Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A
  Animal Models of Brain Disease & Educational 3060-3081
  Animal Models of Brain Disease & Neurovascular 3082-3105
  White Matter Disorders: Multiple Sclerosis & Neuroinfections 3106-3129
  Psychiatric Disorders 3130-3152
  Learning Neuro Development using Advanced Imaging Techniques 3153-3176
  Brain Tumor Imaging: Diagnosis & Response to Therapy 3177-3200
  Clinical Diffusion 3201-3224
  High Resolution Brain Anatomy & Morphometry 3225-3248
     

Animal Models of Brain Disease & Educational
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  16:30 - 17:30

  Computer #  
3060.   1 Arterial spin labeling-based longitudinal monitoring of CBF and CVR following permanent unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery
Tom Struys1,2, Tom Dresselaers1, Sarah Caers1, Wouter Oosterlinck3, Ann Van Santvoort1, Ivo Lambrichts2, and Uwe Himmelreich1
1Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Department of Functional Morphology, Universiteit Hasselt, Diepenbeek, Belgium, 3Cardiovascular Diseases, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

 
This study reports on the longitudinal changes in CBF and CVR, assessed by ASL, in free breathing and ventilated animals which underwent a permanent unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery (CCA). Data indicate that a specific vascular response is elicited upon CCA ligation which suggests a temporal limitation in auto regulation of the vascular network and a spontaneous recovery over time. These findings provide a better understanding of the effect of a permanent CCA ligation and how it contributes to the interpretation of the dynamics observed in the penumbra CBF in the mouse transient MCAO model for stroke.

 
3061.   2 Long-term evolution of multiexponential diffusion features in a model of transient Ischemia in rats
Usama Abo-Ramadan1,2, Miia Pitkonen1, Ivan Marinkovic1,2, Aysan Durukan1,2, and Turgut Tatlisumak1,2
1Experimental MRI Laboratory, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, 2Dept of Neurology, Helsinki Uiversity Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

 
In the present work, in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) we measured the temporal evolution of the biexponential brain diffusion signal decay parameters (fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient ADCfast and ADC slow and fast and slow fraction ffast and fslow) from the hyperacute to chronic phase. The study showed that healthy and ischemic brain tissues exhibit biexponential diffusion. ADCfast show higher sensitivity compare to ADCslow in characterizing ischemic tissue phases. Biexponential analysis offers parameters which may help interpreting structural tissue changes.

 
3062.   3 Profiling Wallerian Degeneration in Ipsilateral Pyramidal Tract after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Shujuan Fan1,2, Frank Y. Lee1,2, Matthew M. Cheung1,2, Zhongwei Qiao1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

 
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) often produces severe neurological deficits in survivors, which is closely related with secondary corticospinal tract (CST) injury. Rodent models of ICH have greatly promoted the understanding of histopathology underlying brain injury and were employed widely for exploring therapeutic strategies. This study investigated WD in pyramidal tract, as part of CST, after experimental ICH using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2-weighted imaging as well as with histological correlations. The results demonstrated DTI as a valuable tool for detecting WD in early phase and for longitudinal monitoring of its progress at different stages with more accuracy than T2-weighted imaging.

 
3063.   4 3D tracking of transient peri-infarct depolarizations in ischemic rat brain by fast ADC mapping
Victor E. Yushmanov1, Alexander Kharlamov1, Stephen R. Yutzy2, Prahlad G. Menon1,3, Paul A. Schornack2, Erik C. Wiener2, Fernando E. Boada2, and Stephen C. Jones2,4
1Department of Anesthesiology, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Departments of Anesthesiology and Neurology, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

 
Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) in the brain are a major pathogenic factor in experimental ischemic stroke. The protocols for 3D PID tracking suitable for use in combination with brain K+ imaging were developed and refined. Transient changes in difference ADC images were tracked by plotting either their center of mass or their front edge in 3D. PID tracks were followed, segment by segment, throughout the whole brain beyond the usual position of a cranial window in traditional PID observation techniques, and the speed and direction of each individual PID segment were analyzed. Full and detailed PID tracking was not previously available.

 
3064.   5 Recovery of Locomotor Function after Experimental Stroke Correlated with Enhanced Neuronal Integrity after Amphetamine Treatment
Hua-Shan Liu1, Hui Shen1, Hanbing Lu1, Yun Wang1, and Yihong Yang1
1National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
In the present study, we investigated whether the increase of fractional anisotropy in perilesional areas after amphetamine treatment would predict behavioral improvement in an elevated body swing test that has been reliably used to assess neurological behaviors in rats with ischemia stroke. We demonstrated a correspondence between the temporal changes of fractional anisotropy in perilesional areas and locomotor function in stroke rats treated with amphetamine, suggesting that the structural integrity may be used as an imaging biomarker to predict locomotor function recovery.

 
3065.   6 DTI Reveals Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Gbx2-CKO Mouse Model of Cerebellar Hypoplasia
Kamila U Szulc1, Sungheon Kim2, Edward J Houston1, Eugenia R Volkova1, Jason P Lerch3, Alexandra L Joyner4, and Daniel H Turnbull1,2
1Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States,2Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,4Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY, United States

 
Previously we have shown that Gbx2-conditional knockout mice have hypoplasia of the vermian lobules and abnormalities in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). DCN contain projection neurons that form the cerebellar peduncles, which comprise the major input and output circuitry of the Cb. We hypothesized that abnormal morphology of the DCN is likely to be accompanied by microstructural abnormalities in the cerebellar peduncles, which was investigated using diffusion tensor imaging. Our work is of particular importance as several clinical studies of autistic individuals found chromosomal abnormalities in 2q37 region in which human homologue of Gbx2 gene is known to be located.

 
3066.   7 Diffusional Kurtosis Detects Cortical Demyelination in the Cuprizone Mouse Model
Edward S Hui1, Joseph A Helpern,1, David Guilfoyle2, Scott Gerum2, Caixia Hu2, John LaFrancois3, Xingju Nie1, Jens Jensen1, Ali Tabesh1, and Maria F Falangola1,2
1Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC, United States, 2Medical Physics, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, NY, United States, 3Dementia Research, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, NY, United States

 
The cuprizone mouse model is a well characterized animal model of demyelination. Recently, cortical demyelination has also been observed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated the pathology of the corpus callosum (CC) in cuprizone mouse model, but no cortical diffusion changes have been reported. Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) quantifies the non-Gaussian behavior of water diffusion, contributing additional information beyond that provided by DTI. Here we report, for the first time, DKI changes in the cortex of mice with demyelination induced by cuprizone, demonstrating the significant advantage of microstructural characterization using DKI, especially for abnormalities in grey matter.

 
3067.   8 Imaging Seizure-Induced Inflammation using an Antibody Targeted Iron Oxide Contrast Agent
Ben A Duffy1, ManKin Choy2, Johannes Riegler1, Jack A Wells1, Daniel C Anthony3, Rod C Scott4, and Mark F Lythgoe1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging (CABI), Department of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United Kingdom, 3Experimental Neuropathology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 4Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

 
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in both seizure induced brain injury and the development of epilepsy. This study demonstrates that it is possible to image regional VCAM-1 expression in vivo following prolonged seizures in rats. This molecular imaging approach demonstrates a highly sensitive marker of acute neuroinflammation.

 
3068.   9 A comparative study of brain regional T1rho values of spontaneously hypertensive rat and Wistar Kyoto rat
Feng Zhao1, Li-Hong Zhang2, Jing Yuan1, Queenie Chan3, David Yew2, and Yi-Xiang Wang1
1Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, 2Department of Anatomy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, 3Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong

 
An alternate MRI contrast mechanism, T1rho relaxation, has been suggested as a sensitive biomarker to detect Alzheimer¡¯ disease and Parkinson¡¯s disease in patients. T1rho relaxation in hypertension patients¡¯ brain is not fully understood. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the model most extensively investigated for evaluating hypertensive brain damage. In this study, we measured the T1rho values in thalamus, hippocampus and cortices of SHR rats and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control rats at the age of 6-month, and found the T1rho values in these regions of SHR rats were higher than those in WKY rats.

 
3069.   10 Assessment of variability within small animal stereotactic neurosurgery and inclusion of vasculature information for planning neuro-anatomical surgery in the rodent brain
Janaki Raman Rangarajan1,2, Greetje VandeVelde3,4, Kris van Kuyck5, Maarten Depypere6, Friso van Gent5, Tom Dresselaers3, Uwe Himmelreich3, and Frederik Maes7
1Medical image Computing -ESAT/PSI, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2IBBT-K.U.Leuven Future Health Department, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium,3Biomedical NMR unit, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, K.U. Leuven, Belgium, 4Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center (MoSAIC), Faculty of Medicine, K.U. Leuven, 5Laboratory for Experimental Functional Neurosurgery, Dept. of Neurosciences, K.U. Leuven, 6Medical image Computing -ESAT/PSI, K.U. Leuven, Belgium, 7Medical image Computing -ESAT/PSI, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Flanders, Belgium

 
Neuro-degeneration research using small animal models, often involve stereotactic intervention to deliver cells or contrast agents (1) DBS therapies atspecific anatomical targets. When in-accurate, the animal experiments can be inconclusive or misleading, thus increasing the number of animals, the cost, and the duration of the study. Here errors in 2D representative atlas based small animal stereotactic surgery is investigated. By using multi-modal information of brain, skull and vasculature we identify the source of variability and as well the deleterious effect of in-accurate stereotactic surgery. Although the results are preliminary, the findings has gained interest among neuro-scientists who see the opportunity to include the vasculature information for planning stereo-tactic investigations in small animal models. In future, optimal planning and image-based follow up of stereotactic surgeries in small animals may help exclude outlier animals at an much earlier stage, and possibly may reduce the number of animals used for such experiments.

 
3070.   11 Long-term survival study showing aging effect on the sensory function of peripheral nervous system in rats using fMRI/fcMRI under 9.4 Tesla
Rupeng Li1, Jack B Stephenson IV2, Nicholas Flugstad2, Xiping Liu3, Christopher Pawela1, Ji-Geng Yan2, Hani S Matloub2, and James S Hyde1
1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Plastic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States,3Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

 
The influence of aging effect on peripheral sensory function was investigated using BOLD fMRI and fcMRI on rats. Results shows the sensory network in the cortex peaks at adult age. At the same time, sensory network at senile age shows strongest inter-voxel correlation, which indicates a more optimized structure at this period.

 
3071.   12 The Role of Oxygen Molecule Dissolved in Rat Blood Based on BOLD MRI
Youngkyu Song1,2, Song-I Chun1, Hengjun Kim1, DONG WAN LIM1, Young Ro Kim3, Jeong Kon Kim2, and Gyunggoo Cho1
1Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon, Chungbuk, Korea, 2University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Lexington, Massachusetts, United States

 
To accurately interpret the meaning of BOLD signals, it is important to assess the effect of oxygen on SI changes observed during oxygen breathing. Such assessment is important particularly for explaining unusual signal intensity changes. In these regards, (a) for analyzing the contribution of oxygen to blood SI changes, we compared T1 and T2/T2* relaxation times between normoxic and hyperoxic blood samples; and (b) for exploring the effect of tissue oxygen on BOLD signal, we compared T1 relaxation time and SI changes according to TE between normoxic and hypoxic brain tissue.

 
3072.   13 Diffusion tensor and non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging in spine and spinal cord in vivo
Masaaki Hori1, Issei Fukunaga1, Yoshitaka Masutani2, Nozomi Hamasaki3, Koji Kamagata1, Atsushi Nakanishi1, Keigo Shimoji1, Koichi Asahi1, Yuriko Suzuki4, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan, 3Juntendo University Hospital, Japan, 4Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

 
The purpose of this exhibit is to present the optimal sequences and their parameters for DTI in the spine and spinal cord, including clinical cases. Moreover, recent introduced diffusion technique, non-Gaussian diffusion imaging in vivo will be also presented. In some condition that it is difficult for radiologists to reach comprehensive diagnosis with conventional MR imaging in clinical cases, complementary combination use of DTI or non-Gaussian DWI and conventional MR imaging will be helpful for diagnosis of spine and spinal cord disease.

 
3073.   14 Contrast and optimal scan parameters of T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T: evaluating with using computer simulation software
Shogo ODA1, Keiichi KIKUCHI1, Hitoshi MIKI2, Yoshiyasu HIRATSUKA1, and Teruhito MOCHIZUKI1
1Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon city, Ehime, Japan, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Matsuyama city, Ehime, Japan

 
In this presentation, we will demonstrate that 3.0 T MRI provides superior T1-weighted image contrast comparing 1.5 T with optimal scan parameters, and T1-FLAIR imaging can depict better contrast than T1-SE imaging. Additionally, we show the usefulness of computer simulated brain imaging software we developed. This software can reproduce the signal intensity and contrast of the brain tissue under various conditions.

 
3074.   15 Radio-genomics: Genomic Mapping, Gliomas and Perfusion Imaging -- a TCGA Glioma Phenotype Research Group project
Rajan Jain1
1Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States

 
Glioma genomic mapping and its integration/correlation with tumor kinetics, hemodynamic and physiologic parameters can help in better understanding of the molecular basis for commonly used tumor perfusion parameters (such as blood volume and permeability). This will also help improve understanding of various genomic pathways involved in angiogenesis and their correlation with perfusion parameters and patient prognosis.

 
3075.   16 Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in the evaluation of movement disorders
Divyata Hingwala1, Deepak Gupta2, Jitender Saini3, Kesavadas Chandrasekharan1, Bejoy Thomas1, and Asha Kishore4
1Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 2Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, University of Alberta, 3Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences, India, 4Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

 
In this presentation, we aim to describe the role of Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in the imaging of patients with movement disorders and differentiating between the various disorders. The anatomy of the midbrain and basal ganglia in normal subjects on SWI is covered. A number of neurodegenerative disorders are associated with abnormal iron deposition. Greater hypointensity of red nucleus in PSP differentiates PSP from both PD and MSA-P and the higher putaminal hypointensity score discriminates PSP from PD. Patients with coticobasal degeneration may show unilateral increase in deep grey matter iron deposition. Microbleeds seen on SWI may help diagnose vascular parkinsonism.

 
3076.   17 Meralgia Paresthetica: Diagnostic Role of 3 Tesla MR Neurography
Avneesh Chhabra1, Gaurav K Thawait1, Michael Rantiolu Aro1, Allan J Belzberg2, and John A Carrino1
1Radiology, Johns Hopkins University- School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University- School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

 
This exhibit states the importance of High resolution 3T MR Neurography in cases of Meralgia Paresthetica.

 
3077.   18 Arterial spin labelling in routine clinical practice
Peter Brotchie1,2, and Pei Fun Kwan1,2
1MRI, Geelong Hospital, Geelong, Victoria, Australia, 2Radiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

 
Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL) is an MRI sequence for performing perfusion imaging of the brain without the need for intravenous contrast agents. The sequence was first described almost 20 years ago. However, it has been slow to be adopted into clinical practice. This presentation is a pictorial review of ASL in a routine hospital based clinical practice, demonstrating the clinical utility of the sequence in a number of conditions. A number of ASL cases are presented including the grading of gliomas, assessing acute cerebral infarcts, post-endarterectomy hyperperfusion syndrome, dementia, epilepsy and migraine. In addition, a number of artefacts are demonstrated that are peculiar to ASL and need to be recognised to avoid misdiagnosing pathology. The studies were all performed on a 3 tesla Siemens Trio MRI scanner with a 32 channel head coil, using a pulsed ASL sequence supplied by Siemens.

 
3078.   19 Serial measurement of arterial spin labeling for evaluation of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage
Yasutaka Fushimi1, Kunihiro Aoyama2, Tomohisa Okada3, Akihiro Miyasaki2, Hideaki Taki2, Kazunori Shibamoto2, and Kaori Togashi3
1Radiology, Ichinomiyanishi hospital, Ichinomiya, Aichi, Japan, 2Neurosurgery, Ichinomiyanishi hospital, Ichinomiya, Japan, 3Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

 
Serial ASL measurement will detect the decline of CBF related to vasospasm during the state of postoperative course of aneurysmal SAH.

 
3079.   20 Why not MRI? Localization and characterization of parathyroid adenomas in primary hyper parathyroidism
Hatsuho Mamata1,2, Daniel Ruan2,3, Junichi Tokuda1,2, Balazs Lengyel1, Hiroto Hatabu1,2, and Ferenc A Jolesz1,2
1Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

 
MRI of parathyroid adenomas can be performed within a reasonable time and can provide valuable information about location and tissue characteristics of the adenomas. MRI solves numerous problems of currently used standard imaging modalities; 1. Detailed anatomic images with excellent tissue contrast are obtained, 2. No ionizing radiation exposure to patients, 3. Perfusion evaluation equivalent with CT perfusion study can be done without exposing patients to large amount of ionizing radiation, 4. It does not depend on technique/technician to evaluate the images or detection of adenomas, 5. Intra-thoracic parathyroid adenomas can be searched in a same MRI session.

 
3080.   21 MR imaging of Parkinson Disease: conventional and advanced techniques
Koji Kamagata1, Masaaki Hori2, Michimasa Suzuki2, Keigo Shimoji Shimoji2, Atsushi Nakanishi2, Yumiko Motoi3, and Shigeki Aoki2
1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Chuo city, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Japan, 3Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Japan

 
Conventional MR imaging of Parkinson disease (PD) is frequently normal or non-specific. However recent advanced MR techniques, such as Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), Arterial spin labeling (ASL) allow us to evaluate changes related to the pathophysiology of PD. DTI shows changes of FA in the substantia nigra and some white matter tracts. ASL shows reduced CBF in the parieto-occipital lobe. The purpose of this exhibit is to review the conventional and advanced MR imaging of Parkinson disease and its related dementia.

 
3081.   22 Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Epilepsy Surgery
Sung Soo Ahn1, and Seung-Koo Lee1
1Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

 
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) visualizes white matter microanatomy and integrity in vivo. Recent advances of high-end MR technology and more robust algorithms provide higher quality DTI and more reliable tractography results. Commonly applied clinical field is preoperative evaluation of brain tumors and other space occupying lesions, various white matter and neurodegenerative diseases. DTI can be also used in epilepsy surgery with the same way as used in neuro-oncology. The purpose of this educational poster is to review the current status of DTI in epilepsy surgery and future directions.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

Animal Models of Brain Disease & Neurovascular
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  17:30 - 18:30

  Computer #  
3082.   1 MRI Detection of Spinal Lesions in a Rat MS Model
J Scott Bluth1, Lisa C Loram2, Mark S Brown3, Kendra M Hasebroock4, David E Miller3, Linda R Watkins2, and Natalie J Serkova4
1UT-Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, United States, 2Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States,3Radiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 4Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States

 
The goal of the present study was to establish reliable MRI based protocols on rat spinal cord specimens of the MS experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The spines were fixed using 4% formalin (Study I) as well as 4% glutaraldehyde (Study II). The numbers of MRI detected lesions were then correlated with animals’ motor score. Since the new evidence clearly showed that multiexponential quantitative T2 images (qT2) are the most sensitive for detection of myelination and remyelination, our initial protocols were mostly based on T2-weighted techniques.

 
3083.   2 Preliminary Evidence of DKI Abnormalities in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome
Victor V Dyakin1, Maria F Falangola2,3, David Guilfoyle3, Scott Gerum3, Caixia Hu3, Edward S Hui2, and Ralph Nixon1
1Dementia Research, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, United States, 2Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC, United States, 3Medical Physics, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, NY, United States

 
Mouse models of Down syndrome have been used to study the morphological abnormalities and the mechanisms underlying DS-associated cognitive disabilities, but very little has been published using in vivo neuroimaging, and there are no MRI diffusion studies in any of these models. In this study, we characterized the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging patterns associated with the morphological changes in the hippocampus of the 2Cje (Ts2) mice model, showing statistical significant decrease of axial kurtosis and fractional anisotropy, perhaps related to changes in dendritic morphology seen in this model.

 
3084.   3 Correlation of motor coordination with in vivo metabolite ratios in lysophosphatidyl choline induced demyelination model of multiple sclerosis: A sequential in-vivo proton MRS study
Krithika Balasubramanian1, Uma Sharma1, Senthil S Kumaran1, Anjali Chauhan2, Yogendra K Gupta2, and Naranamangalam R Jagannathan1
1Department of NMR & MRI Facility, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Correlation between motor coordination changes and in-vivo metabolite ratios was studied at different stages of de- and re-myelination in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Demyelination was induced using lysophosphatidyl choline in the internal capsule (ic) area of rat brain. Significant correlation was observed between motor coordination and metabolite ratio which was attributed to the damage to the myelin around the motor fibers during demyelination leading to decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and increased choline (Cho). The motor coordination subsequently improved during remyelination resulting in increased NAA and decreased Cho.

 
3085.   4 Acute visual function impairment in EAE is primarily caused by optic nerve inflammation as assessed by DBSI
Chia-Wen Chiang1, Yong Wang2, Tsen-Hsuen Lin3, Anne Cross2,4, and Sheng-Kwei Song2
1Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States, 4Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States

 
Optic nerves in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were examined using in vivo diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to assess the contribution of various underlying pathologies on the functional disability. We observed that inflammation assessed by in vivo DBSI as the sum of increased cellularity and vasogenic edema negatively correlated with visual acuity (R2 = 0.80) in acute EAE mice. These imaging based results suggest that inflammation plays a significant role in visual function in EAE mice similar to human optic neuritis.

 
3086.   5 Biomarkers of epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy: Quantitative MRI and EEG
Zuyao Y Shan1, Irina Kharatishvili1, Nyoman D Kurniawan1, and David C Reutens1
1Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
 
Following an initial brain injury, dynamic changes in brain lead to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures, i.e., epileptogenesis. Understanding of mechanisms of epileptogenesis is key to the development of treatment strategies. This study combined quantitative ultra high-field MR with EEG to characterize epileptogenesis-related changes in TLE mouse model. Dynamic changes were observed in HC, AMG, and PHC following status epilepticus (SE) at different times post-SE. The MR changes in HC and thalamus at day 7 was significantly correlated with spike frequency on EEG. This finding suggests a critical time point during the latent period of epilepsy development.

 
3087.   
6 Multi nutrient enriched diets restore cerebral perfusion and protect against neurodegeneration in a mouse model for Alzheimer’s disease
Valerio Zerbi1,2, Diane Jansen1, Maximilian Wiesmann1, Maartje Mutsaers1, Pieter J Dederen1, Ilse Arnoldussen1, Andor Veltien2, Sjaak Van Asten2, Arend Heerschap2, and Amanda J Kiliaan1
1Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands

 
Increasing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle especially dietary intake, in sharing a protective action in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we therefore evaluated the effects of a long term dietary intake of multi-nutrient lipid diets on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hippocampal metabolite levels in an AD mouse model (APP/PS1). Results showed that 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice have decreased CBF and that specific combinations of multicomponent enriched diets are able to restore cerebral perfusion into physiological values, with signs of decreased neurodegeneration, suggesting a potential efficacy of multi-nutrient lipid diets in slowing AD progression.

 
3088.   
7 Imaging neuronal degeneration in the mouse hippocampus after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia using oscillating gradient diffusion MRI
Manisha Aggarwal1, Frances J Northington2, Susumu Mori1, and Jiangyang Zhang1
1Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice is associated with significant injury to the hippocampus, with progressive neurodegeneration in the pyramidal and granule cell layers. In this study, oscillating gradient diffusion MRI (dMRI) was used to probe microstructural changes following HI in the neonatal mouse hippocampus. The results show that frequency-dependent Capital Greek DeltafADC contrasts with this technique are uniquely sensitive to early neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus after HI injury, and can delineate the spatiotemporal pattern of HI-induced progressive neurodegeneration in the pyramidal and granule cell layers, which are difficult to discern using conventional pulsed gradient dMRI.

 
3089.   8 Therapeutic activity of a new targeted theranostic agent for the peri-infarct region in stroke
Jesús Agulla1, David Brea1, María Pérez-Mato1, Miguel Blanco1, José Castillo1, and Pedro Ramos-Cabrer1
1Clinical Neuriosciences Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University Clinical Hospital, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

 
In this work we study the therapeutic capability of a theranostic agent targeted against cells of the peri-infarct tissue in stroke. We treated ischemic animals with targeted theranostic molecules doped with citicoline. We compare the therapeutic effects of these molecules with those induced by free administered citicoline, citicoline encapsulated in non-targeted liposomes and the respective controls.

 
3090.   9 Alteration of Metabolites in the lateral septum of peripubertally stressed rats
Nathalie Just1, Matthieu Auffret1, Guillaume Poirier2, Maribel Cordero2, Carmen Sandi2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1LIFMET, CIBM/EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Behavioral Genetics, Brain Mind Institute and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne, Switzerland

 
There is increasing evidence that a link exists between exposure to stress in early life and long-term alterations to brain function, which in turn have been linked to psychiatric and neurological disorders in humans. In the present work, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine the metabolic effects of peripubertal stress on the offsprings of control rats and male rats themselves submitted to peripubertal stress. The lateral septum was chosen as the area of interest due to its role in stress mechanisms. GABA concentrations were significantly reduced in the peripubertally stressed offsprings. These findings correlated with immunochemistry measurements.

 
3091.   10 Using 1H MR spectroscopy to evaluate the neurochemical effect of transgenic tauP301L suppression by doxycycline in rTg4510 mouse
Dewen Yang1, David Caouette1, Zhiyong Xie1, Carol Hicks1, Anthony Milici1, and Thomas Bocan1
1Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, United States

 
In current study, we designed a localized MRS study to investigate the neurochemical effect of both chronic and intermittent developmental transgenic tauP301L suppression by doxycycline in 72 rTg4510 mouse brains (36 rTg4510 and 36 wt). The study demonstrated that prenatal combined with short-term postnatal doxycycline treatment to induce Tau expression for 7.5 months delays hyperphosphorylated tau formation and associated brain metabolic changes. The MRS results agreed with the associated histological and immunohistopathological results as well as our previous volumetric MRI findings, which demonstrated that localized MRS is a helpful tool to assess brain metabolites in rTg4510 mouse.

 
3092.   11 Metabolic Characterization of Intracranial Lymphoma at 14T using Frequency-Selective 3D Echo-planar 13C Imaging
David M. Wilson1, James L. Rubenstein2, Kristen Scott1, John Kurhanewicz1, and Kayvan R. Keshari1
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)

 
Determining the extent of intracranial tumors is critical for surgical resection and focused radiotherapy, but is often difficult using traditional 1H imaging techniques. Hyperpolarized (HP) 13C metabolic imaging methods have great potential, but brain studies in clinical models have been limited by low spatial resolution, with significant volume averaging limiting interpretation. Here we report application of fast 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) 13C imaging methods to the murine brain at 14T, in a primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) xenograft model. Preliminary studies using HP [1-13C] pyruvate demonstrated striking elevation in the metabolite [1-13C] lactate in tumor.

 
3093.   12 Metabolic Changes in Hippocampus and Thalamus after Sleep Deprivation: An Experimental Proton MRS Study
Iris Y. Zhou1,2, Abby Y. Ding1,2, Frank Y. Lee1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

 
In this study, in vivo 1H MRS was employed to investigate the metabolic changes induced by sleep deprivation (SD) in hippocampus and thalamus of a rat model. Reduced NAA:Cr was found in hippocampus, indicating neuronal loss and cellular dysfunction. The reduction of glutamate observed in hippocampus can reflect reduced cellular excitability. In thalamus, lactate was found to decrease in thalamus after SD, as a result of glucose metabolism decrease. Our finding of Glu:Cr increase in thalamus possibly arises from increased glutamine synthetase. The results of this study provide neurochemical evidence of the behavioral deficits associated with sleep deprivation.

 
3094.   13 Longitudinal perfusion change after intracranial stem cell implantation in chronic
Chao-Chun Lin1,2, Wu-Chung Shen1, Yung-Jen Ho1, Yu-Chien Lo1, Po-Pang Tsai1, Chia-Wei Lin1, Chiao-Ying Wu1, Hing-Chiu Chang2,3, Hsiao-Wen Chung4, Woei-Cherng Shyu5, and Shinn-Zong Lin5,6
1Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan,5Center for Neuropsychiatry and Graduate Institute of immunology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 6Neurosurgery, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Beigang, Taiwan

 
This study is to longitudinal follow up the perfusion change after intracranial stem cell implantation in chronic stroke patient. Our preliminary result shows temporally increase cerebral blood flow and volume which then decrease and are lower than the baselines in the long-term follow up. The perfusion change is earlier than the clinical neurologic symptoms improvement which began from the 3months after stem cell implantation.

 
3095.   14 Dynamic 3D Angiography with Pseudo Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling(PCASL) and Accelerated 3D Radial Acquisition
Huimin Wu1, Walter F. Block2, Patrick A. Turski3, Charles A. Mistretta1, and Kevin M. Johnson1
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

 
4D intracranial angiography with a pseudo continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (PCASL) tagging scheme and accelerated radial sampling pattern has been implemented. A feasibility study has been done on healthy volunteers and AVM patients and time-resolved images were acquired with temporal resolution of 200 msec. It has been demonstrated that the dynamic PCASL-VIPR technique can acquire a time series of dynamic inflow images with high 3D isotropic spatial resolution, and whole head coverage in a 7-minute scan. Quantitative analysis using time-of-arrival maps can also be performed on the time-resolved images.

 
3096.   15 Shape of the DSC residue data acute in ischemic stroke
Jeffry R Alger1, David S Liebeskind1, Noriko Salamon2, Jeffrey L. Saver1, and Danny JJ Wang1
1Neurology, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Radiological Sciences, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
We studied the shape of the residue data that are derived in DSC studies of patients having acute ischemic stroke. Our results indicate that DSC residue data can be modeled as a Gaussian shaped washout function having a half time of 5 – 8 sec over a wide range of CBF and CBV, including those typically found in ischemic core and penumbra. The absence of a strong relationship between CBF and residue half time indicates that nature achieves higher per unit mass flow rates by increasing the blood volume rather than by increasing the rate of flow through the microvessel system.

 
3097.   16 Analysis of diffusion values for automated segmentation of stroke infarct
Venkata Veerendranadh Chebrolu1, Suresh E Joel1, Dattesh D Shanbhag1, Catherine Oppenheim2, Patrice Hervo3, Marc-Antoine Labeyrie2, and Rakesh Mullick1
1GE Global Research, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, 2Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Centre Hospitalier, Sainte-Anne, Paris, France, 3GE Healthcare, Buc, France

 
Automatic segmentation of stroke volume is critical for timely treatment decision. The performance of automated segmentation algorithms depends on the thresholds set on the infarcted and normal tissue’s Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values. Here we report the statistical analysis of ADC and DWI values within the infarct and normal brain tissue in 62 patients imaged at the onset (Day 0) and in 51 patients after 24 hours (Day 1) of acute ischemic stroke event. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we suggest an ADC threshold of 0.745 and 0.755 for Day 0 and Day 1 respectively.

 
3098.   17 Visualization of diamagnetic materials inside paramagnetic lesions in the human brain
Tian Liu1, Weiwei Chen2, Wenzhen Zhu2, and Yi Wang3
1MedImageMetric LLC, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science& Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, China, 3Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States

 
In vascular malformation or tumor, diamagnetic materials including calcification and paramagnetic materials such as hemosiderin may appear in a same lesion. The knowledge about lesion composition is useful for understanding the cause of disease and making accurate diagnosis. However, this information is difficult to obtain using conventional MRI alone. In this study, we showed the feasibility of using quantitative susceptibility mapping to visualize diamagnetic materials inside paramagnetic lesions.

 
3099.   18 Clinical application of the high resolution MR intracranial vessel wall imaging
Jin Wook Choi1, Sung Tae Kim1, Hyung-Jin Kim1, Pyoung Jeon1, Keon Ha Kim1, and Hong Sik Byun1
1Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Kangnamgu, Seoul, Korea

 
High resolution (HR) MR intracranial vessel wall imaging can acquire high quality images that could depict intracranial arterial wall. HR MR intracranial vessel wall imaging could demonstrate the various intracranial conditions such as stable or unstable atherosclerotic stenosis, vasculitis, dissection and perforating artery disease. HR MRI could depict intracranial vessel wall and its pathology and high-resolution, multisequences have the potential to characterize the pathology in the intracranial artery and may be a useful modality for evaluating the degree of stenosis. Also, this sequence makes it possible to depict some pathology in the vessel wall without conventional angiographic abnormality.

 
3100.   19 Reproducibility of Venous Luminography and Flow Quantification Related to the CCSVI Hypothesis
Eric M Schrauben1, Kevin Johnson1, Scott M Reeder1,2, Aaron Field2,3, and Oliver Wieben1,2
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

 
This study demonstrates imaging with a radially undersampled 4D PC MR technique, PC VIPR, to view and measure flow within the cerebrospinal veins in a reproducible fashion. Volunteers were imaged at three stations to visualize the vasculature of the head, neck and chest. This study shows the feasibility of (1) duplicating flow measurements between scans, (2) the ability to show and measure venous reflux, and (3) the consistency of venous caliber assessments, including that of the azygous vein, by CE-MRA scoring.

 
3101.   20 Fractal dimension and vessel complexity in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations
Gernot Reishofer1, Karl Koschutnig2, Franz Ebner3, and Helmut Ahammer4
1Medical University of Graz, Graz, Styria, Austria, 2Psychology, University of Graz, 3Radiology, Medical University of Graz, 4Biophysics, Medical University of Graz

 
The fractal dimension can serve as a measure for morphological complexity in biological systems. In this study, we proofed the usefulness of this quantitative parameter in the measurement of cerebral vascular complexity. Maximum intensity projections from Time-of-Flight MRI scans from patients suffering from cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were analyzed. We found that the fractal dimension was significantly higher in the hemisphere with AVM compared to the hemisphere without AVM indicating that FD is a sensitive parameter to capture vascular complexity. Furthermore we found that the fractal dimension strongly correlates with the maximum slope of contrast media transit in DSC-MRI data.

 
3102.   21 Optimal thresholding of Tmax and absolute quantitative CBF imaging in acute ischemic stroke
Jeffry R Alger1, Danny JJ Wang1, Sunny Q Hao1, Michael G Ho1, Noriko Salamon2, Jeffrey L Saver1, and David S Liebeskind1
1Neurology, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Radiological Sciences, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
We sought to define the relationship between Tmax and absolute quantitative CBF in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast studies of acute ischemic stroke. Doing so may provide insight into past successes and failures associated with using Tmax as a predictive parameter in addition to defining whether Tmax should continue to be used. Although Tmax is effective at detecting core ischemia, there does not appear to be a Tmax threshold that detects core ischemia with a high discriminatory power. Given that absolute CBF now be reliably obtained, thresholding of CBF images may provide a more reliable means of identifying core ischemic tissue volumes.

 
3103.   22 Hemodynamic steal in patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion
Reinoud PH Bokkers1, Nolan S Hartkamp1, Esben T Petersen1, Catharina JM Klijn2, Bart van der Worp2, and Jeroen Hendrikse1
1Radiology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

 
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the compensatory ability of the brain to sustain blood flow when there are fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure through vasodilatation of the cerebral vasculature. Negative CVR, also known as hemodynamic steal, occurs when arterial blood is redistributed from regions of exhausted cerebrovascular capacity to areas with preserved vasodilatory capacity (2). The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence and extent of hemodynamic steal in patients with a carotid artery stenosis by combining ASL perfusion imaging with a vascular challenge.

 
3104.   23 Resting cerebral perfusion correlates with functional recovery in stroke patients
Ruth L O'Gorman1, Laszlo K Sztriha2, Gareth J Barker3, Steven CR Williams3, David C Alsop4,5, Ajit Shankaranarayanan6, and Lalit Kalra2
1University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, United Kingdom, 4Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States,5Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 6Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States

 
Brain perfusion may represent a marker for vascular remodelling, with the potential to predict recovery. This study examines perfusion changes in recovering stroke patients, using arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging. Perfusion images were acquired from stroke patients at 3 and 15 weeks after stroke onset. Between the visits, perfusion in the patients increased in the contralesional sensorimotor area, ipsilesional cerebellum, anterior cingulate and cuneus. Higher perfusion in the (structurally intact) ipsilesional thalamus, insula, medial temporal lobe, paracentral lobule and precuneus was associated with improved motor outcome, demonstrating that perfusion can provide a novel, easily obtainable biomarker for stroke recovery.

 
3105.   24 Structural remodelling of contralesional and ipsilesional white matter predicts motor recovery in stroke patients
Ruth L O'Gorman1, Laszlo K Sztriha2, Gareth J Barker3, Steven CR Williams3, and Lalit Kalra2
1University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, United Kingdom

 
Structural remodeling of both ipsilesional and contralesional white matter tracts appears to be associated with improved motor recovery after stroke. This study investigated changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) in 6 recovering stroke patients and 7 controls in relation to functional outcome. Between 3 and 15 weeks post-stroke, FA in patients significantly decreased in the ipsilesional thalamus, corticospinal tract, and corpus callosum. Higher FA in the ipsilesional corticospinal tract, internal capsule, and lower FA in the ipsilesional thalamus and corpus callosum were associated with a higher motor outcome score, providing further evidence for the purported link between microstructural remodelling and recovery.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

White Matter Disorders: Multiple Sclerosis & Neuroinfections
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  16:30 - 17:30

  Computer #  
3106.   25 Comparative evaluation of three different filters for phase unwrapping from SWAN imaging in calcified neurocysticercosis
Sanjay Kumar Verma1, Ram Kishan Singh Rathore2, Bhaswati Roy3, Ramesh Venkatesan4, Vijay Nimbargi4, Vinay Kulkarni4, Rishi Awasthi3, and Rakesh Kumar Gupta3
1Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Helios, Singapore, 2Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, 3Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, 4Wipro-GE Healthcare, Bangalore, India

 
Phase values of seventy four calcified cysts from patients with a diagnosis of NCC were quantified using Gaussian (22 × 22), Hanning (38 × 38) and Kaiser Bessel (64 × 64) low pass filter. Phase and CT images were registered using mutual information based registration technique. Kruskal-Wallis test suggest that phase values obtain from three filters are insignificantly different from each other. However Kaiser filter showed best correlation between positive phase and corresponding CT-HU values & Gaussian filter showed best negative correlation among all the filters used while comparing negative phase and corresponding CT-HU. We conclude that any of the filters can be used for phase quantification from SWAN imaging.

 
3107.   26 Sustained Virologic Response Following Anti-HCV Pharmacotherapy is Associated with Improved Neurostructural Integrity: A DTI Study
Manoj Kumar Sarma1, Rajakumar Nagarajan1, April Thames2, Jason Smith3, Lavezza Bhatti4, Steven Castellon2,3, Charles H Hinkin2,3, and M. Albert Thomas1
1Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Service, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Neurological dysfunction has been observed in patients with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and growing body of evidence is showing that HCV may adversely affect cognition through direct central nervous system involvement. The standard method for HCV treatment is a combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) alfa and ribavirin, which can lead to a sustained viral suppression, notwithstanding adverse side effects. We examined the two diffusion parameters derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), namely mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), across a group of HCV patients before and after IFN therapy using an automated atlas based analysis for regional parcellation. Twelve HCV patients treated with IFN therapy for 36-60 weeks were examined before and after anti-HCV therapy. Out of the 12 patients, 3 were non-responders to IFN therapy and 2 were missing data regarding virologic response. We have used the remaining 7 patients for our diffusivity analysis. We found primarily decreased MD and increased/decreased FA values in multiple brain regions following anti-HCV therapy. Our results suggest that HCV eradication has a beneficial effect on cerebral integrity, and is an important factor when contemplating anti-viral therapy in HCV.

 
3108.   27 Voxel based morphometry analysis of anti-retroviral effects in early HIV infection
Christina L Sammet1, Jordan S Muraskin2, Riti Mahadevia1, Ying Wu3, Hongyan Du3, Leon Epstein1, Babafemi Taiwo1, and Ann B Ragin1
1Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 3Northshore University Healthsystem, Evanston, IL, United States

 
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced AIDS-related deaths worldwide; however, neurocognitive impairment is evident in nearly 50% of patients receiving treatment. The neuroprotective benefit of ART, therefore, is not well characterized. In order to assess the effects of treatment on the brain, this study used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to compare gray matter volume in treated and untreated HIV+ subjects and age matched controls. Results of this study indicate that gray matter reduction was more prominent in subjects who had initiated treatment than in those who were treatment naive.

 
3109.   28 2D MRS combined with ProFit algorithm is sensitive to HCV associated cerebrometabolic abnormalities
Rajakumar Nagarajan1, Manoj K Sarma1, April Thames2, Vanessa Steriff3, Jonathan Truong4, Homayoon Khanlou5, Steven Castellon2, Charles H Hinkin2, and M.Albert Thomas1
1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2UCLA Department of Psychiatry, 3West Los Angeles VA,4Kaiser Permanente, 5AIDS Healthcare Foundation

 
Hepatitis C (HCV) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. A high proportion of patients never experience symptoms. Peginterferon and ribavirin is the recommended treatment for hepatitis C. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the noninvasive measurement of biochemical information in vivo. Two-dimensional (2D) localized correlated spectroscopy (L-COSY) combined with prior knowledge fitting (ProFit) enables unambiguous detection of metabolites and quantitation of more than ten metabolites. Our preliminary results show that significantly decreased GABA and significantly increased inositol, total choline and glutathione ratios in HCV patients compared to healthy controls.

 
3110.   29 Infection with HIV and HCV is associated with neurometabolic compromise: A 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Rajakumar Nagarajan1, April Thames2, M.Albert Thomas1, Manoj K Sarma1, Tim Arentsen3, Sapna Patel2, Elyse Singer4, and Charles H Hinkin2
1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2UCLA Department of Psychiatry, 3West Los Angeles VA, 4UCLA Department of Neurology

 
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can damage not only the liver but also the brain. HCV infection is more serious in persons with co-infection human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Magnetic resonance spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) enables the noninvasive measurement of biochemical information in vivo. We have evaluated the two-dimensional (2D) MRSI using a 3T MRI/MRS scanner and the LC model quantitation of metabolites. Our pilot findings demonstrate significantly decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and increased choline in the HCV patients and decreased glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in the co-infected patients compared to healthy controls.

 
3111.   30 Decreased Brain Oxygen Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis Measured with T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging (TRUST) MRI
Yulin Ge1, Yongxia Zhou1, Hanzhang Lu2, Zhongwei Zhang1, Hina Jaggi1, Joseph Herbert3, and Robert I Grossman1
1Department of Radiology / Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
Using T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) MRI, we have investigated venous sinus blood oxygenation (Yv) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), an index of global oxygen consumption, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We found significantly higher Yv (p<0.0001) and lower CMRO2 (p=0.003) in MS patients compared to age-matched normal controls, suggesting considerably decreased oxygen metabolism in MS. There was no statistical difference of global cerebral blood flow between the two groups. Our results of significant underutilization of oxygen in MS raise important questions regarding mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and neurodegeneration of the disease.

 
3112.   31 Segmentation of a Novel Lesion Type from MTR Images For Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Trials
Robert A Brown1, Sridar Narayanan1, and Douglas L Arnold1
1Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

 
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by white matter lesions which are apparent on T2-weighted MRI. Lesions that enhance on T1-weighted scans with gadolinium contrast agent have also been used extensively as a surrogate marker in trials of new treatments. However, neither of these lesion types is specific to myelin destruction or repair. We suggest a new type of lesion, segmented from MTR images that are specific to myelin, and demonstrate their utility for clinical trials in an example study of remyelination in multiple sclerosis.

 
3113.   32 T2*-weighted MRI at 7T accurately predicts eventual diagnosis of MS in cases with diagnostic uncertainty
Jennifer E Dixon1, Niraj Mistry2, Emma C Tallantyre3, Christopher Tench2, Rasha Abdel-Fahim2, Tim Jaspan4, Paul S Morgan5, Peter G Morris1, and Nikos Evangelou2
1Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2Academic Division of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neurology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 4Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 5Department of Medical Physics, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

 
Hyperintensities on conventional MRI are not specific for demyelination, often causing diagnostic delay and sometimes misdiagnosis of patients with suspected Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In-vivo T2*-weighted MRI at 7T has been shown to depict central blood vessels within lesions at a much higher rate in patients with established MS compared with patients with microangiopathic white-matter (WM) brain lesions. In this work, we prospectively assess the predictive value of T2*-weighted imaging at 7T for an eventual diagnosis of MS in patients who were unable to be diagnosed by a Neurologist and Neuroradiologist without further paraclinical testing and clinical follow-up.

 
3114.   33 Increase in the Iron Content of the Substantia Nigra and Red Nucleus in Multiple Sclerosis/Clinically Isolated Syndrome using 7T MRI
Anna I. Blazejewska1, Ali Al-Radaideh2, Samuel Wharton2, Su Yin Lim3, Cris S. Constantinescu3, Richard W. Bowtell2, and Penny A. Gowland2
1Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, 3Department of Neurology, Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham

 
MR changes associated with increased iron content have been consistently reported for most deep grey matter structures in multiple sclerosis, but results for the Substantia Nigra (SN) and Red Nucleus (RN) remain inconsistent. We assessed iron content in the SN and RN of patients with CIS and RRMS compared to healthy controls using susceptibility mapping and T2*-weighted (T2*w) signals measured at 7T. We found significant increase in susceptibility in MS patients in RN and SN (particularly in its dorsal part which is consistent with patterns of iron deposition seen in other neurodegenerative diseases). A non-significant decrease in T2*w was found.

 
3115.   34 Can T1-Differentiation in a Magnetization Prepared Turbo Field Echo Sequence at 7T Predict "Persistent Black Hole” White Matter Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis?
Katharine Teal Bluestein1, David Pitt2, Aaron Boster2, Andrew Kalnin1, Michael Knopp1, and Petra Schmalbrock1
1Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States, 2Neurology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

 
A new T1-weighted IR-TFE sequence is described which can differentiate Multiple Sclerosis white matter lesions into two sub-groups: lesions with short T1 (2200 ms) and those with long T1 (4300 ms). The sequence is compared to 7T white matter attenuation (WHAT), 7T T1w-MPRAGE, and standard clinical 3T FLAIR. The long T1 white matter lesions are assumed to reflect severe tissue damage, potentially identifying persistent T1 "black holes" without the need for follow-up scans.

 
3116.   35 Detection of the Grey Matter Lesions in MTR and MPRAGE in 7T
Anna I. Blazejewska1, Olivier Mougin2, Rasha Abdel-Fahim3, Niraj Mistry3, Richard W. Bowtell2, Nikos Evangelou3, and Penny A. Gowland2
1Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, 3Neurology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust

 
Cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis are difficult to detect. This study compares lesions detection on high resolution MTR maps and MPRAGE images acquired at 7T. MTR was most sensitive to cortical lesions and MPRAGE was more sensitive to mixed lesions (lying on the grey/white matter boundary).

 
3117.   36 Comparison of MS lesions seen with 7T iron sensitive phase and 3T post Gadolinium T1 imaging
Petra Schmalbrock1, David Pitt2, Katharine Teal Bluestein1, Eashwar Swamy2, Grant Yang1, and Michael Knopp1
1Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States, 2Neurology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

 
Currently, gadolinium (Gd) enhanced T1-weighted imaging is used to asses inflammation and lesion activity. Gd-enhanced imaging is, however, dependent on the integrity of the local blood-brain barrier and could potentially miss some inflammatory activity in Multiple Sclerosis patients. In this study, 7T phase images are calculated from iron-sensitive susceptibility weighted images and compared to standard clinical 3T FLAIR and Gd-enhanced T1w-SE. Gd-enhancing lesions were only seen in relapsing-remitting patients and none of them were visible on the phase images. Iron-sensitive imaging provides complimentary information to Gd-enhancement and suggests different mechanisms of lesion formation.

 
3118.   37 Multi-Component Relaxation In Untreated Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Hagen H Kitzler1, Jason Su2, Frank Noack1, Christine Schmidt1, Tjalf Ziemssen3, Sean C Deoni4, and Brian K Rutt2
1Department of Neuroradiology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, SN, Germany, 2Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, SN, Germany, 4Department of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States

 
Multi-component Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) allows quantifying myelination by means of myelin water fraction (MWF) measure. This technique was applied in a clinical trial in a cohort of untreated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Histogram and voxel-based analysis (VBA) results of preliminary baseline data is presented. The RRMS cohort was compared to a group of age-matched healthy controls. RRMS subjects differed significantly from controls in mean MWF and its distribution characteristics. We found most significant differences between the two cohorts in the whole brain Deficient MWF Volume (DV) a VBA measure recently introduced.

 
3119.   38 Quantitative magnetic susceptibility improves the detection of multiple sclerosis lesions
Chunlei Liu1,2, and Wei Li1
1Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States

 
Current MRI protocols show only part of MS pathology, failing to reveal important changes occurring at the microscopic level. In addition, distinguishing MRI lesions due to overlapping pathology remains difficult and clinically problematic. This study investigated the utility of quantitative magnetic susceptibility as a means to quantify MS plaques. A group of MS patients and asymptomatic subjects with hyper-intense FLAIR images were scanned. The results indicated that quantitative magnetic susceptibility mapping may potentially improve the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MS plaques.

 
3120.   39 Susceptibility Weighted Images Identifies Pallido-Reticular Lesions in Carbon monoxide intoxication Patients, which is associated with poor Parkinsonian Features
YauYau Wai1,2, Chiung-Chih Chang3, Wen-Neng Chang3, Chun-Chung Lui3, and Jiun-Jie Wang4,5
1Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, ChangGung University, TaoYuan, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, TaoYuan, Taiwan, Taiwan, 3Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 4ChangGung University, 5molecular imaging center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital

 
Susceptibility Weighted Imaging was acquired from 25 patients after carbon monoxide intoxication to investigate the extent of vascular damage, as associated with clinical outcome. Low-intensity pallidoreticular lesions could be detected in the minimal intensity projection where conventional T1 and T2 images appear normal. Patients with detected lesions showed increased parkinsonian features and poorer performances on the neuropsychiatric tests compared to those without, which could be associated with extensive grey and white matter damage in addition to the damage to the nigra-striatal neuronal networks. The sensitivity for detecting pallidoreticular lesions can be greatly improved by susceptibility-weighted imaging.

 
3121.   40 Gray Matter Damage Predicts the Accumulation of Disability and Cognitive Impairment 13 Years Later in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
Maria A. Rocca1, Paolo Preziosa1, Massimiliano Copetti2, Gianna Riccitelli1, Roberta Messina1, Giancarlo Comi3, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Biostatistics Unit, IRCCS-Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy, 3Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy

 
We assessed the value of conventional and magnetization transfer (MT) MRI quantities of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM) damage and their 12-month changes in predicting the accumulation of disability and cognitive impairment after 13 years in 73 multiple sclerosis (MS). At 13-year follow-up, 63% patients showed a significant disability worsening and 30% were cognitively impaired. MTR and atrophy measures of GM damage at baseline were the only predictors of disability worsening and cognitive impairment at 13 years.

 
3122.   41 Two-year Serial Whole-Brain N-Acetylaspartate in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Daniel Rigotti1, Matilde Inglese1, Ivan Kirov1, Nissa Perry1, Joseph Herbert2, Robert I Grossman1, and Oded Gonen1
1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
We test the hypotheses that: relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients exhibit quantifiable whole-brain N-acetylaspartate (WBNAA) decline, that is more sensitive than clinical changes; and may provide a practical outcomes for ‘proof-of-concept’ trials. WBNAA was collected from 19 RR MS patients 33±5 years-old of 47±28 months disease duration. Patients’ baseline WBNAA, 10.5±1.7mM, was significantly lower than controls’ 12.3±1.3mM-(p‹0.002) and declined significantly (5%/year- p‹0.002) while controls did not (0.4%/year-p›0.7). Similarly, patients’ brain volume declined significantly (0.5%/year- p‹0.0001, controls:0.2%/year-p=0.08) with no significant EDSS changes. These results indicate that WBNAA is a longitudinally sensitive marker for neurodegeneration and may be suitable for larger multi-center trials.

 
3123.   42 Detecting Cortical Lesions in MS Tissue with Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging
Jie Luo1, Anne H Cross2, Robert Schmidt3, Alexander L Sukstanskii4, and Dmitriy A Yablonskiy4
1Chemistry, Washington University, St.Louis, MO, United States, 2Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Pathology, Washington University in St. Louis, 4Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis

 
Although most imaging research in Multiple Sclerosis has focused on the white matter, pathology is also found in gray matter, including cerebral cortex. Conventional MRI techniques that are routinely used to detect MS lesions are T1 and T2 weighted spin-echo images and FLAIR, which detect white matter lesions well, but miss most cortical lesions. Herein, we show that the gradient echo plural contrast imaging technique (GEPCI), that already proved useful in quantifying tissue damage in WM lesions in MS, can also detect cortical lesions. Data are obtained using ex vivo MS brain tissue.

 
3124.   43 Functional Connectivity Abnormalities and Cognitive Impairment in Relapse-Onset Ms Patients: A Whole-Brain Functional Network Connectivity Analysis
Maria A. Rocca1, Paola Valsasina2, Paolo Preziosa2, Gianna Riccitelli2, Vittorio Martinelli3, Andrea Falini4, Giancarlo Comi3, and Massimo Filippi2
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 3Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 4Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

 
In this study, we assessed functional connectivity (FC) at resting state (RS) within and among cognitive networks in 30 healthy controls, 30 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and 30 patients with secondary progressive MS. Decreased FC was present in frontal, temporal, parahippocampal and cerebellar regions of all cognitive RS networks, whereas increased FC was found only in the anterior cingulate cortex of the executive control network. Such abnormalities were detected in both patient groups, and they were more evident in the progressive form of the disease, as well as in patients with cognitive impairment.

 
3125.   44 Clinical Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis Is Related to the Damage of Clinically Eloquent White Matter Tracts
Paolo Preziosa1, Maria A. Rocca1, Sarlota Mesaros2, Elisabetta Pagani1, Tatjana Stosic-Opincal3, Domenico Caputo4, Jelena Drulovic2, Giancarlo Comi5, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 3Clinic of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 4Department of Neurology, IRCCS Fondazione Don Gnocchi, Milan, Italy, 5Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy

 
We investigated whether voxel-wise analyses to metrics from diffusion tensor (DT) MRI tractography and T2 lesions of the corticospinal tract (CST) and sensitive thalamocortical projections (sTCP) contribute to explain global clinical disability and impairment in specific functional systems in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Compared to healthy controls, MS patients showed widespread diffusivity abnormalities along the tracts investigated. Compared to unimpaired patients, impaired patients had higher diffusivity abnormalities and higher probability of having T2 lesions in the CTSs and sTCPs, thus suggesting that clinical impairment in MS is associated with both focal damage and diffuse normal appearing white matter tract injury.

 
3126.   45 ANATOMICAL BRAIN CONNECTIVITY TO ASSESS COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN MS
Barbara Spano'1, Mara Cercignani1,2, Geoff J.M. Parker3,4, Maura Castelli5, Barbara Basile1, Silvia Rossi5, Laura Serra1, Giuseppe Magnani6, Ugo Nocentini7, Carlo Caltagirone5,7, Diego Centonze5, and Marco Bozzali1
1Neuorimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 2Brighton& Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom, 3Imaging Science & Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 4Biomedical Imaging Institute, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, 5Dept of Neuroscience, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy, 6Department of Neurology, IRCCS University Hospital, San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 7Department of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy

 
Anatomical disconnection of important processing regions by damage to the interconnecting white matter (WM), provides a potential mechanism for the accrual of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). So far, structural disconnection in MS brains, has been estimated by local indexes of macro- and microscopic WM integrity. Here, we applied for the first time to a group of MS patients, a recently developed method based on diffusion-MRI and tractography, namely anatomical connectivity mapping (ACM). ACM revealed, in MS patients, patterns of anatomical disconnection accounting for both, deficits in the higher level control of motor abilities, and cognitive dysfunctions

 
3127.   46 Presentations of Multiple Sclerosis lesions on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)
Weiwei Chen1, Tian Liu2, Joseph Comunale3, Susan Gauthier3, Linda Heier3, Apostolos Tsiouris3, Tim Vartarian3, and Yi Wang3,4
1Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science& Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, United States, 2MedImageMetric LLC, New York, NY, United States, 3Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States

 
19 consecutive MS patients were imaged on a 3T MRI system using T2FLAIR, gradient echo (GRE) and CET1W sequences. QSM was reconstructed from GRE data. A total of 203 lesions were identified on T2FLAIR, and their presentations on QSM were characterized according to their signal value and geometry. Frequently observed MS lesion presentations on QSM include 1) positive with associated veins only (35.5%), 2) not present (25.6%), 3) positive without associated veins or surrounding positive ring (20.7%), and 4) positive with both associated veins and a surrounding positive ring (8.4%).

 
3128.   47 Can 7T White Matter Attenuated Turbo Field Echo Replace FLAIR for White Matter Lesion Load Assessment in MS?
Andrew J Kalnin1, Katharrine Bluestein1, David Pitt2, Grant K Yang1, Michael V Knopp1, and Petra Schmalbrock1
1Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States, 2Neurology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

 
In the assessment of Multiple Sclerosis, T2- FLAIR is typically used to assess total lesion load. White Matter Attenuated Turbo Field Echo (WHAT) at 7T has high contrast between lesions and normal appearing white matter, is fast and has low SAR, but the contrast is dependent only on T1, not T2. This study compares MS WM lesion detection with 7T WHAT and 3T T2-FLAIR. WHAT can detect a large fraction of all WM lesions. Lesions are more conspicuous on FLAIR, but WHAT better differentiates abnormal T1 lesions.

 
3129.   48 Deficits in Memory and Spatial Cognition Correlate With Regional Hippocampal Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis
Elisabetta Pagani1, Maria A. Rocca1, Giulia Longoni1, Gianna Riccitelli1, Bruno Colombo2, Mariaemma Rodegher2, Andrea Falini3, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 3Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy

 
Hippocampal manual segmentation and radial assessment of atrophy distribution were applied in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients imaged at 3.0 Tesla. Radial atrophy was detected in the lateral portion of the body and tail (CA1 subfield) and in the subiculum, bilaterally. Significant correlations were found between left CA1 atrophy and verbal learning performance, as well as with performance in spatial cognition tasks. Moreover, right CA1 atrophy correlated with visuo-spatial memory performance. The use of a regional approach allowed to detect a regional pattern of hippocampal damage which may contribute to explain MS-related neuropsychological impairment.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

Psychiatric Disorders
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  17:30 - 18:30

  Computer #  
3130.   
25 Magnetic Field Correlation Imaging of Brain Iron in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Vitria Adisetiyo1,2, Rachael L. Deardorff3, Ali Tabesh3, Els Fieremans2, Amanda Allen3, Rebecca Grzadzinski4, Adriana Di Martino4, Francisco X. Castellanos4, Jens H. Jensen3, and Joseph A. Helpern3
1Neuroscience & Physiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States,3Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States, 4NYU Child Study Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with lower serum iron levels that correlate to symptom severity but there is only one study that has looked into brain iron in ADHD. We have applied a novel imaging method called Magnetic Field Correlation Imaging (MFC) to investigate brain iron in ADHD compared to typically developing controls (TDC). Conventional measures of R2 and R2* as well as serum iron measures were also acquired. Although there were no differences detected in serum iron measures, significantly lower brain iron was found in the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus in the ADHD group. Only MFC measures were able to detect this group difference.

 
3131.   26 Resting state network changes in pediatric OCD
An Vo1, Patricia Gruner1,2, Toshikazu Ikuta1,2, Miklos Argyelan2, Bart Peters1,2, Anil K. Malhotra1,2, Peter B. Kingsley3, Aziz M. Ulug1, and Philip Szeszko1,2
1Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, United States, 2Psychiatry, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, New York, United States, 3Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York, United States

 
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by distressing, irrational thoughts and repetitive behaviors. Although pediatric OCD is similar to OCD in adults, the content of obsessions and compulsions can be influenced by developmental factors such as age, gender, and genetics. Ritualistic washing, repetitive checking, ordering, counting and hoarding are common compulsions in children and adolescents. Neuro-imaging studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of pediatric OCD. The purpose of this study was to use resting state fMRI to explore disease affected brain networks in pediatric OCD patients compared to healthy volunteers.

 
3132.   27 Biophysical Abnormalities in Normal-Appearing White Matter and Subcortical Nuclei in Late-Life Major Depression: A Magnetization Transfer Imaging Study
Shaolin Yang1,2, Olusola Ajilore1, Minjie Wu1, Melissa Lamar1, and Anand Kumar1
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

 
Neuroanatomical abnormalities have been identified in patients with late-life mood disorders, including decrease in focal brain volumes and increase in white matter hyperintensity lesions. This study examined the integrity of macromolecular protein pool in normal-appearing white matter and subcortical nuclei by magnetization transfer imaging. Compared with control subjects, patients with late-life major depression had significantly lower magnetization transfer ratios in the genu of corpus callosum and the right head of caudate. These findings suggest late-life major depression is associated with compromised macromolecular proteins in white matter and subcortical nuclei and may have implications for the pathophysiology of late-life major depression.

 
3133.   28 Toward an Integrated Structural-Functional Characterization of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Mariana Lazar1, Laura Miles1, and Jeffrey Donaldson1
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States

 
We present a multimodal imaging approach for characterizing the macrostructure, microstructure, and anatomical and functional connectivity of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus (PSTS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Anatomical, Resting-State Functional MRI, and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging data were acquired in young adults with ASD and comparison typically developing subjects. We report for the first time decreased PSTS microstructural organization in ASD. This decreased microstructural organization correlates negatively with increased cortical thickness. Decreased anatomical and functional connectivity of the PSTS with the prefrontal cortex is also observed in the same ASD population.

 
3134.   29 Resting-state Functional Connectivity Changes Induced by Sleep Deprivation
Iris Y. Zhou1,2, Russell W. Chan1,2, Abby Y. Ding1,2, Frank Y. Lee1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

 
Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to diminish alertness and impair cognitive performance in humans. The intrinsic connectivity during resting-state may also be modified by SD. In this study, we used rsfMRI to examine the changes in functional connectivity induced by rapid eye movement SD in rat brains. After SD, interhemispheric correlations in hippocampus prominently diminished, indicating possible neuronal loss or/and neuronal dysfunction. Reduced intercortical connection in visual cortex was also observed, consistent with earlier studies showing decreased neuronal activity in this region after SD.

 
3135.   30 Reduced Sensorimotor GABA in Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Richard AE Edden1,2, Deana Crocetti3, He Zhu1,2, Donald Gilbert4, and Stewart H Mostofsky3,5
1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Laboratory for Neurocognitive and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 5Laboratory for Neurocognitive and Imaging Research, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by a deficit in behavioral inhibition. Although most commonly associated with dopaminergic and noradrenergic abnormalities, it has recently been suggested that there is also a GABAergic component. In this study, we test this hypothesis using J-difference edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T to measure GABA concentration in a primary sensorimotor region. Our major finding is that GABA concentration is reduced in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to typically developing controls.

 
3136.   31 Brain Tissue and Microstructure Alternations in Children with Trichotillomania
Geon-Ho Jahng1, Jee A Lee2, Min-Ji Kim1, Hyug-Gi Kim1, So-Youn Shin1, Geon-Ho Bahn2, Sun Mi Kim1, Chang-Woo Ryu1, Dal-Mo Yang1, Dong Wook Sung3, and Woo-Suk Choi3
1Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, 2Psychiatry, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, Korea, 3Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

 
Trichotillomania (TTM) is a poorly understood disorder that is characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Very few neuroimaging studies have been conducted on patients with TTM. No study has investigated neural correlates, such as grey matter and diffusion alterations, in patients with TTM. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate specific brain tissue loss with structural MRI and microstructural changes with diffusion tensor MRI in children and adolescents with TTM. Pediatric subjects who met criteria for TTM (n = 9) and age-, sex-, handedness-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HC) (n = 10) were recruited.

 
3137.   32 fMRI correlates of abmnormal ‘guilt processing’ in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder
Barbara Basile1,2, Francesco Mancini2, Emiliano Macaluso3, Carlo Caltagirone4, and Marco Bozzali1
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, Italy, 2School of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy, 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 4Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, Italy

 
Guilt plays a role in the occurrence and maintenance of obsessive compulsive disorder (ODC). In this fMRI study we investigated, for the first time, the processing of deontological and altruistic guilt in a sample of OCD patients compared to healthy controls. Main finding was a pattern of reduced activation in frontal/insular areas (previously shown to be implicated in the normal processing of guilt) of OCD patients while experiencing guilty feelings, especially of deontological type. A reduced inhibitory control of higher level structures in OCD brains might account for a abnormal emotion processing, and explain some clinical features of the disease.

 
3138.   33 Functional Connectivity Reveals Abnormal Affective, Executive and Sensorimotor Resting State Networks in Psychotropic Naïve Patients with Pediatric Mania
Minjie Wu1, Lisa H Lu1,2, Alessandra M Passarotti1, Ezra Wegbreit1, Jacklynn Fitzgerald1, and Mani N Pavuluri1
1Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Psychiatry, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL, United States

 
An understanding of the neural operations impacted by pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is essential for the discovery of optimal treatment targets for this serious illness. The present study evaluates the resting state functional connectivity underlying structural and functional abnormalities reported in PBD using model-free independent component analysis approach. Three distinct resting state networks, comprising regions involved in affective, executive, or sensorimotor functions, exhibited significant differences in regional connectivity between PBD and healthy control (HC) groups.

 
3139.   34 DTI abnormalities in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder
An Vo1, Patricia Gruner1,2, Toshikazu Ikuta1,2, Bart Peters1,2, Anil K. Malhotra1,2, Peter B. Kingsley3, Aziz M. Ulug1, and Philip Szeszko1,2
1Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, United States, 2Psychiatry, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, New York, United States, 3Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York, United States

 
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of the brain and behavior that is characterized by recurrent worries and repetitive behaviors. Pediatric OCD is similar to OCD in adults. However the content of obsessions and compulsions can be influenced by developmental factors such as age, gender, genetics. Neuro-imaging studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of pediatric OCD. The purpose of this study was to use diffusion tensor image (DTI) derived metrics to explore disease affected circuits in pediatric OCD patients compared to healthy volunteers.

 
3140.   35 Using Probabilistic Tractography to Assess Optimal Targeting for Subcallosal Cingulate Deep Brain Stimulation: An Informative Case
Ki Sueng Choi1,2, Paul E. Holtzheimer3, Alexandre R. Franco2, Patricio Riva Posse2, Xiaoping P. Hu1, and Helen S. Mayberg2
1Bioengineering(BME), Georgia Institute of Technology / Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Psychiatry and Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, United States

 
Structural connectivity analyses may help improve DBS targeting by highlighting which WM tracts are necessary and sufficient for effective stimulation. We present data on a treatment resistant depression who showed a poor clinical response but who subsequently remitted following a second surgery performed to revise the placement of the DBS within the predefined subcallosal cingulate and differences in the WM projections from the active contacts. These results suggest that precise targeting of specific structural connections between the primary SCC electrode and parts of the medial frontal cortex may be essential for optimal clinical effectiveness of chronic SCC DBS.

 
3141.   36 Inferior frontal gray matter is increased in healthy individuals with high risk averse behaviour.
Satomi Higuchi1, Keigo Inukai2, Hackjin Kim3, Tetsuya Matsuda4, Masamichi Sakagami5, and Tatsuya Kameda6
1Center for Experimental Research in Social Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 2Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration, Hokkaido University, Japan, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, 4Tamagawa University, Japan, 5Tamagawa University, 6Hokkaido University, Japan

 
A gambling task used for risk measurement, known as mean variance utility mode (MVUM), was used to estimate individuals risk attitude. In clinical studies, the `Iowa gambling task` is a test for measuring risk attitude in relation to addiction. However, this model differs in that outcome feedback is also measured, and therefore not purely representative of decision making. In this work we measured individual responses to MVUM, obtained T1 weighted MRI and applied VBM analysis, investigating gray matter volumes (GMV) of healthy volunteers and their behavioural risk attitude. GMV and risk aversion were positively correlated in left inferior frontal gyrus.

 
3142.   37 Long term effects of developmental exposure to LP211, a new serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7) agonist
Rossella Canese1, Paola Porcari1, Luisa Altabella1, Francesca Zoratto1, Francesco de Pasquale2, Giovanni Laviola1, and Walter Adriani1
1Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita', Rome, Italy, 2Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, G. D’Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy

 
LP211 is an agonist of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor 7 (5-HT7). It is proposed for a role in neurogenesis and in patho-physiological processes like anxiety / depression, cognitive / sleep disturbances, and impaired coping with stress. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of developmental exposure to LP211 on brain metabolism (by in vivo 1H MRS), anatomy (by DTI) and functionality (by functional connectivity). We detect enduring metabolic, anatomic and functional modifications which may perhaps indicate rearrangement in forebrain networks.

 
3143.   38 Combining Anatomical and Functional MRI in Diagnosis of Drug-naive First Episode Schizophrenia
Wenting Ren1, Peilin Lv2, Wei Deng3, Qizhu Wu1, Xiaoqi Huang1, Tao Li3, Qiyong Gong1, and Su Lui1
1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology,West China Hospital of Sichuan Universit, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 3Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

 
A support vector machine classification approach combining gray matter volume and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations information was utilized to distinguish schizophrenia patients from health controls. One hundred drug-naive first episode schizophrenia patients and 100 controls were scanned using a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted sequence and EPI sequence on a 3T MR imaging system. The classification yielded an accuracy of 83.5%. For the first time, we provides the evidence for evaluating the MR diagnostic value in a large sample of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia, supporting the anatomical and functional deficits could be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.

 
3144.   39 Altered Hippocampal Connectivity Network Associated with Impulsivity in Abstinent Heroin Addicts
Tianye Zhai1,2, Chunming Xie1,2, Wenjun Li2, Zheng Yang1, and Shi-Jiang Li2
1Center of Brain and Cognition, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Science, Beijing, China, 2Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

 
Neurobiological and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus, as a major node of memory processing, is involved in drug addiction. However, little is known about the role of hippocampal network and its relation to drug-seeking behaviors such as impulsivity in addiction. In this study, we utilized resting-state functional connectivity fMRI (R-fMRI) to investigate the alteration of hippocampus functional connectivity (HFC) network and its relation to impulsivity in abstinent heroin dependent subjects (HD) and control non-drug users (CN).

 
3145.   40 Alteration in medial prefrontal cortex in relation with symptom severity in autism spectrum disorder as revealed by resting state fMRI
Li-Ting Liu1, Kayako Mastuo2, Yung-Chin Hsu3, Shur-Fen Susan Gau1,4, Ay-Woan Pan1,4, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng5,6
1Department of Occupational Therapy, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan,3Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, 4Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

 
We investigated the default mode network (DMN) in relation with social impairment in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing (TD) counterparts (N=16, each). Social responsiveness scale (SRS) was used as a clinical behavioral index. Coherent activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) with the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) was estimated using resting state fMRI. The DMN was clearly defined in both groups, but the MPFC co-activation with bilateral PCC was only found in TD. The negative correlation in SRS scores with the co-activation in the MPFC might possibly represent the severity of the autistic trait in adolescents.

 
3146.   41 Reduction in cerebellar grey matter in schizophrenia detected using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial (SUIT) toolbox
Florian Schubert1, Simone Kühn2, Alexander Romanowski3, and Jürgen Gallinat4
1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany, 2Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 3Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité University Medicine, Germany, 4Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité University Medicine

 
Structural deficiencies in cerebellum have been associated with schizophrenia, including the schizophrenic signs of thought disorders. Since conventional whole brain voxel-based morphometry shows contradictory results for cerebellum of schizophrenics we used a cerebellum-optimized VBM procedure: the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial toolbox, to study 29 patients and 45 controls. Patients showed reductions of GM volume in the left cerebellum Crus I/II that correlated negatively with thought disorder and positively with performance in Trail-Making Test. The failure of conventional VBM to detect such effects suggests that previous studies might have underestimated the importance of cerebellar structural deficits in schizophrenia.

 
3147.   42 White matter disruption of healthy maltreated adolescents
Hao Huang1,2, Tejasvi Gundapuneedi1, and Uma Rao3
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 3Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

 
Childhood maltreatment (MALTX), including emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect, is widespread in US. MALTX has been known to produce long-lasting impairments in behavioral, cognitive and social functioning, but their underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. The developing brain is highly sensitive to the effects of early-life stress. In this study, 19 MALTX adolescents and 13 age-matched controls were recruited and underwent DTI scanning. The goal of this study is to find out if white matter disruption precedes the onsets of clinical symptoms and may serve as potential biomarker of pscychiatric disorders such as depression and substance abuse.

 
3148.   43 Comparison of volumes of cerebellar lobules on structural MRI using manual and automatic segmentation in normal and alcohol-exposed children
Priya Lakshmi Narayanan1,2, Christopher Warton1, Sandra W Jacobson3,4, Joseph L Jacobson3,4, Christopher D Molteno4, and Ernesta M Meintjes1,2
1Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Cape Town, South Africa, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Cape Town

 
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by chronic maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is a significant worldwide health problem and a particularly critical public health issue in South Africa. The highest prevalence of FAS was reported in the wine-growing regions of South Africa. A total of 23 right-handed children aged 11.8±1.2 years old were scanned for structural analysis of the cerebellum. Cerebellar lobules were manually traced and volumes were estimated manually and compared with automated IBASPM methods. Both the methods showed the difference in volume between control and FAS but the significant difference was not observed in automated method.

 
3149.   44 7T MRS of brain GABA Pre and Post Gabapentin Administration in Health Males
Kejia Cai1, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga1, Lisa Lamprou2, Claudia Schinstine2, Jacqueline Meeks3, Mark Elliott1, Hari Hariharan1, Ravinder Reddy1, and Neill Epperson2
1CMROI, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Departments of Psychiatry & Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major neurotransmitter for fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Gabapentin which is recently introduced as an antiepileptic drug has been shown to modulate the GABA concentration in vivo in the brain. In this study, using MEGA PRESS based GABA editing sequence at 7T, we demonstrated the feasibility of measuring elevated GABA levels in response to gabapentin administration in healthy volunteers.

 
3150.   45 Characterizing White Matter Abnormalities in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Sung-Yeon Park1, Se-Hong Oh1,2, Young-Shin Kim3, Young-Bo Kim1, Keun-Ah Cheon4, and Zang-Hee Cho1
1Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, Korea, 2Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 3Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 44Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

 
Autism has been hypothesized to reflect neuronal disconnection. Several recent reports implicate the white matter connectivity in the pathophysiology of autism. Accordingly, we aimed to focus on evaluating the integrity of the brain white matters in Korean boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). And our preliminary findings support evidence implicating disturbances in the brain white matter connections in autism particularly in left hemisphere. These findings will help on understanding of more advanced neurobiological basis underlying the social deficits in ASD.

 
3151.   46 Microstructure abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined and inattentive subtypes reveals by diffusion tensor imaging
Xiaoxia Du1, Du Lei1, Jun Ma2, Guohua Shen1, and Gengying Li1
1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, 2Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics of Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, XinHua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laborat, Shanghai, China

 
This study was to explore the differences of brain microstructure between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and combined (ADHD-C) sub-types by diffusion tensor imaging.

 
3152.   47 Structural connectivity of the default mode network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders
Li-Ting Liu1, Shur-Fen Susan Gau1,2, Ay-Woan Pan1,2, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng3,4
1Department of Occupational Therapy, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

 
This study aimed to investigate the structural connectivity of DMN in adolescents with ASD and typically developing (TD) adolescents. The DSI image of 13 adolescents with ASD (aged 15.0¡Ó0.94) and 13 age-, sex-, and handedness-matched TD adolescent were acquired on a 3T MRI system and performed using a twice-refocused balanced EPI sequence. The predefined ROIs were processed by the LDDMM normalization and transformation procedure, we successfully tracked the 15 fiber bundles of DMN in adolescents with ASD and TD. However, our study provides weak evidence showing that structural connectivity within DMN might be altered in adolescents with ASD.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

Learning Neuro Development using Advanced Imaging Techniques
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  16:30 - 17:30

  Computer #  
3153.   49 Feasibility of connectivity-based classification of the preterm corpus callosum at term equivalent age
Kerstin Pannek1, Giulia D'Acunto2, Andrea Guzzetta3, Paul Colditz1, and Stephen Rose1
1The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 2University of Pisa, Italy, 3Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Italy

 
The corpus callosum (CC) is a major white matter fibre bundle, enabling the efficient interhemispheric transfer of information in the brain. In infants born preterm, development of the CC is often compromised, which can impact on motor and cognitive function later in life. Morphology of the CC can be analyzed using structural imaging, while its microstructure can be assessed with diffusion imaging. We investigate the feasibility of using diffusion tractography to automatically segment the CC based on its cortical connections in a cohort of very preterm infants scanned at term equivalent age.

 
3154.   
50 Changes of microstructural correlation of white matter tracts with human brain development
Virendra Mishra1, Hua Cheng2, Gaolang Gong3, Yan Daniel Zhao4, Yong He3, Qi Dong3, and Hao Huang1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Imaging Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing, China, 3State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, 4Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

 
While the general increase of fractional anisotropy and general decrease of mean, axial and radial diffusivity of white matter during development are commonly found in the literature, how microstructural correlations of major white matter tracts change during development remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that the microstructural correlations of different white matter tracts undergo significant change in terms of correlation strength maps and the microstructural correlation pattern represented by dendrograms is reshuffled during brain development. Tract-level measurements and inter-tract correlation analysis of the four DTI metrics of 10 tracts from 26 neonates and 28 adolescents were conducted.

 
3155.   51 Structural network development of human brain during childhood
Hao Huang1, Ni Shu2, Virendra Mishra1, Tina Jeon1, Gaolang Gong2, Qi Dong2, and Yong He2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

 
After birth, complicated molecular and biochemical processes take place in the human brain white matter, which is reshaped to better adapt sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. The axonal connectivity undergoes dramatic structural changes, causing the significant variations of brain network properties. In this study, high resolution DTI data of 25 neonates, 13 infants and 15 young children were acquired and analyzed with DTI based tractography to characterize network dynamics at three landmark time points during early childhood. Significant changes among the network properties at these key developmental time points were found although the property of small-world organization is kept.

 
3156.   52 Emerging left-right asymmetry of white matter brain pathways in humans: Fetal, neonatal, and toddler stages
Jae W Song1, Rebecca D Folkerth2, P. Ellen Grant1, and Emi Takahashi1
1Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging & Developmental Science Center, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United States, 2Pathology, Brigham And Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

 
We characterized the development of white matter pathways and compared structural hemispheric differences. Human fetal brains at post-gestational week (W) 17, W20, W30, W34, W40, and 2years were imaged using a 4.7T Bruker (ex vivo specimens) and 3T Siemens (in vivo subjects) MR system. Migration-related, limbic and cortico-cortical fiber pathways were segmented using high-angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography, and fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficients, trajectories and volumes were compared using an asymmetry index. Asymmetric hemispheric developmental pathways were observed as early as 17W with a gradual right-ward and left-ward asymmetry by 2years in some limbic and cortico-cortical pathways, respectively.

 
3157.   53 Development of Cerebellar White Matter and Cortical Connections in Humans
Emi Takahashi1,2, Jae W Song1, Guangping Dai3, Rebecca D Folkerth4, Jeremy D Schmahmann5, and Patricia Ellen Grant1,2
1Newborn Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging & Developmental Science Center, Children's Hospital Boston, 3Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 4Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 5Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

 
We applied HARDI tractography to intact postmortem fetal and mature cerebellums to explore the 3-dimensional development of cerebellum pathways. We observed regression of radial organization in the cerebellar cortex and the emergence of regional specificity of cerebellar peduncles that were similar to our previous observations on the development of cerebral cortex. In particular, our results suggest that we may be able to resolve axonal pathways from different types of cells within the cerebellar cortex, which is potentially critical for the future application of this technique to in vivo imaging. Future immunohistochemical correlation studies are planned to test this hypothesis.

 
3158.   54 Investigating the spatial folding pattern of very preterm neonatal cortex scanned at term-equivalent age
Andrew Melbourne1, Giles S Kendall2, Manuel J Cardoso1, Nicola J Robertson2, Neil Marlow2, and Sebastien Ourselin1
1University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom

 
MRI has revealed a common imaging phenotype which has stimulated efforts to develop markers of outcome to guide mitigating treatment or therapy. This work analyses the cortical surface properties of 92 very preterm babies (born prior to 32 weeks gestational age (GA)). High-resolution T1-weighted term-equivalent MRI of very preterm neonates are segmented and the grey/white matter interface extracted. By correlating the cortical surface properties both globally and for each lobe we can investigate the spatial pattern of cortical folding. This reveals consistent spatial patterns in the cortical surface pattern.

 
3159.   55 Early childhood home environment predicts frontal and temporal cortical thickness in the young adult brain
Brian B Avants1, Gwen Lawson1, James Gee1, Martha Farah1, and Hallam Hurt2
1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Children's hospital of philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
The brain depends upon early nurturance and environmental input to sculpt and prune its extensive neural architecture as it develops. However, the impact of childhood experience on brain development is not well understood. we examine the relationship between age 4 mea- sures of a child’s home environment and cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted MRI. This study is the first to document a neural substrate that is specifically sensitive to normal variation in overall quality of early childhood experience.

 
3160.   56 Age Specific DTI Average Brain Atlases from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development (PedsDTI)
Carlo Pierpaoli1, Lindsay Walker1,2, Amritha Nayak1,2, Lin-Ching Chang3, William Ball4, Kelly Botteron5, James McCracken6, Robert McKinstry5, Michael Rivkin7, and the Brain Development Cooperative Group8
1NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2CNRM, USUHS, 3CUA, 4Children's Hospital Cincinnati, 5Washington University St. Louis, 6UCLA, 7Children's Hospital, Boston, 8www.NIH-pediatricMRI.org

 
We present a first analysis of data from the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) component of the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development (PedsDTI). We analyze age specific brain atlases that will be included in the data repository, available for download by scientists and clinicians

 
3161.   57 What b-value should be used to resolve crossing fibres in the neonate brain?
Kerstin Pannek1, Tracey Bjorkman1, Paul Colditz1, and Stephen Rose1
1The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

 
Diffusion MRI and tractography are increasingly popular tools for studying the neonate brain. The ability to resolve crossing fibres is crucial for obtaining accurate tractography results. Several higher order models of diffusion have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the diffusion tensor in this respect. However, higher b-values are typically required in these models. This parameter needs to be optimized for the neonate brain to improve the estimation of fibre orientations from diffusion imaging and increase the accuracy of tractography.

 
3162.   58 Effects of gender and music on global functional connectivity density at 4T MRI
Ruiliang Wang1, Gene-Jack Wang1, Rita Goldstein1, Elisabeth Caparelli1, Frank Telang1, Nora D Volkow2,3, and Dardo Tomasi3
1Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, United States, 2National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Health,3National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Health
 
Using voxelwise resting-state functional connectivity density mapping here we demonstrate that music can increase the global functional connectivity density of the brain. EPI datasets from 113 healthy subjects were collected in resting conditions in a 4Tesla MRI scanner. Parallel computing techniques were used to speed up the computation of the gFCD (degree centrality) at 3 mm isotropic resolution. Standard parametric mapping techniques demonstrated a music-related enhancement of the gFCD in the motor cortex that was strongly correlated with music-liking scores and prominent gender effects affecting the short-range hubs in the default mode network and long-range hubs in the visual cortex.

 
3163.   59 Heterogeneity of human white matter development: diffusivity parameters decrease fastest in the center of white matter tracts, from 5 to 19 years of age
Shu-Wei Sun1,2, Nirmalya Ghosh1, Karen Tong1, Barbara Holshouser1, and Stephen Ashwal1
1Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2University of California, Riverside, CA, United States

 
We compared changes in whole brain DTI parameters taken from the center of white matter tracts to parameters from the entire tract to evaluate the homogeneity of white matter maturation in children and adolescents between 5-19 years old. The white matter area increased ~2.5 times but the length of tracts only increased ~1.5 times. White matter maturation is not homogeneous within the tracts. Diffusivity decreases faster in the center compared to the edges of the white matter tracts suggesting greater myelin development and compactness which may provide greater resistance to shearing injuries compared to the gray-white matter junction.

 
3164.   60 Serial diffusion tensor imaging demonstrates that the degree of prematurity at birth is associated with white matter microstructure at term equivalent age but not to white matter microstructure in the early neonatal period.
Britta M Huening1,2, Libuse Pazderova1, Gareth Ball1, Nora Tusor1, Nazakat Merchant1, Tomoki Arichi1, Joanna Allsop1, Ursula Felderhoff-Mueser2, Mary Rutherford1, A David Edwards1, and Serena J Counsell1
1Centre for the Developing Brain, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 2University Hospital Essen, Essen, NRW, Germany

 
We studied 50 preterm infants, born at < 33 weeks gestational age (GA) at 2 timepoints; 31 (25+2 - 33) weeks GA and 41+2 (38+6 – 44+1) weeks GA using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. We observed a dose-dependent relationship between WM FA values at term, but not in the early neonatal period. These data suggest that diffuse WM injury is not an inevitable consequence of preterm birth, and imply there may be a window of opportunity where intervention with appropriate treatments may ameliorate the adverse effects of prematurity on WM development.

 
3165.   61 Comparative in and ex utero thalamic volumetric growth and the effect of preterm birth
M Ash Ederies1,2, Christina Malamateniou1, Tomoki Arichi2, Nora Tusor2, Serena J Counsell2, Joanna M Allsop1, Tayyib Hayat1, Joseph V Hajnal1, Mary A Rutherford1, and A David Edwards2
1Robert Steiner MRI Unit, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC CSC, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for the Developing Brain, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC CSC, Queen Charlottes and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

 
Preterm birth is associated with grey and white matter abnormalities which translate into adverse neurodevelopment. There is disruption of thalamo-cortical connectivity as evident by reduced thalamic volume at term equivalent age. Our aim was to compare thalamic growth trajectories of the fetal, term and preterm populations. Manual thalamic segmentations were performed on data sets (T2w) corrected for motion using the Snapshot-to-Volume Reconstruction algorithm. The development of the thalamus for fetal and term populations modelled a single growth curve. The growth curve of the preterm group was consistent with the fetal group during mid-gestation but showed reduction beyond 35 weeks.

 
3166.   62 Time-Resolved 3D Fetal Imaging: Preliminary Results
Jing Liu1, Orit Glenn1, and Duan Xu1
1University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Time-resolved whole brain fetal imaging was achieved by using a multi-echo radial sequence during a continuous scan of about 3 minutes, with the mother breathing freely. Preliminary results demonstrated that the images of fetus obtained in vivo could be retrospectively selected with the time-resolved 3D images. Gating signals were derived from the image data and can be applied for motion compensation. Image registration of the time-resolved 3D images can further improve the image quality and data acquisition efficiency.

 
3167.   63 Brain development in preterm infants at term equivalent age: Assessment using DTI
Hye Jin Jeong1, So Yeon Shim2, Joon Sup Jeong1, Se Hong Oh1, Sung Yeon Park1, Young Bo Kim1, and Zang Hee Cho1
1Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Neuroscience Research Instiute, Namdong-gu, Incheon, Korea, 2Gachon University Gil Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Namdong-gu, Incheon, Korea

 
Infant born preterm have a high incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment, comparing with full-term infants. Development of brain white matter (WM) study based on DTI may allow prediction of later neurodevlopmental outcome. we performed analyses of brain development between full-term infants and preterm infants at equivalent age using TBSS. Group-wise voxel-based comparisons between full-term infants and preterm infants revealed significantly decreased FA values in preterm infants at term equivalent age. We show that growth of white matter is gestation dependent. Longitudinal study is needed to define the catch-up growth in preterm infants.

 
3168.   64 Resting State Analysis of Function in the Moving Fetal Brain?
Sharmishtaa Seshamani1, Mads Fogtmann1, Moriah Thomason2, and Colin Studholme1
1Pediatrics, Bioengineering, Radiology, BICG, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States

 
A framework for resting state fMRI analysis of moving fetuses is introduced. The novelty of the work is the application of slice correction and weighted ICA for extracting functional networks in the fetal brain. The strength of the method has been verified by demonstrating that motion artifacts are reduced in the ICA components after slice correction and by demonstrating the presence of similar networks in motion corrected data across multiple subjects.

 
3169.   65 Automatic Brain MRI Segmentation in Very Preterm Infants
Lili He1, and Nehal A. Parikh1
1Center for Perinatal Research, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States

 
Premature birth and secondary perinatal-neonatal insults profoundly alter brain development and functional outcomes. Accurate gray and white matter tissue quantification of neonatal brain MRI scans can enhance our understanding of this developmental trajectory and serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, accurate quantification remains an extremely challenging task in very pdue to a combination of factors, including lower image contrast (due to incomplete myelination at this isointense stage), lower signal-to-noise ratio (shorter scan times), greater motion artifacts, and lower spatial resolution (smaller head size) as compared to adult brain scans. In this paper, we present a fully automated and computational efficient spatial fuzzy segmentation algorithm, which we first proposed to detect activation regions in functional MRI. The method is validated both qualitatively and quantitatively on simulated and in-vivo extremely low birth weight (ELBW; BW ¡Ü 1000g) infant brain MRI scans at term-equivalent age.

 
3170.   66 Population-averaged high resolution human fetal brain DTI atlas
Hao Huang1,2, Tina Jeon1, Linda Richards3, Paul Yarowsky4, Horst R Zielke5, and Susumu Mori6
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 3Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia, 4Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 5Pediatrics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 6Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

 
Anatomical abnormality of human brains at the fetal stage is highly related to neurodevelopmental disorders at infancy and childhood. A population-averaged high resolution atlas at 20 weeks of gestation (wg), around the middle point of prenatal development, is essential for fetal evaluation which may lead to life-saving diagnosis and therapy for the extremely preterm babies. In this study, with high resolution DTI data with isotropic resolution 0.29mm from 10 postmortem fetal brain samples at around 20wg, we established a population-averaged human fetal brain DTI atlas by applying linear affine and large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) transformation.

 
3171.   67 DTI in neonates: data corruption due to motion
Anneriet M. Heemskerk1,2, Annemarie Plaisier2, Irwin Reiss2, Maarten H. Lequin1, Alexander Leemans3, and Jeroen Dudink1,2
1Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2Pediatrics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands,3Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

 
Motion corrupted slices are a major problem in neonatal DTI as neonates have high occurrence of movement and this motion results in corrupted slices. We investigate the number of outliers in the tensor estimation as a method to detect corrupted slices in neonates. We found that 60% of the 27 subjects had corrupted data, defined as >10 slices with >30% outliers. These corrupted slices can lead to registration problems and erroneous tensor estimates depending on their location and spread. Targeted acquisition and processing is needed in this specific subject group to obtain reliable tensor estimates.

 
3172.   68 Correlation of brain network metrics with the neuromotor outcome in babies with encephalopathy
Olga Tymofiyeva1, Christopher P Hess1, Etay Ziv1, Sonia L Bonifacio2, Patrick S McQuillen2, Donna M Ferriero2, A James Barkovich1, and Duan Xu1
1Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Pediatrics, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Babies with neonatal encephalopathy are facing the risk of neurological deficits that are difficult to predict. The recently introduced technique for characterizing structural connectivity networks using diffusion MRI can become a new tool for studying the subtle differences in anatomical connectivity of the baby brain. In this study, we correlated some basic properties of the structural brain networks in babies with encephalopathy with the neuromotor outcome at the age of six months. A trend to declining brain network integration and segregation could be observed with increasing neuromotor deficits.

 
3173.   69 Outlier Rejection for Adaptive Neonatal Segmentation
M. Jorge Cardoso1, Andrew Melbourne1, Giles S. Kendall2, Nicola J. Robertson2, Neil Marlow2, and Sebastien Ourselin1
1CMIC, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 2Academic Neonatology, UCL, London, United Kingdom

 
Volume estimation through automated segmentation can help predict neurodevelopmental outcome in babies born prematurely. However, automated segmentation techniques are hampered by lack of contrast, white matter (WM) abnormalities and anatomical variability. We propose an Expectation Maximisation (EM) segmentation algorithm with a prior over intensities and tissue proportions, a B0 inhomogeneity correction, a spatial homogeneity term and a robust outlier rejection technique that ignores unexpected intensity clusters. This technique significantly improves both the accuracy and the robustness of the segmentation to the presence of WM abnormalities and pathological variability when compared to a state-of-the-art EM-segmentation.

 
3174.   70 The right-ear advantage for dichotic listening of speech-related stimuli is predicted by both attentional and structural factors: results from machine-learning analysis of neuroimaging data
Vincent J Schmithorst1, Rola Farah2, and Robert W Keith2
1Radiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Audiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States

 
During dichotic presentation of speech-related stimuli, most individuals show a right-ear advantage (REA), recalling with greater accuracy stimuli presented to their right ear. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on fMRI and DTI data to predict REA or left-ear advantage (LEA) for dichotic listening in children. REA was predicted by lesser axial diffusivity (AD) in the sublenticular part of the left internal capsule, and greater functional activation in the left frontal eye fields (BA 8) for the contrast of diotic vs. dichotic word presentations. Results suggest that REA is not fully explained either by a structural or an attentional model.

 
3175.   71 Intra-Uterine Sub-Structure Evaluation of the Developing Neuro-Anatomical Fiber Tracts in Fetuses Using DTI
Travis S. Scharr1, Katherine L. Ragland2, Majid A. Khan2, Kenneth Liechty3, James A. Bofill3, Razvan Buciuc2, and Judy R. James2
1School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, 3University Center for Fetal Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi

 
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) holds great potential for non-invasive identification of white matter development in the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine if DTI can help assess the functional correlation between gestational age and white matter fiber tract development in fetal brains and assess DTI’s potential for identifying and interpreting the pathophysiology of brain abnormalities in-utero. Our results show a positive correlation between aspects of motor and sensory fiber development with increasing gestational age in normal fetuses. An optimized DTI technique should serve as a promising tool for a sub-structure evaluation of fetal brain abnormalities in-utero.

 
3176.   72 The assessments of the neonatal brain development by 2D 1H-MRS in 3.0 Tesla
Qinli Sun1, Jin Shang1, Xin Hou1, Jie Gao1, Bolang Yu1, and Yang Jian1
1the first affiliated hospital of medical college, Xi'an Jiaotong University, xi'an, shannxi, China

 
The purpose in this study is to investigate the differences of NAA/Cho ratio, NAA/Cr ratio and Cho/Cr ratio in special regions of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus (TH), white matter (WM) beside cornu anterius ventriculi lateralis and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) between premature neonates and term neonates, and the correlation between metabolite ratios and postmenstrual ages (PMA) to assess normal metabolite levels for the neonatal brains using 2D 1H-MRS techniques in 3.0 T magnetic machine. The mean ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr of the regions in premature were significantly lower than them in term while the mean ratio of Cho/Cr was higher. Regression analysis showed the linear positive correlations between PMA and NAA / Cho ratio, NAA/Cr ratio while linear negative correlations between PMA and Cho/Cr ratio. There were significant differences in the metabolite ratios between anatomic regions besides NAA/Cho ratio between BG and PLIC and Cho/Cr ratio between TH and WM. The metabolite ratios vary with both postconceptional age and anatomic location, which demonstrates the feasibility to establish a normal baseline by 2D 1H-MRS in clinical assessments of the neonatal brain and to determine the severity of the injury at early stage.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

Brain Tumor Imaging: Diagnosis & Response to Therapy
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  17:30 - 18:30

  Computer #  
3177.   
49 Evaluation of human brain metastases using molecular MRI based on endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer (APT) signals
Silun Wang1, Zhibo Wen2, Jing Gu1, Ge Zhang2, Xianlong Wang2, Fanheng Huang2, Peter C.M. van Zijl1,3, and Jinyuan Zhou1,3
1Departments of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 3F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
We explored the imaging features of brain metastases using APT imaging of endogenous mobile proteins and peptides at 3 Tesla. Results showed that the metastasis tumor core had significantly higher APT signal intensities, compared to adjacent peritumoral edema and normal-appearing white matter. Metastases from small cell lung cancer had significantly lower APT signal intensities than those of lung adenocarcinoma and other adenocarcinomas. APT imaging provides additional diagnostic information to characterize brain metastases non-invasively.

 
3178.   50 MR spectroscopy as an early indicator of response to anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: ACRIN 6677 / RTOG 0625
Eva-Maria Ratai1, Zheng Zhang2, Bradley Snyder2, Melanie Yeh2, Darryl L'Heureux3, Jamie Downs3, Jerrold Boxerman4, Yair Safriel5, Gregory Sorensen1, Daniel Barboriak6, and Mark Gilbert7
1Department of Radiology, A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University, United States, 3American College of Radiology Imaging Network, United States, 4Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Albert Medical School of Brown University, United States, 5Radiology Associates of Clearwater, United States, 6Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, United States, 7Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, United States

 
We here report the MR spectroscopy findings of the clinical trial RTOG 0625/ACRIN 6677 entitled “A Randomized Phase II Trial of Bevacizumab with Irinotecan or Bevacizumab with Temozolomide in Recurrent Glioblastoma” The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of MR spectroscopy as an early indicator of response to anti-angiogenic therapy. We find transient decreases in choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) at 2 weeks post treatment indicating a possible decrease in tumor malignancy. Furthermore, after 8 weeks of anti-angiogenic therapy decreases in Cho/Cr in the tumor and increases in N-Acetylaspartate/Cr in the periphery are associated with 12-month survival.

 
3179.   51 Whole-Brain Black-Blood Imaging with Magnetization-Transfer-Prepared-Spin-Echo-Like Contrast: Application for Contrast-Enhanced Brain Metastasis Screening at 3.0Tesla
Masami Yoneyama1, Masanobu Nakamura1, Tomoyuki Okuaki1, Takashi Tabuchi1, Atsushi Takemura2, Makoto Obara2, Thomas Kwee3, and Taro Takahara4
1Yaesu Clinic, Tokyo, Japan, 2Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 3University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 4Tokai University School of Engineering, Kanagawa, Japan

 
Contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted imaging based on GRE is widely used for detecting small brain metastases. However, since contrast materials remain in both blood and the tumor parenchyma and thus increase the signal intensity of both regions, it is often challenging to distinguish brain tumors from blood. In this study, we propose a T1-optimized, "perfect" black-blood imaging using MSDE prepared 3D low refocusing flip angle TSE (MATLVE) for brain metastasis screening at 3.0 Tesla. The signal intensity of CE blood substantially decreases in MATLVE. While in comparison of CRWM-Tumor, MATLVE was significantly higher than conventional 3D-T1TFE and 3D-TSE. MATLVE can be used for 3D volumetric T1 weighted black-blood imaging, and that is effective in detecting small brain metastases by selectively enhancing tumor signals while suppressing blood signals.

 
3180.   52 Characterization of Hypoxic Areas in the Human Brain
Nuria Maria Hirsch1, Christine Preibisch1,2, Vivien Tóth1, Jürgen den Hollander1, Annette Förschler1, Hendrik Kooijman3, and Claus Zimmer1
1Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der TU München, München, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der TU München, München, Germany, 3Clinical Application, Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany

 
Hypoxia is assumed to promote the development and proliferation of tumor stem cells especially in highly malignant and aggressive tumors The BOLD effect provides a method for oxygenation dependent contrast, but for an absolute quantification of oxygen saturation T2, T2* and CBV have to be measured additionally. In this study, hypoxia was mapped semi-quantitatively from those parameters with an emphasis on fast imaging methods that can easily be employed in the clinic.

 
3181.   53 Resting State fMRI for Presurgical Motor Cortex Mapping is Not Enough
Ming Zhang1, Chen Niu1, Pan Lin2, Zhigang Min1, Chenwang Jin1, Gang Yu3, Maode Wang1, Baixiang He1, and Xin Liu2
1the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College,Xian Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry,Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, shaanxi, China, 3School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China

 
The localization of motor cortex in tumor patients plays an important role in presurgical planning and risk assessment. Therefore, over the past few years, resting state fMRI and task-based fMRI have been used together to localize the motor cortex. However, it is worth noting that whether the RS-fMRI can serve as a promising alternative to the task-based fMRI in the mapping of motor cortex still remains pending due to the insufficient dataset of tumor patients. In this work,we aim to evaluate the possibility of employing the RS-fMRI as a proper and robust tool for mapping motor cortex in presurgical patients.

 
3182.   54 Preoperative differentiation between grade II and III gliomas subtypes and genotypes using MR spectroscopy, perfusion and diffusion imaging
Slim Fellah1, Delphine Caudal2, Philippe Dory-Lautrec2, Patrick Viout1, Olivier Chinot3, Philippe Metellus4, Dominique Figarella-Branger5, Virginie Callot1, Patrick J. Cozzone1, Sylviane Confort-Gouny1, and Nadine Girard1,2
1CRMBM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Marseille, France, 2Department of Neuroradiology, APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille, France, 3Department of Neurooncology, APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille, France, 4Department of Neurosurgery, APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille, France, 5Department of Phathology and Neuropathology, APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille, France

 
Preoperative diagnosis of gliomas is challenging and clinically important for therapy planning. Conventional MRI provides valuable information for the preoperative diagnosis of brain tumors but still insufficient in some cases. Moreover, patients with 1p/19q codeletion and/or IDH1 mutation have longer survival than those possessing the wild type. We used a multimodal MRI protocol including diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy to investigate noninvasively patients with WHO grade II and III oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Our findings helped differentiating these tumors according to their subtypes but also according to their molecular status. This could be helpful for designing customized therapies and for patient management.

 
3183.   55 Preoperative Assessment of Meningioma Stiffness by MR Elastography
Matthew C Murphy1, John Huston, III1, Kevin J Glaser1, Armando Manduca2, Fredric B Meyer3, Giuseppe Lanzino3, Joel P Felmlee1, and Richard L Ehman1
1Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 2Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

 
Meningiomas vary in stiffness and the ease of resection is in part determined by the consistency of the tumor. A noninvasive method for measuring tumor stiffness would improve preoperative planning and more accurately assess the risk of surgery. However, current imaging methods have limited ability to predict the mechanical properties of meningiomas. The purpose of this work was to perform a pilot study to determine if MR elastography shows merit for measuring meningioma stiffness noninvasively.

 
3184.   56 Evaluation of Gadolinium Concentration in Morphologic Assessment of Brain Tumors: Results of a Multicenter Intraindividual Crossover Comparison of Gadobutrol Versus Gadobenate Dimeglumine (the MERIT Study)
Guenther Schneider1, Josef Vymazal2, Marek Mechl3, Mayank Goyal4, Miroslav Herman5, Cesare Colosimo6, Mieczyslaw Pasowicz7, Robert Yeung8, Barbara Paraniak-Gieszczyk9, Brian Yemen10, Nicoletta Anzalone11, Alberto Citterio12, Stefano Bastianello13, Jordi Ruscalleda14, and Zdenk Seidl15
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany, 2MRI, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic, 3Radiology, University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic, 4MRI, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5Radiology, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic, 6Radiology, Policlinico “Agostino Gemelli”, Rome, Italy, 7John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland, 8Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 9NZOZ Slaskie Centrum Diagnostyki Obrazowej, "Helimed", Katowice, Poland, 10Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada,11Neuroradiology, Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 12Neuroradiology, Hospital Niguarda Ca' Granda, Milan, Italy, 13Neuroradiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 14Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo, Barcelona, Spain, 15Neurological Clinic, Prague, Czech Republic

 
In a prospective double blind intraindividual crossover study, 122 adult patients with known or suspected brain tumors were randomized to undergo two identical enhanced MR examinations within 3-14 days using 0.1 mmol/kg doses of gadobenate dimeglumine or higher-concentration gadobutrol (volumes of 0.2 mL/kg and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively). Three blinded neuroradiologists assessed images for qualitative (ie, lesion border delineation, disease extent, internal lesion morphology, lesion contrast enhancement, overall diagnostic preference) and quantitative (ie, contrast-to-noise ratio, lesion-to-background ratio) endpoints. Images acquired after gadobenate dimeglumine demonstrated greater morphologic information and lesion enhancement compared to gadobutrol. Safety findings were comparable for the two agents.

 
3185.   57 Quantification of hyperoxia induced changes in normal tissue and intracranial glioma using SWAN imaging
Bhaswati Roy1, Rishi Awasthi1, Prativa Sahoo2, Sanjay Verma3, Sanjay Behari4, Bal Kishan Ojha5, Ram KS Rathore2, and Rakesh Kumar Gupta1
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, 2Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, 3Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore, 4Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, India, 5chhatrapati shahuji maharaj medical university, India

 
Fifteen (11male and 4female; mean age=43yrs) patients with definitive diagnosis of glioma were imaged on 3T scanner, using SWAN imaging while breathing normal air and after 5 minutes of breathing 100% oxygen. Quantified values of R2*, phase and magnitude showed significant changes on different tumor tissue type in hyperoxia as compare to normoxia. Significant changes was observed in ΔR2*, Δ phase and Δ mag of different tissue type from normal. We conclude that there is differential response to different tumor tissue type to hyperoxia and this information may be of value for tissue classification in brain tumor tissue type in future.

 
3186.   58 Ex-vivo identification of IDH mutant gliomas using edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy detection of 2HG at 9.4 Tesla
Jamie Near1, Sarah Larkin2, Alexandr Khrapichev3, Peter Jezzard1, and Olaf Ansorge2
1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 2Department of Neuropathology, University of Oxford, 3Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford

 
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 define a glioma subtype with improved prognosis. IDH mutated tumours also contain elevated levels of 2HG. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detection of 2HG may, therefore, provide an important prognostic biomarker in the initial staging of human gliomas. In this study, 12 human glioma tissue specimens were examined ex-vivo using edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 Tesla. 2HG was unambiguously detected in 9 of 11 IDH mutated tumour specimens, suggesting that MRS of 2HG holds potential as an indicator of tumour mutation status.

 
3187.   59 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy identifies Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor amplification in high-grade gliomas.
Bas Idema1, Sandra Sprenger2, Judith Jeuken2,3, Andre Grotenhuis1, Pieter Wesseling2, and Arend Heerschap4
1Neurosurgery, UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 2Pathology, UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 3PAMM, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 4Radiology, UMC St Radboud, Netherlands

 
Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor amplification in high-grade glioma is associated with unfavorable prognosis. The aim of our study was to improve non-invasive identification of EGFR amplification in gliomas by MRS. We collected 76 biopsies from 35 patients with a high grade glioma. A preoperative proton 3D multivoxel MRS scan, semi-LASER sequence with an echo time of 30ms, was performed at 3 Tesla. The EGFR status was determined by MLPA in 31 patients. The concentration of glutamine was significantly correlated with EGFR copy number (sensitivity and specificity 100%) and EGFR variant III (sensitivity 100%, specificity 87%).

 
3188.   60 Post-Embolization Susceptibility Changes in Intracranial Giant Meningiomas: Multimodal Histogram Analysis Using Non-Contrast-Enhanced Susceptibility-Weighted PRESTO, Diffusion-Weighted, and Perfusion-Weighted Imaging
Tomokazu Nishiguchi1,2, Kohji Hayasaki3, Takeshi Iwakiri2, Masahiko Ohsawa4, Tetsuya Yoneda5, Yutaka Mitsuhashi3, Akimasa Nishio3, Thomas Tourdias6, Taro Shimono2, Vincent Dousset1, and Yukio Miki7
1Radiology, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, Aquitane, France, 2Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Osaka, Japan,3Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Osaka, Japan, 4Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Osaka, Japan, 5Department of Medical Physics in Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Universit, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan, 6Radiology, Bordeuax University, Bordeaux, Aquitane, France, 7Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Bordeaux, Aquitane, France

 

3189.   61 Automated 3D MRSI of Patients with Brain Tumors
Eugene Ozhinsky1,2, Daniel B. Vigneron1,3, Susan M. Chang4, and Sarah J. Nelson1,3
1Surbeck Laboratory of Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2UC Berkeley - UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States,3Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
This study evaluated the performance of automatically prescribed 3D MRSI protocol in patients with brain tumors. The data shows robust coverage of the tumor, high consistency of prescription and very good data quality within the T2 lesion. It validates the feasibility of automatically prescribed 3D MRSI in routine brain tumor imaging.

 
3190.   62 Susceptibility-weighted imaging with the aid of dedicated software in assessment of brain tumors vascularization.
Agata Majos1, Julia Wieczorek-Pastusiak1, Marek Kociñski2, Micha³ Strzelecki2, and Ludomir Stefañczyk1
1Radiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland, 2Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland

 
The aim - to prove the usefulness of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in evaluation of brain tumors vascularization in comparison to contrast-enhanced T1 sequence in an objective way. 10 neurosurgery patients underwent MRI in 1.5T scanner. Image analysis was provided by dedicated, authors` computer application. The similar number of elongated structures (vessels) was identified in both sequences. There was a predominance of SWI in the amount of white pixels per ROI. The program facilitates to isolate vessels. The advantage of SWI in assessment of neoangiogenesis is that the disruption of brain-blood barrier is not seen, so vessels can be easily revealed.

 
3191.   63 Utility of Multiple b-value DWI derived metrics in differentiation of high grade from low grade glioma
Bhaswati Roy1, Rishi Awasthi1, Prativa Sahoo2, Ram KS Rathore2, and Rakesh Kumar Gupta1
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

 
Sixteen (11 male and 5 female; mean age=41 yrs) untreated consecutive patients (11 high grades & 5 low grades on histopathology) with a postoperative diagnosis of either high or low grade glioma were imaged on 3T scanner, using multi b-value DWI (0 to 2000s/mm2) and DCE MRI. On Student’s independent t-test, none of the DWI derived ADC, fp, Dslow and Dfast showed any significant differences between high and low grade glioma whereas all the DCE derived metrics except ve were found to be significantly higher in high grade as compared to low grade glioma. We conclude that multi b-value DWI is not a reliable technique to differentiate between high and low grade glioma and DCE perfusion MRI is still the best available technique to differentiate as well as characterize the glial neoplasm.

 
3192.   64 Raising diagnostic accuracy in detection of brain metastasis: increasing field strength vs gadolinium concentration
Eun Soo Kim1, and Seung-Koo Lee2
1Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Pyeongchon, Pyeongchon, Korea, 2Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

 
Contrast enhanced MRI is known to be optimal for detection of brain metastasis with high sensitivity and specificity. In recent MR studies, double- or triple-dose Gd-contrast administration was found to be effective in accurate localization of metastasis without any complications. Gadobutrol is the first commercially available 1.0M Gd contrast. With its higher Gd concentration in plasma, gadobutrol increases signal of enhanced lesions and raised diagnostic rate in brain tumors and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of 1.5T with double dose 1.0M gadobutrol in detection of brain metastasis comparing with 3.0 T with double-dose 0.5M Gd-DTPA.

 
3193.   65 Correlation Analysis of MRI Features and Ki-67 Index in High-grade Meningioma with Recurrence of Tumors
Tieqiao Du1, Mingwang Zhu2, Xueling Qi3, and Dianjiang Zhao2
1Radiology, Beijing Sanbo Brain Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Radiology, 3Pathology

 
To observe correlation of MRI imaging features and Ki-67 index in high-grade meningioma with recurrence of tumors.30 patients were performed MRI scanning and detected Ki-67 index. There were 13 grade ¢ò and 17 grade ¢ó meningiomas. Logistic regression analysis showed that recurrence risk of meningioma was increasing with grade increasing, vital brain structure involved and tumor size increasing. MRI play an important role in preoperative prediction of the meningioma relapse. Ki-67 index can act as a predictor of the tumor recurrence. The higher the grade of meningiomas is, the higher recurrent rate and the shorter duration of recurrence will be.

 
3194.   66 Perifocal Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Gliomas
M. Vittoria Spampinato1, Ali Tabesh2, Pritesh Topiwala3, Muhammad U Manzoor3, Paul Morgan4, and Zoran Rumboldt2
1Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States, 2Medical University of South Carolina, United States, 3Medical University of South Carolina, 4University of Nottingham

 
We assessed peritumoral water diffusivity on pretreatment MRI in twenty-one gliomas (low-grade = 5; high-grade =16). Eight VOIs were obtained in 3D ranges away from the tumor VOI (including the tumor and surrounding T2 prolongation) for a distance of 4 cm (5 mm incremental steps). Perifocal normalized mean ADC values were significantly lower in high- than low-grade gliomas 10-25 mm away from the tumor; normalized lowest 25th percentile were significantly lower in high- than low-grade gliomas 10-30 mm away from the tumor. Perifocal ADC measurement in gliomas may reflect the magnitude of tumor infiltration beyond the abnormality on conventional MRI.

 
3195.   67 Classification of Different Brain Tumor Grades Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Rajakumar Nagarajan1, Whitney B Pope1, Robert Prins2, Noriko Salamon1, Manoj K Sarma1, Linda Liau2, and M.Albert Thomas1
1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurosurgery, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Proton (1H) MRS plays an important role in the diagnosis of brain tumors. The ability to discriminate among major types of primary brain tumors is critical in formulating a precise and effective treatment plan. The role of MRS in the clinical decision-making process is in distinguishing different grades of brain tumors on the basis of differences in metabolite ratios. We have quantified major metabolites using MRS in tumor and normal appearing brain and their values were compared between various grades.

 
3196.   68 Investigating the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient and extravascular extracellular volume fraction in patients with vestibular schwannomas undergoing bevacizumab treatment
Ka-Loh Li1, Sha Zhao2, Amy Watkins1, Xiaoping Zhu1, and Alan Jackson1
1Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2Imaging, Genomics and Proteomics, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

 
Investigating the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the extravascular extracellular volume (ve) from DCE-MRI will lead to better understanding the two parameters as imaging biomarkers for cancer treatment response. We compare the two parameters for patients with vestibular schwannomas over the course of bevacizumab treatment. A dual injection DCE-MRI technique was employed. Pre-treatment tumor median ADC and median ve values were well correlated. This relationship was lost after treatment. This study may provide useful information for ve and ADC as imaging biomarkers for evaluation of cancer treatment response in vestibular schwannomas over the course of bevacizumab treatment.

 
3197.   69 Differentiating Calcification and Hemorrhage in Brain Tumors: Susceptibility Weighted MR Imaging with Tissue Validation
Jatta Berberat1, Rainer Grobholz1, Larissa Boxheimer1, Luca Remonda1, and Ulrich Roelcke1
1Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland

 
MR based susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) can sensitively detect blood products as well as for calcification. This study aims to assess the value of MR SWI for the detection and differentiation of calcification and hemorrhage in oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma multiforme tumours, based on a visual and on a pixel value analysis. Phase shift analysis is a promising method to demonstrate whether a lesion contains calcium or blood. An SWI MRI could reduce the patient’s radiation exposure by replacing computer tomography. The voxel analysis supplements the visual analysis in cases where there is uncertainty as to the cause underlying a susceptibility difference in the SWI image.

 
3198.   70 Time-dependent cell invasion, motility, and proliferation level estimate (CIMPLE) map characteristics of malignant gliomas treated with paclitaxel poliglumex (PPX)
Benjamin M Ellingson1, Jerrold L Boxerman2, Suriya Jeyapalan3, Heinrich D Elinzano3, Marc Goldman4, Thomas Dipetrillo5, Howard Safran6, and Whitney B Pope1
1Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Diagnostic Imaging, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, 3Neurooncology, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, 4Neurosurgery, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, 5Radiation Oncology, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, 6Hematology & Oncology, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital

 
Paclitaxel poliglumex (PPX) is a microtubule stabilizer and mitotic inhibitor with a radiosensitization index of 4-8, and has been proposed as a radiosensitizing agent for patients with high-grade gliomas undergoing radiation therapy with the purpose of increasing acute cytotoxicity and effectiveness of radiotherapy. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether time-dependent cell invasion, motility, and proliferation level estimate (CIMPLE) maps derived from serial diffusion MRI data could distinguish pseudoprogression from recurrent tumor in a phase II study of PPX added to standard IMRT and TMZ therapy for newly diagnosed high-grade (WHO III-IV) gliomas.

 
3199.   71 Genomic mapping and survival prediction in glioblastoma: Role of tumor blood volume versus molecular sub-classification - a TCGA Glioma Phenotype Research Group project
Rajan Jain1, Laila Poisson2, Jayant Narang2, David Gutman3, Adam Flanders4, Carl Jaffe5, Brat Daniel3, and Tom Mikkelsen2
1Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Henry Ford Health System, 3Emory University, 4Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 5Boston University

 
The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of tumor blood volume measured using DSC T2* MR perfusion versus molecular sub-classification of glioblastoma for patient survival prediction. Our results show that rCBV measures do better than molecular mapping and sub-classes in predicting survival in this group of highly malignant and uniformly fatal tumors. Even though genomic mapping helps in better understanding of the molecular basis of tumor cell origin, aggressiveness and heterogeneity of glioblastoma, still non-invasive imaging biomarkers can be an important adjunct for patient prognosis.

 
3200.   72 Apparent Diffusion Coefficient is Higher in EGFR+ versus EGFR- Anaplastic Astrocytoma
Tracy Richmond McKnight1, Khadjia A. Lobo1, and Anders Persson2
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Univ of CA, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Neurology, Univ of CA, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR+) in Grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a biomarker of poor prognosis. We compared pre-surgical diffusion tensor imaging and multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy data from 10 patients with EGFR+ AA and 10 patients with EGFR- AA. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was significantly higher and there was a trend toward higher choline:creatine in the EGFR+ AA. These results suggest that the ADC may be useful for identifying AA patients that have a less favorable prognosis, particularly in cases where the tumor is inaccessible for surgical diagnostic biopsy.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

Clinical Diffusion
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  16:30 - 17:30

  Computer #  
3201.   73 Radiation-Induced Early Changes in the Brain and Behavior: Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Behavioral Evaluation after Graded Dose of Radiation
Richa Trivedi1, Ahmad Raza Khan1, Poonam Rana1, Seenu Haridas1, BS Hemanth Kumar1, Kailash Manda1, Ram KS Rathore2, Rajendra P Tripathi1, and Subash Khushu1
1Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

 
We performed serial quantitative DTI and behavioral study in mice during early phase of moderate (3 Gy), sub-lethal (5 Gy) and lethal (8 Gy) dose of gamma whole body irradiation. With regards to dose effect, our results showed that the higher radiation dose induce earlier and more severe neurobehavioral changes in the WM than the lower doses, and these differences could be reflected by the magnitude of change in FA values to some extent. This experimental model may be used to assess the neurotoxic adverse effects of irradiation treatment and to test the effectiveness of potential neuro-protective therapies.

 
3202.   74 Fractional Anisotropy Assessment of Early-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy
Lan Lu1, John Sedor2,3, Jeffrey Schelling2,3, Alicia O’Brien2,3, Vikas Gulani1,4, Katherine M Dell2,5, and Chris A Flask1,4
1Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2CWRU Center for the Study of Kidney Disease and Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 3Medicine, Metrohealth System Campus, 4Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 5Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital

 
Conbventional clinical indicators of kidney disease such as serum creatinine and albuminuria lack the sensitivity and specificity to identify early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, kidney fractional anisotropy (FA) assessments were obtained for groups of early-stage (eGFR greater than or equal to 60) and late-stage (eGFR < 60) human subjects with diabetes for comparison with non-diabetic controls. Despite no differences in eGFR, significant differences in medullary FA (P = 0.001) were observed between control and early-stage diabetic kidneys. Further studies are needed to determine if diffusion FA could identify diabetics at risk for progression to clinically overt DN.

 
3203.   75 Blood thiamine levels correlate with Mammillary body volume in acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure patients of non-alcoholic etiology
Abhishek Yadav1, Rakesh Kumar Gupta1, Santosh Kumar Yadav1, Vivek Anand Saraswat2, Murali Rangan2, Anshu Srivastava3, Richa Trivedi4, Surendra Kumar Yachha5, and Ram KS Rathore6
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar pradesh, 3Paediatric Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 4Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, NEW DELHI, NEW DELHI, India, 5Paediatric Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, 6Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

 
Mammillary body (MB) atrophy in alcoholic liver disease usually indicates thiamine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among blood thiamine, MBs, major fiber bundle FA, and volume changes with DTT in patients with ALF and ACLF of nonalcoholic etiology. In 7 ALF patients, follow-up study was done after clinical recovery at 5 weeks. Blood thiamine, MBs & fornix volume, and fornix fiber bundle FA were significantly decreased as compared to controls. Blood thiamine showed significant positive correlation with MBs volume only. On follow-up study, ALF patients showed significant reversibility only in blood thiamine level and MBs volume. MBs volume changes are primarily a consequence of thiamine deficiency, which may secondarily result in microstructural changes in the fornix. These observable changes are known to be specific and may be reversible with restoration of blood thiamine level. These imaging changes may be used as imaging biomarker of thiamine deficiency in these patients in future.

 
3204.   76 Effects of ischemic stroke on cerebral tissue microenvironment using diffusional kurtosis imaging
Edward S. Hui1, Leonardo Bonilha2, Ali Tabesh1, Jens H. Jensen1, and Joseph A. Helpern1
1Dept of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 2Dept of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States

 
Conventional diffusion MRI is very sensitive to ischemic injury as compared to other imaging modalities. However, the presence of cerebral spinal fluid may cause overestimation of the diffusivity, particularly in gray matter regions. It is therefore necessary to find an alternative technique that is more sensitive and specific to the microenvironment in neural tissues. Diffusional kurtosis imaging which measures non-Gaussianity of water diffusion is a potential candidate. Apparent diffusional kurtosis measures tissue complexity due to the presence of cell membranes and organelles. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate diffusional kurtosis change under acute/subacute ischemic stroke.

 
3205.   77 Altered structural connectivity in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy: A Diffusion Spectrum Imaging and Graph Analysis study
Alia Lemkaddem1, Serge Vulliémoz2, Alessandra Griffa1, Alessandro Daducci1, Margitta Seeck2, and Jean-Philippe Thiran1,3
1Ecole Polythechnique Fédéral de Lausanne, Signal Processing Laboratories (LTS5), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Epilepsy Unit, Neurology clinic, University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Switzerland

 
In this study we investigated the effect of medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) on the global characteristics of brain connectivity estimated by topological measures. We used DSI (Diffusion Spectrum Imaging) to construct a connectivity matrix where the nodes represents the anatomical ROIs and the edges are the connections between any pair of ROIs weighted by the mean GFA/FA values. A significant difference was found between the patient group vs control group in characteristic path length(p=0.0221), clustering coefficient(p=0.02473) and small-worldness(p=0.00076). This suggests that the MTLE network is less efficient compared to the network of the control group.

 
3206.   78 A Preliminary Diffusional Kurotsis Imaging Study of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Ali Tabesh1, Jens H. Jensen1, Joseph A. Helpern1,2, Rachael L. Deardorff1, Amanda C. Allen1, Jessica L. Barley2, Jonathan C. Edwards2,3, and Leonardo Bonilha2,3
1Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States, 2Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States, 3Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States

 
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown extensive microstructural deficits in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) extends DTI by enabling the quantification of non-Gaussian diffusion. This study aimed to assess the non-Gaussian diffusion signature of MTLE as measured with DKI. DKI scans were acquired from ten patients with left MTLE and twenty matched healthy volunteers and were submitted to voxelwise analyses. The results suggest that DKI measures showed appreciably more widespread limbic and extra-limbic system abnormalities than DTI metrics. The additional information provided by DKI may improve the clinical assessment of brain pathology in MTLE.

 
3207.   79 Assessment of motor impairment in acute/subacute stroke patients with diffusional kurtosis metrics
Edward S. Hui1, Wuwei Wayne Feng2, Ali Tabesh1, Leonardo Bonilha3, Jens H. Jensen1, and Joseph A. Helpern1
1Dept of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 2Dept of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 3Dept of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States

 
Motor function impairment is a major complication following stroke, and a robust biomarker for predicting patient recovery of motor function could benefit clinicians’ decision making on rehabilitation planning. In this study, diffusional kurtosis imaging is investigated as a potential technique for improved assessment of stroke patients. For 10 subjects with acute/subacute ischemic stroke, a strong negative correlation (r = -0.89, p = 0.001) was found between the axial kurtosis in the corticospinal tract and clinical motor functioning assessment test scores.

 
3208.   80 Quantitation of Diffusion Indices in CMS rat model of depression – A DTI approach.
B. S. Hemanth Kumar1, Richa Trivedi1, Sushanta Kumar Mishra1, Sadhana Singh1, Rajendra P Tripathi1, and Subash Khushu1
1NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Newdelhi, Newdelhi, India

 
Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) seems to be a valuable model of depression, based on its resemblance with several human depressive symptoms. CMS model was developed and validated using behavioural studies. DTI data was acquired and FA and MD values were calculated by drawing ROI’s on respective regions to look for any changes in the MD and FA values during the onset of depression. The microstructural changes observed in different brain regions were documented. To conclude the changes in FA and the MD values obtained reveals that there might be some structral abnormalities taking place in microlevel during the onset of depression.

 
3209.   81 Neuronal degeneration in Parkinsonism: A DTI study
Senthil S Kumaran1, Mohit Saxena2, Vinay Goyal2, and Madhuri Behari2
1Department of N.M.R., All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Parkinsonism offers difficulty in early diagnosis among Parkinson’s disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). Degeneration of basal ganglia and extra pyramidal regions of the midbrain has been observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear Palsy (PSP) using diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy of water diffusion in tissue (FA value).

 
3210.   82 Analysis of ADC Change During Cardiac Cycle in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Change In Tap Test
Akihiro Asano1, Toshiaki Miyati1, Naoki Ohno2, Kan Hirohito3, Mitsuhito Mase4, Tomoshi Osawa5, Harumasa Kasai3, Nobuyuki Arai3, Masaki Hara3, and Yuuta Shibamoto3
1Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, kanazawa university, Kanazawa, Japan, 2Department of Radiological Technology, kanazawa university Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan, 3Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan, 4Department of Neurosurgery and Restorative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medical Sciencces, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, 5Department of Neurosurgery and Restorative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medical Sciencces, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan

 
We have reported that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained from diffusion MRI in the cerebral white matter significantly changed during the cardiac cycle, and this change (delta-ADC) assisted in the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). While a cerebrospinal fluid tap test is one of the useful methods for the diagnosis of INPH. The aim of this study was to assess how much change in the delta-ADC of the brain in INPH before and after the tap test. Delta-ADC analysis makes it possible to noninvasively provide information of change in the intracranial condition after the tap test.

 
3211.   83 Quantitative Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of glioma and metastatic tumor in human brain in vivo
Dandan Zheng1, Zhenghua Liu2, Jing Fang1, Xiaoying Wang2, and Jue Zhang1
1Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China, 2Dept. of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China

 
Previous studies showed that DW-MRS offers excellent tools to specifically measure the intracellular response to tumor. The purpose of this study is using DW-MRS to investigate the pathological related changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of metabolites in glioma and metastatic tumor in vivo. The results demonstrate that the ADC values of the cerebral metabolites significantly increase in the metastatic tumor compared to the age matched healthy controls. Also, increase of Cho and Cr was detected in the glioma compared to the opposite unaffected region.

 
3212.   84 The Changes of FLAIR and DTI Images of the Brain and Upper Spinal Cord in Rabid Dogs: Voxel-wise Group Comparisons
Jiraporn Laothamatas1, Witaya Sungkarat1, Boonlert Lumlertdacha2, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee3, and Thiravat Hemachudha4
1Advanced Diagnostic Imaging and Image-Guided Minimal Invasive Therapy Center and Radiology Dept., Ramathibodi Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Rajataewe, Bangkok, Thailand, 2Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand, 3WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 4Department of Medicine and WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

 
Only subtle abnormalities is demonstrated in early rabies encephalitis, more sensitive imaging technique; probabilistic DTI maps with voxel-based group analysis were used to study the brain and spinal cord of normal, early encephalitic and paralytic dogs. It is more sensitive in detecting, localizing and demonstrating severity of the abnormalities. Details of cytoarchitecture change of the studied areas such as BBB status, integrity of the WM and the present of cytotoxic edema VS vasogenic edema can be evaluated. It should be use in patients presenting with clinically suspected encephalitis for early detection and accurate localization of the disease for patient management.

 
3213.   85 Study of Serial DTT, Brain Morphometry, Clinical, Serum Cytokines, Cognition changes in Children with Acute Liver Failure
Abhishek Yadav1, Anshu Srivastava2, Santosh Kumar Yadav1, Vibhore V Borkar3, Surendra Kumar Yachha3, and Rakesh Kumar Gupta1
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Paediatric Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 3Paediatric Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow

 
This prospective serial study was done to look for reversibility of changes in MRI, MRS, proinflammatory cytokines, thiamine, and neurocognitive functions in these children over time. 11 ALF patients and 8 healthy controls were evaluated. TNF-α, IL-6 and Glx were significantly higher while thiamine, MD and MB volume were significantly lower than the controls. ALF subjects performed poorly in 8 of the 9 and improved in all the administered tests as compared to that in first follow up. In conclusion, the recovery in ALF is prolonged and goes well beyond the apparent recovery in HE. CE and brain glutamine recover first, followed by normalization of neuropsychological tests and liver functions. The brain choline and MBs take a longer time to normalize than the glutamine and CE.

 
3214.   86 Differential Effects of Fractionated and Single Radiation Dose on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Mice Brain
Mamta Gupta1, Richa Trivedi1, Poonam Rana1, Ahmad Raza Khan1, Rajendra P Tripathi1, and Subash Khushu1
1Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study was performed at baseline, day 1, day 3, and day 5 after fractionated and single 8gy cranial irradiation of mice brain. A subsequent decrease in FA values were observed at both day3 and day5 in hippocampus in fractionated 8 gy irradiation group, whereas in single 8y irradiation in addition to hippocampus change in DTI measures were also observed in caudate-putamen and corpus callosum regions. Our results demonstrate radiation induced microstructural changes in brain parenchyma even in case of fractionated dose during acute phase even before conventional MRI.

 
3215.   87 Microstructural network damage in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy
Michael Deppe1, Simon S Keller1, Jan-Christoph Schöne-Bake2, Siawoosh Mohammadi3, and Bernd Weber2
1Neurology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 2Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Epileptologie und Life & Brain Center, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Bonn,3Institute of Neurology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, London, United Kingdom

 

3216.   88 White Matter Lesion Effect on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics for Alzheimer’s Patients and Healthy Controls
Daniel Han-en Chang1, Huali Wang2,3, and Min-Ying Su1
1Tu & Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Dementia Care and Research Center, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, China, 3Key Laboratory for Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University), Beijing, China

 
White matter lesions represent microvascular ischemic changes that are often indicative of tissue dysfunction. As DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes, it is possible that the presence of WML may have an effect on FA and MD values. Using tract-based-spatial-statistics, a robust method for comparing diffusivity maps between different groups of subjects, we compared the FA values in a pair-wise fashion among four groups of subjects: Alzheimer’s (AD) subjects with WML, AD subjects without WML, normal control (NC) subjects with WML, and NC subjects without WML. In our analyses, only AD subjects without WML were found to have significantly decreased FA when compared to NC subjects with WML and NC subjects without WML.

 
3217.   89 Structural Connectivity of Military-related Traumatic Brain Injury and its Relations with Neurocognition
Ping-Hong Yeh1, Binquan Wang1, Terrence R. Oakes2, John Graner2, Hai Pan1, Wei Liu1, Louis French3, Fletcher Munter4, and Gerard Riedy2,5
1Henry Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, MD, United States, 2National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C., United States, 4National Capital Neuroimaging Consortium, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C., United States, 5Radiology, Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM), Bethesda, MD, United States

 
Detecting white matter changes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and understanding their effects on neuropsychological consequence is important in treating brain trauma. We evaluated the structural connectivity in traumatic axonal injury using diffusion tensor tractography, and examined the association between the measures and neuropsychological function in military TBI patients.

 
3218.   90 A Longitudinal Study of Thalamic and White Matter Damage in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging and Arterial Spin Labeling
Elan J. Grossman1,2, Jens H. Jensen3, Matilde Inglese4, James S. Babb1, Ali Tabesh3, Els Fieremans1, Ding Xia1, Kelly A. McGorty1, Joseph Reaume1, Qun Chen1, and Robert I. Grossman1
1Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States, 2Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States

 
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is difficult to assess because conventional imaging cannot account for damage associated with cognitive impairment in this condition. In this study a longitudinal investigation was conducted of structural and physiological changes in thalamus and white matter (WM) regions of MTBI patients using DKI, which measures non-Gaussian diffusion, and ASL, which measures perfusion, to ascertain if they can predict outcome. Changes were detected by both metrics in thalamus and WM lasting more than one year. Thalamic perfusion was also partly correlated to changes in WM. DKI and ASL might be prognostic markers for persistent post-concussive syndrome.

 
3219.   91 In vivo Ultra-High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Microscopic Pathways of the Medial Temporal Lobe
Michael Zeineh1, Samantha Holdsworth1, Stefan Skare2, Anh Van1, Scott Atlas1, and Roland Bammer1
1Radiology, Stanford, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Dept of Neuroradiology, R3:00, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

 
Abnormal neuronal connectivity may be important in disease states involving the medial temporal lobes (MTL), including Alzheimer’s and epilepsy. Conventional DTI provides an inadequate depiction of the complex microanatomy in the MTL because of a typically employed low isotropic resolution of 2.0-2.5mm, a low signal-to-noise ratio, and echo-planar imaging geometric distortions. In this study, we push the resolving power of DTI to near-mm isotropic voxel size through optimized diffusion weighted imaging at 3.0T. Utilizing a detailed segmentation of the MTL, we can identify tracks in all subjects that may represent the major pathways of the MTL, including the perforant pathway.

 
3220.   92 Microstructural Development of the Corticospinal Tract in Neonates with Transposition of the Great Arteries Investigated with DTI Before and After Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery.
Malek Makki1, Rabia Liamlahi2, Hitendu Dave3, Klaudija Batinic2, Walter Knirsch2, Vera Bernet4, Ianina Scheer5, Cornelia Hagmann6, and Bea Latal7
1MRI Research, University Children Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Cardiology, University Children Hospital Zurich, 3Congenital Cardiovascular Surgery, University Children Hospital Zurich, 4Pediatric Intensive Care, University Children Hospital Zurich, 5Diagnostic Imaging, University Children Hispital Zurich,6Neonatalogy, University Hospital Zurich, 7Child Development, University Children Hospital Zurich

 
The cortico-spinal tract (CST) of 15 neonates with TGA who had pre and post surgucal DTI was compared to 10 age matched healthy controls. Hemispheric analysis of the CST was performed at 4 levels: superior corona-radiata CR, posterior limb of internal capsule PLIC, cerebral peduncle CP, and medullar CST). Bilateral decreases of FA were seen in the CR and the M-CST of the post-surgical group compared to healthy controls and pre-surgical group originated by significant increases in perpendicular diffusion. We also reported asymmetric development of the CP in the post compared to pre surgery groups

 
3221.   93 The clinical application of 3T PROPELLER DUO MRI quantitative analysis of extraocular muscle in Graves¡¯ophthalmopathy
Ketao Mu1, Jing Zhang1, He Wang2, Jianpin Qi1, and Wenzhen Zhu1
1Radiology, Tongji Hospital,Tongji Medical College£¬Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 2Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Shanghai, China

 
Our objective was to prospectively investigate extraocular muscle in patients with GO utilizing 3T PROPELLER DUO MRI and determine whether apparent diffusion coefficients(ADC)parameters correlate with disease severity.We finally come to the conclution that PROPELLER DUO MRI has been shown to helpful to diagnose intraorbit disease, measuring ADC values can further increase confidence of its detection. A significant positive correlation between maxADC and disease severity was observed.We can judge patients whether in active phase or not by measuring the ADC values of extraocular muscle, to guide clinical treatment and predict the responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy.

 
3222.   94 Network of spatial attention: diffusion tensor imaging study of left hemispatial neglect
Takaaki Hattori1, Ryo Sato2, Shigeki Aoki3,4, and Sumio Ishiai5
1Department of@Neurology, Kanto Central Hospital, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan,4Department of Radiology, Juntedo Univerisity, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan

 

3223.   95 Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)
Yu-Chien Wu1, and Thomas W McAllister2
1Dartmouth Brain Imaging Center, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States, 2Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, United States

HYDI was used to estimate diffusion measures in individuals with MTBI (one month and one year after injury), and age and gender matched healthy controls. Both PDF and DTI measures, including Po, MSD, FA, MD, Da, and Dr, were assessed in whole brain white matter, as well as the genu, splenium and body of the corpus callosum. Histograms of Po in genu and splenium of the corpus callosum showed the greatest separation between MTBI and control subjects. Histograms of FA and other diffusion measures showed little or no difference. Little change in PDF and DTI measures was observed over time.

 

3224.   96 Water amount independent analysis of fluctuated water molecules in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
Naoki Ohno1,2, Tosiaki Miyati2, Mitsuhito Mase3, Tomoshi Osawa3, Harumasa Kasai4, Hirohito Kan4, Masaki Hara4, Yuta Shibamoto4, Akihiro Kitanaka2, Akihiro Asano2, Takashi Hamaguchi1, Hiroji Iida1, Toshifumi Gabata5, and Osamu Matsui5
1Department of Radiological Technology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 2Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 3Department of Neurosurgery and Restorative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan, 5Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan

 
We assessed normalized ĢADC in white matter in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), atrophic ventricular dilation, and in healthy volunteers to determine the degree of fluctuation of water molecules independently of the water amount. Normalized ĢADC in INPH were significantly higher than those in the control and atrophic ventricular dilation groups. Water amount independent analysis may render it possible to noninvasively obtain more detailed information than that provided by standard ADC measurement in suspected INPH, potentially facilitating the diagnosis of this disease.
 
Electronic Poster Session - Neuro A

High Resolution Brain Anatomy & Morphometry
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation. (Not all presentations are available.)
Monday 7 May 2012
Exhibition Hall  17:30 - 18:30

  Computer #  
3225.   73 Quantitative 7T Phase Imaging in Presymptomatic Huntington’s Disease
A. C. Apple1, J. M. Lupo1, A. Jakary1, K. Wong2, D. A. C. Kelley3, G. Kang2, M. Geschwind2, S. J. Nelson1, and Christopher Hess4
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3GE Healthcare, Global Applied Sciences Labroratory, 4Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
This work analyzed the local field shift representing iron content in Huntington's disease (HD) patients and controls. This work suggests that local field shift may be a useful biomarker for early stage HD and an indication of the role of iron in the pathogeneisis of HD.

 
3226.   74 Quantification of Cortical Thickness and Cortical Surface Area Abnormalities in Patients Affected by Migraine
Roberta Messina1, Maria A. Rocca1, Paola Valsasina1, Bruno Colombo2, Andrea Falini3, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 3Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy

 
Aim of this study was to quantify abnormalities of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA) in patients suffering from migraine with different clinical and radiological characteristics. Between-group comparisons and correlations of CT/CSA with clinical and radiological characteristics were performed using a vertex-by-vertex analysis with FreeSurfer. Migraineurs experienced distributed CT and CSA abnormalities, which differed according to patients’ characteristics. CSA was significantly correlated with clinical variables. In conclusion, abnormalities of CT and CSA occur in patients with migraine.

 
3227.   75 HIV/HCV co-infection and HCV mono-infection are associated with subcortical and cortical atrophy
Manoj Kumar Sarma1, April Thames2, Rajakumar Nagarajan1, Sarabeth Lawrence3, Natalie Arbid3, M. Albert Thomas1, and Charles H Hinkin2,3
1Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Service, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Co-infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant problem with both having similar routes of transmission. The current study sought to investigate cortical thickness and subcortical structure volume across a group of HCV/HIV co-infected, HCV mono-infected and healthy adults employing an automated method for regional parcellation that uses curvature landmarks and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) surface boundary information. Sixteen HCV mono-infected and 11 HCV/HIV co-infected patients patients were compared to 15 healthy controls. We observed widespread brain regions with cortical thinning in HCV/HIV co-infected and HCV mono-infected adults relative to healthy controls. We also found subcortical GM volume changes between healthy control and HCV/HIV co-infected, HCV mono-infected adults, suggesting that subcortical structures may be highly sensitive to the neuropathological changes associated with HCV.

 
3228.   76 Corpus Collosum Shape Analysis on Premature Neonates - A Surface mTBM Study
Yalin Wang1, Ashok Panigrahy2,3, Jie Shi1, Rafael Ceschin2, Zhi Nie1, Marvin D. Nelson3, and Natasha Lepore3
1Computer Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States, 2Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 3Radiology, University of Southern California and Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

 
Using brain structural magnetic resonance images, we have designed a pipeline for group comparisons of the anatomy of subcortical structures in neonates. Our analysis is applied here to statistically compare the corpus callosum in premature neonates vs. term born controls.

 
3229.   77 Comparing two atlas-based automatic segmentation methods for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation
Y. Xiao1, L. Bailey1, M. Mallar Chakravarty2, S. Beriault1, A. F. Sadikot3, G. Bruce Pike1, and D. Louis Collins1
1McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montréal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2Kimel Family Translational Imaging-Genetic Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction, Toronto, Canada, 3Division of Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montréal, Canada

 
Accurate automated segmentation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and its surrounding structures can help improve planning for deep brain stimulation procedures when treating Parkinson’s disease. Two atlas-based automatic segmentation methods, one with histologically defined atlas, and the other with in vivo T2w-image-defined atlas, were compared for the segmentation of the STN, red nucleus, and substantia nigra, by using the manual segmentation on the consensus of T2*w image and R2* map acquired on a 3T scanner as the ground truth. Although they both provided acceptable results, the in vivo T2w-image-defined atlas performed better on average.

 
3230.   78 Phase unwrapping using recursive orthogonal referring (PUROR) for susceptibility mapping at 7T
Junmin Liu1, David A Rudko1,2, Joseph S Gati1, Ravi S Menon1,2, and Maria Drangova1,2
1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts research Institution, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

 
We present a new phase unwrapping algorithm, which uses an orthogonal recursive approach (PUROR) to remove streaks that result following conventional 2D phase unwrapping. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with a set of volunteer brain images acquired at 7 T, and the results are compared with those unwrapped using the PhiUN and PRELUDE algorithms. The PUROR algorithm is shown to represent a robust and rapid (less than 1 s per slice) phase unwrapping approach for application in high-field and high-resolution susceptibility mapping and offers improved phase unwrapping at the brain/cortex edge.

 
3231.   79 The Effect of Spatial Resolution on Structural Connectome Analysis
Arnaud Guidon1,2, Anastasyia Batrachenko2,3, Alexandru Vlad Avram4, and Allen W Song2
1Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States,3Medical Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 4National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

 
Structural connectivity studies permit a comprehensive investigation of white matter fiber networks in the human brain and as such hold promising potential for the advancement of our understanding of healthy and pathological cortical development. However, the truthful depiction of the structural connectome relies heavily on the quality and completeness of the diffusion tensor acquisition. In this work, we compare connectomes acquired respectively with voxel sizes of 3x3x3mm3, 2x2x2mm3 and 1x1x1mm3 and show that the derived connectivity metrics benefit greatly from increased spatial resolution.

 
3232.   80 Cortical Thicknesses Determination from High Resolution MPRAGE and MP2RAGE Data at 7 T
Shan Yang1, Astrid Wollrab1, Falk Lüsebrink1, Meng Li2, Martin Walter2, and Oliver Speck1
1Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, 2Clinical Affective Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany

 
Computer-based brain morphometry is widely used in neurological and psychiatric diseases studies, such as depression, Alzheimer’s disease and autism. 7 T MRI allows for higher resolution, but suffers strongly from B1 inhomogeneities. Recently, two methods, MPRAGE image division by GE image and MP2RAGE, have been proposed to remove such inhomogeneities. In this work, we calculate the cortical thickness estimation from high resolution MPRAGE and MP2RAGE MRI and compare different tissue segmentation tools.

 
3233.   81 High-Resolution Murine Brain Imaging at 15.2 Tesla
Tim Wokrina1, Michael Gottschalk1, Sarah R. Herrmann1, Marco Sacher2, Thomas Fitze2, and Daniel Marek2
1Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany, 2Bruker BioSpin AG, Fällanden, Switzerland

 
Cryogenic RF coils have now been become available for ultra-high magnetic field strength systems. This study probes the limits of high-resolution in vivomurine brain gradient and spin echo imaging within <30 minutes scan time on a 15.2 T / 11 cm bore scanner equipped with a cryogenic quadrature transmit/receive RF coil. As a result, micro-imaging with resolutions reaching down to the cellular level becomes feasible. This may open up new possibilities for research on e.g. stem cells, myelination alterations or defects in neurodegenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s or multiple sclerosis, and vascularization during tumor growth.

 
3234.   82 Validation of T1-weighted inter-subject MRI registration technique for atlas warping in identifying the subthalamic nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra
Y. Xiao1, L. Bailey1, S. Beriault1, A. F. Sadikot2, G. Bruce Pike1, and D. Louis Collins1
1McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montréal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2Division of Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montréal, Canada

 
Non-rigid inter-subject T1w MRI registration for atlas-warping to identify the precise geometries of the subthalamic nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra has not yet been validated in the context of deep brain surgery planning. A T2w-image-defined atlas of the Colin27 dataset was warped to 6 subjects’ anatomies to segment surgical targets. The automatically identified regions were compared to their geometries (size and position) visible in the 3T T2*w image and R2* map. Results demonstrate that T1w-T1w registration alone is not sufficient, and improvement of atlas-warping may be achieved by integrating multiple-contrasts (i.e. T2w* image).

 
3235.   83 Assessment of atlas warping of small basal ganglia on Colin27
Lara Bailey1, Yiming Xiao1, Mallar M Chakravarty2, Abbas F. Sadikot3, and D. Louis Collins1
1McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Kimel Family Translational Imaging-Genetics Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada, 3Division of Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

 
Localization of basal ganglia (BG) is necessary for deep brain stimulation, but is difficult to achieve with clinical MRI. A method for warping a histological atlas to a T1w target contrast was previously validated for larger BG structures, but not smaller structures only visible on T2w contrasts. Here, we manually labelled T2w Colin12 and compared it with the atlas segmentation. Overall, there was agreement between the labels, yet the accuracy is not sufficient to delineate borders of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus. In the future, we will improve registration of these structures by including a T2w contrast.

 
3236.   84 Musical Cues During Motor Dexterity Training Influence Structural Brain Plasticity in Healthy Subjects
Gianna Riccitelli1, Maria A. Rocca1, Letizia Panicari1, Maria Chiara Di Fabio1, Elisa Gobbetti1, Roberto Gatti2, Paola Valsasina1, Andrea Falini3, Giancarlo Comi4, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Unit of Functional Recovery, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 3Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 4Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy

 
We investigated in 45 healthy subjects (HC), the structural changes of the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) associated with manual dexterity training, with and without musical cue. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 2 weeks. Diffusivity parameters in the WM skeleton did not change after training, while a musical stimulation during motor training improved motor performance and influenced structural plasticity of the GM. The complexity of the task was associated with more pronounced changes of GM structure.

 
3237.   85 Early neuroanatomical development of the mouse brain characterized by diffusion tensor microimaging
Manisha Aggarwal1, Susumu Mori1, and Jiangyang Zhang1
1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal superior contrasts than relaxation-based MRI in premyelinated developing mouse brains. In order to image the evolving embryonic mouse neuroanatomy at miniature spatial scales, high spatial resolution is necessary. In this study, three dimensional diffusion tensor microimaging (DTMI) of the developing mouse brain from embryonic to neonatal stages at an isotropic resolution of 50 lower case Greek mum is presented. At this resolution, very fine anatomical details in the embryonic brains could be resolved to allow visualization of the evolving neuroanatomy, and three dimensional growth trajectories of early developing white matter tracts could be delineated, which are difficult to resolve at lower resolutions.

 
3238.   86 High-resolution phase imaging reveals intra-cortical structure of the human cingulate cortex at 7T
Andreas Schäfer1, Robert Trampel1, Pierre-Louis Bazin1, and Robert Turner1
1Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

 
The cingulate gyrus is a long medial structure within each cerebral hemisphere, extending in humans about half the total length of the brain in the anterior-posterior direction. Its cortex is micro-structurally and functionally heterogeneous and makes its characterisation somewhat challenging. We acquired high-resolution FLASH images (300x300x400 um) to visualise intra-cortical layer structure within the human cingulate gyrus. The intra-cortical stripe in the cingulate gyrus could not always be detected in their magnitude images, but was clearly observable in the phase images in eight out of nine subjects.

 
3239.   87 Parallel-Transmission-Enabled T1-Weighted Human Brain Imaging for Robust Volumetric and Morphologic Studies at 7T
M.A. Cloos1,2, A. Amadon1, N. Boulant1, M. Luong2, G. Ferrand2, E. Giacomini1, M-F. Hang1, C.J. Wiggins1, and D. Le Bihan1
1CEA, DSV, I2BM, Neurospin, LRMN, Gif-Sur-Yvette, Ile de france, France, 2CEA, DSM, IRFU, Gif-Sur-Yvette, Ile de france, France

 
One of the promises of Ultra High Field MRI scanners is to bring finer spatial resolutions due to an increased signal to noise ratio. However, the spatial non-uniformity of the Radio Frequency transmit profile challenges the applicability of most MRI sequences, where the signal and contrast levels strongly depend on the flip angle homogeneity. In particular, the MP-RAGE sequence, one of the most commonly employed 3D sequences to obtain T1-weighted anatomical images for brain morphology studies, is highly sensitive to these spatial variations. In this work, we evaluate the potential of parallel-transmission to obtain high-quality highly-resolved MP-RAGE images of the human brain at 7 Tesla.

 
3240.   88 High resolution in-vivo brain frequency shift and susceptibility imaging at 3T
Wei Li1, Bing Wu1, and Chunlei Liu1,2
1Brain Imaging & Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 2Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

 
Frequency shift and susceptibility images from gradient echo MRI have unique advantages of high contrast and signal-noise-ratio. They two complement each other and provide a promising combination for high resolution brain imaging. In this study, we demonstrated the high resolution frequency shift and susceptibility imaging with excellent SNR at 3T, using optimized image acquisition and post processing methods. The resulting frequency shift and susceptibility images show excellent delineation of deep brain nuclei, the hippocampus and cerebellar nuclei with excellent anatomical details.

 
3241.   89 Cortical layers one by one: diffusion properties at 160μm resolution
Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens1, Alard Roebroeck2, Daniel Brenner1, Klaus Moellenhoff1,2, Avdo Celik1, Joerg Felder1, Andreas Matusch1, Ralf A.W. Galuske3, Hansjuergen Bratzke4, and N. Jon Shah1,5
1INM-4, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 2Dept. of Psychology, University of Maastricht, Netherlands, 3Dept. of Biology, TU Darmstadt, Germany, 4Dept. of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, JWG-University, Frankfurt/M, Germany, 5Faculty of Medicine, JARA, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

 
A high-resolution diffusion study was performed on a piece of tissue containing the central sulcus (motor and sensory cortex). Clear intracortical contrast was observed, consisting regionally of two bands with strikingly different T2 and, to some extent, diffusion contrast from the surrounding grey matter. Their precise cyto- and myeloarchitectonic origin remains to be clarified by histology (in progress). The GM and WM of the fixed tissue were characterised by their ADC and FA values and we found very good correspondence to values obtained previously and with a different method for the visual cortex.

 
3242.   90 Small veins of what diameters are visible in typical susceptibility weighted sequences?
Matthew P. Quinn1, and Ravi S. Menon1,2
1Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada

 
The goal of this study is to quantify diameters of veins visible with susceptibility-weighted sequences. A phantom was constructed wherein a Teflon tube filled with gadolinium solution was embedded in agarose and scanned at 3 T. Frequency was measured within the tube at different resolutions. The frequencies generated by this phantom were simulated, as were those generated by a vein in periventricular white matter. Phantom values were in agreement with corresponding simulation. In a volunteer, frequency measured in small periventricular veins is -0.75±0.31 Hz. Interpolation of simulated values yields diameters on the order of 200 μm for a 0.5x0.5x1.0mm3 voxel.

 
3243.   91 Quantitative Comparison of Extremely Rapid Structural Data Acquisition Compared to Conventional MPRAGE
Ross W Mair1,2, Andre J van der Kouwe2, Thomas Benner2, Bruce Fischl2,3, and Randy L Buckner1,2
1Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 3Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

 
The multi-echo MPRAGE (MEMPRAGE) sequence was implemented to reduce signal distortion by acquiring at a higher bandwidth and averaging multiple echoes to recover SNR while providing additional T2* information that can enhance cortical segmentation. Here, we validate the morphometric results obtained from a rapid 2-minute MEMPRAGE scan by comparison to those from a conventional 6-minute MPRAGE scan acquired in the same session. The results indicate that the rapid 2-minute MEMPRAGE protocol employing 4-fold acceleration can be used in place of conventional longer MPRAGE scans without degradation of the quantitative morphometric results obtained.

 
3244.   92 Voxel Based Analysis of 3D Double Inversion Recovery for the detection of cortical abnormalities in drug resistant epilepsy
Elise Bannier1,2, Camille Maumet1,2, Anca Pasnicu3, Jean-Christophe Ferré2,4, Eduardo Pasqualini5, Arnaud Biraben6, Jean-Yves Gauvrit2,4, and Christian Barillot2,7
1Neurinfo MR imaging platform, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 2INRIA, VisAGeS Project-Team, Rennes, France, 3CHU Rennes, Fuctionnal Explorations Department, Rennes, France, 4CHU Rennes, Neuroradiology Department, Rennes, France, 5CHU Rennes, Neurosurgery Department, Rennes, France, 6CHU Rennes, Neurology Department, Rennes, France, 7INSERM, U746, Rennes, France

 
In this study we propose to evaluate, at 3T, using voxel based analysis the ability of 9-minute Double Inversion Recovery to detect cortical and juxtacortical lesions in drug resistant epileptic patients.

 
3245.   93 The contribution of the inferior parietal cortex to spoken language production
Fatemeh Geranmayeh1, Sonia Brownsett1, Robert Leech1, Christian F Beckmann1, and Richard J.S. Wise1
1The Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

 
This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in speech production (Speech). We compared Speech with non-communicative repetitive tongue movements (Tongue). The data were analyzed with both univariate contrasts between conditions and independent component analysis (ICA). Although the former indicated decreased activity of left IPC during Speech relative to Tongue, the ICA revealed a Speech component in which there was correlated activity between left IPC, frontal and temporal cortices known to be involved in language. This study confirms that a large extent of the left IPC is involved in the production of spoken discourse.

 
3246.   94 Increased Myelin Content Correlates with the Longer T2 Times of the Intra-/Extra-cellular Water in White Matter Structures
Bretta Russell-Schulz1, Cornelia Laule2,3, David Li3, and Alex MacKay1
1Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

 
The relationship between myelin water fraction (MWF) and intra-/extra-cellular water geometric mean T2 (IEgmT2) was examined in healthy white matter using quantitative T2. A moderately strong relationship was found across all structures and a strong correlation was found between average MWF and average IEgmT2 for each structure. Based on our experimental results and simulations, the relationship between IEgmT2 and MWF does not arise from the fitting algorithm, however, either varying amounts of extracellular water or exchange between MW and IE could explain this relationship.

 
3247.   95 Magnetic Resonance Morphometry in a Mouse Model of Niemann Pick Type C Disease
John Totenhagen1, Eriko Yoshimaru1, Robert Erickson2, and Theodore Trouard1
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States, 2Pediatrics, University of Arizona

 
High resolution in vivo MR images were collected in a mouse model of Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease at 3 timepoints. Brain images were analyzed using volumetry and morphometry techniques to examine changes in brain anatomy as the neurodegenerative disease progressed.

 
3248.   96 In vivo high resolution diffusion tensor imaging of the mouse brain using a cryogenic probe at 11.7 T
Dan Wu1, Jiadi Xu2, Michael T. McMahon2, Peter C. M. van Zijl2,3, Susumu Mori2,3, and Jiangyang Zhang3
1Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medcine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medcine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of collecting high resolution diffusion tensor images (DTI) of live mouse brains using a cryogenic probe in combination with fast imaging sequences. Multi-slice DTI data with a resolution of 0.12 mm x 0.12 mm x 0.5 mm could be acquired within 40 minutes, and three dimensional DTI data of the entire mouse brain at 0.125 mm isotropic resolution could be obtained within 2 hours. This resolution, which was previously only available with ex vivo imaging, enabled non-invasive reconstruction of fine white matter tracts of the thalamus.