anatomic MRI scans and the MR spectroscopy findings did not differ between groups. However, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was significantly increased in multiple brain regions, which varied regionally by viral-strain, despite only subtle histopathologic changes and low brain proviral load. This is a characteristic also described in human HIV patients with neuroAIDS, making this a relevant animal model.

                  1118.     Neuronal Metabolism in HIV+ Subjects Lacking Immune Control Correlates to M-CSF Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid

Margaret R. Lentz, Ph.D. 1, Mona A. Mohamed, M.D., Ph.D. 2, Mahaveer N. Degaonkar, Ph.D. 2, Hyun Kim, B.S. 1, Elkan Halpern, Ph.D. 1, Ned Sacktor, M.D. 3, Katherine Conant, M.D. 3, Peter B. Barker, D.Phil. 2, Martin G. Pomper, M.D., Ph.D. 2

1Departments of Neuroradiology and the A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA

HIV-infected peripheral, monocyte/macrophages can permeate the blood-brain barrier and initiate a cascade of events which mediate neuronal injury. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognition, neuronal metabolism, and the macrophage maturation cytokine M-CSF (macrophage-colony stimulating factor) in HIV+ subjects who lacked immune control. An association between higher M-CSF and lower NAA levels was found in many brain regions, but faded with therapy usage and immune control, regardless of cognitive improvement. These data suggest that higher expression M-CSF facilitates widespread neuronal injury across the brain which may be monitored with MRSI.

                  1119.     NAA Factor Scores Suggest Neuronal Recovery During Antiretroviral Therapy:  an MRSI Study

Margaret R. Lentz, Ph.D. 1, Mona A. Mohamed, M.D., Ph.D. 2, Mahaveer N. Degaonkar, Ph.D. 2, Vallent Lee, B.A. 1, Hyun Kim, B.S. 1, Elkan Halpern, Ph.D. 1, Ned Sacktor, M.D. 3, Ola Selnes, Ph.D. 3, Peter B. Barker, D.Phil. 2, Martin G. Pomper, M.D., Ph.D. 2

1Departments of Neuroradiology and the A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA

Longitudinal magnetic resonance and cognition studies are lacking with respect to the effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) use in chronically HIV-infected subjects, especially those with HIV-associated cognitive impairment. An NAA factor (previously determined to be predictive of dementia) was found to improve in HIV-infected subjects after 3 and 10 months of ART, suggesting a reprieve of neuronal dysfunction. However, “glial” metabolism, represented by a choline factor, and cognitive impairment, remained unchanged. These results suggest that the rate of recovery of cognitive function is slower than that of neuronal metabolism, perhaps due to persistent low-level infection/inflammation.

                  1120.     Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) Perfusion Indices as a Measure of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) Disruption in Different Stages of Neurocysticercosis

Rishi Awasthi1, Avantika Verma2, Vimal Kumar Paliwal3, Sanjay Kumar Verma4, Kashi Nath Prasad2, Ram Kishore Singh Rathore4, Rakesh K. Gupta1

1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

DCE MRI was performed on 15 patients with Neurocysticercosis (NCC), cysts at different stages of degeneration. Various perfusion indices were analyzed and it was found that Ktrans, Kep, ve and vp were significantly high and showed positive correlation with degree of oedema in cysts with edema compared to other groups. We conclude that perfusion indices may be used to quantify degree of BBB disruption, which may be of value in understanding the mechanism of disease symptoms in future.

                  1121.     Volumetric Assessment of Type-1 Diabetic Neural Atrophy Using Voxel Based Morphometry

Nyssa Elaine Craig1, Rajiv Gandhi2, Dinesh Selvarajah2, Kar Ping Kuet, Sudheer Lankappa3, Solomon Tesfaye2, Iain David Wilkinson1

1Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK; 2Diabetes Unit, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK; 3Academic Clinical Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multisystem disease in which poor glycaemic control leads to a myriad of complications within the body. Recent research has suggested an association between type-1 diabetes and brain parenchymal atrophy and possible cognitive decline. Eighty-seven male subjects with type-1 diabetes underwent imaging at 1.5T (30 sub-clinical, 29 painful and 28 patients with painless neuropathy). Data was pre-processed and compared using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) Voxel Based Morphometry. The sub-clinical group demonstrated greater grey and white matter probability density than painful and painless groups, and cortical CSF was also relatively greater in the painful and painless groups.

                  1122.     Parallel Neurochemical Alterations as Measured by High Field MRS  in Patients and Mice with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 (SCA1)

Gulin Oz1, Diane Hutter1, Ivan Tkac1, Harry T. Orr1, Khalaf Bushara1, Christopher M. Gomez2

1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

To determine how similar neurochemical abnormalities as measured by high field MRS are in patients and model mice with the same genetic defect, we measured cerebellar neurochemical profiles of patients with SCA1, as well as of a mouse model of SCA1 relative to controls. The neuronal markers NAA and glutamate were decreased and the putative gliosis marker myo-inositol was increased in both mice and patients with SCA1. These data indicate that findings regarding neurochemical changes as monitored by high field 1H MRS in future pre-clinical trials with SCA1 mice can be utilized for the design of clinical trials with patients.

                  1123.     Measurement of Disease Severity in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Using 3T MRS

Eva H. Baker1, Nicole M. Yanjanin2, Andrea L. Gropman3, Forbes D. Porter2

1Diagnostic Radiology Department, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2National Institute of Child Health and Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA

This paper is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of patients with NPC that includes quantitative measurements of metabolite levels at four locations in the brain. In a multivariate analysis, correlations were found between NAA and disease severity at 4 out of 4 locations studied, and between mI and disease severity at 1 location. NAA and mI also varied with age at some locations.

                  1124.     Measurement of Metabolite T2 at 3T in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

Eva H. Baker1, Nicole M. Yanjanin2, Andrea L. Gropman3, Forbes D. Porter2

1Diagnostic Radiology Department, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2National Institute of Child Health and Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA

This paper is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of patients with NPC that includes quantitative measurements of metabolite levels at four locations in the brain. Accurate conversion of the output of peak fitting programs into molar or molal units requires knowledge of metabolite T1 and T2 in vivo. We report T2 measurements for NAA, Cr, and Cho at 4 locations. We found that at some locations, metabolite T2 correlates with the age of the patient and severity of disease.

                  1125.     Longitudinal Study of Metabolite Levels in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

Eva H. Baker1, Nicole M. Yanjanin2, Andrea L. Gropman3, Forbes D. Porter2

1Diagnostic Radiology Department, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2National Institute of Child Health and Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA

This report is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of patients with NPC that includes quantitative measurements of metabolite levels at four locations in the brain. We have previously reported correlations of metabolite levels to patient age and disease severity. Analysis of a subset of these patients who had multiple return visits shows that similar trends can be appreciated in individual patients.

                  1126.     Basal Ganglia NAA/Cr Ratio in Gulf War Syndrome at 3T

Sergey Cheshkov1,2, Audrey Chang1, Hyeonman Baek1, Richard Briggs1,2, Robert Haley2

1Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Abnormalities in ratios of brain metabolite peak areas were previously measured via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 1.5T in the pons and basal ganglia, and in bilateral hippocampus of Gulf War Syndrome patients. The original veterans of the Seabees cohort recently participated in a follow-up study at 3T. We report our findings on significant differences in NAA/Cr ratio between Syndrome II veterans and control subjects.

                  1127.     Cerebral Metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An In-Vivo Proton MRS Study

S K. Sharma1, Sanjeev Sinha1, Uma Sharma2, Karikanni Kalathil A. Danishad2, H Sharma1, H K. Misra1, H Misra1, T Kathiravan1, V V. Reddy1, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas3, S S. Kumaran2, Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan2

1Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medcial Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 2Department of NMR and MRI Facility, All India Institute of Medcial Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medcial Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

Quantitative proton MRS from five brain regions (left hippocampus, temporal, frontal white/grey and occipital grey matter) of 75 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and 25 controls showed reduced tNAA in left temporal region in patients compared to controls indicating neuronal damage due to apnea. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly high in patients (38.8±29.1 events/hr) compared to controls (1.0±1.0 events/hr). Concentration of Cr, Cho, and Glx were similar in various brain regions studied between two groups. This may probably be due to adaptive mechanism of brain which may diminish detrimental effects of recurrent hypoxia in OSA patients.

                  1128.     Dynamic Changes in Brain Bioenergetics During Apneic Excursions in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Caroline Rae1, Delwyn Bartlett2, Qiao Yang2, David Walton3, Angela Denotti2, Toos Sachinwalla3, Ron R. Grunstein2

1POWMRI, University of New South Wales, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 2The University of Sydney, Australia; 3RayScan Imaging, Australia

We studied 13 males with severe, untreated OSA whilst asleep using 31P MRS. Hypoxic excursions (≥10% desaturation) resulted in significantly increased Pi and decreased ATP, which resolved on re-oxygenation. There were no changes in PCr or brain pH and no changes in phospho-monoesters or -diesters, and no changes in the signal from the coil phantom. These data show reversible effects on brain bioenergetics in OSA on a seconds time scale and show that sleep hypoxia with parallel loss of cerebrovascular reactivity has significant effects.

                  1129.     Combining FMRI with QMRS for Understanding the Etiology of Periodic Hypersomnia

Anders Tisell1,2, Maria Engström1,2, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard1,2, Thomas Karlsson3, Patrick Vigren4, Anne Marie Landtblom5, Peter Lundberg1,2

1Department of medical and health sciences, Division of radiological sciences, University of Linkoping, Linköping, Sweden; 2Center for Medical Image science and Visualization (CMIV), University of Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden; 3Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, University of Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden; 4Division of Neurosurgery, University of Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden; 5Division of Neurology, University of Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden

Klein Levin syndrome (KLS) is a disorder characterized by periodic hypersomnia. The etiology of KLS is unknown. In a previous study in which working memory of KLS patients was investigated using fMRI, we found an abnormal activation in left thalamus. In this work we examined the cellular metabolism in thalamus, using abso-lute quantitative MRS, hypothesizing that metabolism is coupled to the neural activa-tion in the same area. A strong correlation between the absolute NAA concentration in left thalamus and fMRI activation was found.

                  1130.     Thalamic and Caudate Hypertrophy in Recovery from Critical Illness

Max Louis Gunther1,2, William R. Riddle3, Alessandro Morandi2,4, Michael Hooper2,5, E Wesley Ely2,5, Christopher Cannistraci, Whit Schrader1, Kristen L. Merkle1, John Chris Gatenby1,3, John C. Gore1,3

1VUIIS Vanderbilt Institute of Imaging Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; 4Geriatric Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; 5Department of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

6 previously delirious critically ill patients were were scanned at hospital discharge and at three month follow-up to examine the nature of brain changes that occur in this population. Results revealed notable growth in both the caudate and thalamus at three month follow-up.

                  1131.     Noninvasive Quantification of Human Brain Antioxidant Concentrations Via Double Edited  1H MRS Throughout Intravenous Delivery of Vitamin C

Melissa Terpstra1, Carolyn Torkelson1, Susan Raatz1, Tonya White1, Kamil Ugurbil1, Ivan Tkac1

1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Antioxidant defenses are involved in protecting against dementia and neurodegenerative disease. Vitamin C (ascorbate) and glutathione (GSH) are the two most concentrated chemical antioxidants in the CNS. Ascorbate (Asc) and GSH were double edited with MEGA-PRESS at 4 T in the human occipital lobe throughout 24 hours following IV administration of vitamin C. Measured data are not consistent with an Asc concentration ([Asc]) change larger than 8 % (95 % CI) at any time point. Ability to overrule changes greater than 8% enables studies on antioxidant defenses. [Asc] may have increased at the 10 hour time point in one subject.

                  1132.     The Regional Changes of Non-BBB Pituitary Perfusion Characteristics in Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency Patients by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced T1 MR Imaging: Assess by Brix Pharmaceutical Model

Chao-Ying Wang1,2, Hua-San Liu1, Chun-Jung Juan2, Hsiao-Wen Chung1, Nei-Yu Chuo3, Ming-Chung Chou1, Cheng-Yu Chen2

1Electrical engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Biomedical Engineering,, Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

To quantitatively investigate the regional perfusion characteristics of the pituitary gland by DCE MR imaging in patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Brix model was applied and analyzed on dynamic data. We found multiple perfusion parameters will be helpful to investigate this non-BBB area.

                  1133.     Impact of Depression on Cerebral Glutamate and Cognitive Function in Abstinent Methamphetamine Users (AMU)

Osama Abulseoud1, Napapon Sailasuta2, Martha Hernandez1, Brian Ross2

1U of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2HMRI, Pasadena, CA, USA

Co-morbidity of major depression and methamphetamine use shows persistent additive effect on Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.

                  1134.     Quantitative Susceptibility Imaging of the Rat Brain Using a Dedicated Setup Allowing Different Orientations Along B0

Ludovic de Rochefort1, Tian Liu2, Martine Guillemiller1, Diane Houitte1, Yi Wang2, Philippe Hantraye1, Vincent Lebon1

1MIRCen, CEA-CNRS, Fontenay-aux-roses, France; 2Radiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA

Neurodegenerative diseases can induce iron metabolism changes. Quantitative susceptibility mapping may be a way to map iron content in the brain. Recently, techniques based on processing the susceptibility induced phases have been developed. This is an ill-posed problem: from the induced magnetic field to the magnetic sources. Specific acquisition and reconstruction techniques are needed such as COSMOS (Calculation Of Susceptibility by Multiple Orientation Sampling) in which several orientations are scanned with respect to B0. Here, a setup is described to rotate rats in vivo and map the field in their brain. Preliminary susceptibility masp demonstrate feasibility.

 
Advanced Neuroimaging in MS
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Monday 14:00-16:00

                  1135.     Optic Radiation DTI Measures of White Matter Integrity Inversely Correlate with Visual Acuity in MS

Robert A. Bermel1, Jian Lin2, Ken Sakaie2, Natasha Frost3, Jeffrey A. Cohen1, Mark J. Lowe2, Micheal D. Phillips2

1Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Neurology, Dean Neurosciences, Madison, WI, USA

DTI in the optic radiations (OR) was evaluated in fourteen patients who also underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Sloan low-contrast (2.5%) visual acuity testing. DTI was acquired at 3T with 71 gradient directions. The OR were identified in each patient by fiber tracking between the lateral geniculate nucleus and occipital cortex. Longitudinal diffusivity (r=-0.62, p=0.008) and transverse diffusivity (r=-0.49, p=0.038) in the OR correlated with low-contrast visual acuity. There was no significant correlation between OCT and visual acuity or OCT and DTI measures. DTI is a clinically relevant measure of pathway-specific white matter integrity.

                  1136.     Utility of Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to Discriminate Subgroups of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Jochen G. Hirsch1,2, Yvonne Naegelin1, Michael Amann2, Pascal Kuster2, Stefan Traud2, Kerstin Bendfeldt2, Ernst Wilhelm Radue2, Ludwig Kappos1, Achim Gass1

1Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Pathological heterogeneity in MS still makes it difficult defining correlates between clinical status on the one hand, and structural tissue changes on the other hand. We investigate the contribution of the recently proposed approach of TBSS to characterize cohorts of MS patients in more detail with respect to structural integrity as assessed by DTI. This study demonstrates that FA values strongly depend on T2w lesionload. Interestingly however, the TBSS analysis showed a difference of FA values in both high-lesion-load groups with different EDSS ranges (0-2 vs. 3-7). The high EDSS group showed lower FA almost exclusively in both pyramidal tracts.

                  1137.     In-Vivo Quantitative Measure of Black Hole Severity in Multiple Sclerosis with Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging

Pascal Sati1, Anne H. Cross2, Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy3

1Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medecine, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA

Among the different types of MS brain lesions observed by MRI, black holes are associated with most significant tissue destruction. Black holes are usually detected as hypointense areas compared to the normal appearing white matter on T1-weighted spin-echo images. Unfortunately, these images, being only qualitative, provide limited information about lesion severity. In this abstract, we propose a new approach using GEPCI for a quantitative evaluation of black hole severity which may assist in predicting their development over time. This quantitative approach can be used in a clinical setting as it requires less than 10 min of imaging.

                  1138.     Improved Correlation of Composite MRI Scores with EDSS in Multiple Sclerosis

Aziz Hatim Poonawalla1, Sushmita Datta1, Vaibhav Juneja1, Flavia Nelson2, Jerry Wolinsky2, Gary Cutter3, Ponnada Narayana1

1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 3Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL, USA

In multiple sclerosis (MS), quantitative MRI metrics are sought to correlate with patient disability as assessed on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). However, the correlation with EDSS using conventional metrics is poor, suggesting that they do not provide a broad enough characterization of the disease. To address this deficiency, we developed novel composite metrics, which combine conventional metrics with T2 values. These composites dramatically improved correlation with EDSS (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). These new composites were also more resistant to the degrading effect on correlation of increased population size, suggesting that they are advantageous for multicenter trials.

                  1139.     DESPOT: Application and Optimisation for postmortem Multiple Sclerosis Brain

Klaus Schmierer1, Sean CL Deoni2, Declan Chard1, David H. Miller1, Claudia AM Wheeler-Kingshott1

1Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, England, UK; 2Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, England, UK

DESPOT1 and DESPOT2 (driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2) allow rapid and signal-to-noise ratio efficient mapping of T1 and T2 over large volumes with high spatial resolution. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating condition of the CNS in which both tissue specificity of quantitative MRI and quick image acquisition is desirable. Post mortem brain tissue allows correlation of MRI with matched histology. We optimized DESPOT1 and DESPOT2 for use in post mortem MS brain. High quality T1 and T2 maps were produced suggesting these novel techniques may become useful tools to monitor MS in vivo.

                  1140.     Quantifying Optic Nerve Atrophy in MS: A Motion Insensitive Technique for the Anterior Portion of the Optic Nerve

Marios C. Yiannakas1, Claudia Wheeler-Kingshott1, Alaine M. Berry1, Karyn Chappell1, David H. Miller1, Daniel J. Tozer1

1Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London, UK

A new fast volumetric MRI technique is presented that can be used for the quantification of the optic nerve area in the anterior portion of the optic nerve. The technique is insensitive to motion due to its fast mode of acquisition and can be performed with most clinical MRI scanners. The technique is evaluated here on a limited number of healthy volunteers and compared with the most common imaging method currently in use. The results are presented with respect to the form of contrast that it produces along with a reproducibility assessment.

                  1141.     Advantages of Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging for Identifying MS Abnormalities in Postmortem Brain Tissue

Pascal Sati1, Anne H. Cross2, Robert E. Schmidt3, Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy4

1Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medecine, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medecine, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA

Application of GEPCI technique for in vivo evaluation of brain MS lesions demonstrated substantial improvement in image quality and saving of acquisition time as compared to current clinical MR sequences. However, ex vivo studies and comparison with pathology is required to validate this method. Herein we apply GEPCI technique for investigations on MS and control postmortem brains, and compare results with data obtained by standard MRI protocols. We show that GEPCI technique has the potential to provide new information about the abnormalities in MS tissue while being as reliable as conventional MRI techniques for detection of MS lesions.

                  1142.     Correlation of Metabolic and Diffusivity Markers in Multiple Sclerosis Using MR Spectroscopic Imaging and DTI

Dominic Sappey-Marinier1,2, Matthieu Bagory2, Salem Hannoun2, Danielle Ibarrola3, Jean-Christophe Comte3, Francoise Durand-Dubief2,4, Christian Confavreux4

1CERMEP-Imagerie du Vivant, Université de Lyon, Bron, France; 2CREATIS-LRMN UMR CNRS 5220 & U630 INSERM, Université de Lyon, Bron, France; 3IRM, CERMEP-Imagerie du Vivant, Bron, France; 4Hopital Neurologique, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Bron, France

To characterize new markers of inflammation and neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS), MRSI and DTI were used to study 30 MS patients and 10 control subjects. MRSI showed significant changes in metabolic ratios in between MS clinical forms and DTI fiber tracking showed significant decreases in FA and increases in ADC in semioval white matter region. Metabolic ratios are significantly correlated with diffusivity parameters as well as with the patient disability status.

                  1143.     Longitudinal Imaging of Myelin Repair and Axonal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

Robert J. Fox1, Jian Lin2, Thomas Cronin1, Xiaofeng Wang3, Ken Sakaie2, Mark J. Lowe2, Michael D. Phillips2

1Mellen Center for MS, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Radiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA

DTI was used to follow areas of focal inflammation (gadolinium-enhancing lesions) and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in 19 MS patients followed longitudinally over 1 year after starting highly-effective MS therapy. We observed increased FA in gad lesions, which was driven by a decreased in transverse diffusivity. We also observed decreased FA in NAWM, which was driven by a decrease in longitudinal diffusivity. The results are consistent with short-term remyelination within acute lesions and long-term axonal degeneration in normal appearing white matter. These results also suggest that DTI may provide pathology-specific insights into MS.

                  1144.     Diversity of Cortical and Subcortical MS Pathology/Lesions Revealed by 7T MRI

Adrienne Nicole Dula1,2, Siddharama Pawate3, E B. Welch1,4, Robin G. Avison1, Subramaniam Sriram3, Jeff L. Creasy2, John C. Gore1,2, Malcolm J. Avison1,2

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Neurology and Immunology, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 43MR Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA

The goal of the present study was to assess the potential for 7T neuroimaging of MS, with particular emphasis on improving conspicuity of MS pathology not previously observed by MRI at lower fields. The course of MS is highly variable and better markers of disease activity and response to therapy are needed. In addition to the pathology revealed by MRI at 1.5 and 3T, ultra-high field MRI also reveals cortical and perivascular MS lesions that reflect different aspects of MS neuropathology.

                  1145.     Quantification of Callosal Widths Using Conformal Mapping: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

Mehul Pravin Sampat1, Pallavi Shashikant Jesrani1, Dominik Meier1, Annika M. Berger1, Brian Healy1, Peter Hildenbrand2, Howard Weiner1, Charles R.G. Guttmann1

1Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Radiology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USA

We assess differences between clinical subtypes of MS with regards to width of corpus callosum (CC). The CC was manually outlined on a set of MRI exams of RRMS, SPMS and PPMS patients. CC width is computed at multiple points by using a conformal mapping method applied to a pre-processed and smoothened CC outline. The mean width profile for the MS types is compared. We observe that the mean width is significantly lesser in SPMS as compared with RRMS and PPMS indicating greater damage to the CC in SPMS. The degeneration along the CC is observed to be non-uniform.

                  1146.     Prediction of Persistent and Transient T1 ‘black Holes’ in Multiple Sclerosis Using MRI Texture Analysis

Yunyan Zhang1, Anthony Traboulsee1, Yinshan Zhao1, Luanne M. Metz2, David KB Li3

1Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 3Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

3T MRI texture analysis using the polar Stockwell Transform (PST) was applied to 15 new acute T1 black holes (BHs) at baseline from 9 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. PST texture was calculated for each pixel of lesional ROIs and 9 NAWM regions. Texture spectrum differed between lesions and NAWM. The low frequency energy was higher and span broader in persistent BHs than in transient BHs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the PST texture analysis may have the potential to predict trueBH from tranBH at the time of lesion formation, months before visible evolution.

                  1147.     An Estimation of Method-Inherent and Pathology-Associated Variability of GM Measures in MS Using Dual Sampling

Jan Scholz1, Tarunya Arun1,2, Morgan Hough1, Amy Dodd1, Heidi Johansen-Berg1, Jackie Palace2

1Functional MRI of the Brain Centre, Oxford, UK; 2University Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK

Cortical grey matter (GM) atrophy has been described in multiple sclerosis (MS) before (1). However, little information exists about the inherent variability of measures of grey matter within individual MS patients. Here we estimate the variability of GM measures by employing a longitudinal dual sampling study protocol and two different analysis techniques: voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). We also contrast the scan-to-scan variability with the pathological changes occurring during the course of a year within the same patients.

                  1148.     Brain Metabolites Proton T2 Mapping at 3 Tesla in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

Ivan I. Kirov1, Lazar Fleysher1, Roman Fleysher1, Songtao Liu1, Joseph Herbert2, Oded Gonen1

1Radiology, NYU SOM, New York, NY, USA; 2Neurology, NYU SOM, New York, NY, USA

We tested the hypothesis that metabolite transverse (T2) relaxation times in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions and normal-appearing tissue are sufficiently similar among patients that the proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) signal variations represent actual concentration changes and not altered T2s. Multivoxel (4 slices, 80 voxels 1 cm3 each) 1H-MRS was used to examine the T2 regional distributions of N-acetylaspartate, creatine and choline in the brain of seven relapsing-remitting patients. The results suggest that for metabolic quantification in MS, patient T2s are sufficiently similar among themselves and to controls that obtaining individual regional and lesion T2s is not needed.

                  1149.     Inverse Dependence Between Patient Population and Correlation of Composite MRI Scores with EDSS in Multiple Sclerosis

Aziz Hatim Poonawalla1, Sushmita Datta1, Vaibhav Juneja1, Flavia Nelson2, Jerry Wolinsky2, Gary Cutter3, Ponnada Narayana1

1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 3Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL, USA

In the relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) literature, r-values for correlation with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of various quantitative MRI metrics range from 0.31–0.61, following a strong (r=-0.7) inverse trend with population sample size. To better characterize this dependence, we conducted numerical simulations on ever-larger subsets of a large (n=139) RRMS patient cohort. The simulations confirmed that the correlation with EDSS was inflated for smaller population sizes, converging to the baseline correlation value as n approached maximum, with a metric-dependent threshold for convergence. The results suggest that reported correlations may be overstated for small studies and understated for large ones.

                  1150.     In Vivo Measurements of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NPCs) in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Normal Controls, Using MRS and LCModel

Claudiu Schirda1,2, Christopher Magnano1, E. Ann Yeh2, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman2, Allison S. Drake2, Jennifer L. Cox1,2, Robert Zivadinov1,2

1Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2Department of Neurology, The Jacobs Neurological Institute, SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA

Neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs) have self-renewing capabilities, thus rendering them an attractive biomarker for monitoring repair of damaged nerve tissue. Recently, NPCs have been associated with the 1.28ppm resonance and MRS measurements in normal controls (NC) have been demonstrated, using a single value decomposition technique for quantification. We are presenting results of MRS in vivo NPCs measurements conducted in NC and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at different ages and disease stages, using the well established LCModel to quantify the 1.28ppm biomarker.

                  1151.     Comparison of Spectroscopic Imaging Vs. Localized Spectroscopy to Characterize Clinical Forms of Multiple

Matthieu Bagory1, Françoise Durand-dubief2, Danielle Ibarrola3, Jean-Christophe Comte3, Christian Confavreux2, Dominique Sappey-Marinier1,3

1CREATIS-LRMN UMR5220 CNRS & U630 INSERM, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France; 2Service de neurologie A, Hopital Neurologique de Lyon, Bron, France; 3Dpt. IRM, CERMEP - Imagerie du vivant, Bron, France

This study was design to compare two Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy approaches, spectroscopic imagine (CSI) and localized spectroscopy (SVS), to distinguish Multiple Sclerosis (MS) clinical forms. We compared metabolic ratios in a large SVS volume in the brain, and from sum of individually quantified voxels from CSI. Results shows that CSI provided significant differences in metabolic characterization of MS forms in contrast to the SVS approach, likely due to methodological aspects.

                  1152.     High Field T1 Predicts Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis Cortical Grey Matter

Klaus Schmierer1, Po-Wah So2, Shu F. An3, Sebastian Brandner3, David H. Miller1, Tarek A. Yousry4, Harold G. Parkes1

1Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, England, UK; 2Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, England, UK; 3Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, England, UK; 4Brain Repair & Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, England, UK

In multiple sclerosis (MS) brain white matter (WM) magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and T1 are associated with myelin and – to a lesser degree – axons. Substrate of these MR indices in MS cortical grey matter (CGM) is less clear. We investigated the association of myelin and neuronal density (ND) with T1, T2, and MTR in MS CGM using high-field (9.4T) MRI and histology. In CGM T1 was the strongest predictor of ND, whereas MTR was the main predictor of myelin. Fixation time is an important confounder that needs to be taken into account in studies using fixed post mortem samples.

                  1153.     An Evaluation of the Robustness of Tract-Based Measures of White Matter Integrity

Mingyi Li1, Jian Lin, Ken Sakaie, Erik Beall, Lael Stone, Robert Bermel, Micheal D. Phillips, Mark J. Lowe

1Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA

Track based measures of white matter integrity are increasingly being employed in studies of populations with possible compromised white matter integrity. Identifying fiber tracks in populations with diseased white matter has obvious possible confounds. Various methods have been proposed to deal with this, including 1) the use of healthy control-based tracking atlases as well as 2) non-tensor based probabilistic tracking methods that are less susceptible to problems from regions of low anisotropy. To date, there has been no validation of either method with regard to establishing either 1) robust pathway measures in the case of (1), or 2) unbiased pathway identification in the case of (2). We present here a study based on non-rigid image registration to validate the robustness of establishing comparable pathways in a healthy control population and a population of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Our method suggests that 1) non-rigid image registration of tracks generated in healthy controls to patient diffusion data and 2) tracking in both patients and controls with a non-tensor based method can result in robust track-based measures of white matter integrity.

                  1154.     Automated Vs. Conventional Tractography in Multiple Sclerosis: Variability and Correlation with Disability

Daniel Salo Reich1,2, Seth A. Smith1,3, Arzu Ozturk1, Eliza M. Gordon-Lipkin2, Sheena K. Farrell2, Peter C.M. van Zijl1,3, Peter A. Calabresi2, Susumu Mori1,3

1Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA

Automated tractography is necessary to make tract-specific imaging clinically useful, but implementation in disease is problematic. We investigated an automated tract probability mapping scheme in multiple sclerosis, comparing the results to conventional tractography. We found that the method has consistently lower scan-rescan variability. In the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts, but not optic radiations, tract-specific MRI indices differed systematically between methods. In the optic tracts, however, the automated method failed. Even in cases with systematic differences, correlation of MRI indices with clinical disability scores was similar. With careful interpretation of results, therefore, this method can be used clinically.

                  1155.     Comparison of 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Michael John Moser1, Robert K. Breger1, Bhupendra O. Khatri2, Yu Liu3

1Radiology, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 2Neurology, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Medical Physics, St. Luke's Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that takes advantage of the non-random, linear diffusion of water through certain structures in the brain and allows imaging of white matter tract orientation and integrity not visible normally with T1 and T2-weighted MRI sequences. This study was designed to see if higher magnetic strength 3T MRI would have different FA measurements compared to 1.5T MRI in patients affected with multiple sclerosis.

                  1156.     Gadofluorine M Enhanced MRI Reveals Circumventricular Organ Involvement in CNS Inflammation and Facilitates Occult Lesion Detection

Eva Tysiak1, Jens Wuerfel1,2

1Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Neuroradiology, University Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany

Circumventricular organs (CVO) are brain areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and regarded as “gates to the brain”. During inflammation, CVO may exert an active role in immune cell recruitment into the brain. In a longitudinal study we investigated BBB leakage of CVO in vivo applying Gadofluorine M (Gf) enhanced MRI and histology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of Multiple Sclerosis. Gf signal intensity of the choroid plexus, the subfornicular organ and the area postrema increased significantly during EAE, correlating with disease severity. Furthermore, Gf improved the detection of occult lesions, particularly in optic nerve inflammation.

                  1157.     Measuring Perfusion and Permeability in Multiple Sclerosis: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in 3D at 3T

Michael Ingrisch1, Dominik Morhard, Steven Sourbron1, Lisa-Ann Gerdes2, Tania Kümpfel2, Reinhard Hohlfeld2, Maximilian F. Reiser, Christian Glaser

1Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich - Grosshadern Campus, Munich, Bavaria, Germany; 2Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich - Grosshadern Campus, Munich, Bavaria, Germany

We propose the use of a fast 3D-view-sharing sequence for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) at 3T. This allows for coverage of the whole brain at high spatial and temporal resolution and thus for accurate quantification of perfusion and permeability in MS-lesions using a compartment-modeling approach. We present initial results of a study with 10 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. The results show accurate perfusion metrics for normal-appering white matter (NAWM), clear separation of NAWM and lesions based on the permeability and rather heterogenous vascular perfusion metrics of contrast-enhancing lesions, suggesting a potential for lesion characterization.

                  1158.     In-Vivo Insights Into Magnetization Exchange in Human White Matter Structures

Saeed Kalantari1, Cornelia Laule2, Thorarin Albert Bjarnason3, Alex Lloyd MacKay1,2

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

In this study we developed an analytical approach to measure cross relaxation between myelin tissue and myelin water, myelin water and intra/extra-cellular (I/E) water, and I/E water and non-myelin tissue in five different brain white matter structures from 57 healthy volunteers. Our findings clearly prove the role of exchange in transferring magnetization between the four signal pools. The cross relaxation times between myelin water and I/E water obtained for all examined structures were much longer than the typical T2 values of white matter and hence the calculated cross relaxation correction for the myelin water fraction is minimal.

                  1159.     Comparing 3T and 7T in the Detection of Small Parenchymal Blood Vessels in MS Lesions

Emma Clare Tallantyre1, Jennifer E. Dixon2, Paul S. Morgan2,3, Matthew J. Brookes4, Ali Al-Radaideh4, Nikos Evangelou4, Peter G. Morris4

1Clinical Neurology, Nottingham University, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK; 2Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK; 3University of South Carolina, USA; 4Nottingham University, UK

Objective: To compare the ability of T2*-weighted imaging at 3T and 7T to demonstrate blood vessels within MS lesions.

                  1160.     Optic Nerve Dedicated Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Shows Correlation with Thickness of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

Seth Aaron Smith1,2, Zoe R. Williams3, Daniel S. Reich2,4, Jonathan AD Farrell1,2, Sheena K. Farrell4, John N. Ratchford4, Peter CM van Zijl1,2, Neil R. Miller3, Peter A. Calabresi4

1F.M. Kirby Center, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

The optic nerve (ON), a small WM structure, conveys visual information to the brain and may undergo inflammatory changes in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect brain and spinal cord pathology but have not been combined to study the ON in vivo because of pragmatic limitations. We show that combined, ON-dedicated DTI and MT imaging can be performed quickly, resolve the ON, and correlate with optical coherence tomography. This approach may be used to follow disease progression with the goal of detecting ON damage in multiple sclerosis.

 
Multi-Modal Characterization of White Matter in Animal Models
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Tuesday 13:30-15:30

                  1161.     Neural Progenitor Cell Distribution and White Matter Reorganization After Traumatic Brain Injury Measured by MRI and Histology

Quan Jiang1,2, Guang Liang Ding1, Siamak Pourabdollah-Nejad1, Chang Sheng Qu3, Asim Mahmood3, Lian Li1, Zheng Gang Zhang1,2, Jia Ni Hu4, Yi Ming Shen4, Zhi Feng Kou4, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian1, James R. Ewing1,2, Michael Chopp1,2

1Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Physics, Oakland University, Rochester Hills, MI, USA; 3Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA; 4Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

Neural progenitor cell (NPC) treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) promotes brain remodeling and functional recovery. White matter reorganization is important factor for functional recovery and may be influenced by NPC distribution. We investigated NPC distribution and white matter remodeling after treatment of TBI using MRI and immuno-histochemical staining. We found that MRI can detect migration and distribution of labeled cells and white matter reorganization and reconnectivity. NPCs co-localized with axonal reorganization. Although FA shows promise in differentiating reorganized white matter from other TBI damaged tissues and treatment effects, it can lead to error if crossing fibers predominate.

                  1162.     The Contribution of Myelin to the T2 of Corpus Collosum in Shiverer Mouse

Craig A. Branch1,2, Victor V. Dyakin3, Yuanxin Chen4, V Veranna3, A Kumar3, C Peterhoff3, Randolph Nixon3,5

1Medical Physics, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY, USA; 2 Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 3Dementia Research, Nathan Kline Institute, Organgeburg, NY, USA; 4Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; 5Psychiatry, New York University, New York, NY, USA

Two types of mice, Shiverer mice (model of reduced CNS myelin sheath formation) and HM-DKO mice (reduced neurofilament content) were examined to determine the contribution of axonal myelin and neurofilaments upon the T2. Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic (EM) techniques were employed to uncover the contribution of each to the T2 relaxation rate within the corpus collasum. T2 increase in the CC of Shiverer mice is associated with loss of myelin bound water while in MH-DKO mice, neurofilament loss only slightly elevated the T2 in CC, suggesting a minimal effect of neurofilaments upon cytoplasm T2.

                  1163.     Multiexponential T2, Magnetization Transfer and Quantitative Histology in White Matter Tracts of Rat Spinal Cord

Adrienne N. Dula1, Holly L. Valentine, William M. Valentine, Daniel F. Gochberg, Mark D.  Does2

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

Multi-exponential T2 (MET2), quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) have been measured in white matter tracts of the rat spinal cord. These measures were compared with each other and with micro-anatomical characteristics derived from quantitative analysis of histology. The results indicate that while both MWF and PSR report on myelin content, they are each uniquely sensitive to the micro-anatomical characteristics of the tissue from which they are measured. Therefore, in comparing absolute values of MWF or PSR, one must be aware that difference may reflect more than simply amount of myelin.

                  1164.     Noninvasive Detection of Selective Vulnerability of Cerebral White Matter Tracts to Cuprizone

Mingqiang Xie1, Regina C. Armstrong2, Anne H. Cross3, Sheng-Kwei Song4

1Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis  , MO, USA; 2Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Neurology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA; 4Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

Selective vulnerability of subpopulations of neurons or glia is well documented in many neurological diseases. However, selective axonal vulnerability is not as well characterized. In the current study, axial diffusivity derived using DTI was used to evaluate cerebral white matter of YFP mice fed cuprizone for 4 weeks. Rostral external capsule (EC) exhibited a decreased axial diffusivity, axonal beading, and YFP loss. In contrast, the directly adjacent rostral corpus callosum (CC) was not yet significantly affected. These DTI findings were validated by the YFP imaging, suggesting that decreased axial diffusivity is a sensitive biomarker for non-invasively detecting vulnerable white matter tracts.

                  1165.     MRI Detectable Spinal Cord Atrophy Correlates with Disability in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Istvan Pirko1, Aaron J. Johnson2, Anne K. Lohrey2, Jun Ying3, Diana Lindquist4, R. Scott Dunn4

1Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Cincinnati, USA; 4Imaging Research Center, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA

TMEV infection of SJL/J mice is an established MS model. In this model, significant brain atrophy precedes and predicts the development of motor disability. We now report the development of progressive spinal cord atrophy in the later stages. C5 spinal cord cross-section surface analysis of 7T MRI images revealed very significant cord atrophy starting at 6 and progressing to 12 months, showing strong correlation with disability as detected by rotarod assay. This represents the only known model of MS-related brain and cord atrophy, and will serve as a fertile ground for further research regarding this important aspect of MS.

                  1166.     DTI of a Mouse Model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease:  Correlating MR Measures with Morphometric Analyses.

Torsten Ruest1, Julia M. Edgar2, William Matthew Holmes1, jennifer a. Barrie2, Klaus a. Nave3, thomas j. Anderson2, Debbie Dewar1

1Clinical Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK; 2Applied Neurobiology Group, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, UK; 3Dept of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Goettingen, Germany

Duplication of the Plp1 gene is the most common cause of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease (PMD), a disease characterised by dysmyelination. We investigated white matter abnormalities in a mouse model of PMD, inwhich the Plp1 gene is overexpressed, by correlating DTI measures with electron microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses of white matter changes. High-resolution 3-D DTI of contrast enhanced perfusion fixed mouse brains, were registered to a template to create average WT and Plp1-overexpresser datasets. Difference maps were generated and a group-wise, cluster based statistical analysis was performed. . The loss of anisotropy and increase in mean-water diffusion correlated with the severity of hypomyelination.

 
White Matter Diseases Other Than MS
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Wednesday 13:30-15:30

                  1167.     Mapping White Matter Degradation Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

Wang Zhan1, Grant Gauger1,2, Gary Abrams3, Tatjana Novakovic-Agopian3, Michele Meeker1, Lauren Boreta1, Tess Kornfield1, Yu Zhang1, Marzieh Nezamzadeh1, Norbert Schuff1, Michael Weiner1

1University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3VA Medical Center , San Francisco, CA, USA

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is applied to detect white matter (WM) alterations following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both acute and chronic mild TBI groups are compared to each other, and to age and sex-matched normal controls. Our data suggest that postinjury axonal degradation, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), occurs in varying WM regions in different postinjury phases. In these regions, decreased FA is also correlated with longer postinjury time in the acute TBI group. WM alterations tend to appear in regions of the cingulate and corpus callosum in acute TBI, and extend to other areas in chronic TBI stages.

                  1168.     Cerebral White Matter Recovery in Abstinent Alcoholics – a Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Study

Anderson Mon1, Stefan Gazdzinski2, Timothy C. Durazzo1, Ping Hong Yeh2, Dieter J. Meyerhoff1,2

1Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, San Francisco, CA, USA

Alcoholism is associated with widespread brain tissue loss (evident in volumetric imaging) and metabolite alterations (evident in spectroscopy) that are exacerbated by cigarette smoking. These changes in brain integrity due to alcohol are also manifested in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) as lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and elevated mean diffusivity (MD) likely associated with increased extra-cellular spaces. Although MR studies demonstrated WM volume increases and metabolite recovery with sobriety, WM recovery in alcoholics has not been evaluated with DTI, nor have multimodal studies of these three modalities been conducted simultaneously.

                  1169.     Discrimination of Distinct Patterns of Myelin-Associated Parameters in Hypomyelinating White Matter Disorders by Multimodal Quantitative MR-Imaging

Steffi Dreha-Kulaczewski1, Knut Brockmann1, Marco Henneke1, Claudia Zuercher1, Peter Dechent2, Jutta Gaertner1, Gunther Helms2

1Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany; 2MR-Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany

Myelin sensitive quantitative techniques including MT (3D FLASH) and DTI (single-shot STEAM) were applied to five pediatric patients with defined hypomyelinating leukodytrophies (mitochondrial cytopathy, PMLD, HABC) in order to i) validate MT and FA in clinical settings, ii) identify myelin patterns for further characterization of undefined disorders. Using PD- and T1-weighted references, the percentage MT saturation caused by a single MT-pulse was obtained. All patients revealed reduced MT saturation and FA. In comparison to FA maps MT saturation maps had higher spatial resolution and better contrast to allow discrimination of distinct patterns and may help to further differentiate undefined leukodystrophies.

                  1170.     Multi-Slide Proton MRSI and Clinical Outcome in Children with Late Infantile Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)

Christine i. Dali1, Lars G. Hanson2, Jens Fogh3, Allan M. Lund1

1Dept. of Clinical Genetics, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark; 2Radiology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, DK, Denmark; 3Zymenex, Hilleroed, DK, Denmark

Thirteen children with late infantile MLD were examined by spectroscopic imaging. The NAA concentrations measured in a ROI from Semiovale are presented. The NAA signal vanishes as the disease progresses. The results from the motor function varied in raw score from 180, where the child is still able to walk, to 13, where the child can move the head in a lying position. The cognitive function showed severe impairment in all children, except in those still able to walk. We found a significant correlation between decreasing NAA spectra in the deep white matter and decreasing cognitive and motor function.

                  1171.     Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions and High Grade Glioma:A Comparative Study

XIANG LIU1, WEI TIAN2, Sven Ekholm1

1Department of Radiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Department of Radiology, ; University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of DTI in differentiating tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDL) with high grade gliomas, which is important to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, but difficult on conventional MR images alone. The mean FA values of TDLs were significantly higher than those of high grade gliomas, without difference of ADC between groups. And fiber density index in the high grade gliomas was significantly reduced compared with TDLs, accompanied with significant change of main eignvector in the peri-tumoral region. DTI are useful and assist in differentiating between the TDLs and high grade gliomas.

                  1172.     Idiopathic Autoimmune Encephalopathy: MR Imaging Appearance

Feng Feng1, Jing Gao2, Hui You1, Ming-Li Li1, Zheng-Yu Jin1

1Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China; 2Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China

Although idiopathic autoimmune encephalopathy (AE) is a rare and poorly understood entity, it is becoming increasingly recognized by the association with autoantibody markers and/or clear response to immuno-modulatory treatment. The clinical manifestations of AE are protean and nonspecific, and make the diagnosis challenging. Since AE is a potentially reversible neurological condition, better understanding its MRI appearance is critical to patient~{!/~}s prognosis. In this study, seven biopsy-proven cases of AE without specific biological markers were described and their MRI findings were suggestive after thorough clinical and laboratory evaluation.

                  1173.     Diffusion Tensor Imaging and 1H-MR Spectroscopy for Evaluation of Methotrexate Leukoencephalopathy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Ulrike Löbel1, John O. Glass1, Hiroto Inaba2, Wilburn E. Reddick1, John T. Sandlund2, Zoltán Patay1

1Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA; 2Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA

Diffusion Tensor Imaging and MR spectroscopy were used to assess white matter changes in a patient who developed acute methotrexate-induced leukoencephalopathy during leukemia treatment over a period of 252 days. ADC was found to be the earliest and most sensitive indicator of MTX toxicity, while FA changes were delayed. We speculate that the initial uncoupling of ADC and FA changes may indicate a sequence of histopathological events including initial myelin injury (intramyelinic edema) and subsequent damage to the neuroaxonal units. Changes may be reversible or irreversible, but further studies are needed to determine cut-off values for ADC, FA and MR spectroscopy.

                  1174.     UTE Imaging of White Matter Injury of Immaturity

Ulrika E. Svanholm1, Magnus Mårtensson1, Brigitte Vollmer2, Linda Holmström3, Atsushi Takahashi4, Bo Nordell1, Olof Flodmark5

1Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Woman nad Child Health, Karolinska Institute, Neuropediatric Research Unit, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institute, Neuropediatric Research Unit, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare Technologies, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 5Department of Nuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

Using MRI with ultra-short echo time (UTE), it has been shown that white matter contains both long and short T2 components, and that the latter can be connected to myelin. In this work it was investigated whether patients with white matter injury of immaturity could benefit from imaging with UTE. The results show that UTE images can be useful in detecting white matter abnormalities; the contrast utilized in UTE images is different from both that of T2 and diffusion weighted images, indicating that UTE could be a valuable complement to these techniques in imaging atypical white matter.

                  1175.     Automated Quantification of White Matter Hyperintensity Burden Using MPRAGE and FLAIR Images from a Large Population

Keith Hulsey1, Roderick McColl1

1University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

A fully automated algorithm has been developed and tested for quantifying White Matter Hyperintensity burden in a large population. The algorithm utilizes MPRAGE and FLAIR images acquired on a 3T scanner. No human review of images is required in the image processing chain or in the estimation of the WMH burden. Correlations of the WMH burden estimate with known risk factors have produced expected results. The correlation of age with risk factors has been taken into account when evaluating the correlation of WMH burden with the risk factors by adjusting the WMH burden estimate for age.

                  1176.     Changes of MRSI and DTI Findings Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Andrew A. Maudsley1, Varan Govind1, Stuart Gold2, Leo Harris1,3, Jonathan Jagid3, Krithica Kaliannan1, Gaurev Saigal1

1Radiology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Neuropsychology Service, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, USA; 3Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

Volumetric 1H MRSI and DTI measurements have been obtained in subjects with mild and moderate traumatic brain injury at a time shortly after injury and then again at a later time point. Restoration to normal values was found in mild injury subjects, consistent with recovery of cognitive function, although continued alteration of metabolites was observed in one subject.

 
Diffusion, DTI & Tractography:  Clinical Studies
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Thursday 13:30-15:30

                  1177.     A DTI Study of Structural Integrity of White Matter in Prader-Willi Syndrome

Tianyu Tang1,2, Jennifer L. Miller3, Karen M. von Deneen1, Guojun He1,4, Mark S. Gold1,4, Daniel J. Driscoll3, Yijun Liu1,4

1Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Key Lab of Child Development and Learning Science, SouthEast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; 3Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Mcknight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

The purpose of this work was to detect white matter abnormalities by using both voxel- and ROI- based methods to compare FA values in DTI of PWS. Eight patients with PWS and eight age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for this study. A number of brain regions such as the thalamus, the extra – nuclear, the corpus callosum, the hypothalamus and the right internal capsule were found with a significant reduction in FA values of PWS. The results of this work were relevant to the previous MRI studies and provided more information for the pathology of PWS.

                  1178.     Group Analysis of Tractography Images Using Early Registration in Primary Dystonia Patients

Aziz M. Ulug1, Miklos Argyelan1, Martin Niethammer1, David Eidelberg1

1Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, USA

Primary torsion dystonia is a chronic movement disorder manifesting clinically as focal or generalized sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. The most common inherited form of PTD is associated with the DYT1 mutation. PTD is thought to be a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting motor circuits. Diffusion tensor imaging may be useful in understanding the underlying pathology in this disease. Prior studies using DTI have shown reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior cerebellar peduncle in DYT1 carriers. Group analysis of the white matter tracts has been elusive to date due to the difficulty to register diffusion tractography maps from different subjects to a particular template. To overcome this problem, we employed an early registration technique where diffusion weighted images are registered to a template before any processing.

                  1179.     Diffusion Properties of Cortico-Striatal White Matter Tractography as Sensistive Markers of Parkinson's Disease

Yonas Weldeselassie1, Ghassan Hamarneh1, Martin J. McKeown2, Samantha Palmer2, M. Stella Atkins1

1School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; 2Brain Research Centre, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

We investigate various properties of cortico-striatal white matter fiber tracts from Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Images in control and Parkinson's Disease (PD) subjects. After image acquisition, manual delineation of primary motor cortex and striatum, and generation of cortico-striatal white matter fiber tracts, we collect and analyse fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and divergence (DIV) of the major eigenvectors field along the fiber bundles to see if these features can be used as biomarkers in the classification of PD subjects from controls. Our results show that PD subjects have reduced FA and MD but increased DIV values of major eigenvectors field.

                  1180.     Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography Study in Chronic Alcoholics Found Marked Deficit of White Matter Integrity in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex

Cheng-Liang Liu1, I-Chao Liu2, Chih-Jui Chen, Wen-Yang Chiang, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng3

1 Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

In order to investigate which fiber tracts in chronic alcoholics are most severely damaged, voxel base morphometry (VBM) was used to identify the most significant areas of reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography was then used to identify the tracts that passed through these regions and to analyze the change in FA values along these tracts. VBM showed that bilateral posterior cingulate cortices were the most significant areas, and the corresponding regions in bilateral cingulate bundles showed significant reduction in FA. Our results suggest that the white matter abnormality in the posterior cingulate cortex might be the core lesion in chornic alcoholics.

                  1181.     Quantification of Fornix Tracts in MCI and AD

Darryl Hwa Hwang1, Sinchai Tsao1, Manbir Singh1

1Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment are physically manifested in the form of an atrophied hippocampus and degeneration of the fornix tracts. Most previous studies of tract quantification have been based on subjective hippocampal regions of interest. This study uses Freesurfer defined objective hippocampal regions and a novel ICV-based seed distribution normalization method to show the effects of AD and MCI on the fornix tract counts. Results suggest progressive reduction in fornix tracts from MCI to AD.

                  1182.     DTI Is Useful for Early Diagnosis of MSA, Separating from Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence for Subclinical Detection of Cerebellar Pathology

Sung-Yeon Park1, Se-Hong Oh1, Chong-Sik Lee2, Sang-Jun Kim3, Jae-Seung Kim4, Young-Bo Kim1, Z.H. Cho1

1Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, Korea; 2Institute for Parkinson's Research, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea; 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

Differential diagnosis of MSA-p from PD is notoriously difficult, especially in the early stage. We studied 19 MSA (6 MSA-p, 4 MSA-mixed, 9 MSA-c), 7 PD and 14 normal subjects. We used 1.5T MR scanner and the DTI parameters are single-shot EPI sequence, b = 900s/mm2 and 30 directions. We showed that DTI selectively detected lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncle and/or posterior putamen in MSA patients. Our data showed the possible degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncle precedes clinical appearance of cerebellar ataxia, and suggested that MSA-p can be separated from PD even if the patient shows parkinsonism only.

                  1183.     White Matter Integrity in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Study

Claire E. Sexton1, Clare Elizabeth Mackay1, Mark E. Bastin2, Jane Lonie3, Klaus Peter Ebmeier1,3

1Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

‘Mild Cognitive Impairment’ (MCI) describes patients with cognitive problems, who don’t qualify for a diagnosis of dementia. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) is a fully automated whole brain analysis technique for diffusion-tensor imaging that projects all subjects' FA data onto a mean FA tract skeleton, before applying voxel-wise cross-subject statistics. Patients with Alzheimer’s and MCI were compared with healthy controls using TBSS to investigate the effect of MCI on white matter integrity. Global FA was decreased in AD and MCI. The spatial distribution of changes in MCI paralleled those in AD. DTI may become useful in the early diagnosis of MCI.

                  1184.     Diffusion Spectrum Imaging of White Matter Abnormalities in Fronto-Striato-Thalamic Circuit in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

C-H. Chiu1, Yu-Chun Lo2, W-Y. Chiang3, F-C. Yeh3, W-Y. I. Tseng2,3

1Department of Psychiatry, Songde Campus, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder which the primary site of pathology remains unclear. We investigated three white matter tracts in the fronto-striatal-thalamic circuits that might serve the neuropsychopathology of patients with OCD inferred from diffusion spectrum imaging. We hypothesized that white matter abnormalities in patients with OCD might correspond to neuropsychological data. We found that generalized fraction anisotropy was positively correlated with Yale-Brown scores over cingulum bundles and stria terminalis in OCD subjects. The result could be explained by the hypothesis that there might be a compensation process in white matter to deal with biologically inherent abnormal hyper-connectivity.

                  1185.     Diffusion Tensor Fiber Tracking of Human Brain Connectivity to Localize Intractable Seizures in Epileptic Patients

Cemil Kirbas1,2, Robert Simkins3, Phillip White3, Roulla Hilli1, Sudeepa Gupta Hall1, Jason Parker1,4

1Innovation Center, Kettering Health Network, Kettering, OH, USA; 2Psychiatry, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA; 3Neurology, Kettering Health Network, Kettering, OH, USA; 4Biomedical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA

This study aimed to define abnormalities in the hippocampus and fiber tracts traversing the hippocampus to better understand the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy. While previous studies have focused on fiber tracts on fornix and cingulum, we have studied the fiber tracts traversing the whole hippocampus. A correlation between decreased FA value in the hippocampus and the presence of sclerosis was found. DTI tractography showed similar correlation with decreased number of fiber tracts traversing through the hippocampus. DTI tractography of the hippocampus could potentially be used to delineate fiber tracts connecting to the hippocampus and for pre-surgical planning.

                  1186.     Evaluation for MTBI and DAI by Using Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Kazumi Kasahara1, Masahiro Abo2, Keiji Hashimoto2, Atsushi Senoo1, Takashi Kodama3

1Graduate School of Human Health Science, Tokyo MetropolitanUniversity, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Jikei Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 3Div. of Radiation Therapy Physics, Chiba Cancer Center

The diagnosis and management of MTBI continues to be a subject of debate, with varying opinions regarding the extent to which organically based impairments versus the impact of other stressors cause ongoing disability. MTBI was observed as no change in conventional MRI, but we were able to identify abnormalities by using VBM analysis of ƒÉÛvalues. This method will be effective tool for diagnosis of higher brain dysfunction.

                  1187.     Neural Correlates of Spatial Awareness Revealed by MR DTI Tractography and Intraoperative Subcortical Mapping

Antonella Castellano1,2, Lorenzo Bello3, Enrica Fava3, Alessandra Casarotti3, Costanza Papagno4, Giorgio Carrabba3, Giuseppe Scotti1, Andrea Falini1

1Neuroradiology Unit and CERMAC, Scientific Institute and University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, MI, Italy; 2Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Milano, Milan, MI, Italy; 3Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Milano, Milan, MI, Italy; 4Neuropsychobiology of Language, Department of Psychology, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, MI, Italy

Combination of preoperative DTI tractography and intraoperative subcortical mapping in patient with right cerebral gliomas was used to investigate the role of long-range white matter pathways connecting parietal and frontal areas in mechanisms of spatial awareness, whose disfunction results in unilateral neglect. Preoperative segmentation of the four subcomponents of SLF by DTI tractography was obtained and transferred to neuronavigational system; during subcortical mapping, stimulation of the second branch of SLF as depicted by tractography evoked a rightward deviation on line bisection test indicating the stimulation of an area involved in spatial awareness, whose electrical inactivation was critically associated with neglect.

                  1188.     Determination of Hand Motor Corticospinal Tract in Corona Radiata by Functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Cheol Pyo Hong1, Sung Ho Jang2, Dong Hoon Lee1, Do Wan Lee1, Bong Soo Han1

1Deptment of radiological science, College of Health Science , Yonsei University, Wonju, Kangwondo, Korea; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea

To measure the relative mediolateral distance and anteroposterior distance of the center of the hand motor CST at the level of corona radiata diffusion tensor tractography were obtained using fMRI activation map for twenty healthy subjects (11 men, 9 women, mean age: 42 years). The mediolateral distances were 26.3 ±3.0 % in the upper CR and 21.9 ±3.3% in the lower CR and anteroposterior distance were 42.9 ±7.0% in the upper CR and 36.2 ±9.8% in the lower CR, respectively. The anteroposterior distance in the lower CR shows good agreement with previous study.

                  1189.     Pre-Surgical Mapping of Paediatric Motor Function and Structure Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

Donald Mabbott1, Nadia Scantlebury1, Conrad Rockel1, Elysa Widjaja1, William Gaetz1

1Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

We investigated the clinical efficacy of using concurrent MEG-DTI methods to delineate the functional motor pathways of children seen for pre-surgical evaluation. Cortico-spinal tracts (CST) were delineated using functional and anatomical seeds in patients presenting with space-occupying lesions. Functionally-seeded tracts were more sensitive to changes in tissue micro-structure than those seeded anatomically. A significant increase in the FA, ADC and parallel diffusivity of motor-seeded, but not anatomically-seeded, CST was evident in patients relative to controls. Using motor-activated seeds to launch tracts, we characterized the displacement of CST in patients presenting with centrally-located tumors, demonstrating the validity of this technique.

                  1190.     Probabilistic Tracking Can Improve the Delineation of Cortico-Spinal Tract for Neurosurgical Planning

Maria Luisa Mandelli1, Mitchel S. Berger2, Jeffrey I. Berman3, Bagrat Amirbekian3, Elio C. Maccagnano1, Roland G. Henry3,4

1Department of Neuroradiology, Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, Milano, MI, Italy; 2Department of Neurological Surgery, UCSF, San Francisco; 3Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Graduate Group in Bioengineering, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA

Fiber tracking based on diffusion MRI is the only technique able to localize in vivo the white matter pathways in the brain. In this work we compared the probabilistic residual bootstrap and determinstic FACT tracking methods using clinically feasible diffusion data acquired pre-operatively, and intra-operative cortical and subcortical electrical stimulations, in patients with cerebral tumors. We showed that the probabilistic fiber tracking is a promising method to estimate the actual subcortical size of the cortico-spinal tract and to define the tracts directed to the upper-extremity motor sites compared with the streamline method.

                  1191.     White Matter Damage in End-Stage Renal Disease: Assessment with Diffusion-Tensor Imaging

Tsyh-Jyi Hsieh1,2, Twei-Shiun Jaw2,3, Jer-Ming Chang4,5, Hung-Yi Chuang6,7, Chih-Hung Ko8,9

1Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 2Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 3Faculty of Medical Radiation Technology, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Hsiao-Kang Municipal Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 6Faculty of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 8Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan; 9Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan

In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the causes of neurologic complications are complex and a non-invasive, subjective method to predict the occurrence of these complications is needed. The aim of our study was to prospectively determine regional differences of anisotropy between ESRD patients and normal controls and the effect of dialysis on microstructure changes of the white matter.

                  1192.     Comparative Evaluation of Corpus Callosum Diffusion Tensor Imaging Metrics in Acute Mild and Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): It’s Correlation with Neuropsychometric Tests (NPT)

Rakesh K. Gupta1, Raj Kumar2, Mazhar Husain2, Chaynika Chaudhry1, Arti Srivastava1, Sona Saksena1, Ram K.S. Rathore3

1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Neurosurgery, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Mathematics and Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Conventional MRI and DTI were performed on 83 patients with mild and moderate TBI within 5-14 days of injury. NPT could only be performed at 6 months of injury. We observed significantly decreased FA in genu and splenium, significantly increased RD in genu, midbody and splenium along with significant increase in MD and decrease in AD only in genu in patients with moderate TBI compared to controls. However, in moderate TBI significantly decreased FA was found only in genu compared to mild TBI and was associated with poorer NPT. We conclude that DTI abnormalities in the regions of corpus callosum was more in patients with moderate TBI compared to mild TBI and was associated with relatively poor neuropsychological outcome.

                  1193.     High Order Diffusion Imaging Used to Differentiate Cytotoxic and Vasogenic Edema in Humans

Chu-Yu Lee1, Lina J. Karam1, Josef P. Debbins2

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 2Keller Center for Imaging Innovation, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to detect ischemic stroke [1,2]. Although its underlying physical mechanism remains unknown, the restricted diffusion at the early stage likely results from cytotoxic edema, and the subsequent escalated diffusion arises from the vasogenic edema [2, 3]. In this work, we studied the feasibility of identifying cytotoxic and vasogenic edema using above two high order diffusion models. This was accomplished by fitting the data of suggestive cases of cytotoxic (n=3) and vasogenic edema (n=2) using stretched exponential and second-order cumulant fits. The measured parameters were compared with those from the control areas to further understand the physical underpinnings of pathological changes of ischemic stroke. Our results showed that £\DWI and DKI could be used to detect the cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, and the information they provided beyond conventional DWI may be helpful in identifying the underlying physical mechanisms.

 
fMRI in Brain Disorders Including Psychiatry
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Monday 14:00-16:00

                  1194.     The Impact of Different HRFs in Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Studies in Epilepsy

Henrique Fernandes1, Mario Forjaz Secca1,2, Alberto Leal3,4

1Cefitec, Physics Department, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica, Portugal; 2Ressonancia Magnetica - Caselas, Lisboa, Portugal; 3Dep. of Neurophysiology, Hospital Julio de Matos, Lisboa, Portugal; 4Dep. of Pediatric Neurology, Hospital Dona Estefania, Lisboa, Portugal

The simultaneous acquisition of EEG and fMRI has been used in focal epilepsy studies to correlate hemodynamic responses with interictal EEG spikes. However, HRFs vary across sessions, subjects, individuals and brain regions, and the use of one standard HRF contributes to false positives and negatives and a loss of information, decreasing the correlation of the processed fMRI data. Studying how HRF’s affect statistical analysis we found that it is not possible to determine a gold standard HRF which would produce the most accurate BOLD statistical maps. This decision should be taken individually, since it varies across patients and affected regions.

                  1195.     BOLD EEG-FMRI of Focal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Maurício S. Sercheli1, Elizabeth Bilevicius2, Helka Ozelo1, Andréa Alessio2, Fabricio RS Pereira2, Jane M. Rondina2, Tatiane Pedro2, Fernando Cendes2, Roberto JM Covolan1

1Neurophysics Group, Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Neuroimaging, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil

We have studied thirty two patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy by simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), aiming to investigate the spatial correspondence between epileptiform spikes and BOLD responses. All patients have hippocampus atrophy and were under clinical investigation during the last five years. The average exam time of 42 minutes per patient presented an average IED of 14. This study has shown an elevate rate of effective BOLD responses associated with focal epileptic activity. In 40% of the cases a good spatial agreement has been found among previous clinical investigation and positive BOLD responses.

                  1196.     Simultaneous EEG-CBV (Electroencephalography – Cerebral Blood Volume) Measurements of Epileptic Spikes

Michiro Negishi1, Maolin Qiu1, Robert Todd Constable1,2

1Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

Simultaneous EEG and VASO (Vascular Space Occupancy) imaging can be used to characterize CBV (cerebral blood volume) changes during interictal epileptic discharges (IED’s). However, the VASO sequence causes more RF pulse artifacts in the EEG than spin-echo or gradient-echo functional MRI (fMRI) sequences. In this research, we compared the RF artifacts generated by different types of wiring in the EEG system, and found that the RF pulse can be eliminated with a proper connection method. We also showed the feasibility of simultaneous EEG-VASO measurements.

                  1197.     Video-Based Monitoring for FMRI of Uncontrolled Motor Tasks

Fred Tam1, Dmitri Matenine2, Vadim Bachmutsky3, Simon J. Graham1,4

1Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Faculte des Sciences, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 3Faculty of Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Functional MRI of recovering stroke patients requires behavioural monitoring to enable proper imaging and interpretation of neural signals resulting from uncontrolled movements and unintended motions during motor tasks. A video-based monitoring system comprising MRI-safe hardware and flexible recording and motion tracking software was developed. The system was tested with an uncontrolled mouth movement task. Using the recorded movements for fMRI analysis, activation was detected in sensorimotor and motor planning-related cortices. The system has potential to improve individualized fMRI analysis of brain activity associated with complex movements that are not specifically prescribed.

                  1198.     Normalization of FMRI Signal Improves Group Differentiation in Alzheimer’s Disease

Uma Yezhuvath1, Jinsoo Uh1, Feng Xu1, Rani Varghese1, Kelly Lewis-Amezcua1, Kristin Martin-Cook2, Myron Weiner2, Hanzhang Lu1

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Alzheimer’s Disease Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

BOLD fMRI provides a valuable tool to study neural differences between diseased and healthy groups. However, the BOLD signal is influenced by various physiologic modulators, the effect of which needs to be factored out in order to correctly quantify the neural activity. Here, we conducted a visual memory task in alzheimer’s disease patients and normal controls. We applied two normalization techniques to the BOLD signal to remove the effects of baseline venous oxygenation and cerebrovascular reactivity. We find that the BOLD signal after normalization is better at group differentiation and shows better correlation with post-MRI memory scores.

                  1199.     Simulated Stuttering in Non-Stuttering Healthy Subjects: Differentiating Cause from Consequence in Developmental Stuttering

Catherine Theys1, Stefan Sunaert2, Silvia Kovacs2, Astrid van Wieringen1, Luc De Nil3

1ExpORL - Department of Neurosciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Department of Radiology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 3Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

In subjects with developmental stuttering, overactivation has been shown in certain speech-language areas together with reduced activation in auditory areas. We compared simulated stuttering to fluent speaking to differentiate cause from consequence in stuttering. We found that normal subjects engage areas implicated in developmental stuttering (SMA, premotor cortex, basal ganglia, insula and cerebellum) during simulated stuttering. This suggests that these differences rather reflect the increased effort in producing speech than the cause of the stuttering. However, simulated stuttering resulted in increased activation in the auditory cortex. This may point to the auditory cortex as a region causally implicated in stuttering.

                  1200.     Comparison of Motor Function and Cortical Activation in Parkinson’s Disease

Micheal D. Phillips1, Angela L. Ridgel2, Jerrold L. Vitek3, Katherine Koenig, Erik Beall, Mark Lowe, Jay L. Alberts4,5

1Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland , OH, USA; 2Department of Exercise Physiology, Kent State University; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cleveland Clinic; 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic; 5FES Center, Louis Stokes CVAMC

Forced exercise has been shown to produce a symptomatic relief in Parkinson's disease. The present study compares forced exercise to levodopa therapy using both clinical measures and functional MRI in six subjects with Parkinson's disease. FMRI data demonstrates increased activation in the SMA and M1 regions in response to both exercise and medication. Quantitative analysis of fMRI data shows significant correlation between percentage activation increase following forced exercise and medication. Findings suggest that same underlying mechanisms may provide symptomatic relief from Parkinson's disease in both levodopa therapy and forced exercise.

                  1201.     Reduction of R2* in the Basal Ganglia of Restless Legs Syndrome: A Biomarker for Iron Deficiency

Byeong-Yeul Lee1, Elana Farace2, Xiaoyu Sun3, James R. Connor2, Qing X. Yang1,3

1Bioengineering, The Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 2Neurosurgery, The Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 3Radiology, The Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA

Iron deficiency has been shown to be one of the contributing factors for Restless legs syndrome (RLS). Since tissue R2*(=1/T2*) is known to be more specifically associated with tissue iron content, we applied a voxel-based R2* mapping to detect iron deficiency in the basal ganglia (BG) in RLS. Our results showed that a significant decrease in R2* in the BG of RLS compared to control groups, supporting the hypothesis that iron deficiency in the subcortical structures (BG, RN) of RLS leads to the dysfunction in sensory-motor pathway. R2* mapping is proven to be a sensitive tool for clinical evaluation of RLS.

                  1202.     BOLD Signal Changes of Imaginary Walking Before and After Lumbar Puncture in NPH-Patients

Ekkehard Küstermann1, Markus Ebke2, Katja Dolge3, Dieter Leibfritz4, Manfred Herrmann5

1ZKW & CAI, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 2Neurology, Stroke Unit, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen, Germany; 3Jacobs Center on Lifelong Learning and Institutional Development, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany; 4Organic Chemistry, Instr. Analytics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 5Department of Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

An imaginary walking task was used to investigate neuronal correlates of gait disturbance in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients. For this purpose, fMRI measurements performed before lumbar puncture (LP) were compared with those afterwards, when the gait performance improved. While the main activation maps under both conditions were fairly similar, more subtle changes were detected in several regions: In fronto-polar, temporal, and parietal regions as well as the precuneus the mean BOLD signal time courses were found to be larger before LP than afterwards, whereas in the region around the Rolandic Operculum the opposite was observed.

                  1203.     Comparison of Induced Motor Responses in FMRI and Intrinsic Motor Networks in ICA

Andreas Weibull1, Peter Mannfolk2, Anders Björkman3, Birgitta Rosén3, Göran Lundborg3, Johan Olsrud4, Jonas Svensson1

1Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 3Dept. of Hand Surgery, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 4MR-department, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden

Pre surgical planning using fMRI is a helpful tool when removing brain tumours close to vital brain regions. In patients that are unable to perform

                  1204.     Can FMRI Replace Wada in Pre-Surgical Evaluation of Language Dominance?

Madalina Elena Tivarus1,2, John T. Langfitt3, Derek D. Lasher4, Sven Ekholm1

1Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA; 2The Rochester Center for Brain Imaging, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA; 3Epilepsy Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA; 4Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA

FMRI is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to what has been the gold standard for functional lateralization, Wada procedure. There are great challenges when performing these exams in individual patients since there is no standardized procedure and patterns of activation differ widely between patients. Our retrospective study found that fMRI using a battery of language tests is more reliable than a single test in assessing language hemispheric dominance in patients with brain lesions and/or epilepsy. However, the technique is not yet able to entirely replace the Wada procedure but can be used as a screening tool to limit its need.

                  1205.     Brain Activation During Tongue Motor and Swallowing Tasks:A Functional MRI Study in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Tongue Cancer

Kyung K. Peck1, Samantha Haupage2, Ryan Branski2, Andrei Holodny3, Dennis Kraus2

1Radiology and Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 2Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 3Neuroradiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA

Using fMRI, we seek to provide preliminary data regarding cortical adaptation in tongue cancer patients during three functional tasks to determine the functional task most beneficial to optimize therapeutic strategies and which is the most sensitive to use for future pre and post surgical studies. Statistically significant differences were found between controls and patients using dry swallowing. A trend showing statistical differences was found using bolus swallowing. No statistical significance was found using tongue tapping. The implications of these findings are evolving and will contribute to our increased insight into the role of the CNS and ultimately direct rehabilitation strategies for patients with swallowing disorders.

                  1206.     An Investigation of Intrinsic, Task-Interim Resting State BOLD Signal Correlations with Broca's and Wernicke's Areas in Schizophrenics and in Subjects at High Genetic Risk

Jeremy L. Smith1,2, Xiaobo Li2, Lynn DeLisi2, Craig A. Branch1,2

1Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Medical Physics, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA

The present study demonstrates the utility of examining extracted resting state information in the context of cognitive and network architecture sequelae in schizophrenia. We examined the whole-brain correlation with Broca's and Wernicke's area BOLD signals in individual schizophrenic (SZ) patients, normative (NC) subjects, and subjects at high genetic risk (HR) for SZ. HR subjects were found to exhibit more diffuse connectivities with the two language areas than either SZ or NC subjects. Moreover, SZ and HR subjects exhibited substantial hyperconnectivity between the cerebellum and language areas. The wider implications of examining the extracted resting state BOLD signal is also discussed.

                  1207.     Altered Cortico-Striatal Functional Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Ben J. Harrison1,2, Carles Soriano-Mas2, Jesus Pujol2, Hector Ortiz2, Marina Lopez-Sola2, Rosa Hernandez-Ribas2, Joan Deus2, Pino Alonso3, Murat Yucel1, Christos Pantelis1, Jose Menchon3, Narcis Cardoner3

1Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Institut d’Alta Tecnologia-PRBB, CRC Corporació Sanitària, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasize disturbances in the function and connectivity of brain cortico-striatal networks or ‘loops’. Although neuroimaging studies of OCD patients support this network model of illness, very few have applied measurements that are sensitive to brain connectivity features. In this study, we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate that OCD is associated with disturbed functional connectivity of brain cortico-striatal networks, in particular, involving ventrolimbic cortico-striatal regions.

                  1208.     Functional Imaging of Welders with Occupational Manganese Exposure Using a Finger Tapping Task

Huijin Song1, Jae-jun Lee1, In-sung Kim1, Joo-hyun Kim1, Moon-jung Hwang2, Young-ju Lee2, Yangho Kim3, Yongmin Chang1,4

1Department of Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 2GE healthcare, Seoul, Korea; 3Department if Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan, Korea; 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Molecular Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea

Excessive accumulation of Mn in the globus pallidus(GP) is known to cause cognitive and motor deficits in human. Until now pallidal index(PI) in terms of T1 bright signal intensity at GP is only imaging diagnostic measure to manganism. Currently no functional measure is available for motor behavior of manganese exposure in vivo. The aim of this study investigates motor behavior of manganese exposure compared to normal group using simple motor task. Compared to normal controls, the welder groups showed widespread activations in the supplementary motor area, cingulate motor areas and bilaterally increased activation in the parietal lobe and frontal lobe. This observation suggests the change of motor network in response to Mn accumulation. Therefore, motor fMRI is quite sensitive measure to change of motor network of Mn exposed brain even without T1 high signal at GP and has a great potential as functional diagnostic tool of damaged motor system in occupational exposure to Mn.

                  1209.     Effect of Acamprosate on Glutamate Level of Alcoholic Subjects

Reza Momenan1, John Umhau1, Yan Zhang2, Daniel Hommer1, Markus Heilig1, Jun Shen2

1NIAAA, NIH, HHS, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2NIMH, NIH, HHS, Bethesda, MD, USA

Increased alcohol preference have been related, in rodents, to repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal. High EtOH preference is suggested to cause a hyperglutamatergic state, which persists beyond acute withdrawal. In alcoholics, such a hyperglutamatergic state might link the acute symptoms of individual withdrawal, which may increase craving and potential for relapse. Therefore, we have hypothesized that by reducing the glutamate level we may reduce the withdrawal symptoms and hence increasing the success of abstinence. Acamprosate both reduces ethanol consumption in alcoholics and purportedly modulates glutamatergic signaling. We present results from an ongoing investigation of this effect on human alcoholic subjects.

                  1210.     Roles of Amygdala and Insula During Brain Activation with Dynamic Gastric Distention

Dardo Tomasi1, Gene-Jack Wang1, Ruiliang L. Wang1, Walter Backus2, Frank Telang1, Christopher Wong1, Allan Geliebter3,4, Joanna S. Fowler1, Nora D. Volkow5

1Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 3St. Luke’s/Roosevelt Hospital, NY, USA; 4Columbia University, NY, USA; 5National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Here we used fMRI and a gastric distension paradigm to study the effects of gastric volume (GV) and rate of gastric volume changes (RGVC) on brain activation. We show that the amygdala senses the balloon volume while the insula senses balloon volume changes as a function of time. Furthermore, GV activated the cerebellum proportionally to BMI. This study highlights the important role of the amygdala, posterior insula, and cerebellum for the processing of vagal signals from the stomach in lean and obese subjects, and identifies the cerebellum as a region involved in the obese phenotype that merits further investigation.

                  1211.     Striatal Dopamine Correlates Working Memory Activation During Sleep Deprivation But Not During Rested Wakefulness: A PET-FMRI Study

Dardo Tomasi1, Ruiliang L. Wang1, Frank Telang1, Vasilios Boronikolas1, Millard C. Jayne1, Gene-Jack Wang1, Elisabeth C. Caparelli1, Joanna S. Fowler1, Nora D. Volkow2

1Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA; 2National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Sleep deprivation (SD) increases dopamine (DA), and reduces accuracy and activation responses during working memory (WM) tasks. We studied the effect of SD on fMRI activation using a verbal n-back WM task, and on DA D2 receptors (D2R) with PET and 11C-raclopride. We show that D2R in the striatum and BOLD responses in the WM network are correlated during SD (but not during rested wakefulness), suggesting that, DA modulates activation in these cortical regions. Together these findings suggest involvement of dopamine in the adaptation responses to maintain cognitive performance under conditions of SD.

                  1212.     Functional Connectivity Differences to Ventral Putamen of Gulf War Syndrome II and Control Subjects

Lei Jiang1, Parina Gandhi1, Mingguo Qui1, Aman Goyal1, Yan Fang1, Luo Ouyang1, Kaundinya Gopinath1,2, Wendy Ringe3, Robert Haley1,4, Richard Briggs1,4

1Department of Radiology, UTSouthwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, UTSouthwestern Medical Center , Dallas, TX, USA; 3Departments of Psychiatry, UTSouthwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine, UTSouthwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

The purpose of this study was to compare the connectivity of ventral putamen to other brain regions between two groups of Gulf War veterans (one with Haley Syndrome II and the other normal controls) with resting state fcMRI. Examination of functional connectivity to right ventral putamen during rest revealed the differences in brain function between subject Groups The results suggest that functional connectivity MRI can be used to find biomarkers for subtle diseased states such as Gulf War Illness

                  1213.     High-Field MR Imaging Reveals an Acute Impact on Brain Function in Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

Su Lui1, Xiaoqi Huang2, Long Chen1, Hehan Tang1, Tijiang Zhang1, Xiuli Li1, Dongming Li1, Ling Zou1, Raymend C Chan3, Andrea Mechelli4, John A. Sweeney5, Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; 2Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology,, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; 3Institute of Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences; 4Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience; 5University of Illinois at Chicago

Amplitude of low-frequency (0.01–0.8 Hz) fluctuations (ALFF) in conjunction with the analysis of the resting state functional brain connectivity was applied to both regional cerebral function and functional integration in physically healthy trauma survivors shortly after Wenchuan earthquake. Forty-four healthy survivors and 32 age, sex, height, weight, handedness and years of education matched controls were recruited, and were scanned using an EPI sequence on a 3T MR imaging system. For first time, we characterized that survivors show hyperactivity and decreased functional connectivity in prefrontal-limbic and striatal brain systems shortly after the massively traumatic sequelae of the earthquake.

                  1214.     Adaptation of the Visual Cortex in Response to Cataract Surgery

Astrid Rosenstand Lou1,2, Hanne Olsen Julian2, Jan Ulrik Prause3, Troels Wesenberg Kjær4, Olaf B. Paulson1, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen1

1Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; 2Eyeclinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Eye Pathology Institute, Rigshopitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Clin. Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

We aim to investigate the plasticity in the normal aging brain in response to an abrupt change in vision. 15 subjects with senile cataract were followed by fMRI before cataract surgery, 2 days after surgery and 6-8 weeks after surgery. Results show a tendency that the difference in BOLD activation resulting from stimulation of the operated and non-operated eye decrease over time.

                  1215.     Brain Function Disruption of Thalamus Related Resting State Networks in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Lin Tang1, Yulin Ge1, Daniel K. Sodickson1, Laura Miles1, Joseph Reaume1, Robert I. Grossman1

1Department of Radiology, The Center for Biomedical Imaging of New York University, New York, NY, USA

This study demonstrates for the first time, disruption of thalamic functional network during resting state in patients with mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI). The consistent, clear and homogeneous thalamic functional connectivity maps were shown in healthy volunteers, meanwhile such spontaneous activities have been shown to be significantly increased in patients, and more voxels involved for those patients who performed better in the cognitive exams and shown less clinical symptoms. These suggested that the subtle tissue damage to the thalamus may upregulate the default function in the associative regions of brain in order to compensate for its reduced functionality.

                  1216.     A Novel MR-Compatible Hand Induced Robotic Device in Conjunction with FMRI Allows Accurate Brain Mapping

Dionyssios Mintzopoulos1, Azadeh Khanicheh2, Loukas G. Astrakas1,3, A Aria Tzika1

1NMR Surgical Laboratory, MGH & Shriners Hospitals, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Medical Physics, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece

Using a hand motor squeezing task, we investigated brain activation by combining fMRI at 3T with a novel MR-compatible hand-induced, robotic device (MR_CHIROD). The MR_CHIROD records the exact amount of force at each squeezing cycle. Our results show that the number of activated voxels are significantly different only when using the MR_CHIROD and only when the MR_CHIROD force traces are used as covariates. This means that when MR_CHIROD is used the effort that each individual applies is better represented in the brain cortical map, as shown in representative cases.

 
Advanced Imaging of Psychiatric Disorders
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Tuesday 13:30-15:30

                 1217.     A 1H MRS Study at 3.0 Tesla of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls

Mareen Hoerst1, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr1, Nuran Tunc-Skarka1, Matthias Ruf1, Christian Schmahl2, Gabriele Ende1

1Department of Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany; 2Department of Psychosomatic and Psychotherapeutic Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Several studies have reported anatomical and functional abnormalities in this region in BPD patients. To date only one other study, however, has evaluated the ACC with 1H MRS in BPD patients. In this study we aimed to determine the absolute concentrations of the metabolites in the ACC of 20 unmedicated female patients with BPD and 22 healthy controls. We found a significant decrease of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr) and glutamate (Glu) in the ACC of patients with BPD compared to healthy control.

                  1218.     Absolute Quantification of  Phosmomono- And Phosphodiesters in the Brain of Patients with Major Depression

Wolfgang Weber-Fahr1, Helga Wentzel, Traute Demirakca1, Alexander Sartorius1, Gabriele Ende1

1Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany

The phospholipd metabolism in a group of 18 patients and 22 matched controls was investigated with 31P-MRS. We used a 3D-whole head RINEPT Sequence together with point-spread function (PSF) corrected tissue segmentation for robust absolute quantification.

                  1219.     Test-Retest Reliability of Key Metabolite Measurements in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Using Single Voxel 1H Press at 3T

Murat Yucel1,2, R. M. Wellard3, Ian Harding1, Mike Kean4, Nadia Solowij5, Dan I. Lubman2, Marc Seal1, Alex Fornito1, Stephen J. Wood1, Christos Pantelis1

1Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2ORYGEN Youth Heath Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; 4Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Australia; 5University of Wollongong, Australia

In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to study aspects of brain chemistry and metabolism, and has been increasingly applied to the study of pathophysiological mechanisms in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Despite such widespread use, very few studies have quantitatively examined the reliability of these MRS-derived indices. The aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of proton-MRS derived measures of commonly investigated metabolites in a commonly investigated brain region – the anterior cingulate cortex. Comparing test-retest variance in these metabolites with inter-subject variance allows us to determine how much of the group differences reported in the literature are due to individual (i.e., biological) versus methodological (i.e., instrumental) factors.

                  1220.     Metabolite T2 Relaxation Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

David P. Olson1, J. Eric Jensen1, Andrew P. Prescot1, Elixabeth D. Rouse1, Bruce M. Cohen1, Perry F. Renshaw2, Dost Öngür1

1McLean Hospital, Belmont MA and Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, Belmont, MA, USA; 2The Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

We present results showing that brain metabolite T2 relaxation times, long assumed to be relatively constant in MRS based studies of neuropsychiatric disorders, are in fact significantly different in bipolar and schizophrenic subjects compared with healthy controls. These metabolite T2 relaxation measurements may serve as a useful probe to help characterize the cellular microenvironment in these disorders.

                  1221.     Alterations of Excitatory Neurotransmitter Systems in Brain Regions of Acute Migraine Patients During the Interictal State

Andrew Prescot1, Lino Becerra2, Gautam Pendse2, Shannon Tully2, Eric Jensen1, Perry Renshaw1, Rami Burstein3, David Borsook2

1Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA; 2P.A.I.N Group, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA; 3Department of Anesthesia, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Differences in excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter levels and/or their derivatives may exist in migraine patients based on their increased sensitivity to pain. 2D J-resolved 1H-MRS data were acquired on a 4.0 Tesla system from the anterior cingulate cortex and insula in migraine patients and controls. Standard statistical analysis showed no significant metabolite differences between the two subject cohorts. Linear discriminant analysis introduced a separation between subject cohorts based on N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate (NAAG) and glutamine (Gln). These results are consistent with glutamatergic abnormalities in the ACC and insula in migraine patients during their interictal period compared to healthy controls.

                  1222.     Disrupted White Matter Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Children with Tourette Syndrome

Xiaoqi Huang1, Jinhua Sun2, Xiu Li Li1, Fei Li1, Mingjing Huang2, Lanting Guo2, Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; 2Department of psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Tourette syndrome(TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and structural and functional disruption of cortico-striato-thalmo-cortical (CSTC) circuits had been suspected as core pathophysiology for the disease. Present study aimed at exploring the brain white matter abnormality in children with TS by DTI in a whole brain voxel-wise base and then deepening the exploration to fiber tracks. Compared with normal controls, significant reductions of FA value in TS patients were found most obviously in bilateral middle cerebellar peduncle(MCP), bilateral posterior limbs of internal capsule(PLIC).

                  1223.     White Matter Abnormalities Detected in Very Early-Onset Bipolar Disoder

Melissa Lopez-Larson1,2, Janine Terry2, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, David Kennedy3, Jean Frazier4

1Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2The Brain Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3University of Massachusetts; 4Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts

This study presents whole brain high resolution volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging analysis in a cohort of very-early onset bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HC). Our results showed that youths with very-early onset BD may have reduced integrity in right frontal WM tracts and the body of the corpus callosum indicating impaired intra- and interhemispheric communication. No regional abnormalities in gray matter (GM) were found in youths with early-onset BD. This may indicate that changes in GM volumes are associated with other factors such as illness chronicity or medication use. Additional studies utilizing multiple MR approaches are warranted.

                  1224.     A DTI Tractography Study of the Cingulum in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder

Louise Emsell1, Alexander Leemans2, Camilla Langan1, Gareth Barker3, Wilhelm van der Putten1, Peter McCarthy1, Rachel Skinner1, Colm McDonald1, Dara M. Cannon1

1NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland; 2CUBRIC, Cardiff University, UK; 3Insitute of Psychiatry, London, UK

This preliminary analysis identified inter-hemispheric differences in FA of the cingulum bundle in control (n=19) and euthmyic bipolar I disorder subjects (n=15; Left > Right). However, mean of the median FA and ADC values did not differ between these groups in the left or right cingulum bundle. We employed steamline DTI tractography using ExploreDTI for this analysis. FA did correlate with age in the right cingulum consistent with the finding of previously published studies. Future plans include expanding the sample size and exploring more anatomically specific sub-regions of the cingulum bundle in bipolar disorder versus controls.

                  1225.     White Matter Structural Changes in High-Risk Major Depressive Disorder Youths Detected by Diffusion Tensor Images

Hao Huang1,2, Xin Fan1, Anup Bidesi3, Uma Rao3

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

More evidence suggests that depression can result in structural changes of human brain. DTI-derived parameter, fractional anisotropy (FA), is sensitive to the white matter structural changes caused by abnormalities. In this ongoing study, we hypothesize that the structural abnormalities can be detected in youths with high-risk major depressive disorder (MDD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to detect the locations with statistically low FA values in the high-risk MDD group. Superior longitudinal fasciclus (SLF) on both sides of the brain, left uncinate fasciculus (UNC), right hippocampal part of cingulum (CGH) are among the tracts which are most affected.

                  1226.     Assessment of White Matter Integrity and Subregional Myelination in First-Episode Psychosis Patients Using Myelin Water Imaging

Donna Jane-Mai Lang1, Alex L. Mackay2, Eugene Yip, Nicole Fitchner, Cornelia Laule2, Bill MacEwan3, Lili C. Kopala3, William George Honer

1Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

An investigation of fronto-striatal circuitry in psychosis was performed in a cohort of 78 minimally medicated first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Single-slice myelin water imaging data were acquired using a 48-echo CPMG sequence., consisting of 90° slice selective pulse followed. The myelin water image slice was placed transversely to the slice parallel to the AC-PC line to optimize simultaneous visualization of frontal white matter, basal ganglia structures, thalamic nuclei and posterior white matter. FEP subjects had bilaterally reduced myelin water fraction values in in the genu compared to healthy volunteers. Results imply disconnectivity of the frontal lobes in FEP.

                  1227.     A Diffusion Tensor MRI Study of White Matter Microstructure in Tardive Dyskinia: Relation to Symptoms

Kun-Hsien Chou1, I-Yun Chen2, Ya-Mei Bai3, Tung-Ping Su3, Woei-Chyn Chu1, Ching-Po Lin2,4

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

Tardive dyskinesia (TD), the most severe side effect of antipsychotics, is characterized by late-onset, repetitive involuntary choreiform movement, tics and grimaces of the orofacial muscles, and dyskinesia of the distal limbs. Pervious studies have suggested that schizophrenic patients with TD had an excess of neurodevelopmental disturbance, particularly minor physical anomalies, in association with cognitive dysfunction and abnormalities of cerebral structure. In this research, voxel-wised DTI analysis was performed to investigate the differences among schizophrenia with/without TD and healthy controls. Relationship between clinical symptom and WM microstructure abnormality were also examined.

                  1228.     Probabilistic Tractography in Patients with Schizophrenia

Ryan L. Muetzel1,2, Bryon A. Mueller1, Jeffrey R. Wozniak1, Christopher J. Bell1, Kelvin O. Lim1

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Recent reports suggest that schizophrenia may be a progressive illness and that age should be considered when studying white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia. The current study used diffusion tensor imaging and an automated probabilistic tractography method to examine white matter microstructure in 34 patients with schizophrenia and 34 healthy controls. Patients showed stronger correlations between age and FA in multiple tracts compared to controls. Also, a significant age by group interaction was found in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus. These findings show that an automated tractography method is sensitive

                  1229.     Cortical Thickness in Patients with Major Depression and Healthy Volunteers

Simon Fristed Eskildsen1, Hanna Järnum2, Lasse Riis Østergaard1, Elena Steffensen2, Elna-Marie Larsson2

1Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Department of Radiology, Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

In this study we measured cortical thickness in 13 patients with major depression and 21 healthy volunteers using surface based cortical reconstruction. Thickness measurements were evaluated by averages within the main lobes, by surface based statistical parametric maps, and by correlation with age. Significant focal cortical thinning was found in the medial prefrontal cortex in the patient group compared to the controls which is in agreement with other studies. In consistency with previous findings, cortical thicknesses of the frontal and temporal lobes of the healthy volunteers were negatively correlated with age corresponding to a reduction of 2-4% per decade.

                  1230.     Differences of Cortical Thickness in Patients with Late-Life Depression Relative to Healthy Aging Measured Using MRI

Feng-Xian Yan1, Shwu-Hua Lee2, Han-Jung Ko2, Ho-Ling Liu3,4

1Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan,  Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Medical Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 4MRI Center, Chang Gung Medical Hospital, Kwei-Shan , Tao-Yuan, Taiwan

Previous researches have found decreased regional cerebral volume, involving frontal, temporal, parietal cortex in the late-life depression. This study aimed to analyze the regional cortical thickness in patients with late-life depression and compare with normal aged subjects. The results showed reduced cortical thickness in orbitofrontal regions in patients with late-life depression, which agreed well with previous studies. In addition, other brain areas appeared thicker in patients than controls, such as in cingulate gyrus and parietal lobule etc. Those areas may play important roles as compensatory to the behavior changes in attention and executive functions in patients with late-life depression.

                  1231.     Functional MRI Correlations in Women Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder  Exposed to Self-Harm Imagery

Sudeepa Gupta Hall1, Jerald Kay2, Douglas Lehrer1, Cemil Kirbas1, Jason G. Parker1

1Kettering Innovation Center, Kettering Health Network, Kettering, OH, USA; 2School of Professional Psychology, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a multidimensional impulsive personality condition leading to emotional dysregulation and self-harm (1). Previous fMRI studies have found abnormal prefrontal and amygdala activation in BPD subjects compared to normal subjects when presented with aversive or autobiographical stimuli (1-3). However, most BPD patients have a history of psychological drug treatment, and to date no fMRI studies have accounted for possible drug-induced brain activation in analyses between BPD and control groups. The purpose of this work was to eliminate the effects of psychological drug treatment in the neurological study of BPD by incorporating a medicated-control group into an fMRI study of BPD.

                  1232.     Structural Deficit in Remitted and Non-Remitted Recurrent Depression: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study

Pei-Chin Chen1, Kun-Hsien Chou2, I-Yun Chen3, Hsuan-Hui Wang1, Cheng-Ta Li4, Tung-Ping Su4, Ching-Po Lin1,3

1Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic and deteriorating disease. Without sufficient treatment to achieve fully remission, residual symptoms of depression would lead to poorer outcome and more brain structure deficit. We use Voxel-Based Morphometry to clarify whether any structure differences among remitted/non-remitted MDD and healthy subjects. Our results showed remitted patients reduced GMV in left postcentral parietal gyrus and bilateral frontal gyrus compared to normal. Non-remitted patients showed more structural abnormalities, including reduced GMV over the left prefrontal and frontal cortex, right temporal, occipital cuneus. Our findings indicated remitted patients were morphologically closer to normal people whereas non-remitted ones were not.

                  1233.     Diagnostic Classification with Neural Correlates of Verbal Fluency Distinguishes Schizophrenia from Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Individuals

Sergi G. Costafreda1, Cynthia H.Y. Fu, Marco Picchioni, Timothea Toulopoulou, Fergus Kane, Sri Kalindindi, Colm McDonald2, Janaina Mourao-Miranda, Eugenia Kravariti, Muriel Walshe, Nicolette Marshall, Diana Prata, Michael J. Brammer, Robin M. Murray, Philip K. McGuire

1Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, England, UK; 2National University of Ireland, Galway

Using pattern recognition methods, we sought to examine whether the spatial pattern of brain activation during language production as measured with fMRI could be used for the identification of schizophrenia patients (n=32) among bipolar patients (n=32) and heathy controls (n=40). In a three-way classification, 71% of 104 subjects were allocated to their correct diagnosis. The accuracy for the diagnosis of schizophrenia was even higher (Sensitivity=84%, Specificity=90%). Accurate differential diagnosis of schizophrenia patients was achieved with computerized analysis of individual brain activation during verbal fluency. Pattern classification of fMRI measurements may provide a step towards developing neurobiological diagnostic tools for schizophrenia

                  1234.     Reduced Cortical Gray Matter in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics

Ryan Shimotsu1, Russell Chu2, George Fein1

1Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., Honolulu, HI, USA; 2Nuclear Engineering, Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, Honolulu, HI, USA

The purpose of this study was to analyze regional gray matter volumes in the cerebral cortex in 52 long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) and 48 nonalcoholic controls (NAC). Gray matter volumes were obtained from MRI scans of the brain using automated volumetry software developed in-house. The LTAA were found to have significantly reduced gray matter volumes in the occipital and parietal lobes, consistent with previous findings of spatial perception deficits in this cohort. Additionally, we did not find any volumetric differences between groups in the prefrontal and temporal lobes, consistent with our findings of intact memory function in the LTAA.

                  1235.     Volume and Shape Analysis of the Caudate in ADHD Adults

Karlene M. Fraser1, Ruth L. O'Gorman2, Laura A. Wherity3, Philip J. Asherson4, Brian Toone4, Mitul A. Mehta5

1Neuroimaging, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK; 2Neuroradiology, King's College Hospital, London, UK; 3Medical Engineering and Physics, King's College Hospital, London, UK; 4Neuropsychiatry unit, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK; 5Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK

Neuro-developmental differences between 10 adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 17 age-matched controls were investigated using caudate volume and shape analysis. Both groups demonstrated significant laterality differences in caudate volume, surface area, and surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio. While no significant differences in caudate volume and surface area were observed between groups, the ADHD group displayed a significantly higher SA/V ratio on the right. Significant correlations emerged between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom scores and caudate SA/V ratio in the unmedicated ADHD patients, suggesting that ADHD symptoms are associated with neuroanatomical differences in caudate development.

                  1236.     Characterizing Structural MR Brain Changes of Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Patients Using Random Forests Classification

Ping-Hong Yeh1, Hongtu Hongtu Zhu, Mark Nicoletti, Hasan Baloch, John Hatch2, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Jair C. Soares

1Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, U.S.A

To investigate important structural brain characteristics in classifying child and adolescent bipolar disorder (BD) patients, we used Random Forests, an improved Classification and Regression Trees machine learning method, for doing disease classifications in pathway-based analysis. Our results indicate that cortical thickness is more accurate than gray mater volume in classifying adolescent BD vs healthy controls. The study provides evidence of brain structural abnormalities within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical and limbic-cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits in BD.

                  1237.     MRSI Study of Brain Lithium Followed by Missed  Doses

Subbaraya Ramaprasad1, Lindsay Rice1, Melvin Lyon2

1Radiology, Univ. Neb. Med. Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Biological sciences, Univ. Southern california, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Lithium and its salts is a major prophylactic drug of manic depressive illness and is an effective therapeutic agent in the control of mood. Effective prophylactic treatment requires strict compliance with the prescribed doses. The effect of missed doses on lithium concentration in the blood and CNS are important determining factors in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The present study aims to use a rodent model to measure changes in brain lithium following a missed dose during lithium treatment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging technique (MRSI) was used to study Li concentration in specific brain regions.

 
Advanced Pediatric Neuroimaging
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Wednesday 13:30-15:30

                 1238.     GRAPPA-Accelerated High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Infants Without the Need for General Anesthesia

Stefan Skare1, Samantha Holdsworth1, Kristen Yeom1, Roland Bammer1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Children undergoing a diffusion MRI exam are often scanned under general anesthesia, which is costly and leads to discomfort for both patient and parent. In this work we demonstrate that high-resolution diffusion imaging is possible without sedation and with the child or infant moving in the MR scanner. 3D motion correction, complex averaging, and a new GRAPPA weight set selection criteria has demonstrated motion free, high resolution and high SNR isotropic DWI images ready to use in the clinical routine.

                  1239.     T1-Weighted 3D SAP-EPI for Use in Pediatric Imaging Without General Anesthesia

Samantha J. Holdsworth1, Stefan Skare1, K Yeom1, Roland Bammer1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

The development of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the spine has been hindered by the large off-resonance effects problematic for single-shot EPI. Interleaved EPI can be used to reduce image artifacts, however, in the presence of motion, it can lead to undersampling of k-space and corresponding image ghosting. Readout-segmented (RS)-EPI has recently been shown to be a promising alternative pulse sequence for high-resolution DWI of the human brain, which has significantly reduced distortions. The objective of this study was to compare DW images acquired with RS-EPI and EPI. Here we produce images with significantly reduced distortions compared with EPI, and demonstrate distortion-corrected RS-EPI spine data.

                  1240.     Automatic Segmentation of Brain Tissues for Newborn MRI in Longitudinal Study

Feng Shi1, Yong Fan1, Songyuan Tang1, Katie Cleary2, Martin Styner2, John Gilmore2, Weili Lin1, Dinggang Shen1

1Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

Tissue segmentation in newborn MRI is challenging compared to that of late time brain images (even at one- or two-year-old), due to low signal contrast and different tissue development in neonatal stage. Considering the human cortical convolution pattern is generated during gestation and remains very similar in the whole life and segmentation on later time image is relatively easy, a dedicated longitudinal newborn MRI segmentation framework is proposed by taking the later time image as subject-specific atlases to guide the segmentation of the newborn brain. Segmentation accuracy is validated qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively by comparison with manual segmentations.

                  1241.     Hybrid Atlas Based Tissue Segmentation for Neonatal Brain MRI Acquired Using a Dedicated Phased Array Coil

Feng Shi1, Yong Fan1, Jie-Zhi Cheng1, Lawrence L. Wald2,3, Guido Gerig4, Weili Lin1, Dinggang Shen1

1Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA; 3Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, USA; 4Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, USA

Tissue segmentation in neonatal brain MR image is a great challenge due to small brain size and low tissue contrast. To address this problem, a dedicated phased array neonatal head coil was utilized for brain imaging. 8 images of each modality (T1 or T2) were acquired with their corresponding coil sensitivity profiles. High quality T1 and T2 images were reconstructed with high tissue contrast and clear cortical convolutions. A novel hybrid atlas based MRI segmentation algorithm was developed, by combining the fuzzy population atlas and traced cortical convolutions. Results illustrate segmentation accuracy and potential for cortical surface analysis.

                  1242.     Structural Correlates of Fluid Reasoning Development Indexed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Cortical Thickness Analyses

Kirstie Jane Whitaker1, Elizabeth D. O'Hare1, Zdea A. Op de Macks2, Brian D. Johnson1, Emilio Ferrer3, Silvia A. Bunge1,4

1Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; 2Developmental Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands; 3Psychology, UC Davis, Davis, CA, USA; 4Psychology, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

This study investigates the relationship between structural changes in gray and white matter in the developing brain and behavioural measures of fluid reasoning ability. Fluid reasoning, the ability to solve

                  1243.     Developmental Increase of Diffusion Anisotropy in the Acoustic Radiations Measured by DTI Correlates with Maturational Shortening of Auditory Evoked Neuromagnetic Field Response Detected with Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Timothy P.L. Roberts1, Sarah Khan1, Michael Rey1, Justin Monroe1, Michael Gandal1, Katelyn Cannon1, John Dell1, Ralph Magee1, J. Christopher Edgar1, Deborah Zarnow1

1Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA

DTI measures of white matter anisotropy such as fractional anisotropy (FA) are shown to increase with age (6-18years) in key structures of the auditory pathway, e.g. the acoustic radiations. In the same children, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of auditory evoked field components in response to auditory stimulation revealed an age dependence of response latency (shortening with increasing age). FA correlated negatively with response latency, providing a structural basis for the electrophysiological finding. A biophysical explanation is proposed based on increasing conduction velocity with increasing maturation, leading to shortened cortical evoked response latencies.

                  1244.     Brain Metabolite Changes in Infants Exposed in Utero to Methamphetamine And/or Nicotine

Steven Buchthal1, Thomas Ernst, Lynn M. Anderson1, Christine Cloak1, Riley Kitamura1, Linda Chang1

1Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Proton Spectroscopy was used to assay brain biochemistry in neonates exposed in utero to methamphetamine and/or nicotine. We measured the concentrations of NAA, Cr, Cho, Myo-I and Glx in five regions of non-sedated sleeping infants. The stimulant-exposed infants had 21% more Myo-I in their motor track than control infants, p<.0001. NAA, Cr and Glx showed correlations with age in all regions. Myo-I showed a correlation with age only in the motor track where stimulant-exposed infants tended to have higher levels (p=0.06). The presence of prenatal stimulants led to a significant slowing of NAA accumulation in the frontal gray region (p=0.02). These data suggest slower or abnormal brain development in infants exposed to stimulants in utero.

                  1245.     Elevated Working Memory Brain Activation in Adolescents with Early Childhood Lead Exposure

Song Lai1, Jianrong Shi1, John P. Lackey1, Jay S. Schneider2

1Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Pathology, Anatomy, & Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Adolescents with greater early childhood lead exposure (blood lead level (BLL) > 10 µg/dl) showed elevated brain activation during performance of working memory tasks, suggesting an abnormal recruitment of brain circuits involved in working memory in individuals with prior elevated blood lead level. Enhanced activation patterns in subjects with greater early childhood lead exposure may indicate an attempt by the brain to compensate for injury to regions dedicated to working memory by recruiting additional neural resources. These data may also indicate that individuals with higher lead exposures may use different cognitive processing strategies to perform working memory tasks.

                  1246.     Clinical Assessment of Brain Perfusion in Newborn Infants with Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion MRI

Pia Wintermark1,2, Josef Pfeuffer3, Michael Hamm3, Richard L. Robertson2, Anne Hansen1, Janet Soul4, Simon K. Warfield2

1Newborn Medicine, Children Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA; 2Radiology, Children Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA; 3Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Charlestown, MA, USA; 4Neurology, Children Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have lead to the development of non-contrast agent based arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) MRI to acquire repeatedly absolute measurements regional cerebral blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Our study utilizes a pulsed ASL-PWI MRI sequence in optimized protocols to measure perfusion in newborn infants. Perfusion maps with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution were obtained in normal non-sedated term neonates, with adequate differentiation of gray matter, white matter, and basal ganglia. This should permit systematic prospective studies of brain perfusion in healthy and unhealthy newborn infants.

                  1247.     Use of a 32-Channel Coil to Improve Resolution in Assessing Brain Perfusion of Newborn Infants with 3T MRI

Pia Wintermark1,2, Josef Pfeuffer3, Michael Hamm3, Christina Triantafyllou4, Richard L. Robertson2, Anne Hansen1, Janet Soul5, Simon K. Warfield2

1Newborn Medicine, Children Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA; 2Radiology, Children Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA; 3Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Charlestown, MA, USA; 4Athinoula A. Martinos Imaging Center, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, MIT, Boston, MA, USA; 5Neurology, Children Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA

Studies of brain perfusion in newborns using arterial spin labeling perfusion weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging have been limited by a low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, a commercially available 32-channel 3T head coil was used to assess brain perfusion pattern of a normal term newborn infant. It allowed the acquisition of perfusion maps of improved resolution, with better differentiation of cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia. This should increase the accuracy of the measurements of brain perfusion in newborn infants, and enable measurements in premature newborn infants who have an even smaller brain.

                  1248.     Prevalence of Fear in Young Children Towards the MRI Environment

Krisztina Malisza1,2, Toby Martin3, Deborah Shiloff1, Mary Malainey4, Dickie Yu2,3

1MR R&D, NRC - Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Dept of Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3St. Amant Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4Dept of Anthropology, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada

Children aged 2 to 7 years were exposed to the MR imaging environment through a series of steps typical of a research study. Their willingness to proceed through the hierarchy was used to estimate the prevalence of fear. Approximately 50% of all the children completed the hierarchy. Successful completion of the hierarchy improved with age (eg. 75% completion at ages 6-7 compared to 43% between 2-5 years). A failure rate of at least 55% should be included into group size calculations when performing studies with young pediatric subjects (2-5 years), in addition to motion and other experimental factors.

                  1249.     3D PROspective MOtion Correction System (PROMO) in Pediatric Population

Mazyar E. Ahmadi1, Timothy T. Brown2, Joshua M. Kuperman1, J C. Roddey2, Nathen S. White3, Ajit Shankaranarayanan4, Eric Han4, Dan Rettmann4, Anders M. Dale1,2

1Radiology, UCSD, San Diego, CA, USA; 2Neurosciences, UCSD, San Diego, CA, USA; 3Cognitive Sciences, UCSD, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, San Diego, CA, USA

Artifacts caused by patient motion during scanning remains a serious problem in most MRI applications, with unsedated pediatric MR imaging being a notable example. Multiple approaches have been investigated in the past two decades mainly focusing on 2D motion. However these methods are limited by subject through-plane motion. The 3D PROspective MOtion correction system (PROMO) attempts to address the issue by correcting for both in-plane and through-plane motion. In this study, we quantified the improvements in the image quality in patients with varying amount of in-scanner motion during PROMO on and off scans.

                  1250.     Investigating the Long-Term Effects of Preterm Birth on Brain Volume Development Using Voxel-Based Morphometry of MRI Data

Zoltan Nagy1, John Ashburner1, Bogdan Drakanski1, Hugo Lagercrantz2

1Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Woman and Child Health, Kaolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Preterm birth has been identified as a risk factor for long-term morphological and cognitive development. However, it is also known that differences exist between cohorts and that neonatal practice and socioeconomic status can be important factors in the outcome. We investigated 74 ex-preterm and 69 term-born adolescents at a mean age of 15 years using voxel-based morhpometry and found that grey matter was smaller in the ex-preterm group in the temporal lobe, basal ganglia as well as the parietal, frontal and orbitofrontal corteces. However, when compared to previous studies the outcome is milder.

                  1251.     Investigating the Long-Term Effects of Preterm Birth on Brain White Matter Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and Fractional Anisotropy Data

Zoltan Nagy1, Saad Jbabdi2, Jesper Andersson3, Stefan Skare4, Hugo Lagercrantz5

1Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK; 2FMRIB, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 3FMRIB, Oxford University, Oxford, UK; 4Lucas MRS/I Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, USA; 5Department of Woman and Child Health, Kaolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Preterm birth has been identified as a risk factor for long-term morphological and cognitive development. However, it is also known that differences exist between cohorts and that neonatal practice and socioeconomic status can be important factors in the outcome. We investigated 74 ex-preterm and 69 term-born adolescents at a mean age of 15 years using tract-based spatial statistics and found that fractional anisotropy was lower in the ex-preterm group in the corpus callosum, fornix and external capsules. However, when compared to previous studies the outcome is milder.

                  1252.     Corpus Callosum Development in the Preterm Infant: A DTI Study

Deanne Kim Thompson1, Terrie E. Inder2, Leigh Johnston1, Nathan Faggian1, Lex W. Doyle3,4, Gary F. Egan1, V I.B.eS.(Victorian Infant Brain Studies Team) 3

1Neuroimaging, Howard Florey Institute, Centre for Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Pediatrics, St Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 4Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Very preterm infants face neurodevelopmental delay, mainly caused by white matter injury. The corpus callosum is the largest white matter fiber tract, important for interhemispheric communication. It has been implicated in impaired cognition and motor functioning. DTI and tractography was used to assess differences between preterm (n=114) and full term (n=24) corpus callosum development. Diffusivity was measured within and along the CC, and tractography provided an estimate of connectivity. Preterm infants demonstrated significantly lower MD and higher FA within the CC, particularly in motor regions. Fibre connectivity was significantly reduced. Delayed development in the preterm CC may have functional consequences.

                  1253.     Abnormal White Matter and Gray Matter Maturation in Premature Neonates with Periventricular Hemorrhagic Infarction: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

Ajay Garg1,2, Jeffrey I. Berman1, Duan Xu1, Srivathsa Veeraraghavan1, Sonia L. Bonifacio3, Hannah Cranley Glass3,4, Daniel B. Vigneron1, Anthony James Barkovich1,3, Pratik Mukherjee1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Neuroradiology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India; 3Pediatrics, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA

We compared DTI parameters of Dav, FA, l1, l2 and l3 between preterm neonates with imaging findings of periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) and 10 age-matched preterm healthy neonates without imaging evidence of brain injury. DTI in PVHI reveals abnormal microstructural maturation of gray matter and white matter in regions that appear normal on conventional MR imaging. Late maturing white matter regions (high- and low-centrum semiovale) and cortical regions (frontal, occipital, and temporal cortex) regions are more affected compared to earlier maturing regions such as the posterior limb of the internal capsule or the pre- and post-central cortex.

                  1254.     Non-Invasive Estimation of Brain Deep Grey Matter Temperature Using Localised Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Normothermic and Hypothermic Newborn Infants

Alan Bainbridge1, Giles Kendall2, Enrico DeVita3, Cornelia Hagmann4, Andrew Kapetanakis4, Ernest Cady3, Nicola Robertson4

1Medical Physics & Bio-Engineering, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London , UK; 2Academic Neonatology, EGA UCL Institute for Women’s Health, University College , London, UK; 3Medical Physics & Bio-Engineering, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 4Academic Neonatology, EGA UCL Institute for Women’s Health, University College, London, UK

Therapeutic cerebral hypothermia following perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia reduces both mortality and survivor neurodevelopmental disability. Precise knowledge of regional brain temperatures is needed in order to refine and optimise therapeutic hypothermia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy thermometry (MRSt) is non-invasive and has been successfully used to measure regional brain temperature in human adults. Our aim was to assess the relation between deep brain (TDB) and rectal (Trec) temperature using MRSt in normothermic and hypothermic human neonates. The strong linear correlation between Trec and TDB suggests that MRSt can successfully measure neonatal brain temperature over a broad temperature range.

                  1255.     MR Spectroscopy of Premature Newborns

Duan Xu1,2, Natalie Charlton1, Shoujun Zhao1, Ying Lu1, Donna M. Ferriero3, Daniel B. Vigneron1,2, A James Barkovich1

1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, UCSF/UC Berkeley, San Francisco and Berkeley, CA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA

In this study, 3D-PRESS was used to acquire MRSI in neonatal subjects, in order to better quantify metabolite levels. This preliminary study of premature neonates demonstrates significant correlation between age and metabolite ratios. The NAA to Cho ratio increased significantly with age for all regions. Lac to NAA ratio decreased significantly with age in the regions of thalamus, basal ganglia, cortical spinal tract, and parietal white matter, and showed a decreasing trend in the other regions. This establishes a baseline of the normal metabolite ratios for newborns, which are crucial in evaluating conditions of premature newborns and newborns with birth complication.

                  1256.     Could T1 and T2  Weighted Volumetric Imaging Be Used for Clinical Purposes in the Very Preterm Brain?

Revital Nossin-Manor1, Manohar Shroff1, Hilary Whyte2, João Paulo Soares-Fernandes1,3, Bejoy Thomas1, Drew Morris1, Margot Jane Taylor1, John G. Sled4,5

1Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Neuroradiology, Hospital de S. Marcos, Braga, Portugal; 4Physiology Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

T1 and T2 weighted (T1w and T2w) sequences are very important MRI modalities routinely used for identifying pathologies and monitoring development in the neonatal brain. T1w and T2w sequences used for diagnostic and morphometric studies, however, are frequently acquired using different imaging protocols and experimental settings. While low through-plane resolution conventional spin-echo T1w and T2w sequences are used to identify pathologies, high resolution volumetric imaging is used for research. We compared these two neuroimaging approaches in very preterm neonates and suggest that rapid high resolution T1w and T2w sequences can provide both diagnostic and morphometic value.

                  1257.     Rapid T1 Measurements in the Very Preterm Neonatal Brain at 1.5T.

Revital Nossin-Manor1, Hai-Ling Margaret Cheng1,2, Hilary Whyte3, João Paulo Soares-Fernandes1,4, Bejoy Thomas1, Aideen M. Moore3, Margot Jane Taylor1, John G. Sled5

1Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Neuroradiology, Hospital de S. Marcos, Braga, Portugal; 5Physiology Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada

Rapid and accurate T1 mapping is valuable for quantitative noninvasive monitoring of development and pathology in the neonatal brain. Here we show for the first time the use of variable flip angle (VFA) spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) approach with B1+ field nonuniformity correction to measure T1 relaxation times of very preterm brain at 1.5T. High resolution T1 maps were obtained for nine preterm neonates (median, 29 5/7 weeks) showing a range of pathologies scanned in 3 min and 36 s. ROI based analysis showed that T1 values depended on the clinical status of the infants rather than on gestational age.

                  1258.     Normobaric Hyperoximia Increases Cerebral Injury Caused by Perinatal Hypoxia: DTI Study in Rats

Kurt Hermann Bockhorst1, Harriet Charmaine Rhea2, Rui Liu3, Jose Regino Perez-Polo2, Ponnada A. Narayana1

1DII, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA; 2Medical Branch, University of Texas, Galveston, TX, USA; 3ECI, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA

Perinatal hypoxia is commonly treated with hyperoxia. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this therapy, we performed MRI/DTI studies on the P7 rat model with hypoxic/ischemic injury (HI) or HI followed by hyperoxia (HHI) one day, one week, and three weeks after insult. We found, that after three weeks the average size of the HHI treated brain was significantly smaller than HI and normal brains. Also, HHI treatment resulted in significantly larger lesions than HI. The DTI metrics in various white matter structures were significantly different between HI and HHI. Our results indicate, that hyperoxic treatment does not ameliorate, but exacerbate the outcome in perinatal hypoxic/ischemic injury.

                  1259.     Effect of Recurrent Isoflurane Anaesthesia During Development on the Neurochemical Profile of the Frontal and Occipital Cortex of Adult Mice: An in Vivo 1H MRS Study at 14.1 T

João MN Duarte1, Anita Frank2, Kim Q. Do2, Rolf Gruetter1,3

1Centre d'Imagerie BioMedicale, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Schizophrenia Research Unit, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Univ. Hosp. Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3Departments of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

The in vivo NMR scanning of animals at different stages of development requires recurrent anaesthesia. The present study investigated whether recurrent isoflurane anaesthesia during development has an effect on the cortical neurochemical profile of the adult mice.

                  1260.     Do Maternally Produced Cytokines Contribute to Fetal Neuroinflammation? MR Perspectives

Sylvie Girard1, Luc Tremblay2, Melanie Archambault2, Guillaume Sebire1, Martin Lepage2

1Dept of Pediatrics, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 2Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Center and Dept of Nuclear Medecine and Radiobiology, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada

Perinatal brain damages are thought to be induced by hypoxia-ischemia and/or infections, mainly through their activation of inflammatory pathways and cytokines production. Using an animal model of uterine inflammation leading to neonatal brain damages, we studied the potential materno-fetal transfer of cytokines. In vivo contrast-enhanced MRI studies showed that the inflammation leads to a decreased placental perfusion combined to the transfer of the contrast agent to the fetus. Those results were confirmed by histological analysis of the placentas and the use of radiolabeled cytokine. This suggest that both dam and newborn should be targeted by neuroprotective anti-inflammatory treatment.

                  1261.     Quantitative Assessment of Prenatal X-Ray Exposure Using Longitudinal Gadolinium-, Manganese-Enhanced and Perfusion MRI in Neonatal Rats

Shigeyoshi Saito1, Kazuhiko Sawada2, Xue-Zhi Sun3, Tetsuya Suhara4, Iwao Kanno4, Ichio Aoki4

1Department of Molecular and Neuroimaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 2Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, , Japan; 3Regulation Science Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; 4Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan

In vivo evaluation of radiation damage in the CNS is important for the assessment and treatment. Our goal is to investigate differences in the longitudinal dynamics between normal and irradiated subjects using Gd-DTPA, Mn2+ T1 agents, and perfusion imaging (EPI-FAIR). In addition, the contribution of the BBB permeability was tested between 1-week neonatal and 2-week rats. Gd-DTPA and perfusion MRI is a useful technique for BBB and microcirculation assessment in subjects exposed to ionizing radiation. Mn2+ contrast agents used in conjunction with T1 mapping can be used as a cellular density/activity indicator for a neonatal animal.

                  1262.     Cortical and Sub-Cortical Networks in Children with Absence Epilepsy.

Patrick Carney1,2, Danny Flannagan1, David Abbott1, Richard Masterton1, Ingrid Scheffer2, Simon Harvey3, Sam Berkovic2, Graeme Jackson1,2

1Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Brain Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Absence seizures are a common seizure type in children. EEG-fMRI provides a method to identify the networks underpinning seizure generation. This study provides a group analysis of 10 children with absence seizures showing thalamo-cortical and subcortical networks involved in seizure generation.

                  1263.     Analysis of FMRI Timecourse and Correlation in Typical Childhood Absence Seizures

Xiaoxiao Bai1, Matthew Vestal1, Rachel Berman1, Michiro Negishi2, Edward Novotny1,3, Todd Constable2, Hal Blumenfeld1,4

1Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 3Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Neurobiology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Simultaneous EEG-fMRI measurements were conducted in 8 children with 40 typical childhood absence epilepsy. Three different methods were performed: 1. fMRI data were analyzed using SPM2, and the HRF onset was systematically shifted in 1s increments from -20s to +20s relative to seizure onset. 2. The SPM MRI template was segmented into 13 cortical and sub-cortical regions in each hemisphere. SPM activation or deactivation clusters in each anatomic region were used to obtain mean time-courses using MARSBAR. 3. Correlation, timing, and PCA analyses were performed on the time courses. Results demonstrate a complex sequence of changes in absence seizures, undetectable by canonical HRF modeling. Cortical and subcortical network changes happen both before and after absence seizures.

                  1264.     Phase Analysis of Neonatal Cerebral Venous System by Susceptibility-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Tetsu Niwa1, Noriko Aida2, Hiroshi Kawaguchi3, Takayuki Obata3, Ayako Shishikura2, Tomio Inoue4

1Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Japan; 3National Institute of Radiological Science, Japan; 4Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique that is very sensitive for detecting intravascular venous deoxygenated blood, enables venography, and demontrates oxygen saturation. We retrospectively assessed phase value of the cortical and deep veins in 36 neonates without abnormal MR findings. In this study, phase value was higher in the deep vein than those in the cortical veins. We consider higher phase value in the deep veins may correlate with active metabolic and oxygen consumption area in neonates. The information provided by phase value on SWI may help understanding oxygen consumption pattern in neonates.

                  1265.     Quantification of Fetal Brain Lactate with MR Spectroscopy

Geoff Charles-Edwards1,2, Wajanat Jan1, Meekai To1, Darryl Maxwell1, Stephen Keevil1,2, Richard Robinson1

1Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2King's College London, London, UK

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to measure cerebral lactate levels in a range of human populations, from elderly stroke patients to pre-term neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of extending lactate detection and quantification to the fetal brain. A peak consistent with lactate was measured and quantified in a number of patients at high risk of fetal hypoxia. To our knowledge this is the first MRS study to measure and quantify lactate in the human fetal brain. Fetal MRS may provide a valuable direct and non-invasive assessment of fetal hypoxia.

                  1266.     Morphology and Morphometry of the Cerebellum in Williams Syndrome: A T1-Weighted MRI Study

Margherita Di Paola1,2, Deny Menghini3,4, Riccardo Murri5, Stefano Vicari3,6, Laura Petrosini7, Carlo Caltagirone8,9

1Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department  of Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, I.R.C.C.S. Children’s Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy; 4Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS S. Lucia Foundation, ; 5CSCS - Centro Svizzero di Calcolo Scientifico, ETH Zuerich ; 6LUMSA, University of Rome; 7Department of Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”; 8Department of Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Italy; 9Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”

Williams Syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 25000 births, caused by the deletion of one copy of about 20 contiguous genes on the long arm of the chromosome 7. Individuals with WS show cognitive areas of strength and weakness in different cognitive domains. Previous neuroimaging studies have been performed to identify anatomical correlates accounting for the cognitive profile observed in WS subjects. The direct correlation between volumes of cerebellar subregions and measures of cognitive abilities can provided interesting results on the comprehension of some patho-physiological aspects underlying the clinical features of WS.

                  1267.     Reduced Caudate Nuclei Volumes in Patients with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

Rajesh Kumar1, Rebecca Ahdout1, Paul M. Macey2, Mary A. Woo2, Ronald M. Harper1

1Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show cognitive and affective deficits. The caudate nuclei play a role in both functions, and show structural injury in CCHS based on gross voxel-based analyses. However, the magnitude of caudate injury in CCHS is unclear. We assessed caudate nuclei volumes in CCHS and control subjects using high-resolution T1-weighted imaging and region-of-interest procedures. Both left and right caudate nuclei volumes were significantly reduced in CCHS compared to controls. Damaged caudate nuclei may contribute to neuropsychological deficits in CCHS; the injury may result from hypoxic processes, together with thiamine deficiency suspected in the syndrome.

                  1268.     Mammillary Body Volume Loss in Patients with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

Rajesh Kumar1, Kwanoo Lee1, Paul M. Macey2, Mary A. Woo2, Ronald M. Harper1

1Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show autonomic, affective, and cognitive dysregulation, including memory deficits. The hippocampus and anterior thalamus, essential memory structures, are damaged in CCHS, but other memory components, including the mammillary bodies, have not been assessed. We evaluated mammillary body volumes in CCHS using high-resolution T1-weighted imaging and region-of-interest procedures. Left and right mammillary body volumes were reduced in CCHS over controls, likely contributing to memory inadequacies in CCHS. Hypoxic processes and diminished neuroprotection from micronutrient deficiencies secondary to fluid and dietary absorption issues may contribute to the injury.

                  1269.     Shape Analysis on Subcortical Structures with Its Application in Children with Autism

Anqi Qiu1, Deana Crocetti2, Michael I. Miller3, Steward H. Mostofsky2

1Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; 2Department of Developmental Cognitive Neurology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

We introduce an automatic shape analysis approach under large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) framework for studying subcortical shape abnormalities associated with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatrc diseases. The approach was applied to investigating basal ganglia shapes in children with Autism. Our results revealed no volume differences but remarkable shape abnormalitis of the basal ganglia in children with Autism. The shape abnormal pattern indicates that Autism involves not only one neuronal circuit.

                  1270.     Altered Brain Microstructure in Adolescents with ADHD: A Voxel-Based DKI Analysis

Joseph A. Helpern1,2, Vitria Adisetiyo3, Adriana Di Martino4, Maria F. Falangola1, Anita Ramani1, Caixia Hu1, Kathleen A. Williams1, Francisco X. Castellanos4, Jens H. Jensen1,2

1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York , NY, USA; 3Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 4Child Study Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

Several volumetric MRI studies have identified an aberrant developmental trajectory in ADHD however there are currently no diffusion studies looking at the age-related microarchitectural changes in ADHD during adolescence. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) was used to directly quantify gray and white matter complexity from age 12 to 18 years. While typically developing controls displayed dynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex, adolescents with ADHD had stagnant measures throughout this period. Voxel-based analysis localized the principal regions of dynamic changes found in controls but lacking in ADHD as the internal capsule (anterior limb), corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus in both hemispheres.

                  1271.     Analysis of Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus and Arcuate Fasciculus with Diffusion Tensor Images of Dyslexia Patients

Hao Huang1,2, Jonathan M. Chia3, Michael C. Morriss2,4, Zhiyue J. Wang2,4, Barjor Gimi2,4, Nancy K. Rollins2,4

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Philips Healthcare, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Radiology, Children's Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Dyslexia manifests primarily as a difficulty with written language. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI can be used to detect the subtle structural white matter abnormalities. In this study, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) of control and dyslexia groups were segmented with DTI-based tractography. AF was divided into smaller segments for detecting local FA changes. There is no statistically significant difference of averaged FA of the whole tract. However, the FA at posterior portion of frontal part of AF is significantly smaller in dyslexia children, so are the relative volumes of total SLF and AF.

                  1272.     Proton MRS Shows Cerebral Accumulation of Neurotoxic 3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid in 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA-Carboxylase Deficiency

Marinette van der Graaf1,2, Udo F.H. Engelke3, Eva Morava4, Maaike C. de Vries4, Leo A.J. Kluijtmans3, Bozena Góraj1, Ron A. Wevers3, Arend Heerschap1

1Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 2Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 3Laboratory of Pediatrics and Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 4Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Newborn screening for 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase deficiency (MCCD) is under debate in literature as only a few individuals suffering from MCCD develop symptoms. In the present study, however, proton MRS at 3T shows accumulation of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA) in the brain of a patient with MCCD at 5 and 21 months of age. Since 3-HIVA is considered to be neurotoxic, early detection is relevant as diet adjustments can be made to minimize its accumulation, which justifies newborn screening for MCCD.

                  1273.     Multinational Phase III Clinical Trial of the Safety and Efficacy of Gadobenate Dimeglumine for Contrast-Enhanced MR Neuroimaging in Children

Matthew J. Kuhn1, Emilio Cianciulli2, Claudio Fonda3, Mieczyslaw Pasowicz4, Pei-yi Gao5

1Radiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Radiology, “Santobono Pausillipon” Children’s Hospital, Naples, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostics Unit, Anna Meyer Pediatric Hospital, Florence, Italy; 4Radiology, Krakow Hospital John Paul II, Krakow, Poland; 5Radiology, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Beijing, China

92 children were enrolled in a multinational clinical trial of 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine for MRI of the CNS. Nine non serious, mild to moderate adverse events were reported in 8 children (8.7%). Headache was reported in 2 patients with all other reported AE occurring once. According to 3 blinded readers gadobenate dimeglumine provided additional diagnostic information over predose images in 83.7-96.7% of patients. Quantitative assessments showed significantly greater LBR (p<0.0001) and CNR (p<0.0016) after gadobenate dimeglumine. At a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg, gadobenate dimeglumine is a safe and efficacious for contrast-enhanced MRI of CNS lesions in children.

                  1274.     Gadobenate Dimeglumine for Contrast-Enhanced MRI of the Central Nervous System in Children

Cesare Colosimo1, Mieczyslaw Pasowicz2, Phillipe Demaerel3, Paolo Tortori-Donati4, Pei-yi Gao5, Matthew J. Kuhn6

1Neuroradiology, 1Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2Radiology, Krakow Hospital John Paul II, Krakow, Poland; 3Radiology, University Hospital K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 4Radiology, Institute G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy; 5Radiology, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Beijing, China; 6Radiology, Southern Illinoias University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA

The pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)for enhanced MRI of the CNS in children were evaluated. Pharmacokinetics of Gd-BOTPA best fit a 2-compartment model, with >80% recovery in urine at 24 hours. The overall adverse event (AE) rate was 11.6% (18/151). In a comparison study, the AE rate after Gd-BOPTA (13%) and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) (14%) was similar (p=0.75). Lesion enhancement with Gd-BOPTA was good-to-excellent, resulting in improved lesion border delineation, visualization of internal morphology, and definition of disease extent. Compared to an equal dose of Gd-DTPA, postdose changes in lesion visualization were significantly (p≤0.011) greater for Gd-BOPTA than Gd-DTPA.

 
Manganese Enhanced MRI
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Thursday 13:30-15:30

                  1275.     Manganese - Gold Nanospheres as Positive Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Stephanie Jacobs1, Simona Murph2, Matthew Siegfried2, Steven Serkiz2, Tom Chih-Chuang Hu1

1Small Animal Imaging, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA

Gold (Au) nanoparticles are of interest to medical researchers for their: tunable physicochemical properties, ability to bind to cell markers, and near-IR absorption and associated local heating. Manganese (Mn) –Au nanospheres were synthesized by adding MnCl2 to a suspension of citrate capped Au nanospheres. The nanospheres were added to cells that were then imaged using MRI. This study shows the possibility of cellular uptake of the Mn – Au nanosphere clusters. The cells appear to uptake and retain more manganese at concentrations from 0.4 - 0.5 mM. Ex vivo MRI measurements showed a T1 enhancement of nanoparticles within the cells.

                  1276.     Structural Abnormalities Revealed by T2-Weighted and Manganese-Enhanced MRI in Methylazoxymethanol Acetate-Treated Rats: Relevance as a Translational Biomarker for Schizophrenia

Chih-Liang Chin1, Peter Curzon2, Ann E. Tovcimak1, Bryan F. Cox1, Lynne E. Rueter2, Michael W. Decker2, Gerard B. Fox1, Ana M. Basso2

1Advanced Technology, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA; 2Neuroscience Research, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder and its etiology remains elusive. Herein, using T2-weighted and manganese-enhanced MRI, we investigated structural changes in methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats – a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. We found that, compared to vehicle controls, an increase in the volume of lateral ventricles (p<0.001) and third ventricle (p<0.05) as well as reduction of hippocampal volume (p<0.001) in MAM-treated rats. These findings are consistent with ventricle enlargement shown in schizophrenic patients and cortical thickness thinning previously observed in MAM-treated rats. Therefore, structural abnormalities observed in this model might serve as translational biomarkers for assessing novel treatments for schizophrenia.

                  1277.     Modeling Cardiac Manganese Efflux Using T1-Mapping Manganese-Enhanced MRI in a Murine Model

Benjamin Waghorn1,2, Nathan Yanasak1, Tom C.-C. Hu1,2

1Small Animal Imaging, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2NRE and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA

Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) overloading that occurs via the NCX during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is known to exacerbate injuries. This study demonstrates that pharmacokinetic modeling can be applied to T1 mapping manganese-enhanced MRI in a murine model to estimate the rates of myocardial Mn2+ influx and efflux following infusion of MnCl2. A two compartment model provided a good approximation for the Mn2+ transfer between blood and heart compartments. This model could possibly by used to predict changes in myocardial Ca2+ handling following myocardial infarction as a pre-clinical rodent model and to potentially monitor disease progression.

                  1278.     Assessing Manganese Efflux Using SEA0400 and Cardiac T1-Mapping Manganese-Enhanced MRI in a Murine Model

Benjamin Waghorn1,2, Yuhui Yang1, Akemichi Baba3, Toshio Matsuda3, Nathan Yanasak1, Tom C.-C. Hu1,2

1Small Animal Imaging, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2NRE and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) overloading that occurs via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is known to exacerbate injuries. This study demonstrates that T1 mapping manganese-enhanced MRI in a murine model can be used to quantify the temporal rate of change of myocardial relaxation rates (&#8710;R1) following infusion of MnCl2. Inhibiting the NCX with SEA0400 demonstrates a reduction in the rate of &#8710;R1 washout. This technique could potentially be employed to assess Mn2+ efflux mechanisms and rates in vivo. Studying Mn2+ efflux using this protocol provides a pre-clinical model for examining alterations in Ca2+ efflux in monitoring disease progression.

                  1279.     Mapping Nociceptive Pathways Using Activity-Dependent Manganese-Enhanced MRI

Pai-Feng Yang1, Jyh-Horng Chen1, Chen-Tung Yen2

1Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

The objective of the present study was to use MEMRI to study the functional connection from the medial thalamus. Manganese ions were deposited into the medial thalamus of the rat. Noxious electrical stimulation of the contralateral forepaw was performed for 5 hr. Significantly stronger Mn T1 signals were found throughout the ACC and the medial caudate-putamen in comparison to the naïve, innocuous and morphine-pretreated control groups. Therefore, we concluded that MEMRI is useful to reveal the fine spatial details of the function of the medial pain pathway

                  1280.     MEMRI Detects Axonal Degeneration Earlier Then DTI

Shu-Wei Sun1,2

1Biomedical Engineering, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Non-Invasive Imaging Lab, Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA

DTI and MEMRI are widely used imaging modalities to study neuronal fiber tracts in the central nervous system. In this study, the sensitivity of DTI and MEMRI were compared in detecting axonal damage in optic nerves after retinal ischemia. Our data show that while optic nerves appeared normal on DTI index maps in 2 days after retinal ischemia, MEMRI was able to detect axonal transport deficits. Our data suggested that MEMRI can provide information about neuronal functionality and may serve as a sensitive imaging marker to detect axonal damage earlier than other imaging modalities.

                  1281.     Effect of Dietary Composition on the Neuronal Activation Following Peripheral Injection of Cholecystokinin in Mice Detected by Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Nadine Zeeni1,2, Nachiket A. Nadkarni3, Jimmy D. Bell3, Ralph Sinkus4, Gilles Fromentin1,2, Daniel Tome1,2, Nicolas Darcel1,2

1CNRH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, AgroParisTech, Paris, France; 2CNRH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, INRA, Paris, France; 3Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Group, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK; 4Laboratoire des Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris VII, Paris, France

We looked at the effect of long-term nutrient intake on the central response to CCK by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard high-carbohydrate (HC), high-fat (HF) or high-protein (HP) diet for 6 weeks. Assessment of brain response to CCK showed a reduction in neuronal activity in appetite centers (VMN) and in reward centers (nucleus accumbens and striatum). When comparing diet effects, while the HF diet didn’t induce any change in activity, reductions in Mn uptake were found in the PVN when comparing the HP to the HC diet. Our results suggest that habituation to a HP diet leads to modifications in CCK-induced anorectic effects in the hypothalamus.

                  1282.     Dynamics of Manganese Transport in the Rat Optic Nerve Evaluated Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI)

Øystein Olsen1, Pål Erik Goa2, Andres Kristoffersen3, Axel Sandvig4, Christian Brekken2, Marte Thuen5

1Department of Radiography, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Radiology,, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Laboratory Medicine Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

A mono-exponential decaying concentration function and a constant concentration function were used as input function to a mathematical model for transport of manganese in the optic nerve. With the mono-exponential decaying function, it was not possible to fit the model to the measured time intensity curve, however, by using the constant concentration input function we were able to fit the model quite nicely with the measured data. The study indicate that the influx of manganese into the retinal ganglion cells through voltage gated calcium channels is limited by the uptake rate through these channels rather than the manganese concentration in the vitreous body.

                  1283.     Morphological Study of Mouse Brain Models with Down Syndrome Using MEMRI

Bich-Thuy Doan1, Eva Toth1, Ahmad Almhdie2, Patricia Lopes-Pereira3, Paulo Loureiro de Sousa1,4, Sandra Meme1, Frédéric Szeremeta1, Caroline Colombier3, Véronique Brault3, Christophe Leger2, Roger Ledee2, Rachid Harba2, Yann Herault3, Jean-Claude Beloeil1

1CBM, CNRS, Orléans, France; 2Institut PRISME, Université d'Orléans, Orléans, France; 3IEM, CNRS, Orléans, France; 4Institut de Myologie, AIM, Paris, France

Our aim is to develop new models of human chromosome 21 aneuploïdies and a 3D segmentation software using MEMRI at 9.4T. We studied Ts1Yah, Ts2Yah, Ts65Dn and Tg(Pcp4) trisomic models mice. We developed a powerful tool in order to perform an automatic segmentation and 3D reconstruction of three brain subregions (whole brain, hippocampus, cerebellum). MEMRI makes it possible to obtain at high magnetic field morphological images with strong contrast. A semi-automatic quantitative study has been performed in comparison to manual method. Volumes were comparable statistically, but processing time was drastically reduced, and segmentation quality and accuracy were improved.

                  1284.     Quantitative MEMRI Mapping of Ion Channel Regulation by Visual Cycle Activity  in Rodent Photoreceptors In Vivo

Bruce Berkowitz1, Robin Roberts1, Dave Bissig1

1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

There is an absence of therapies for evaluating gene and other therapeutic approaches for retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Quantitative testing of biological hypotheses using non-invasive methods for studying inner and outer retina function with high spatial resolution is expected to improve the development of new treatment options, but such testing is not currently possible. The results of the proposed experiments lay the groundwork of future investigations focused on how to more rapidly identify promising pharmaceuticals, drug targets, and schedules for intervention based on MEMRI metrics. Such pre-clinical diagnosis and prognosis are not currently possible.

                  1285.     Evidence for Coupling Between Cerebellum and Basal-Ganglia Loops – an MEMRI Study

Benjamin Matta1, Gadi Goelman1

1MRI/MRS Lab, Human Biology Research Center, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

The question whether sensory-motor information is processed separately in the cerebellum and in the basal ganglia (BG) or that their loops integrate, is being studied. The

                  1286.     Mapping Brain Activations Induced by Exposure to Enriched Environment with Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xuxia Wang1, Fuchun Lin1, Liqin Yang1, Zhao Li1, Hao Lei1

1Wuhan Insitute of Physics & Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China

It is well-known that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) can induce plastic changes in the hippocampus and improves learning and memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks. In this study, we attempted to map accumulative brain activations in rats exposed to the EE for a period of 24 hrs with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). The data showed that EE exposure induced significant activations in the anterior hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and some cerebellar structures.

                  1287.     Segmentation and Calculation of Stroke- And Manganese-Enhanced Volumes After Reconstruction of the Injured Hemisphere in the Hypoxic-Ischemic Neonatal Rat Brain

Øystein Olsen1, Marius Widerøe2, Pål Erik Goa3,4, Jon Skranes2,5, Ann-Mari Brubakk2,5, Christian Brekken3

1Department of Radiography, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s and Women’s Health, University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Radiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 5Department of Pediatrics, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway

The injured brain hemisphere was reconstructed based on the segmented non-injured intracranial volume and non-injured brain hemisphere. Animals with no Hypoxic-Ischemic injury (HI) were used for validation and a non-significant mean difference of 1.3% between the segmented and reconstructed hemisphere volumes was detected. This indicated a good correspondence between the direct segmented and reconstructed hemisphere. The semi-automatic method developed for this task enables calculation of absolute and relative stroke- and ME volumes and can be used for in vivo longitudinal study of HI development and associated manganese enhancement.

                  1288.     Late Manganese-Enhanced MRI of Rat Cortical and Subcortical Structures

Kevin C. Chan1,2, Iris Y. Zhou1,2, Ed X. Wu1,2

1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

This study employs in vivo manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) before, and at 1, 5 and 12 days after systemic Mn administration to investigate the late enhancement of rat brain tissues before global clearance of Mn from the brain. While most brain structures were found maximally enhanced in T1WI at 1 day after Mn injection, a higher signal increase was observed at Day 5 in the central amygdaloid nucleus, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, caudate putamen and thalamus compared to other time points. Our results suggested the deposition of Mn in areas of high astrocyte densities at 1 day after systemic Mn administration, with continuous redistribution of Mn through axonal transport in the late phase before its global clearance from the brain at Day 12.

                  1289.     Effect of Ethanol Treatment on Axonal Transport Rates in Hyper-Glutamatergic Transgenic Mice

Jieun Kim1, In-Young Choi1,2, Elias K. Michaelis3, Sang-Pil Lee1,4

1Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxocology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 4Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA

Alcoholism is one of the major health problems in our population. The glutamate system has been implicated as a primary target of the actions of ethanol. This study aims to investigate the possible changes axonal transport in hyperglutametergic transgenic mice (Glud1-tg) with ethanol treatment using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Our results show that axonal transport rates in Glud1-tg mice were significantly lowered following ethanol treatment.

                  1290.     Manganese Enhanced MRI Tracing for Spinal Cord Injury

Nikolay L. Martirosyan1, Kevin M. Bennett2, Nicholas Theodore3, Mark C. Preul

1Neurosurgery Research, Barrow Neurological Inst., Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Harrington Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 3Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Inst., Phoenix, AZ, USA

Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is potentially an important tool for assessing neural tissue regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). A study was performed to determine the relation between manganese and MRI signal after inraventricular injection in an SCI rat model. Rats were divided to four groups with/without SCI and with/without manganese injection. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spec (ICP-MS) measured total manganese content. The results confirmed Mn2+ uptake in the spinal cord after intraventricular injection, and that the MRI signal intensity correlates with spinal Mn2+ concentration as measured with ICP-MS. MEMRI is thus useful tool for studying SCI.

                  1291.     MEMRI and Single Pellet Reaching in Rats

Albert R. Cross1, Mariam Alaverdashvili2, Valerie Lapointe2, Ian Q. Whishaw2

1Neuroscience and Physics, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; 2Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Canada

This study investigates the effects of a moderate imaging dose (75 mg/kg) of manganese on skilled motor control in rats. Relaxation measurements were made in various brain regions. Temporary deficits in motor control were found to correlate with relaxation rate.

                  1292.     Evaluation of Hippocampal Degeneration After Prenatal Radiation Exposure Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI)

Shigeyoshi Saito1, Xue-Zhi Sun2, Kazuhiko Sawada3, Tetsuya Suhara4, Iwao Kanno4, Ichio Aoki4

1Department of Molecular and Neuroimaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 2Regulation Science Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; 3Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, , Japan; 4Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan

Radiation exposure during the prenatal period causes various diseases such as hydrocephalus and hippocampal atrophy. Our goal was to evaluate the change in volume of the manganese-enhanced hippocampal area, hippocampus and entire brain of the rat with or without X-ray exposure during the prenatal period. Our study demonstrated: 1) Atrophy of the whole brain with ventricular dilatation was observed in the radiation-exposed model; 2) The atrophy of hippocampus was confirmed by MEMRI and HE staining in the radiation exposure model; 3) The size of the manganese-enhanced area in the radiation-exposed rats increased in the hippocampus.

 
Animal Imaging of Spine & Spinal Cord
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Monday 14:00-16:00

                  1293.     In Vivo 1H-MR Spectroscopy of the Mouse Cervical Spinal Cord.

Virginie Callot1, Yann Le Fur1, Guillaume Duhamel1, Patrick J. Cozzone1, Frank Kober1

1UMR 6612 CNRS, Université de la Méditerranée, Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale (CRMBM), Marseille, France

In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique method for non invasive assessment of healthy and pathologic tissue metabolism. Spinal cord (SC) MRS has been reported in human studies, as well as in rats, however, no reports have been performed on mice although it should help, in addition to MRI, in the description of the numerous mouse models of SC diseases such as multiple sclerosis and injury. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of localized 1H MRS in mouse cervical spinal cord.

                  1294.     Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Mammalian Neurons

Jeremy J. Flint1,2, Choong-Heon Lee2,3, Brian Hansen4, Michael Fey5, Daniel Schmidig5, Jonathan D. Bui6, Michael A. King7, Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen4, Stephen J. Blackband1,8

1Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Electrical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Bruker Biospin AG, Switzerland; 6Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 8National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL, USA

Contemporary MR methods used to determine cellular position and perform compartment-specific quantitative measurements depend on exogenous contrast agents (such as manganese, gadolinium, or SPIO particles) and often require inferences to be made due to resolution limitations. In the present study, we present—to our knowledge—the first MR microscopy images of individual mammalian cells ever recorded using endogenous contrast mechanisms with accompanying correlative histology. Not only does this study show that soft-tissue contrast exists between cells and the surrounding extracellular space, but opens the door to subsequent studies in which mammalian cell physiology may be studied directly using MR analysis.

                  1295.     Assessment of Pathologic Mouse Spinal Cord Recovery Using High-Resolution Diffusion and ASL-Based Perfusion Imaging

Guillaume Duhamel1, Patrick Decherchi2, Tanguy Marqueste2, Patrick J. Cozzone1, Virginie Callot1

1CRMBM / CNRS 6612, Faculté de Médecine - Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France; 2ISM, Faculté des Sports - Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France

The combined use of diffusion and perfusion imaging may greatly improve the characterization of spinal cord (SC) pathologies by allowing the detection of functional impairments and deficient tissue blood supply. In this study, high-resolution DTI and ASL-perfusion images were obtained on a mouse SC injury model (hemisection). Sensitivity and image quality of both modalities allowed to accurately detecting the lesion affecting white matter and gray matter. Moreover, the follow-up of quantitative diffusion/perfusion measurements permitted to highlight structural and vascular progressive recovery of the tissue. This preliminary study demonstrates the promising potentiality of the combined diffusion/perfusion protocol for SC investigation.

                  1296.     Tracking Iron Labeled Cells in Direct Transplant Models, Proceed with Caution

Laura Elizabeth Gonzalez-Lara1,2, Xiaoyun Xu3, Klara Hofstetrova1, Anna Pniak3, Arthur Brown3,4, Paula J. Foster1,2

1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 3BioTherapeutics Research Group, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; 4Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Stem cell labeling with iron particles allows cells to be detected by MRI and is commonly used to track stem cell engraftment. However, a concern, and potential limitation, of tracking iron labeled cells with MRI is that dead cells may be taken up by bystander cells and incorrectly identified as viable. Here we report on a study where iron-labeled stem cells were monitored in vivo for 6 weeks after transplant into the injured mouse spinal cord. Direct transplantation models may represent the worst-case scenarios for cell tracking with MRI.

                  1297.     High Resolution 3D Myelin Water Imaging in Excised Rat Spinal Cord

Piotr Kozlowski1, Andrew C. Yung1

1UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Myelin water imaging has been used to characterize rat spinal cord pathology. One of the limitations of the current CPMG based myelin water imaging technique is that it is a single slice technique. It has been shown that a 3D version of this technique can be achieved by applying a second phase encoding gradient to provide localization along the slice direction. In this pilot study we applied the 3D CPMG sequence to acquire very high spatial resolution 3D MWF maps from excised rat spinal cord. The 3D technique produced high quality data that compared favourably with the 2D measurements.

                  1298.     Visualization of Vascular Modifications Occuring During Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Recovery Using High-Resolution Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL)

Guillaume Duhamel1, Patrick Decherchi2, Tanguy Marqueste2, Patrick J. Cozzone1, Virginie Callot1

1CRMBM / CNRS 6612, Faculté de Médecine - Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France; 2ISM, Faculté des Sports - Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France

Diffusion and perfusion MRI might be among the techniques of choice for the characterization of spinal cord injury (SCI) by allowing the detection of functional impairments and deficient tissue blood supply. In this study, functional tests, high-resolution DTI and ASL-perfusion images were obtained on a mouse SCI model (compression). Absolute quantitative results obtained in a follow-up study with presat-FAIR ASL demonstrated high variation of perfusion values, highlighting then the presence and the importance of a vascular role in SCI.

                  1299.     Preclinical Screening of a Potential Drug Treatment for Spinal Cord Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Peter Cheng-te Chou1, Mehmet Levend Gunsoy1, Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki1, Shunmugavel Anandakumar1, Musfiquddin Khan1, Hanaa El Sayed1, Shaun Nguyen1, Inderjit Singh1, Mehmet Bilgen1

1Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA

Potential new therapies for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) are currently being developed and tested in animal models. The modulator of cellular redox, S-nitrosoglutathione (also known as GSNO) has shown to prevent endothelial dysfunction, facilitate neuroprotection and repair, and promote locomotor function during recovery following neuronal injury. Evaluating the efficacy of a pharmacological treatment, such as GSNO, depends on accurately quantifying drug-induced improvements in neuropathological state of injured spinal cord (SC). In this study, we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating the efficacy of GSNO in SCI in a rat model.

                  1300.     Multiexponential T2 Analysis of Rat Brain and Spinal Cord

Cheryl R. McCreary1,2, Thorarin A. Bjarnason3, J Ross Mitchell1,2, Jeff F. Dunn1,2

1Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

The focus of many multiexponential T2 studies has been the use of the short T2 component as a surrogate marker of myelin content. It is therefore important to understand regional variation in these components and to establish the characteristics of the T2 distribution of normal CNS tissue. We analyzed multiecho spin echo data from rat corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, cervical dorsal column, and spinal cord grey matter in 5 healthy rats. In addition to regional variations in myelin water, we also found variations in the IE water component, particularly between brain and spinal cord white and grey matter regions.

 
Advanced Imaging of the Human Spine & Spinal Cord
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Tuesday 13:30-15:30

                  1301.     Respiration-Induced B0 Fluctuation of Spine

Hahnsung Kim1, Sang-Young Zho1, Dong-Hyun Kim1,2

1Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea; 2Radiology , Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

B0 field variations in spine imaging due to respiration can also be a potential problem due to its close proximity to the lungs. The degree of B0 fluctuations during respiration has not been studied for spine imaging however. This study therefore focuses on the relative B0 fluctuations induced by susceptibility changes attributed to respiration in different parts of the spine. It is shown that B0 variations of up to ~23 Hz (C spine), ~47 Hz (T spine), and ~25 Hz (L spine) occur while breathing.

                  1302.     Toward a Better Description of the Gray Matter Spinal Cord by Using Highly Resolved Diffusion-Weighted and Morphologic T2*-Weighted MRI.

Virginie Callot1, Guillaume Duhamel1, Alexandre Vignaud2, Patrick J. Cozzone1

1UMR 6612 CNRS, Université de la Méditerranée, Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale (CRMBM), Marseille, France; 2Siemens Healthcare, Saint-Denis, France

The detection of SC abnormalities is nowadays based on MRI with conventional anatomic spin-echo or gradient-echo sequences. Diffusion MRI is additionally used to assess the structural integrity of the spinal cord. However the resolution usually achieved for diffusion-weighted images precludes differentiating with accuracy white matter and gray matter.

                  1303.     Assessment of CSF Flow and Spinal Cord Motion in Cervical Spondylosis Using Phase Contrast MRI

Sandra Michelle Meyers1,2, Erin L. MacMillan3, Burkhard Mädler4, Irene M. Vavasour5, David K. Li5, Marcel F. Dvorak6,7, Armin Curt6,8, Alex L. MacKay5,9

1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Dept. of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 4Philips Healthcare, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Dept. of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 7Dept. of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 8Dept. of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 9Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a disease characterized by narrowing of the spinal canal, or stenosis, which alters the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the spinal canal. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes in velocity of both CSF flow and spinal cord motion caused by a stenosis, as measured by phase contrast MRI in the cranial-caudal direction. Results indicated a significant decrease in CSF flow and increase in spinal cord motion in CSM subjects, which may suggest that spinal cord motion is a consequence of the lack of CSF flow.

                  1304.     Sensitivity of Myelin Water Imaging in Focal Spinal Cord Demyelination: A Combined Neurophysiological and Neuroimaging Study of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

Erin Leigh MacMillan1, Alexander L. MacKay2, Burkhard Mädler3, David K. Li2, Marcel F. Dvorak4, Armin Curt5

1Dept. of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Dept. of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Philips Healthcare, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Dept. of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Dept. of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Myelin water imaging directly measures the fraction of water trapped between myelin bilayers, called the myelin water fraction (MWF), and has been applied to investigate the role of myelin degradation in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM). The present study found a significant correlation between MWF and tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in subjects with CSM. These findings indicate for the first time that MWF in the cervical spinal cord is sensitive to focal demyelination in vivo and might provide a new tool to assess clinical interventions aimed at treating diseases and disorders of myelin in the spinal cord.

                  1305.     Myelin Water Imaging with MRI at 3.0T in the Healthy Human Spinal Cord:  Reproducibility and Changes with Age

Erin Leigh MacMillan1, Armin Curt2,3, Burkhard Mädler4, David K. Li5, Marcel F. Dvorak3,6, Alexander L. MacKay5,7

1Dept. of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Dept. of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Philips Healthcare, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Dept. of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Dept. of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 7Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Myelin water imaging (MWI) enables the measurement of the fraction of water trapped between myelin bilayers, the myelin water fraction (MWF). In this study we performed MWI in the cervical spine of healthy adults and sought to determine the scan-rescan reproducibility, as well as changes with age. In a population of adults aged 21 to 75, a negative trend of MWF with age was detected, indicating that white matter myelin content in the cervical spinal cord decreases with age.

                  1306.     Multi-Exponential Analysis of T2 Relaxation in the Human Spinal Cord: Differences Between Grey and White Matter

Nicole Fichtner1, Erin L. MacMillan2, B Mädler3, A Curt4,5, D K. Li6, M F. Dvorak5,7, Alex L. MacKay1,6

1Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Dept. of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Philips Healthcare, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Dept. of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Dept. of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 7Dept. of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

In order to determine optimum parameters for contrast differentiation, it is necessary to know the T2 relaxation characteristics of each tissue, which may have multiple values. Multi-echo T2 relaxation is sensitive to the different pools of water in central nervous system tissue. We examined the cervical cord region of 12 healthy controls using a 3D multi-echo T2 measurement. This study showed for the first time that the average T2 was significantly different between grey and white matter in healthy human spinal cord in vivo.

                  1307.     Point Spread Function Mapping for Distortion Correction of Spinal Cord Diffusion Weighted MRI

Henrik Lundell1,2, Julien Cohen-Adad3,4

1Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3INSERM, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital,  Univ Paris 6, Paris, France; 4GRSNC, Physiology department, Univ Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

Susceptibility related artifacts is one of the main problems in spinal cord DWMRI. We propose the use of Point Spread Function (PSF) mapping for retrospective correction of these artifacts in single shot diffusion weighted EPI of the human cervical spinal cord. Although further improvements are needed, this method enables the reduction of short scale artifacts around the intervertebral disks and proviedes better consistency of fiber tractography.

                  1308.     BLADE in Sagittal T2-Weighted Imaging of the Cervical Spine: Reduction of Artifacts and Value for Clinical Application

Claudia Fellner1, Cynthia Menzel1, Franz A. Fellner2, Christine Ginthör2, Niels Zorger1, Ernst M. Jung1, Stefan Feuerbach1, Thomas Finkenzeller1

1Institute of Radiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Radiology, General Hospital, Linz, Austria

To evaluate the BLADE technique for sagittal T2-weighted imaging of the cervical spine for routine application, BLADE and TSE sequences were compared in 60 successive patients. Image sharpness, motion, truncation and metal artifacts, flow phenomena, vertebral body/disk and spinal cord/CSF contrast, and diagnostic reliability of spinal cord depiction were graded visually. BLADE was statistically superior to TSE for all criteria except for metal artifacts. In a side-by-side comparison of both sequences BLADE was superior for diagnostic purpose in 50/60, inferior in 3/60 patients. Therefore, BLADE seems to be a promising technique for routine sagittal T2-weighted imaging of the cervical spine.

                  1309.     Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Subjects with Cervical Spondlytic Myelopathy:  Use of the Eigenvalues as Indicators of Spinal Stenosis

Enedino Hernandez1,2, Alex L. Mackay3,4, Erin L. MacMillan5, Burkard Mädler6, David K. Li2, M F. Dvorak7, Teodoro Cordova8, Alonso Ramirez-Manzanares9, C Laule2

1Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico; 2Dept. of Radiology, University of  British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 3Dept. of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 5Dept. of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 6Philips  Healthcare, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 7International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 8Fisica Medica y Materiales Biologicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico; 98Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico

In this work the results of a study investigating Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy subjects using DTI are presented. We analyzed the FA as well as the parallel (LP) and radial (LR) eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor in stenotic and normal appearing regions of the cord. Diffusion Tensor eigenvalues were approximately constant along the spine, but with variations in regions with stenosis. FA was generally higher in the stenotic regions; however, LP and LR were generally reduced in regions of stenosis.

                  1310.     Optimization of Flip Angles in SPGR Imaging for Quantitative T1 Mapping of the Cervical Spinal Cord at 3.0 T

Iordanis E. Evangelou1, Vasiliki N. Ikonomidou1, Marcela Montequin2, Nancy D. Richert1, Henry F. McFarland1, Steve Jacobson1

1Neuroimmunology Branch, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Functional MRI Facility, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA

T1 maps can be calculated from SPGR images acquired with different flip angles and/or repetition times. Here we optimize flip angles for accurate T1 measurement of the cervical spinal cord at 3.0T under the presence of noise in a Monte Carlo simulation using the Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 (DESPOT1) sequence.

                  1311.     Evaluation of CSF Flow Alteration in Patients with Idiopathic Spinal Cord Using SPAMM Technique

Woo-Suk Chung1, Tae-Sub Chung2, Sang Hyun Suh2, Chul Hwan Park2

1Diagnostic Radiology, The Armed Forces Nonsan Hospital, Nonsan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea; 2Diagnostic Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongdong Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea

Spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) technique can be used in the evaluation for any kind of continuous moving object including delicate flow of CSF in the spinal canal. In idiopathic spinal cord herniation, which results from dural defect of unknown origin, CSF flow is disturbed due to a focal anterior kink of spinal cord. SPAMM technique is helpful in showing a CSF flow separation due to herniated spinal cord. This characteristic CSF flow is distinguished from CSF flow of spinal arachnoid cyst.

                  1312.     Diagnosis of Lumbar Spondylolysis in Children and Adolescents on MR Imaging: Comparison with CT

Motoyuki Katayama1, Takayuki Masui1, Kimihiko Sato1, Hiroki Ikuma1, Hidekazu Seo1, Akihiko Kutsuna1

1Radiology, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

We reviewed MR findings in the pars interarticularis that were confirmed on CT imaging. On MR imaging signal intensities in par interarticularis showed various. High signal intensities on T1-weighted imaging, which was low frequency, might be a clue to spondylolysis.

                  1313.     Implementation of Axial Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Lumbar Spinal Cord at 3T

Tobias Maximilian Lindig1,2, Sarah C. Mang2, Sibylle E. Heide1,2, Vinod Kumar2, Thomas Nägele, Wolfgang Grodd2, Ludger Schöls1, Uwe Klose2

1Department of Neurology and Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Section of experimental MR of the CNS, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

Spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is limited by severe motion artefacts and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Current gradient coils, with low-eddy-current designs, open the field for the usage of monopolar Stejskal-Tanner sequences. With these schemes, smaller echo times and therefore a higher SNR can be achieved. Only a few studies of lumbar spinal DTI in humans already exist, with a coarse and mainly sagittal acquisition. The aim of this preliminary study was to optimize the sequence parameter for high resolution axial spinal DTI of the lumbar spinal cord and to show relevant clinical implications.

                  1314.     Spinal Cord and Brainstem Activation in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Patients in Response to Noxious Stimuli: A Spinal FMRI Study

Jordan K. Leitch1, Cathy M. Cahill2,3, Niousha Foad Ghazni4, Chase R. Figley4, Patrick W. Stroman1,5

1Centre for Neuroscience , Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 2Pharmacology & Toxicology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 3Anesthesiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 4Centre for Neuroscience, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 5Diagnostic Radiology & Physics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition which is often refractory to traditional pain medication and treatment. To understand how pain is processed in individuals suffering from neuropathy, we must examine transmission pathways in the spinal cord and brainstem using a neuropathic patient population. Spinal fMRI studies, using a HASTE sequence, were carried out in individuals diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Our findings show that neuropathic pain is associated with neuronal activity in regions that differ from typical pain transmission pathways, indicating that the manner in which neuropathic pain is processed differs from that in healthy controls.

                  1315.     Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Human Cervical Spinal Cords in Cervical Myelopathy

T. H. Kim1, S. E. Kim1, Alpesh A. Patel2, Lauren Zollinger1, John Rose3, E. K. Jeong1

1Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Orthopedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a promising technique to detect early changes of structures within the highly oriented tissues, such as brain, cervical spinal cord, and optic nerves using the anisotropicity of the microscopic water diffusion. Feasibility of DTI for clinical applications such as cervical spinal injury is ongoing studies. In our study, we quantified DTI parameters of in-vivo human cervical spinal cord of 14 healthy normal controls and 8 patients with spinal cord myelopathy (SCM) using 2D single-shot diffusion weighted EPI (2D ss-DWEPI) with the Interleaved Multiple Inner Volume (IMIV) imaging technique. Our study provides quantitative information on the diffusivities of CSC for normal volunteers and shows a deviation of diffusivities for cervical myelopathy patients from controlled values due to damages of cervical spinal cord.

 
MR ENT Imaging
Exhibit Hall 2-3                    Wednesday 13:30-15:30

                  1316.     Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Nasopharngeal Carcinoma

Devin Kwan Ying Fong1, Ann Dorothy King1, Francis KH Lee1, Queenie Chan2, David Ka Wai Yeung3

1The Department of Diagnostic Radiology & Organ Imaging, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; 2Philips Medical Systems, Wanchai, Hong Kong; 3The Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful technique in the characterization of head and neck lesions and recent have shown that DWI may aid the differentiation between benign and malignant cervical nodes. We examined 57 patients to further document water diffusion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a commonly occurring cancer in South-East Asia, by measuring the ADC of primary tumours and malignant nodes. The mean ADC for the primary tumours was 0.984¡Ó0.161×10-3 mm 2/sec and for the malignant nodes was 0.852¡Ó0.117×10--3 mm 2/sec. There was a statistically significantly difference (p.≤0.0001) in the ADC values between primary tumours and malignant nodes

                  1317.     Parallel Imaging of the Upper Airway with a Novel 16-Channel Tongue Coil

Yoon-Chul Kim1, Cecil E. Hayes2, Shrikanth S. Narayanan1, Krishna S. Nayak1

1Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

A 16-channel tongue coil was recently developed with the purpose of improving tongue SNR compared to existing coils. We examined the potential use of parallel imaging with this coil, including an analysis of g-factor for mid-sagittal 2DFT and 2DPR sampling, with a range of acceleration factors. We show that 4x acceleration can be achieved with 2DFT and 5x acceleration can be achieved with 2DPR, with g-factor less than 4.0 in all tissues of interest in the upper airway.

                  1318.     High-Resolution Larynx Imaging

Joelle Karine Barral1, Holden H. Wu1, Edward J. Damrose2, Nancy J. Fischbein3, Dwight George Nishimura1

1Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Otolaryngology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Laryngeal cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in the head and neck. Definitive detection of subtle cartilage invasion, a finding which might contraindicate radiation therapy, remains difficult despite advances in CT and MR imaging. A custom coil array has been designed to produce 3D high-resolution images in clinically feasible scan times using a 3D FLASE sequence and a fat/water separated 3D Concentric Rings spoiled-GRE sequence.

                  1319.     Non-Gaussian Analysis of Diffusion Weighted MRI in Head and Neck Cancer: A Feasibility Study

Jacobus F.A. Jansen1, Hilda E. Stambuk2, Jason A. Koutcher1, Amita Shukla-Dave1

1Department of Medical Physics & Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Medical Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA

The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion weighted MRI for head and neck cancers in assessing whether non-Gaussian fitting of the diffusion signal decay curves obtained over an extended range of b values may better characterize the tumors than mono-exponential fitting. It was found that the non-Gaussian model provides a significantly better fit for DWI in head and neck cancer acquired over an extended b-value range. Furthermore, it yields a better estimation of a more accurate ADC (Dapp), and provides an additional parameter, Kapp, potentially with added value. This may be of importance as accurate ADC values are needed for clinical purposes especially in longitudinal studies.

                  1320.     Carotids Imaging at 7 Tesla Using Traveling Wave Excitation and Local Receiver Coils

Hugo Kroeze1, Bart L. van de Bank1, Fredy Visser1, Jan J.W. Lagendijk2, Peter Luijten1, Dennis W.J. Klomp1, Cornelis A.T. van den Berg2

1Radiology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands; 2Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

A patch antenna was used to generate a traveling wave inside the bore in order to obtain images of regions outside the human brain at 7 Tesla, focusing on the left carotid artery by means of a local receiver coil. Both GRE and SE images were obtained from healthy volunteers demonstrating the performance of the setup.

                  1321.     1H-MRS and 18FDG PET: Metabolism in Head and Neck Cancers

Jacobus F.A. Jansen1, Heiko Schoder1, Nancy Lee1, Hilda E. Stambuk1, David G. Pfister1, Jatin P. Shah1, Jason A. Koutcher1, Amita Shukla-Dave1

1Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA

In the present study to better understand the metabolism in head and neck we attempted to assess whether there is a correlation between 1H-MRS and 18FDG PET data. 15 newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients with metastatic nodes underwent both imaging techniques and were included in the analysis. A correlation analysis of Choline concentration estimates and 18FDG SUV PET uptake yielded a positive Pearson correlation’s coefficient of r=0.584 (p = 0.022). The results in the present study show a positive correlation between choline levels as assessed by 1H-MRS with glucose levels as indicated by 18FDG uptake. This observation is indicative of a correlation between glucose metabolism (18FDG) and an increased cellular proliferation (choline).

                  1322.     Assessment of Tumor Microenvironment Using DCE MRI and 18Fluoromisonidazole PET Imaging in Neck Nodal Metastases

Jacobus F.A. Jansen1, Heiko Schoder1, Nancy Lee1, Ya Wang1, David G. Pfister1, Matthew G. Fury1, Hilda E. Stambuk1, Jason A. Koutcher1, Amita Shukla-Dave1

1Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA

The objective of this study was to investigate whether pre-therapy assessment of tumor microenvironment using DCE-MRI correlates with hypoxia as measured by 18F-MISO in neck nodal metastases. In 13 newly diagnosed patients with metastatic neck nodes, tumor perfusion and hypoxia was assessed using DCE-MRI and 18F-MISO PET imaging prior to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Nodes with 18F-MISO uptake had significantly lower kep and Ktrans values (p<0.05). This initial evaluation of the preliminary result supports the hypothesis that the hypoxic nodes are poorly perfused compared to the nodes that had no hypoxia and may provide an alternative method to select hypoxic tissues.

                  1323.     Evaluation of the Vocal Tract with Real Time MRI and MRI Volumetry in Professional Tenors

Matthias Echternach1, Tobias Baumann2, Johan Sundberg3, Bernhard Richter1, Michael Markl4

1Department of Musicians Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 2Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

To date only few studies have focused on vocal tract shape in register transitions. It was therefore the purpose of this study to employ optimized real-time MRI with high temporal update rates and additional 3D volumetric imaging at 3T for the detailed assessment of the vocal tract in professional tenors. We analyzed vocal tract modifications associated with a shift of vocal register. The results confirm that vocal tract changes occurred in few parameters only, when the singer shifted register from modal to falsetto, while several and substantial modifications were found when the singers ended their sequence in voix mixte.

                  1324.     Optimizing Flip Angle and Injection Rate for Combined First Pass and  Steady State Imaging of the Supraaortic Vasculature Using Gadofosveset Trisodium at 1.5 T MRI – a Volunteer Study

Frederik L. Giesel1,2, Michael Bock3, Lars Gerigk, Nadja Komm, Karsten Bergmann4, Amit Mehndiratta1, Marco Essig

1Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Nuclear Medicine, Universisty of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; 3Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg; 4GMA Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma

Steady state imaging particularly of small vascular structures or high grade stenosis are still challenging by MRI, and this problem might be overcome by optimized imaging protocols in combination with intravascular blood pool contrast agents.

                  1325.     High Resolution Imaging of the Membranous Labyrinth: A Comparison of 3D CISS and 3D SPACE at 1.5T

Bradley D. Bolster, Jr. 1, John I. Lane2, Kevin J. Johnson1, Sarah D. Inglett2, Matthew A. Bernstein2, Jonathan M. Morris2, Robert J. Witte2

1Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Rochester, MN, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA

3D CISS and 3D SPACE are routinely applied in the clinical evaluation of the IAC. Recent advances in MR imaging, however, permit these techniques to be used at very high resolutions, sufficient to visualize some of the more prominent structures of the membranous labyrinth. In this study we directly compare the CISS and SPACE sequences using high resolution isotropic acquisitions of the membranous labyrinths across 15 normal volunteers. General image quality, CNR and the conspicuity of several labyrinthine substructures are examined. The impact of susceptibility and motion on the two techniques is also discussed.

                  1326.     High Resolution Cochlear Imaging with Dual Gradients

Amy de la Garza1, K Craig Goodrich1, Seong-Eun Kim1, Sung Man Moon1, Dennis L. Parker1

1U.C.A.I.R., Univ of Utah, SLC, UT, USA

High resolution MRI capable of resolving cochlear infrastructure has been performed in small bore MRI scanners which have increased field strength and higher gradient performance. We hypothesize that improved images of the cochlear infrastructure may also be obtained on high field human MRI scanners which have increased gradient performance. A head and neck insert gradient has been developed for simultaneous use with the whole body gradients of a 3T MRI scanner. The use of dual gradients will allow double or triple resolution without increasing repetition time or bandwidth. This should decrease artifact and noise, allowing for improved cochlear imaging.

                  1327.     BLADE for T1-Weighted Contrast with Spectral Fat Suppression: Two Different Approaches for Head and Neck Imaging

Claudia Fellner1, Niels Zorger1, Ernst M. Jung1, Stefan Feuerbach1, Thomas Finkenzeller1

1Institute of Radiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

In 40 patients two BLADE techniques for coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging with fat suppression were compared to TSE: IR-BLADE with a preceeding inversion pulse and BLADE with short TE and intermediate ETL. Artifacts and contrast of anatomical and pathological structures were evaluated by two independent readers. Flow artifacts and delineation of thoracic structures were significantly improved with both BLADE techniques, but contrast between lymph nodes and fat was inferior to TSE. Although lesion contrast gave no statistically significant differences between TSE and IR-BLADE, one tongue carcinoma was missed in IR-BLADE. Therefore, both BLADE approaches cannot be generally recommended so far.