Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
High Resolution Brain Imaging

 
Tuesday May 10th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30

2356.   Quantitative Reliability for Extremely Rapid Structural Data Acquisition Across Time, Scanners, and Software Upgrade  
Ross William Mair1,2, Thomas Benner2, Bruce Fischl2,3, Betsy Hemphill1,2, Marisa Hollinshead1,2, Andre J W van der Kouwe2, and Randy L Buckner1,2
1Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 3Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

 
We have implemented an extremely rapid 2-minute multi-echo MPRAGE protocol for anatomical scans in a large human imaging study with thousands of subjects. Using this protocol, we performed a brief multi-site and repeatability trial, including investigation of an upgrade to the system software for the Siemens Tim Trio scanner. The correlation of volumes determined from the rapid multi-echo MPRAGE data acquired at different sites on different days and under different software versions are extremely high, and compare with those obtained previously from standard MPRAGE or multi-echo FLASH, with R2 correlations > 0.95 for most sub-cortical and white matter structures.

 
2357.   High Resolution fMRI for Finger Somatotopic Mapping at 3T using a Novel Vibrotactile Stimulator 
Hsiao-Ying Wey1,2, Sunil K Valaparla1,2, and Timothy Q. Duong1,2
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

 
This study described the development of a novel magneto-driven, MRI-compatible, vibrotactile stimulator. We implemented high-resolution fMRI studies with 1 mm isotropic resolution to map finger somatotopy. In addition, a frequency-response curve for the flatter tactile sensation (5-50 Hz) was explored while investigating vibration sensation is also possible. This study established a simple device and high-resolution protocol for future neuroscience applications exploring the somatosensory system with sophisticated experimental design.

 
2358.   Rapid Acquisition of Targeted High Resolution Human Brain Images Using a Combined SENSE, Inner Volume Imaging, and Multi-Shot EPI Spin Echo Sequence at 7T 
Christopher Joseph Wargo1,2, and John Christopher Gore1,2
1Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
In this abstract, we present the combination of SENSE, Zoom Inner Volume Imaging (IVI), and a multi-shot EPI spin echo sequence to rapidly achieve 160 to 350 μm resolutions for targeted imaging of a variety of in vivo human brain regions, with 46 to 429 fold accelerations achieved in multi-slice and 3D volume images, and scan times between three to six minutes. Areas targeted included the midbrain, cortex, thalamus, lentiform, hippocampus, and corpus callosum with visible gray and white matter contrast, small blood vessel identification, and substructure localization within each region.

 
2359.   Semi-automated in-vivo segmentation of visual area V1 based on structural 7 Tesla MRI 
Marcel Weiss1, Gabriele Lohmann1, Gerik Scheuermann2, and Robert Turner1
1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, 2Institute of Computer Science, University of Leipzig

 
Initial results of a semi-automated method for cortical parcellation are presented. Intra-cortical variations in laminar contrast of 7T MRI data are analysed to identify primary visual cortex/BA17 observer-independent.

 
2360.   Quantitative T1 mapping at 7 Tesla identifies primary functional areas in the living human brain 
Marcel Weiss1, Stefan Geyer1, Gabriele Lohmann1, Robert Trampel1, and Robert Turner1
1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

 
Quantitativ T1 correspondes well with the presence or absence of myelin with in the human brain. We show how mapping T1 with the MP2RAGE sequence provides data of a quality suitable for identification of major primary functional areas on the basis of their structure in-vivo.

 
2361.   Achieving Heightened Contrast in Magnitude, Phase, and Susceptibility-Weighted Brain Images at 7T 
Wei Bian1,2, Kathryn Hammond Rosenbluth3, Sarah J Nelson2,4, and Janine M Lupo2
1Joint Graduate Program in BioEngineering at UCSF & UCB, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Department of BioEngineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) and phase imaging can be generated from the same T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence. However, at 7T, the imaging parameters for both techniques have been developed separately. The goal of this study was to optimize a gradient-echo acquisition for magnitude, phase, and SWI in order to determine which acquisition yields the best contrast and when it is most appropriate to use each image modality. A 2D GRE sequence with an echo time between 12-15 ms was determined to be optimal. Phase imaging had the best contrast for depicting the boundary between gray and white matter, while SWI images were best for visualizing vasculature.

 
2362.   In Vivo Human Brain T2* mapping using 3D high resolution multiple echo susceptibility-weighted Imaging at 7.0T 
Zhongwei Zhang1, Jens H Jensen1, Lin Tang1, Yudong Zhu1, and Yulin Ge1
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
Ultra-high-field strength MR has provided sophisticated imaging capability to improve the fundamental quantities underlying image resolution and contrast. This includes significantly increased susceptibility sensitivity to gray matter iron deposition. It’s a worthwhile goal to acquire T2* mapping and phase mapping with high resolution because both types of information have the potential to assess iron content. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative T2* measurements and phase information of in-vivo human brains using 3D multiple in-phase echo susceptibility-weighted MR Imaging (3D MIPE-SWI) at 7.0T. In addition, the feasibility of obtaining other quantitative informations was also explored.

 
2363.   High Resolution Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping at 9.4T 
Andreas Deistung1, Juliane Budde2, Ferdinand Schweser1, Jens Hoffmann2, Rolf Pohmann2, and Jürgen R Reichenbach1
1Medical Physics Group, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany, 2Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany

 
This contribution presents a new reconstruction technique for combining multi-channel phase images based on a dual-echo GRE acquisition. The method is applied to multichannel GRE data acquired at 9.4T with 0.4 mm isotropic spatial resolution. SHARP-processed phase images and quantitative susceptibility maps showing sections of the cerebral cortex of the occipital and temporal lobe were presented. The susceptibility contrast is, contrary to the phase contrast, local and depicts the underlying anatomy directly. Susceptibility maps varied across the cortical thickness suggesting a layer-specific contrast. Furthermore, the magnetic susceptibility of gray matter varied depending on the cortical region.

 
2364.   Ultra-Fast Acquisition of High-Resolution Susceptibility-Weighted-Imaging at 3T 
Pascal Sati1, David M Thomasson2, Nadia M Biassou2, Daniel Salo Reich1,2, and John A Butman2
1Translational Neuroradiology Unit, Neuroimmunology Branch, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 2Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States

 
Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) is an MR technique that utilizes the magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues to highlight small vessels and veins, iron deposition, and calcification in the brain. Here, we tested a flow-compensated 3D segmented-EPI acquisition for SWI applications. While significantly reducing the scanning time as compared to standard gradient-echo acquisition (53sec for segmented-EPI vs. 7min 15sec for GRE), the segmented-EPI acquisition maintains high resolution and depicts similar brain vasculature. Although minimal distortions exist in the segmented-EPI images, they do not appear to diminish the usefulness of this ultra-fast imaging technique in a clinical setting.

 
2365.   In-vivo Visualization of the Human Basal Ganglia Structure and Connectivity using High Resolution 7T MRI 
Christophe Lenglet1, Aviva Abosch2, Essa Yacoub1, Guillermo Sapiro3, and Noam Harel1
1Department of Radiology - CMRR, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN,3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

 
Utilizing the advantages of high-field MRI (7T), we present an imaging protocol and analysis pipeline to create a comprehensive 3D model of the basal ganglia/thalamus structure and connectivity patterns. We successfully reconstruct major pathways of the basal ganglia circuits and quantify the probability of these connections.

 
2366.   The anatomy of human substantia nigra based on in vivo and post mortem magnetic resonance data and susceptibility mapping 
Anna Izabella Blazejewska1, Samuel Wharton1, Alain Pitoit2, Ashley Kempf1, Stefan Schwarz3, James Lowe4, Dorothee P. Auer3, Richard Bowtell1, and Penny A. Gowland1
1Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, 3Division of Academic Radiology, University of Nottingham, 4Division of Pathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust

 
The relationship between the appearance of substantia nigra (SN) on histology anatomy and MRI remains unclear. We show that high-resolution MR images acquired both post mortem and in vivo, may allow the identification of nigrosome-like structures in the SN pars compacta, which have not previously been reported in MR data, but which have been found in a histology study using immunostaining. We also prove that susceptibility maps correlate with the Perl's stain histology and can be used to identify the iron rich SN as well as to examine the levels of iron content in different parts of the SN.

 
2367.   Characterization of the Human Habenula in-vivo and ex-vivo at 7T 
Barbara Strotmann1, Marcel Weiss1, Carsten Kögler1, Andreas Schäfer1, Robert Trampel1, Stefan Geyer1, Arno Villringer1, and Robert Turner1
1Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

 
The habenula has an important controlling role within the reward system. Overactivation is associated with depression. The habenula is positioned next to the third ventricle and is 5-9 mm in diameter. Therefore, we made use of a high field strength of 7T to obtain high resolution and high contrast T1, T2* und proton density maps to visualize habenula in-vivo and ex-vivo: human habenula shows up equally clearly in T1 and T2* maps, thus likely to be characterized by a high concentration of both myelin and iron. We found structural subdivisions ex-vivo: lateral and medial habenula, with their commissure.

 
2368.   Isotropic High Resolution Diffusion Imaging of Human Habenula in vivo at 7T 
Barbara Strotmann1, Alfred Anwander1, Robin Heidemann1, Eugenia Solano-Castiella1, Arno Villringer1, and Robert Turner1
1Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

 
The habenula has an important controlling role within the reward system. Overactivation is associated with depression. The habenula is positioned next to the third ventricle and is 5-9 mm in diameter. The combination of zoomed imaging with parallel imaging – ZOOPPA enables DWI acquisitions with 1 mm isotropic resolution at 7T. The data show distinct nuclei of the human habenula in vivo. We identified lateral and medial nuclei with their connecting fibre bundles to the forebrain and the brainstem. The nuclei are clearly visible on the quantitative T1 map. with a high myelinisation of the LHB and the HBC. Further study of the habenular subdivisions and their role in brain function is likely to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders.

 
2369.   Direct visualization of thalamic structures: comparison of super-resolution track-density imaging to conventional MRI at 7T 
Fernando Calamante1,2, Se-Hong Oh3, Jacques-Donald Tournier1,2, Sung-Yeon Park3, Jun-Young Chung3, Young-Don Son3, Je-Geun Chi3, Graeme D Jackson1,2, Young-Bo Kim3, Alan Connelly1,2, and Zang-Hee Cho3
1Brain Research Institute, Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Heidelberg West, Victoria, Australia, 2Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, Korea, Republic of

 
Accurate identification of sub-thalamic nuclei is of huge importance for many clinical applications, particularly those involving deep brain stimulation; however, this is not easily achieved with clinical MRI scanners. While this is now possible at ultra-high field MRI, access to this technology remains limited. The technique of super-resolution track-density imaging (TDI) has been shown to create images with very high resolution and anatomical contrast, based on the results from whole-brain fibre-tracking. In this study, we assess the role of TDI for direct visualisation of sub-thalamic nuclei and compare the results to those obtained using T1-weighted MRI at 7T.

 
2370.   Neocortex Organization and Connectivity in Fetal Human Brains Revealed by Diffusion Tractography and Histology 
Emi Takahashi1, Rebecca D Folkerth2, and P. Ellen Grant1
1Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United States, 2Brigham and Women's Hospital

 
During the fetal period, the most prominent transient layer is the subplate (SP) zone, located between the immature cortex (cortical plate; CP) and the immature white matter (intermediate zone; IZ), which contains numerous crossroads. Resolving accurate pathways running through the unmyelinated subcortical areas is critical to image the entire length of fiber pathways in the developing brain. Here, we applied high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) tractography to intact whole postmortem fetal human brains. Our results show the usefulness of HARDI tractography, irrespective of the degree of myelination, for providing 3-dimensional information on developing cortical structure and connectivity.

 
2371.   Visualization of the Orientational Structure of the Human Stria of Gennari with High-Resolution DWI 
Christoph Wolfram Ulrich Leuze1, Bibek Dhital1, Alfred Anwander1, Andre Pampel1, Robin Heidemann1, Stefan Geyer1, Marcel Gratz2, and Robert Turner1
1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Sachsen, Germany, 2Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Sachsen, Germany

 
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at high spatial and angular resolution was performed at 9.4T on a block of fixed human cadaver brain tissue containing visual cortex. Analysis of the principal eigenvector orientations allowed visualization of several layers within the primary visual cortex V1. No clearly preferred diffusion direction could be measured inside the stria of Gennari (SoG), consistent with its high content of transverse myelinated intracortical axons. In surrounding layers the orientational structure was predominantly radial. The low orientational anisotropy of the SoG terminates at the V1/V2 boundary, allowing easy visualization of this boundary using diffusion data alone.

 
2372.   Post mortem quantitative MRI of the human brain in situ using high-resolution multi-echo FLASH 
Gunther Helms1, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer2, Arne Wrede2, Niels K Focke3, and Peter Dechent1
1MR-Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Universitymedicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 2Neuropathology, Universitymedicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 3Clinical Neurophysiology, Universitymedicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

 
For post mortem MRI of the human head at 3T, a quantitative FLASH-based protocol was established yielding parameter maps of T1, R2*=1/T2*, magnetization transfer (MT) and signal amplitude at 0.65mm isotropic resolution in about 2 hours. Major post mortem changes were rapid T2*-relaxation in vessels and progressive loss of T1-contrast at low temperature, hampering standard T1w MRI. At room temperature, MT saturation maps showed a high unchanged contrast in brain independent of altered T1 and T2*, while the MT ratio was reduced. In cooled brains, the MT contrast was slightly reduced and R2* was enhanced in the deep brain nuclei.

 
2373.   High resolution multi-echo FLASH MRI of fixated human brain with combined magnetization transfer (MT) and T2* weighting 
Gunther Helms1, Katrin Brunnquell1, Arne Wrede2, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer2, and Peter Dechent1
1MR-Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Universitymedicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 2Neuropathology, Universitymedicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

 
A method for 3D gradient echo MRI of fixated human brains at 0.5 mm isotropic resolution is presented. Averaging the signals of 8 alternating echoes at TE = 2.46 to 19.68 ms increases the SNR and, by mild T2*-weighting, imposes a sensitivity to vessels and micro-bleedings. Magnetization transfer increases the contrast between gray and white matter. Measurement time is 35 min with an 8-channel receive array, 140 mins with a knee coil. Susceptibility effects are reduced by a bandwidth of 500 Hz/pixel. Structural details of fronto-basal and deep brain nuclei are visualized, while cortical substructures are at the resolution limit.

 
2374.   Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging with MPIR-TSE at 7.0 Tesla in Ischemic Stroke and TIA Patients 
Anja Gwendolyn van der Kolk1, Jaco JM Zwanenburg1,2, Manon Brundel3, Geert Jan Biessels3, Fredy Visser1,4, Peter R Luijten1, and Jeroen Hendrikse1
1Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Image Science Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 4Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands

 
Nineteen patients with TIA or ischemic stroke and a relatively high risk of intracranial atherosclerosis were scanned with the 3D (volumetric) Magnetization Prepared Inversion Recovery Turbo Spin Echo (3D MPIR-TSE) sequence at 7 Tesla MRI, before and after contrast administration, for optimal visualisation of intracranial arterial vessel wall and possible depiction of atherosclerotic lesions. In total 25 lesions were found, of which 7 enhanced after contrast and only 3 lesions caused luminal stenosis as seen on TOF-MRA. The MPIR-TSE sequence makes it possible to study the role of intracranial atherosclerosis in stroke and TIA in more detail.

 
2375.   Cortical thickness in lupus patients with cognitive impairment 
Eduardo Caverzasi1,2, Laura J Julian3, Mehul Sampat4, Patricia Katz3, Monica Bucci5, Stefano Bastianello2,6, and Roland G Henry5,7
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS C . Mondino Neurological Institute Foundation, Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 3Department of Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, 4Department of Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, 5Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco,6University of Pavia, Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 7Graduate Group in Bioengineering, UCSF

 
Cognitive dysfunction is the most common neuropsychiatric manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), yet the underlying structural MRI correlates of cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. We investigated cortical thickness differences among SLE patients and healthy controls, and among SLE patients stratified by cognitive impairment status. Results showed no cortical thickness differences between SLE patients and controls, yet SLE patients with cognitive impairment bilaterally showed reduced cortical thickness in a number of regions when compared to cognitively intact SLE patients. These results suggest that cognitive impairment, even in the absence of other neurological syndromes, may be associated with underlying structural brain alterations.

 
2376.   Noninvasive Measurement of TBI Using High Resolution Multiecho Susceptibility Weighted MRI at 3T 
Haiying Tang1, Pascal Sati2, Pinghong Yeh3, Binquan Wang3, Hai Pan3, James Smirniotopoulos1, Reed Selwyn1, Terry Oakes3, and Gerard Riedy3
1Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2NINDS, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, United States

 
Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is sensitive for detecting neurovascular abnormalities, iron deposition, calcifications, and hemorrhages in neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a sensitive neuroimaging technique for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The proposed SWI technique was implemented using a 3D multiecho gradient echo method to improve the visibility of the veins and lesions in various brain regions, and to provide a quantitative tool for brain lesion characterization based on R2* and phase mapping analysis. Heterogeneity of TBI lesions will benefit from the multiecho SWI acquisition and analysis.

 
2377.   High resolution PROPELLER EPI with reversed phase encoding distortion correction 
Irvin Teh1
1Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

 
Single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) is widely used in MRI, but is resolution-limited and suffers from geometric distortions. Periodically Rotated Overlapping ParalEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) allows for higher resolution EPI by acquiring data in multiple shots. However, distortions in individual PROPELLER blades lead to artifacts in the final image. These distortions can be addressed by employing the reversed phase encoding gradient method to first correct for distortions between individual blade pairs. The corrected blades can be combined to enable high-resolution EPI with minimal distortions for applications such as structural and diffusion-weighted imaging.

 
2378.   SNR-Optimized, Fast, and High-Resolution Mapping of Whole Brain Tissue Water Content 
Mohammad Sabati1, and Andrew A Maudsley1
1Radiology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States

 
Accurate mapping of tissue water content, M0, with high spatial resolution and short experimental times is technically challenging. One efficient method for obtaining simultaneous M0 and T1-maps is based on acquiring two SPGR images in steady states with variable flip angles using linear parameterization. The two optimal flip angles for best T1-maps (i.e., maximum SNR) were previously found. Here, we analytically derive the optimal flip angles for SNR-optimized M0-maps and verify the result in eight healthy subjects. Accurate M0-maps with 1 mm isotropic resolution and whole brain coverage were achieved in a clinically acceptable time.

 
2379.   Wanted Dead or Alive? The tradeoff between in-vivo versus ex-vivo MR brain imaging in the mouse. 
Jason Philipp Lerch1, Jurgen Germann1, John G Sled1, R Mark Henkelman1, and Brian J Nieman1
1Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

 
Brain morphology in the mouse is a sensitive indicator of disease, treatment, and environmental effects on the brain. It is unclear, however, when to select an in-vivo longitudinal or an ex-vivo cross-sectional study design. Using multiple simulations based on existing data and assuming a linear change, we determined that 3-5 timepoints per subject in-vivo MRI equates to a single high-resolution ex-vivo experiment. The key for in-vivo imaging is to keep the within-subject variance low.

 
2380.   Imaging Structural Changes of the Mouse Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa with Balanced Steady State Free Precession 
Eric R Muir1, Bryan H De La Garza1, and Timothy Q Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, United States

 
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which causes photoreceptor death and blindness, affects 1.5 million people worldwide. It is characterized by progressive loss of photoreceptors, followed by other neural and synaptic layers in the retina. In this study, high resolution MRI, acquired with balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP), was used to study anatomical thickness changes in a mouse model of RP at 42x42x400 micron. bSSFP provides fast imaging with good SNR and contrast in the retina. MRI detected longitudinal thinning of the retina at different stages of disease. MRI provided a non-invasive method to monitor anatomical changes in rodent retina in vivo.

 
2381.   A Descriptive Atlas of the Common Marmoset Cortex Based on Anatomical MRI 
Nicholas Adam Bock1, Eyesha Hashim1, Ara Kocharyan2, and Afonso C Silva2
1Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States

 
In this abstract, we use high resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI at 7 Tesla to image cortical organization in four female common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) based on patterns of myelin density. Using surface rendering techniques, we present 3D and flattened annotated maps of the cortex based on images from a representative marmoset. We also characterize major cortical features including the primary visual, somatosensory, auditory, and motor areas based on their surface areas measured over the four animals.

 
2382.   High-resolution imaging of vessels in the isolated rat brain 
Matthias F. Valverde Salzmann1, Nikos Logothetis1, and Rolf Pohmann2
1Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, 2Magnetic Resonance Center, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany

 
High-resolution imaging of the vessels of the isolated rat brain was achieved by perfusing the animal with Gd- or FeO-based contrast agent. Imaging at isotropic resolutions of 45 ìm and 50 ìm at a field strength of 16.4 T resulted in excellent presentation of large and medium-sized vessels with Gd, and down to relatively small size in the FeO-enhanced images. A comparison to histologic sections revealed a highly reliable depiction even of the surface vessels.

 
2383.   Specificity and Stability of BOLD and CBV-based Mapping Signals for High Resolution Functional Mapping at Sub-millimeter Resolution 
Feng Wang1,2, Li Min Chen1,2, and Malcolm J Avison1,2
1Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2VUIIS, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
We have compared the sensitivity, spatial specificity and stability across imaging sessions, of gradient (GE) and spin echo (SE) BOLD and GE-CBV contrast for ultra-high spatial resolution mapping of cortical activation associated with subtle physiological somatosensory stimulation of individual finger tips in a non-human primate model at high field. SE- and CBV-based mapping yielded similar more focal patterns of signal change, but the CBV response had significantly greater contrast than both GE- and SE-BOLD.

 
2384.   High Field MR-Elastography of TBI model 
Thomas Boulet1, Matthew L Kelso2, and Shadi F Othman3
1Engineering Mechanics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States, 2Pharmacy Practice, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States, 3Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States

 
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Mechanical properties of the brain are expected to change due to biological processes triggered by the injury. By combining TBI models with microscopic magnetic resonance elastography (µMRE), it is possible to estimate viscoelastic properties in different brain regions. In this study, mechanical and MR properties are evaluated at several time-points following injury. The shear viscosity in the hippocampus, a region responsible for learning and memory, was found to be higher in the injured hemisphere compared to the healthy one which may be related to injury-induced cognitive deficits.

 
2385.   Three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) using High-Resolution MRI. 
Marleen Verhoye1, José Miguel Simões2,3, Magda Teles2,3, Annemie Van der Linden1, and Rui F Oliviera2,3
1Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 2Unidade de Investigação em Eco-Etologia, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal, 3Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal

 
The increasing number of genetic tools available for the African cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), together with the emerging interest in its use for neurobiological studies, increased the need for an accurate mapping of the tilapia brain. Our goal was to elaborate a T2-weighted 3D-digital atlas using magnetic resonance imaging on perfused tilapia brain. Resulting images enabled accurate segmentation of most brain nuclei in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum. This tilapia brain atlas is expected to become a very useful tool for neuroscientists using this fish model and will certainly expand their use in future studies.

 
2386.   The use of high-resolution MRI to evaluate brain injury in newborn mouse. 
Donghan Yang1, William M Spees2, Joseph JH Ackerman1,2, Philip Verghese3, David M Holtzman3, and Jeff J Neil2,3
1Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States,3Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States

 
High-resolution (59 multiplication sign 59 multiplication sign 250 µm) T2W images at 11.74 Tesla were acquired to study the early stage of CNS injury in mice following hypoxia-ischemia at postnatal day 7. Binomial-series water/fat-frequency-selective excitation pulses were employed to eliminate chemical-shift artifact from fat signal. Phantom tests were conducted to evaluate this fat-suppression method. In mice, T2 hyperintensity was detected specifically in the striatum and hippocampus in injured hemisphere as early as 6 hours after hypoxia. Unexpectedly, the full extent of injury was apparent within 24 hours.

 
2387.   High Field MR Microscopy of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy in the Ex Vivo Human Globus Pallidus 
Parastou Foroutan1,2, Melissa E. Murray3, Shinsuke Fujioka4, Katherine J Schweitzer4, Dennis W. Dickson3, Samuel Colles Grant1,2, and Zbigniew K. Wszolek4
1National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States, 2Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States, 3Department of Pathology and Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, United States

 
MR microscopy (MRM) of the postmortem human globus pallidus (GP) acquired at 21.1 T was employed to distinguish between Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and healthy brain tissue. Statistical significance was found between PSP and controls for T2* and T2 relaxation in the GP interna and externa as well as for T2* in the putamen. Histology showed that the GP interna displayed the largest difference between the PSP samples and controls, with the former showing a higher iron burden. As such, non-hem iron in the brain serves as a contrast enhancer and as a pathological biomarker to distinguish PSP samples from controls.

 
2388.   Anatomical and Metabolic Changes in the Visual Cortex of Streptozotocin-treated Type 1 Diabetic Rats 
Mingming Huang1, Lifeng Gao1, Guanjun Zhu1, and Hao Lei1
1State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics & Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China, People's Republic of

 
Type 1 diabetes was induced in rats by a single-dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). High resolution anatomical images were acquired with a RARE sequence and in vivo 1H spectra of the visual cortex by a PRESS sequence at 12 weeks after induction. The STZ-treated rats showed significantly increased myo-inositol/creatine ratio, and significantly reduced NAA/creatine ratio and thickness in the visual cortex. These results indicated that chronic diabetic complications involves anatomical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex.

 
2389.   Optimized 3D MPRAGE: Depiction of thalamic substructures at 3T 
Benjamin Bender1, Constantin Mänz1, Thomas Nägele1, and Uwe Klose1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

 
Up to now deep brain stimulation of the thalamus for the treatment of neurological diseases is mostly dependent on stereotactic coordinates, as the substructures of the thalamus are not visible in standard MRI. Six healthy subjects were measured with an improved 3D MPRAGE at 3T with an acquisition time of about 20 minutes. The comparison with the histological slices of the Talairach brain showed a high level of concordance in corresponding slices, and larger nuclei groups could be firmly identified.

 
2390.   Evaluation of Brain Stem Anatomy with 3D-FLAIR Imaging at 3T 
Mika Kitajima1, Toshinori Hirai1, Yoshinori Shigematsu1, Hiroyuki Uetani1, Koya Iwashita1, Kousuke Morita1, Masuma Akter1, and Yasuyuki Yamashita1
1Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

 
3D-FLAIR imaging using varying flip angles of RF pulses reduces pulsation- and blood flow artifacts and yields a high SNR and high spatial resolution compared to 2D-FLAIR imaging. To evaluate the brain stem anatomy, we compared 3D-FLAIR images, TSE T2WI, diffusion-tensor color maps in 10 healthy volunteers, and used a brain atlas. On 3D-FLAIR images the detailed structures, i.e. the superior-, middle-, and inferior cerebellar peduncle, the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle, the central tegmental tract, the medial lemniscus, and the corticospinal tract were depicted; the white matter tracts were not visible on TSE T2WI.

 
2391.   Cerebral microbleeds on MRI: comparison between 1.5 and 7 Tesla 
Mandy M.A. Conijn1, Mirjam I. Geerlings2, Geert-Jan Biessels2, Taro Takahara2, Theo D. Witkamp2, Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg2, Peter R. Luijten2, and Jeroen Hendrikse2
1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2University Medical Center Utrecht

 
The purpose of this study was to compare the visualization of microbleeds with T2*-weighted imaging on 1.5T with dual echo T2*-weighted imaging at 7T and assess the reliability of the detection of microbleeds with the two field strengths. 3D dual echo T2*-weighted imaging at 7T results in detection of microbleeds in more patients, detection of a higher number of microbleeds better and more reliable detection of microbleeds compared to 3D T2*-weighted imaging at 1.5T.

 
2392.   Global cerebral metabolic oxygen consumption rate and cerebral blood flow can be measured reliably during oxygen inhalation 
Naranjargal Dashdorj1, Katherine Corrie2, Antonio Napolitano1, Samuel Wharton3, Esben Thade Petersen4, Ravi Mahajan2, and Dorothee P Auer1
1Academic Radiology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2Division of Anaesthesia, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 3School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 4National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore

 
Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow are important physiological indices of brain function and metabolism. Noninvasive measurements of these markers would be valuable in clinical neuroscience. In recent years, it has been shown that CMRO2 and CBF can be quantified using MRI techniques. Specifically, susceptometry-based oxymetry has been shown to be a quick way to quantify global cerebral metabolic changes. However, the robustness and reliability of this technique has not been tested during various physiological challenges. Quantifications of global cerebral metabolic changes during anaesthesia and different pathological conditions are of interest in neuroscience and clinical practice. This study investigated the feasibility and reliability of CMRO2 and CBF quantifications during 40% oxygen inhalation

Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
Manganese Enhanced MRI

 
Wednesday May 11th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30

2393.   Screening for manganese-binding proteins in the mouse brain 
Jacqueline A Gleave1, and Brian J Nieman1
1Mouse Imaging Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

 
This study aims at identifying candidate proteins that sequester Mn2+ in manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). We isolated proteins from 5 regions of the mouse brain and used native protein electrophoresis to separate proteins/protein complexes. The gel was soaked in MnCl2 and proteins/protein complexes that bind Mn2+ were identified on the MR image of the gel. The bands were extracted for protein identification by mass spectrometry. This is the first step in narrowing down which protein/protein complexes interact with Mn2+.

 
2394.   Subcellular distribution of Mn in neurons assessed by synchrotron X-ray Microprobe 
alexia Daoust1,2, Sylvain Bohic1,3, and Emmanuel Luc Barbier1,2
1INSERM U836, Grenoble, France, 2Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 3European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France

 
In MEMRI protocols, the cellular distribution and the transport mechanisms remains still unclear. To obtain further insights, we used synchrotron X-ray microprobe to map the sub-cellular distribution of Mn, P, and Fe in N2A cells (neuron-like) and in hippocampal neurons. For control and non-toxic conditions, Mn was distributed in the perinuclear region for N2A and in the nucleus for hippocampal neurons. Exposing these cells to a toxic dose of Mn alters the sub-cellular distribution of Fe which is redistributed towards Mn-rich regions.

 
2395.   TAT Conjugated MnO@PMAO for Molecular and Cellular MRI 
Roger Prades1, Shauna L Quinn2, Ernest Giralt1, and Erik M Shapiro2,3
1Department of Chemistry, IRB Barcelona, Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States

 
Here we describe the use of Poly(maleic anhydride alt-1-ter-octadecene) (PMAO) as a coating agent for MnO nanoparticles in order to make the particles stable in aqueous buffer and subsequent conjugation of the surface nanoparticle (NPs) with targeting moieties, in this case with TAT peptide, a high efficient cell-penetrating peptide. We demonstrate how these PMAO coated manganese oxide particle have a low r1 molar relaxivity as intact particles and elicit high r1 molar relaxivity upon dissolution in acidic media. We then demonstrate the capability of these conjugated particles as a contrast agent for in vivo liver imaging.

 
2396.   Infusion-Based Manganese-Enhanced MRI: New Imaging Technique to Visualize the Mouse Brain 
Stephanie I. Mok1, Jeeva Munasinghe2, Afonso C. Silva2, and W. Scott Young1
1National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland, United States

 
Manganese-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) is a technique that employs the divalent ion of the paramagnetic metal manganese (Mn2+) as an effective contrast agent to visualize, in vivo, the mammalian brain. As total achievable contrast is directly proportional to the net amount of Mn2+ accumulated in the brain, there has been great interest in optimizing administration protocols to increase the effective delivery of Mn2+ to the brain while avoiding the toxic effects of overexposure. In this study, we employ the method of continuous systemic infusion of Mn2+ in the mouse brain and examine the effects of different rates of infusion on signal contrast.

 
2397.   Sex difference of regional activation in the rat brain using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging 
Hengjun J. Kim1, Youngkyu Song1, Gyunggoo Cho1, and Namkug Kim2
1Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Korea, Republic of, 2Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

 
Since the morphological difference between sexes in the medial preoptic area had been reported, sex differences of the rodent brain had been observed in numerous regions. Here we show the sex difference of regional activation in the rat brain using manganese-enhanced MRI. We found that male rats had enhanced brain activation in the olfactory system including lateral olfactory tract, piriform, and amygdala, while female rats had enhanced brain activation in the visual system including primary and secondary visual cortex, and superior colliculus.

 
2398.   Effect of Manganese chloride on the neurochemical profile of the rat hypothalamus 
Nathalie Just1,2, Cristina Cudalbu1, Hongxia Lei1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1LIFMET, CIBM/EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, UNIL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, UNIL&HUG, Lausanne & Geneve, Switzerland

 
The hypothalamus is responsible for metabolic processes of the Autonomic Nervous System. In this context, the hypothalamus demonstrated a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Manganese-Enhanced MRI techniques applied to the rat hypothalamus revealed that the paraventricular nuclei and the lateral hypothalamus show specific enhancement patterns following food challenges. Such studies appear to be of great interest for a better understanding of the neuronal pathways of the hypothalamus. Here, we propose to investigate the influence of manganese on the hypothalamic neurochemical profile of normal and dehydration-induced anorexic rats using proton MRS at 14.1T.

 
2399.   Investigation of hypothalamic neuronal and metabolic mechanisms of anorexia with Manganese-enhanced MRI and Proton MR Spectroscopy 
Nathalie Just1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1LIFMET, CIBM/EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, UNIL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, UNIL& HUG, Lausanne & Geneve, Switzerland

 
Assessment of hypothalamic response to dehydration induced anorexia (DIA) and overnight food suppression (OFS) in female rats by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) showed increased neuronal activity in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of DIA relative to OFS. The effects of DIA and OFS were compared by generating t-score maps. Statistically significant increases of GABA were measured by 1H MRS at 14.1T in DIA and OFS (p<0.01) relative to controls. MEMRI coupled to MRS at high field is a promising non-invasive method to investigate the neural pathways and mechanisms involved in the control of food intake.

 
2400.   In vivo Detection of Glial Activity after Transient Forebrain Ischemia using Manganese-enhanced MRI 
Yuko Kawai1, Yuko Yasuda2, Narito Tateishi2, Masahiro Umeda1, Yasuharu Watanabe1, Toshihiro Higuchi3, Seiichi Furuya4, Shoji Naruse2,5, Setsuya Fujita2, and Chuzo Tanaka3
1Medical Informatics, Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Kyoto, Japan, 2Basic Research, Louis Pasteur Center for Medical Research, Kyoto, Japan, 3Neurosurgery, Meiji University of integrative Medicine, Kyoto, Japan, 4Radiology, Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospita, Kyoto, Japan, 5Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

 
The four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) is famous as forebrain ischemia model that cause delayed neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Recently, the glial response to CNS injury is considered in the context of neuron-glial relationships. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is taken notice as useful molecular imaging technique for nervous system. In this study, signal enhancement upon the Manganese accumulation was observed in the CA1 region after 4-VO by the MEMRI. MEMRI will detect glial activity which related with about of the neural death. In addition this studies suggest that astrocytic change can precede neuronal death.

 
2401.   Dose dependence of T1 and phase contrast following Mn2+ systemic administration at 14.1T 
Rajika Maddage1, José Pedro Marques1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1Laboratory for functional and metabolic imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland,3Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

 
At high magnetic field, phase imaging has proven to be a potential tool to trace Mn2+ enrichment in MEMRI. The aim of the study was to investigate the contrast enhancement as a function of Mn2+ dose to assess the sensitivity of T1-W and phase imaging at 14.1T. Results show that at the lowest dose of 75mg/kg, the contrast observed in the phase image remains strong with clear depiction of various anatomical structures further supporting the notion of phase imaging's high sensitivity to magnetic susceptibilities and more importantly [Mn2+].

 
2402.   Dynamic Properties of Manganese-Alginate Gels for Controlled-Release of Mn2+ 
Øystein Olsen1, Yanna Sandvig2, Yrr Mørch3, Marte Thuen2, and Christian Brekken2
1Department of Technology, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway, 2Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 3Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

 
Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is a versatile technique for imaging of the central nervous system. However, high concentration of manganese (Mn2+) is neurotoxic but could be managed with slow release of Mn2+ e.g. alginate gel beads. In this study we have demonstrated that the release rate of Mn2+ from alginate gel beads can be controlled by adjusting the type of alginate and different combinations of divalent ions. Furthermore, simulation show that use of Mn2+ alginate gel may reduce the maximum Mn2+ concentration by ~85% in the vitreous body

 
2403.   Manganese-enhanced MRI of Bilateral Retinas in Rat: Flickering White Light versus Dark 
Bryan H De La Garza1, Damon P Cardenas1, Yen-Yu Ian Shih1, and Timothy Q Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

 
Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been shown to be an excellent non-invasive contrast agent to study the retina. When exposed to functional changes, there is a layer specific retinal response that is associated with light and dark processing. This study employs a technique to image both eyes simultaneously with high resolution (39x39µm). Imaging both eyes simultaneously allows us to study the effect of the retinal response to visual stimulation of one eye and darkness to the other eye following manganese administration. This allows us to see differences in functional physiological changes in the retina due to the change in ion demand of different retinal layers.

 
2404.   Topical administration of Mn2+ for MEMRI may not enter vitreous space to reach retina 
Bruce W Campbell1, Eric Won2, Hsiao-Fang Liang3, and Shu-Wei Sun4
1Clinical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2Loma Linda University, 3Biophysics and Bioengineering, Loma Linda University,4Biophysics and Bioengineering, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States

 
High resolution T1-Weighted Imaging of the eye was repeatedly acquired every 30 minutes in the initial 4 hours after MnCl2 (1 M) loading. Noticeable increments of signal were found in the retina and lens border. In 240 minutes after the MnCl2 induction, the retina signal increased 70% (p < 0.05), and the lens border signal increased 80% (p < 0.05). Interestingly, no significant change occurred in the vitreous space. Topical administration of Mn2+ for MEMRI may not enter vitreous space to reach retina.

 
2405.   In vivo MEMRI of the visual projection of mice using a clinical 3T whole body scanner 
Karl-Heinz Herrmann1, Alexandra Kretz2, Ronny Haenold3, Ines Krumbein4, Falk Weih3, Otto W Witte2, and Jürgen R Reichenbach1
1Medical Physics Group, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany, 2Clinic of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany,3Research Group Immunology, Leibnitz Insitute for Age Research, Jena, Germany, 4Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

 
The use of Mn2+-enhanced MRI can delineate isolated tracts like the visual projection all the way from the optic nerve to the visual cortex areas. A clinical 3T whole-body scanner was used in combination with a dedicated small animal Litz volume resonator to acquire Mn-enhanced images of mice with an isotropic resolution of (0.2mm)3 within an acquisition time of 35 min. The resulting images provide excellent contrast of the visual projection and allow detailed studies of injuries of the optical nerve.

 
2406.   MEMRI of the Projections of Periaqueductal Gray Matter to Pontine Reticular Nucleus in Mice 
Xiaowei Zhang1, and Russell E Jacobs1
1Biological Imaging Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

 
To map Mn2+projection from midbrain periaqueductal grey to pontine reticular nucleus and provide an alternative methodology for antinociception study.

 
2407.   Comparing Topical Administration and Intravitreal Injection of Mn2+ for MEMRI on Mouse Visual Pathway 
Bruce W Campbell1, Eric Won2, Chantal Lunderville2, Hsiao-Fang Liang3, and Shu-Wei Sun4,5
1Clinical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2Loma Linda University, 3Biophysics and Bioengineering, Loma Linda University,4Biophysics and Bioengineering, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 5Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University

 
Topical administration (0.5M, 0.75M, 1.0M, and 1.5M MnCl2) and intravitreal injection (1.0M MnCl2) were evaluated and compared for MEMRI on mouse visual system. Our data showed that the signal enhancement was dependent on the concentration of applied MnCl2. Comparing topical administration and intravitreal injection, 1.0M topical administration resulted in significant enhancements in retina, optic nerves, and superior colliculus, which were similar to the results of intravitreal injection.

 
2408.   In vivo Mapping of Retinal Projections in Rat, Gerbil and Mouse Brains using MEMRI 
Kevin C. Chan1,2, Joe S Cheng1,2, Iris Y Zhou1,2, Condon Lau1,2, Kwok Fai So3,4, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 3Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 4State Key laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of

 
This study employs high-resolution 2D/3D Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to examine the retinal projections in both visual and non-visual functional nuclei after unilateral injection of MnCl2 intravitreally in three rodent species (rats, gerbils and mice). One day after intravitreal Mn2+ injection, Mn-enhancements were observed in the visual nuclei in retina, lens, optic nerve and optic chiasm of the ipsilateral brain, and the optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus in the contralateral brain in all species. In addition, significant Mn-enhancements were observed in the non-visual nuclei in posterior medial amygdala and hippocampus in the contralateral brain in all species. The origins of these Mn-enhancement patterns were discussed.

Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
Human Brain Tumors

 
Thursday May 12th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30

2409.   Quantification of edema reduction using differential quantitative T2 (DQT2) mapping in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab 
Benjamin M Ellingson1, Timothy F Cloughesy2, Albert Lai2, Phioanh L Nghiemphu2, and Whitney B Pope1
1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
The purpose of the current study was to quantify the reduction in T2 signal abnormality accompanying administration of the anti-angiogenic drug bevacizumab in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) patients using a voxel-wise differential quantitative T2 (DQT2) mapping technique. Results demonstrate a significant decrease in T2 within pre-treatment T2 abnormal regions following anti-VEGF treatment. The degree of reduction in T2 was larger in patients who progress later and survive longer.

 
2410.   CIMPLE maps derived from serial diffusion MR images in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab 
Benjamin M Ellingson1, Timothy F Cloughesy2, Albert Lai2, Phioanh L Nghiemphu2, and Whitney B Pope1
1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Identification and quantification of spatially-localized brain regions undergoing high rates of tumor cell migration and proliferation is critical for improving patient survival. CIMPLE (cell invasion, motility, and proliferation level estimates) image maps from serial diffusion MRI represent a novel method of quantifying the level of aggressive malignant behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate the utility of CIMPLE maps to predict regions of future contrast-enhancement and stratify short and long-term progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in recurrent glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab.

 
2411.   Evaluation of changes in gliomas structural features after chemotherapy using DTI-based Functional Diffusion Maps (fDMs): a preliminary study with intraoperative correlation. 
Antonella Castellano1, Marina Donativi2,3, Lorenzo Bello4, Giorgio De Nunzio2,3, Marco Riva4, Gabriella Pastore2, Giuseppe Casaceli4, Roberta Rudà5, Riccardo Soffietti5, Giuseppe Scotti1, and Andrea Falini1
1Neuroradiology Unit and CERMAC, Scientific Institute and University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 2Department of Materials Science, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy, 3INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics), Lecce, Italy, 4Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Milano, Milan, Italy, 5Neuro-oncology, Department of Neuroscience and Oncology, University of Torino, Turin, Italy

 
fDMs analysis was applied to diffusion tensor decomposition-derived isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) maps during neuroradiological follow-up of patients undergone to chemotherapy before surgery; changes in diffusion parameters within tumor tissue were correlated both with neurophysiological data from intraoperative subcortical mapping and histopathological findings from specimens obtained from image-guided tumor biopsies. The proposed DTI-based method, when benchmarked against morphologic imaging criteria, seems to provide an indication of response to treatment prior to alteration in size.

 
2412.   Combination of Sparse and Wrapper Feature Selection from Multi-Source Data for Accurate Brain Tumor Typing 
Vangelis Metsis1, Ovidiu C. Andronesi2,3, Heng Huang1, Michael N. Mindrinos4, Laurence G. Rahme5, Fillia Makedon1, and Aria A. Tzika2,3
1Computer Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States, 2NMR Surgical Laboratory, Dept. of Surgery, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 3Athinoula A. Martinos Center of Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 4Dept. of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States, 5Molecular Surgery Laboratory, Dept. of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Burn Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

 
In this work we verify the advantage of combining features from Gene Expression and MRS data for brain tumor typing and we introduce a new feature selection method based on Joint ℓ2,1-Norms Minimization which improves classification accuracy in the multiclass problem.

 
2413.   Preoperative Grading and Subtyping of Meningiomas using Diffusion Tensor Imaging 
Sumei Wang1, Sungheon Kim2, Yu Zhang1, Lu Wang1, Edward B Lee3, Peter Syre4, John YK Lee4, Harish Poptani1, and Elias R Melhem1
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
The purpose of this study is to determine whether DTI metrics along with histogram analysis can help in grading and subtyping of meningiomas. Forty-five meningiomas underwent DTI studies. Logistic regression analysis indicated that mean of eigenvalue skewness (SK), kurtosis of FA, skewness of SK and kurtosis of SK comprised the best model to differentiate atypical from typical meningiomas. Mean of CL, CP, CS and skewness of CP comprised the best predictor to differentiate fibroblastic from other subtype meningiomas. Significantly increased mean FA, CP, LI and decreased CS were observed in fibroblastic subtypes compared with both atypical and other subtype meningiomas.

 
2414.   Diffusion tensor imaging may be useful to differentiate between intracranial dural metastases and meningiomas 
Xiang Liu1, Wei Tian2, and Sven Ekholm2
1Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States, 2Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Cente, Rochester, NY, United States

 
Although it is important, it is difficult to preoperatively differentiate between intracranial dural based metastases and meningiomas, on conventional MR images. We retrospectively analyzed diffusion tensor imaging in 21 patients with meningiomas and 18 cases of dural metastases. The FA and maximal FA values of meningiomas were significantly higher than for intracranial dural based metastases; but there was no significant difference in mean ADC and minimal ADC values. The maximal FA showed better sensitivity and specificity in these two groups. Therefore, mean and maximal FA may be adjuvant imaging parameters to differentiate between intracranial meningiomas and dural based metastases.

 
2415.   Metabolic Differences between Oligodrendroglial Brain Tumors with and without 1p19q Deletion 
kenneth james smith1, Mitchel Berger2, Susan Chang3, Rachel Smith4, and Tracy Richmond McKnight4
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, 3Neuro oncology, University of California San Francisco, 4Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco

 
Loss of 1p and 19q heterozygosity has been identified as a primary prognostic factor in glial tumors, regardless of treatment. Patients have significantly higher progression free survival as well as an increased response to chemotherapy when they exhibit a co-deletion in the 1p and 19q chromosomal arms. Our Goal, using High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) MRS, was to investigate whether or not 1p19q influenced tumor metabolism. We found significantly higher concentration of creatine as well as glutamine in tumors that did not exhibit a loss of 1p and 19q heterozygosity.

 
2416.   Perfusion Weighted Imaging Directed Proton MR Spectroscopy: A New Approach to Identify Oligodendroglial Genotypes 
Sanjeev Chawla1, Yu Zhang1, Jaroslaw Krejza1, Gurpreet Kapoor2, Sumei Wang1, Sangeeta Chaudhary1, Arastoo Vossough1, Donald O' Rourke2, Elias R Melhem1, and Harish Poptani1
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
To identify oligodendroglial genotypes, 1H-MRS voxels guided by perfusion weighted imaging were analyzed from 34 patients [1p/19q deletion (Group I, n=19), and intact alleles (Group II, n=15)]. 1H-MRS grid was overlaid on CBV maps. CBV values were obtained by drawing ROIs from the tumor and were normalized to contralateral white-matter to obtain relative rCBV values. 1H- MRS indices were computed from maximum rCBV regions and logistic regression analyses was performed. Using a combination of maximum rCBV and Cho/Cr from the maximum rCBV ROI resulted in a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 84% in distinguishing the two groups of oligodendrogliomas.

 
2417.   Exploration of multi-exponential decomposition of T2 decay in gliomas and its implications on targeting for radiotherapy 
Keith Wachowicz1,2, and B. Gino Fallone2,3
1Medical Physics, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,3Departments of Physics and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

 
This work explores the use of multi-exponential decomposition on transverse relaxation decay in patients with gliomas, and its potential for assisting in the contouring process for dose prescription, tracking response to therapy, and possibly differentiating from different heterogeneous tumour regions. 3D multi-echo patient data sets were acquired and analysed with a non-negative least squares algorithm for decomposition. Results suggest that elevation of T2 in some localized tumour regions may be more than just a shift to a longer mono-exponential decay, but possibly a shift to a more complicated distribution.

 
2418.   MR follow-up of glioblastoma patients treated with dendritic cell immunotherapy: The role of DWI and PWI. 
Matej Vrabec1, Sofie Van Cauter2, Uwe Himmelreich3, Stefaan W Van Gool2, Stefan Sunaert2, Steven De Vleeschouwer2, Dušan Šuput4, and Philippe Demaerel2
1Department of Radiology, University Clinical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2University Hospitals of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 3Catholic University Leuven, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

 
The potential value of MR-PWI and MR-DWI to differentiate immune therapy induced inflammatory response from recurrent glioblastoma tumour growth was asessed. Both entities can present as contrast-enhancing lesions on conventional MRI. 32 follow-up MRI examinations of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (mean follow-up time 21 months) in 8 patients were analyzed for this study. Maximum lesional rCBV ratios and minimum ADC values in the contrast-enhancing area were found to be potential radiological markers to differentiate between immune therapy induced inflammatory response and recurrent glioblastoma tumour growth in glioblastoma patients treated with immune therapy.

 
2419.   Comparison of Perfusion MRI-Based Methods to Estimate Histologic Tumor Fraction and Predict Survival in Recurrent GBM 
Leland S Hu1,2, Jennifer M Eschbacher3, Amylou C Dueck4, Seban Liu5, Kris A Smith6, Kasuen Kotagama5, Stephen W Coons3, Joseph E. Heiserman7, John P Karis7, Todd Jensen8, William Shapiro9, Josef Debbins5, Peter Nakaji6, Burt G Feuerstein9, and Leslie C Baxter5
1Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, United States, 2Radiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States, 3Neuropathology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 4Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 5Keller Center for Imaging Innovation, Barrow Neurological Institute, 6Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, 7Neuroradiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 8Imaging Biometrics, LLC, 9Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute

 
Perfusion-MRI (pMRI) measures or relative cerebral blood volume (relCBV) can distinguish subregions of tumor from radiation-injury within non-specific Contrast-Enhanced MRI lesions in recurrent GBM. As histologic tumor fraction impacts prognosis and management, we study three different pMRI-based methods of estimating tumor fraction and compare their correlations with outcome. Specifically, we report a new voxel-based relCBV thresholding method called Fractional Tumor Burden (pMRI-FTB), compared with previously published histogram-based Peak Height Position (PHP) and mean relCBV methods. pMRI-FTB showed the highest correlation with Histologic tumor fraction (r=0.82,p<0.0001) and was the only method to correlate with Overall Survival (p<0.006), suggesting its clinical utility.

 
2420.   T1, T2 and ADC as imaging biomarkers for tumor treatment response in brain tumors 
Patrik Brynolfsson1, Thomas Asklund2, Anders Garpebring1, and Tufve Nyholm2
1Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, 2Department of Oncology, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

 
Thirteen patients with a total of 18 brain tumors undergoing first or second line treatment were examined before, during and after treatment using quantitative MRI measuring T1, T2 and ADC. Two weeks after treatment start a significant decrease in ADC and T1 was observed in patients with tumor progression. Six weeks after treatment start a significant change associated with treatment response could be seen in all parameters. There seemed to be a difference between first line and second line treatment; however more data is needed to investigate that relationship further.

 
2421.   Differentiating between recurrent tumor and post-treatment radiation effects using high-order diffusion imaging 
Chu-Yu Lee1, Leland Hu2, Leslie C Baxter3, and Josef P Debbins3
1Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 3Neuroimaging Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

 
Resolving the regions of recurrent tumor from post-treatment radiation effects (PTRE) can be challenging, because both can appear enhancing on the contrast enhanced T1 imaging, as shown in Fig. 1a and 1e. Diffusion-weighted Imaging (DWI) was shown to correlate with tumor cellularity [1]. Recently, DWI with a higher b-value was found to have greater sensitivity to the changes in tumor cellularity [2, 3]. While the complications of treatment-bed changes involve tumor growth, radiation- and operation-induced lesions [4, 5], the intra-voxel diffusion heterogeneity measured by the high b-value DWI may be useful in differentiating between pathological mechanisms. In this study, two multiple b-value diffusion models: the stretched exponential model (α-DWI) [6] and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) [7] were used to assess the recurrent tumor and the PTRE. Their fitted parameters: α and Kapp quantify the diffusion heterogeneity without information about the number of water compartments.

 
2422.   T1 intensity: an indication of 1p 19q deletion in oligodendroglial neoplasms 
Carolyn Branecky1, Devyani Bedekar2, and Kathleen Schmainda3,4
1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 2Translational Brain Tumor Research Program, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States,3Radiology & Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Translational Brain Tumor Research Program, Medical College of Wisconsin

 
Tumor genotype is becoming increasingly influential in guiding the treatment of brain tumors. Allelic losses on 1p and 19q have an incidence of 60-90% in oligodendroglioma cases1,2. It has been found that tumors displaying the 1p 19q co-deletion are more responsive both to radiation and chemotherapy and have a longer overall survival3,4. It would be highly beneficial for oncologists to have an indication of deletion status via imaging in cases where biopsy is not preferable. It has been found that 1p 19q deleted oligodendrogliomas tend to have a mixed intensity signal on T1 and that 1p 19q intact oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas have greater T1 signal homogeneity5,6. In this study we aim to find an imaging characteristic that is more readily apparent and quantifiable in order to allow for easy identification of tumors with 1p 19q deletion status.

 
2423.   ADC-FLAIR Mismatch Excluding Enhancement (AFMEE), a Potential Biomarker of Tumor Invasion 
Peter Sherman LaViolette1, Alex D Cohen1, Scott D Rand2, Wade Mueller3, and Kathleen M Schmainda2
1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

 
The detection of invading brain tumor cells, beyond the traditional contrast-enhancing regions, continues to be a challenge for the treatment of brain tumors. While areas of FLAIR enhancement represent vasogenic edema, some regions are thought to contain invading brain tumor cells. We have observed that regions of heightened FLAIR do not necessarily correspond to regions of heightened ADC expected from increased extracellular fluid. In fact in some cases, heightened FLAIR corresponds to a lower ADC value, what we refer to here as an ADC-FLAIR mismatch, i.e. low ADC within high FLAIR signal. We hypothesize that these regions are potentially indicative of brain tumor invasion. In this study we measure ADC-FLAIR mismatch excluding enhancement (AFMEE) in invasive and non-invasive brain tumor phenotypes.

 
2424.   In-vivo Biomarkers for Brain Tumor Vasculature and Cellularity Validated with Ex-vivo Tissue 
Peter Sherman LaViolette1, Elizabeth J Cochran2, Mona Al-Gizawiy3, Scott D Rand3, Mark G Malkin4, Jennifer Connelly4, Wade Mueller5, and Kathleen M Schmainda3
1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 4Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 5Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

 
The detection of invading brain tumor cells, beyond the traditional contrast-enhancing regions, continues to be a challenge for the treatment of brain tumors. Decreases in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) have been shown to correlate with an increase in tumor cellularity. Graded functional diffusion maps (gfDM) result from the subtraction and thresholding of ADC maps from multiple time points. In this study of invasive glioblastoma, we correlate in-vivo biomarkers for blood volume, and increased cellularity with ex-vivo brain tissue.

 
2425.   Tracking the "DSC-based perfusion abnormality" and contrast enhancing lesion in patients newly diagnosed with GBM treated with upfront anti-VEGF therapy 
Emma Essock-Burns1,2, Janine M Lupo2, Laleh Jalilian2, Michael D Prados3, Soonmee Cha2,3, Susan M Chang3, and Sarah J Nelson1,4
1UCSF/UCB Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States,4Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

 
Antiangiogenic therapy alters the presentation of contrast enhancement limiting the effectiveness of standard assessment methods for evaluating response in GBM patients. Alternate assessment methods are needed, especially for anti-VEGF therapy in the upfront, newly-diagnosed setting. This study tracked volume changes in the “DSC-perfusion abnormality,” statistically thresholded on a per-patient basis, compared to the standard CE-lesion in 27 GBM patients receiving upfront anti-VEGF therapy. A large, significant decrease in percent recovery abnormality volume was seen by month-1 and decrease in peak height abnormality by month-2. The ultimate goal is to characterize the DSC-perfusion abnormality that best identifies a likely responder patient.

 
2426.   Demonstration of the relationship between oxygen delivery and contrast agent delivery in human glioma using combined OEMRI and DCE-MRI 
Katherine Frances Holliday1,2, Gerard Thompson1,2, Samantha Jane Mills1,2, Giovanni Buonaccorsi1,2, Alan Jackson1,2, Josephine H Naish1,2, and Geoffrey J M Parker1,2
1Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2University of Manchester Biomedical Imaging Institute, Manchester, United Kingdom

 
Hypoxia has been linked to tumour progression and metastasis and is also known to affect sensitivity to treatment. Oxygen-enhanced MRI is a proposed method to investigate oxygen delivery and consumption in tumour tissue non-invasively that is based on observing changes in R1 during the breathing of 100% oxygen. In this study, patients with glioma underwent both OEMRI and DCE-MRI. Oxygen-enhanced R1 change was calculated on a voxel-wise basis, and regions with significant changes in both directions were identified. Correlations were found between these R1 changes and contrast agent uptake during DCE-MRI, suggesting identification of both poorly-perfused hypoxic regions and well-perfused, well-oxygenated regions.

 
2427.   A Fully Automatic Double-Echo DSC-MRI Routine Can Predict Patient Outcome after a Single Dose of Cediranib in Recurrent Glioblastoma Patients 
Kyrre E Emblem1,2, Ronald JH. Borra1, Kim Mouridsen1, Atle Bjornerud2,3, Rakesh K. Jain4, Tracy T Batchelor5, and Gregory Sorensen1
1A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 2The Interventional Center, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, 3Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 5Pappas Center for Neuro-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital

 
Studies have shown that MR imaging can detect a period of vascular normalization during anti-VEGF therapy in patients with recurrent glioblastomas. Also, it has been shown that a ‘vascular normalization index’ (VNI) can be derived from changes in vascular permeability (Ktrans) from DCE imaging and microvessel cerebral blood volume (CBV) from DSC imaging, among others, and that this VNI parameter is suggestive of patient outcome. In our study, we show that a single DSC-MRI acquisition combined with automatic post-processing routines can be used to derive a similar VNI parameter, thereby improving the clinical workflow.

 
2428.   Initial Experience With Vessel Size Imaging in Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme using a Multiple Spin and Gradient Echo (SAGE) Perfusion Bolus Contrast Sequence 
Jalal Badi Andre1, Heiko Schmiedeskamp1, Greg Zaharchuk1, Matus Straka1, Thomas Christen1, Lawrence Recht2, and Roland Bammer1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Neuro-Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

 
This retrospective pilot study highlights our initial experience using a combined multiecho spin and gradient echo (SAGE) EPI sequence during bolus contrast that allows direct evaluation of R2 changes to R2* changes for vessel size imaging (VSI). This SAGE technique was used in patients with pathologically proven GBM, and applied to address the question of tumor recurrence versus radiation necrosis in the hope of identifying a more sensitive method to detect tumor recurrence, thus enabling more timely modification of therapy and improved prognosis.

 
2429.   Presurgical assessment of the feeding vasculature in extra-axial tumors with superselective arterial spin labeling 
Michael Helle1, Susanne Rüfer1, Matthias van Osch2, David Gordon Norris3,4, Olav Jansen1, and Arya Nabavi5
1Institute for Neuroradiology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, UK-SH, Kiel, Germany, 2C.J. Gorter Center for high field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 3Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 4Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen, Germany, 5Clinic for Neurosurgery, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, UK-SH, Kiel, Germany

 
Certain tumors of the CNS, particularly large meningiomas, can present variable vascular architectures. Patients need to undergo intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography to reveal a reliable estimate of the feeding vasculature. This study demonstrates that superselective arterial spin labeling makes it possible to identify all tumor-supplying arteries and to define different compartments in a complete non-invasive way. This information can be crucial for surgeons as a basis for planning the approach, and reacting to intra-operative bleeding. The depiction of feeding arteries may also help to distinguish between intra- and extra-axial tumors since differentiation on conventional MR imaging alone can be difficult.

 
2430.   Pitfalls of Thresholding Statistical Maps in Presurgical fMRI Mapping 
Krzysztof Gorgolewski1, Mark Bastin2, Laura Rigolo3, H. A. Soleiman4, Cyril Pernet2, Amos Storkey1, and Alexandra J. Golby3
1School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2Department of Medical Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, United States, 4Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

 
In the following study we have tried to asses the influence of using different thresholding methods (SPM, FSL and manual) of fMRI maps on potential clinical decision in tumour resection planning. We have discovered that assuming a safety margin of 10mm and less one third of the cases were recommended for partial resection.

 
2431.   Water chemical shift differences detected in childhood brain tumours may indicate temperature variations and fast exchange effects 
Nigel Paul Davies1, Maryam Kalantari Saghafi2, Martin Wilson3, Yu Sun3, Theodoros N Arvanitis4, and Andrew C Peet3
1Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom,3Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 4Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

 
Temperature may be a useful supplementary biomarker for the clinical management of brain tumours. In-vivo 1H MRS can provide absolute local temperature measurements through the empirical linear relationship between temperature and water chemical shift. However, fast chemical and magnetization exchange effects also contribute to water chemical shift. This study investigates water chemical shift differences due to temperature and fast exchange effects in two types of childhood brain tumours using short-TE and long-TE 1H MRS. Significant differences in water chemical shift between tumour types and TE are found, suggesting that fast exchange effects may contribute significantly to observed apparent temperature differences.

 
2432.   Evaluating Radiation-Induced White Matter Changes in Patients with Recurrent Malignant Gliomas under Treatment of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Initial Results 
Zheng Chang1, John P. Kirkpatrick1, Zhiheng Wang1, Jing Cai1, and Fang-Fang Yin1
1Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States

 
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been an effective treatment for brain tumors; however, few data are available regarding radiation-induced white matter (WM) damage by SRS. In this work, MR diffusion tensor imaging was used to investigate WM changes following SRS. Seven patients with gliomas were scanned before, 7-day and 2-month following SRS. Diffusion coefficient , fractional anisotropy (FA), number of fibers (NF) were statistically calculated, with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. After SRS, increased by 3.9% (p=0.610), and FA decreased significantly by 7.8% (p=0.02) with 36% decline of NF (p=0.11). The preliminary results suggest white matter protection shall be considered in SRS.

 
2433.   Assessment of Tumor Perfusion by DSC MRI during Radiation Therapy in Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma 
Adam M Winchell1,2, Mehmet Kocak3, Hoang-Vu Tran1, Ruitian Song1, Ralf B Loeffler1, Alberto Broniscer4, and Claudia M Hillenbrand1
1Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, United States, 3Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States, 4Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States

 
Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging was performed to investigate a preliminary understanding of vascular proliferation of the tumor during RT. The objective of this study was to study the evolution of perfusion using DSC during treatment of DIPG to provide markers of disease response and progression.

Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
Head & Neck MRI (including Cancer)

 
Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00

2434.   MR Based Quantification of Global Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen Consumption during Hypercapnia 
Varsha Jain1, Michael Langham1, Thomas T Floyd2, Jeremy F Magland1, and Felix W Wehrli1
1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

 
Hypercapnia is a common occurrence in pathophysiologic conditions and is also used as a diagnostic tool to measure cerebral vascular reactivity to assess the integrity of cerebral circulation which can be altered in pathophysiological states. While the vascular effects of hypercapnia on cerebral blood flow have been well documented, there is no general consensus on its metabolic effects. Additionally from a neuroscience research perspective, assumption of constant cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) during hypercapnia is used for calibrating blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response in functional magnetic resonance imaging, yet verification is pending. Hence, we propose a robust and reliable method for quantifying CMRO2 during hypercapnia by simultaneously measuring total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) in the major cerebral supply and drainage vessels during hypercapnia with a temporal resolution of ~30s.

 
2435.   Dark Blood T2* Maps in the Carotid Artery 
Rexford D Newbould1, Andrew P Brown1, David R.L. Owen1, Joseph Shalhoub2, and Giulio Gambarota1
1GSK Clinical Imaging Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

 
USPIO uptake in carotid plaques may be a marker of macrophage activity and therefore inflammation in the plaque. Unlike FSE, GRE sequences have large artifact power from flowing blood spins in the vessels. Strong blood suppression is therefore needed to acquire T2* maps of the carotid plaques, which are located near these flowing spins, to model USPIO uptake. Motion-sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE) preparation rapidly suppresses flowing spins, and here is applied to a multiecho GRE sequence. The effect of MSDE on the image contrast and T2* mapping is characterized, and is used in six subjects with carotid plaques at 3T.

 
2436.   Quantification of Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen Consumption in the Middle Cerebral Artery Territory 
Varsha Jain1, Gaurav Jain2, Jeremy F Magland1, and Felix W Wehrli1
1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States

 
A robust method for quantifying regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (rCMRO2) would be of significant clinical utility in the workup of numerous vascular pathologies affecting the brain. Currently, there are no established and reliable noninvasive methods for quantifying absolute rCMRO2. Alternate imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) are limited in their use due to invasiveness and expense. Here, as an extension to the recently reported method for determining global CMRO2, we demostrate the feasibility of determining lateralized rCMRO2 corresponding to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory by measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the MCA and regional venous oxygen saturation (rSvO2) in the largest superficial cortical vein draining into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) corresponding to the MCA vascular territory.

 
2437.   DWI of head and neck cancer the effect of b values on ADC measurements 
Kwok Keung Chow1, David Ka Wai Yeung1, Queenie Chan2, and Ann D King1
1Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Philips Healthcare

 
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of b-values on ADC measurement of cancer in a group of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Two sets of b-values [(a) 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 s/mm2; (b) 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 s/mm2] DWI was performed on 14 patients with histologically confirmed NPC. ADC maps were calculated using two and six b-factors. The ADC values using high b-values (1000 s/mm2) were significantly lower to the low b-value (500 s/mm2). There are no significant differences when using two b-factor or six b-factor calculation method.

 
2438.   Measuring Cortical Thickness in Brain MRI Volumes to Detect Focal Cortical Dysplasia 
Ljiljana Platisa1, Anthony De Smet1, Ivana Despotovic1, Asli Kumcu1, Karel Deblaere2, Aleksandra Pizurica1, Ewout Vansteenkiste1, and Wilfried Philips1
1TELIN-IPI-IBBT, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 2Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

 
We propose a new algorithm for cortical thickness measurement in T1 weighted (T1-w) MRI images aiming to overcome the major limitation of a number of the existing similar methods which could lead to under- or over-estimated thickness of grey matter within sulci: (1) lack of awareness of the partial volume (PV) effect (the presence of multiple tissue classes in a single voxel) present at both the white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) and the GM to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transition, and (2) ignorance of the regions of buried cortex where the CSF between the sulci is not resolved.

 
2439.   DCE and DWI functional parameters as indicators of response to radical chemoradiation in head and neck cancer 
Marco Borri1, Maria Schmidt1, Ceri Powell2, Dow -Mu Koh1,3, Angela Riddell3, K Harrington2, Kate Newbold2, James Darcy1, and Martin O Leach1
1CR-UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom, 2Head & Neck Department, The Royal Marsden Hospital,3Radiology Department, The Royal Marsden Hospital

 
Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced(DCE) and Diffusion-Weighted(DWI) MRI have proved to be useful in the diagnosis and staging of head and neck carcinoma. Primary lesions and lymph nodes are known to be heterogeneous and both DWI and DCE parametric maps show spatial variations within large lesions. In this work we investigate longitudinal variations of functional MRI parameters in a cohort of patients with head and neck carcinoma undergoing radical chemoradiotherapy. Considerably lower Ktrans, Ve and IAUG60 are found for responders. Functional MRI has provided useful information on treatment response at an early time point, and merits further investigation as a tool in patient management.

 
2440.   Improved Fat Suppression with the Use of CHESS and Natural Rubber Pad 
Uten Yarach1, and Suwit Saekho1,2
1Radiological Technology, Chiang Mai University, Muang, Chiang mai, Thailand, 2Biomedical Engineering Center, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

 
Rapid change of magnetic susceptibility at air/tissue interface such as neck can lead to incorrect chemical shift-selective (CHESS) fat suppression on MR imaging. Applying pad devices with CHESS to shift air/tissue interface away from the skin have been used to improve the incomplete fat suppression. We propose Natural Rubber (NR) for building a neck pad to improve local magnetic field inhomogeneity. The study included testing material, building device, and testing on volunteers. The results showed that using the NR pad with CHESS provided completely fat suppression for neck MR imaging both in T1 and T2 weighted with invisible device.

 
2441.   Temporal Evolution of the Irradiated Parotid Glands: Volume and ADC value 
Chun-Jung Juan1, Cheng-Chieh Cheng2, Hsiao-Wen Chung1,2, Yee-Min Jen3, Hing-Chiu Chang2,4, Su-Chin Chiu2, Cheng-Yu Chen1, Chun-Jen Hsueh1, Yaoh-Shiang Lin5, and Guo-Shu Huang1
1Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

 
Functional impairment and volume reduction were frequently encountered in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who are treated with radiation therapy. In this preliminary study, the temporal evolutions of structural and physiological features of the irradiated parotid glands were investigated with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI.

 
2442.   Probing the Radiation-Induced Changes of Extravascular Extracellular Space of Parotid Glands using DCE and DW MRI 
Cheng-Chieh Cheng1, Chun-Jung Juan2, Hsiao-Wen Chung1, Yee-Min Jen3, Hing-Chiu Chang1,4, Su-Chin Chiu1, Cheng-Yu Chen2, Chun-Jen Hsueh2, Yaoh-Shiang Lin5, and Guo-Shu Huang2
1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

 
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI are common techniques adopted for clinical diagnoses, and were utilized in investigations of irradiated parotid glands. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between parotid perfusion and diffusion properties has not been investigated yet. In this study, we attempted to disclose the connection of parotid gland perfusion and diffusion characteristics, before and after radiation therapy. Our results suggest that the extravascular extracellular space plays a major role in the ADC measurements.

 
2443.   H-MRS study of the neurochemical effects of interferon-lower case Greek alpha treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C 
Matthew Taylor1, Jamie Near2, and Philip Cowen1
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 2FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

 
A 1H-MRS study was performed to investigate the cortical neurochemistry of chronic hepatitis C and the effect of treatment with interferon-alpha. Short-TE MR spectra were performed in the posterior cingulate cortex of a group of patients with chronic hepatitis C and a group of healthy controls using the SPECIAL sequence. The patient group was scanned at two timepoints – before treatment and 4-6 weeks following treatment with interferon alpha. Initial results indicate that patients with hepatitis C tend to have elevated choline and glutathione levels and reduced levels of phosphorylethanolamine. Treatment with interferon alpha tends to normalize these changes.

 
2444.   Automated analysis of craniofacial morphology using magnetic resonance images 
M Mallar Chakravarty1,2, Rosanne Aleong1, Gabriel Leonard3, Michel Peron4, G Bruce Pike3, Louis Richer5, Suzanne Veillet4, Zdenka Pausova6,7, and Tomas Paus1,7
1Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3Montréal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 4CÉGEP de Jonquière, Jonquière, Quebec, Canada, 5Département des sciences de l'éducation et de psychologie, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada, 6The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 7School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

 
Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical) magnetic resonance images (MRI) provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted MR images, acquired to examine brain anatomy, can also be used to analyze facial features. Using a sample of typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study (N = 597; 292 male, 305 female, ages: 12 to 18 years), we quantified inter-individual variations in craniofacial structure using voxel-based analysis and the decomposition of craniofacial features using landmark based techniques. The results demonstrate the sexual dimorphism of the human face.

 
2445.   Volume Shrinkage, Perfusion and Diffusion Alterations of Irradiated Parotid Glands 
Cheng-Chieh Cheng1, Chun-Jung Juan2, Hsiao-Wen Chung1, Yee-Min Jen3, Hing-Chiu Chang1,4, Su-Chin Chiu1, Cheng-Yu Chen2, Chun-Jen Hsueh2, Yaoh-Shiang Lin5, and Guo-Shu Huang2
1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

 
Human parotid glands are highly radio-sensitive and prone to radiation injury. In this study we monitored the volume changes of the irradiated parotid glands and the parotid gland perfusion alteration. Different behaviors of the contrast agent wash-in slope were found between the mildly and severely shrank parotid glands. Whether this perfusion characteristic may help disease diagnosis as well as treatment outcome prediction is of clinical interest and deserves further investigation.

 
2446.   Tumor diffusion and metabolism in head and neck cancer: pretreatment multimodality imaging with DW-MRI and 18F-FDG PET 
Jacobus F.A. Jansen1, Heiko Schoder2, Yonggang Lu2, Hilda E Stambuk2, Dara Srisaranard2, Nancy Y Lee2, Snehal G Patel2, Jatin P Shah2, Jason A Koutcher2, and Amita Shukla-Dave2
1Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2MSKCC, NY, NY, United States

 
The study aims to correlate pretreatment multimodality imaging (MMI) data obtained with DW-MRI and 18F-FDG PET in patients with advanced head and neck cancer for more precise assessment of the tumor biology. Thirty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 6 with lymphoepithelioma (LE) cancer were included. For all patients, tumor volume, mean(ADC), std(ADC), mean(SUV), max(SUV), and TLG, were correlated. Additionally, secondary normalized measures rADCmin and rSUVmax were correlated. It was found that in head and neck cancer, DW-MRI and 18F-FDG seem to provide independent information on tumor microenvironment for both SCC and LE. However, information regarding the heterogeneous nature of tumors, obtained using the two techniques, seems to be complementary.

 
2447.   Evaluation of Artefacts Caused by Different Cochlear Implants at 1.5 T and 3T 
Irina Mader1, Markus Treier1, Christian Schild2, Hansjörg Mast1, Stefan Zwick3, Christian Taschner1, and Susan Arndt2
1Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 3Dept. of Radiology, Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

 
Problem: MR imaging in patients with cochlear implants (CI) has to be considered at 3T. Imaging artefacts are a major concern for the assessment of anatomical structures. Methods: Imaging artefacts of 5 different types of CI were evaluated at 1.5 and 3T in a phantom and a cadaver head at two different implantation angles and in 6 imaging sequences. Results: An automated cluster analysis showed that the main factor for artefacts was the presence of the magnet in the CI during scanning. Conclusion: Artefact sizes were in line to the literature. MR scanning without magnet in the CI is preferable.

 
2448.   Changes in the brain more than 10 years after liver transplantation 
Vít Herynek1, Monika Dezortová1, Dita Wagnerová1, Irena Hejlová2, and Milan Hájek1
1MR-unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic, 2Hepatogastroenterology Department, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

 
Hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver disease manifests itself by hyperintense (T1-weighted images) or hypointense (T2-weighted images) signals in the basal ganglia due to deposition of paramagnetic ions. This process is reversible by liver transplantation. These changes can be assessed by relaxometry. We collected a unique group of 37 patients transplanted 8-15 years ago, which was compared to a group of patients before liver transplantation and a group of patients measured within two years after. Relaxometry revealed that recovery in the basal ganglia is permanent and no recurrence of paramagnetic ions was observed even after 15 years.

 
2449.   Neuroimaging of Mild Traumatic Brain injury at Acute Stage 
Zhifeng Kou1, Randall Benson2, Ramtilak Gattu3, Jie Yang3, Valerie Mika4, Robert Welch4, Scott Millis5, and E Mark Haacke1
1Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 5Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States

 
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is very difficult to detect in emergency setting. A comprehensive use of three MRI techniques, including susceptibility weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and MR spectroscopy imaging, could significantly improve the detection of mTBI in acute setting and potentially impact the management of mTBI patients at the acute stage.

 
2450.   MR imaging of the neck at 3 Tesla using the periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) (BLADE) sequence compared with T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence 
Yoshimitsu Ohgiya1, Jumpei Suyama1, Syouei Sai1, Masaaki Kawahara1, Jirou Munechika1, Makoto Saiki1, Noritaka Seino1, Masanori Hirose1, and Takehiko Gokan1
1Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

 
Purpose: To evaluate motion artifacts, tissue contrasts, and lesion detectability in the neck with BLADE technique. Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients referred for MRI of the neck were included in a comparison of T2-weighted BLADE (T2W-BLADE) sequence and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (T2W-FSE) sequence. Results: T2W-BLADE showed less ghosting and pulsation artifacts than T2W-FSE (P < 0.01).@There was no significant difference in tissue contrasts between T2W-BLADE and T2W-FSE. Thirty two lesions were present in 32 patients and equally well seen on T2W-BLADE and T2W-FSE. Conclusion: T2W-BLADE can reduce motion artifacts and provide tissue contrasts and lesion detectability equivalent to T2W-FSE.

 
2451.   A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Cortical Thickness and Volumetric Changes in Hepatitis C: Before and After Interferon Therapy 
Manoj K Sarma1, M. Albert Thomas1, Rajakumar Nagarajan1, April Thames2, Steven Castellon3, Elyse Singer4, Jason Smith5, Linda Croad6, Lavezza Bhatti7, Ann Ragin8, and Charles Hinkin3
1Radiological Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los angeles, CA, United States, 3Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Service, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 6Kaiser Permanente Lancaster, CA, United States, 7AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 8Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

 
We investigated the cortical thickness and volume across a group of Hepatitis C patients before and after interferon (IFN) therapy employing an automated method for regional parcellation. Significant increase of cortical thickness was observed in lateral occipital in both hemisphere in patients after IFN. Increase cortical volume were seen in both hemisphere at the caudal middle frontal, rostral middle frontal superior temporal and also in left precentral, left lateral orbitofrontal, right middle temporal after IFN. The areas that showed significant reduced cortical volume were left medial orbitofrontal, right fusiform and bilateral lateral occipital.

 
2452.   Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficients measured by standard (1000 s/mm2) and high b-value (2000 s/mm2) diffusion MR imaging and SUV from FDG PET/CT in head and neck cancer 
Seung Hong Choi1, Chul-Ho Sohn1, Ji-Hoon Kim1, and Kee-Hyun Chang1
1Department of Radiology, eoul National University Hospital, Seoul, ., Korea, Republic of

 
The significant correlation between the ratio of ADC2000 to ADC1000 value and SUVmax, and the difference between ADC2000 to ADC1000 value and SUVmax in primary head and neck cancer suggests that DWI and FDG PET/CT might play a complementary role for the clinical assessment of this cancer type.

 
2453.   Dynamic imaging of the vocal tract using a cine-MRI sequence: Protocol optimization and evaluation 
Guillaume Gilbert1,2, Jon Nissenbaum3, and Gilles Beaudoin1
1Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2MR Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Department of Languages, Literatures and Linguistics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States

 
In this abstract, the performance of a triggered cine-MRI sequence is evaluated in the context of dynamic imaging of the vocal tract for linguistics and phonetics studies. The synchronization precision of this method is evaluated using wide band spectrograms of the recorded speech output. It is demonstrated that the use of this approach allows for the acquisition of dynamic images with high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio, along with a relatively good temporal fidelity (~ 30 ms).

 
2454.   Time-interleaved imaging of arbitrary scan planes applied to real-time speech MRI 
Yoon-Chul Kim1, Michael I Proctor1, Shrikanth S Narayanan1, and Krishna S Nayak1
1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Real-time MRI of speech typically involves imaging a single midsagittal slice. This approach has provided valuable insights into the dynamics of vocal tract shaping and motion of all major articulators. In this work, we acquire multiple arbitrary scan planes in time-interleaved fashion, which provides the ability to capture new features such as grooving/doming of the tongue, asymmetries in tongue shape, and lateral shaping of the pharyngeal wall. This approach also facilitates tracking of the slice plane based on partial saturation effects.

 
2455.   Determination of optical properties of the rat eye using in vivo high-resolution MR imaging 
Wilfried Reichardt1, Christian van Oterendorp2, Dominik von Elverfeldt1, and Luis Diaz-Santana3
1Dept. of Radiology, Medical Physics, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany, 2University Eye Hospital, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany, 3Optometry and Visual Science, City University London, London, United Kingdom

 
We performed in vivo high-resolution MR imaging to determine values for thickness, curvatures of the optic components and size of the lens and cornea. For this we used 3D MR imaging in combination with specific sequences that allow spatially highly resolved images of the optical apparatus. Further on, we performed image post-processing to create a theoretical model for the rat eye that can aid in the development of high-resolution retinal imaging devices for rodents

 
2456.   Kurtosis analysis for DWI improves prediction of short-term response in head and neck cancer 
Jacobus F.A. Jansen1, Yonggang Lu2, Hilda E Stambuk2, Nancy Y Lee2, Jason A Koutcher2, and Amita Shukla-Dave2
1Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2MSKCC, NY, NY, United States

 
The study aims to assess the added value of non-Gaussian analysis of diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI) for the prediction of the short-term response to chemoradiation therapy in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Twenty-three patients were included, who all underwent a DWI protocol with 7 b-values at 1.5T. Non-Gaussian fitting was applied using the kurtosis model. DWI parameters derived from standard mono-exponential fitting and kurtosis analysis were evaluated for their efficacy in predicting short-term response using logistic regression analysis. The std(Dapp) was a significant predictor for short-term response, suggesting that non-Gaussian analysis provided a predictive biomarker.

 
2457.   Evaluation of pretreatment and early response DCE MRI in head and neck cancer: prediction of short-term outcome 
Jacobus F.A. Jansen1, Yonggang Lu2, Hilda E Stambuk2, Nancy Y Lee2, Jason A Koutcher2, and Amita Shukla-Dave2
1Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2MSKCC, NY, NY, United States

 
An advantage of the noninvasive MRI technique is that subjects can be imagined multiple times before, during and, after treatment. In this study we assess the value of DCE-MRI derived perfusion/permeability biomarkers in predicting the short-term response to therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with neck nodal metastases. Sixteen patients underwent a DCE-MRI protocol before, and 10-14 days into the chemoradiation treatment. Pretreatment and early response DCE-MRI parameters were compared, and their efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment was tested using logistic regression analysis. Pretreatment ve was a significant predictor of response. However, early response DCE marginally improves prediction of short-term response in head and neck cancer.