MR Physics for Physicists

Skill Level: Intermediate
Jean H. Brittain, Ph.D., James G. Pipe, Ph.D., Michael H. Buonocore M.D., Ph.D., Klaus Scheffler, Ph.D, Organizers

19 - 20 May

This two-day course focuses on physical theories and principles, and will provide a sound basis for understanding the technical presentations at the scientific meeting. A broad range of scientific topics will be covered, including molecular imaging physics, pulse sequence design, advanced methods for image reconstruction and parallel imaging, special pulse sequences and processing methods for measurement of physiological processes, and the physics of high field imaging. The section on imaging physics will include talks on spin phase diagrams, dynamic and pseudo-equilibrium magnetization states, and multi-dimensional RF excitation design. The section on image reconstruction will include talks on the methods of gridding, reconstruction for multi-coil acquisition, and methods for spatial and temporal interpolation.

Educational Objectives

Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to:
•  Starting from first principles in quantum mechanics, describe and derive the two-component Schrödinger equation, the equations
   for thermal equilibrium, the Bloch equation for magnetization dynamics, the magnetization relaxation terms T1 and T2, and explain
   the conclusion that the current induced in the MRI coil is a measure of the expectation value of the magnetic moment of the nuclear spins.
•  Explain the basic quantum mechanical and semi-classical theory of relaxation, and the processes of relaxation of water protons
   that occur in tissues and result in image contrast.
•  Describe the physics of alternate mechanisms for spin polarization, as used in hyperpolarized molecular imaging; also describe
   pulse sequence strategies for imaging hyperpolarized elements, and the contrast mechanisms in molecular imaging.
•  Summarize the physical processes, pulse sequences and other technical innovations used in fast imaging, such as those
   required for magnetization dynamic manipulation for desired image contrast and high speed spectroscopic imaging.
•  Describe advanced image reconstruction methods based on gridding for non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, including methods
   using coil sensitivity functions for parallel imaging, and methods using generalized temporal and spatial correlations.
•  Describe special MRI pulse sequences and processing methods used for spatial mapping and quantification of physiological
   processes such as cardiac cycle, musculoskeletal motion, breathing, brain motion and neural response.
•  Explain RF field equations and reciprocity laws.

Audience Description

This course is designed for:
• PhD. candidates in physics, chemistry, engineering, applied mathematics and computer science, as well as Ph.D. postgraduates in
  these fields. It is also suited to established MR physicists, chemists, engineers, applied mathematicians, computer scientists,
  and physicians who have several years of direct experience performing human MRI and/or biochemical/biological experiments,
  and/or MRI technology research and development.
• The course will be particularly valuable to attendees interested in obtaining quantitative descriptions of MRI topics. The given
  descriptions will reflect the backgrounds and perspectives of mathematical physicists, physical chemists, and engineers.
• Individuals/groups that will most benefit from the course will have, or will be working towards, a Ph.D. degree in physics,
  chemistry, engineering, applied mathematics and/or computer science, and/or will have several years of direct experience performing MRI.

1 Spin Physics  
08:30 Origin of equations describing magnetization dynamics Michael  Buonocore M.D., Ph.D.
09:10 Models and equations for coupled spin systems and their physical interpretation Warren S. Warren, Ph.D.
09:50 Physical mechanisms of hyperpolarization Bastiaan Driehuys, Ph.D.
10:30 Break - Meet the teachers  
2 Molecular imaging physics  
10:50 Theory of relaxation parameters in molecules and tissues      Valerij G. Kiselev, Ph.D.
11:30 Chemical and physical principles of contrast agent design      Silvio Aime, Ph.D.
12:10 Break  
12:10 - 12:30 - Meet the teachers  
3 Imaging Physics  
13:30 Spin phase diagrams and their use in pulse sequence development Juergen Hennig, Ph.D.
14:10 Imaging with dynamic and pseudo-equilibrium magnetization states  Brian A. Hargreaves, Ph.D.
14:50 Techniques for multidimensional RF pulse design V. Andrew Stenger, Ph.D.
15:30 Break - Meet the teachers  
4 Pulse sequence design  
15:50 Strategies for control of contrast and enhanced resolution          Jeffrey L. Duerk, Ph.D.
16:30 Pulse sequences for high speed spectroscopic imaging Elfar Adalsteinsson, Ph.D.
17:10 Sequence techniques for motion estimation and correction       James G. Pipe, Ph.D.
17:50 Adjourn  
17:50 18:10 - Meet the teachers  
5 Image Reconstruction and Parallel imaging  
08:00 Reconstruction from Non-cartesian k-space sampling Douglas C. Noll, Ph.D.
08:35 Reconstruction from limited data in space and time Walter F. Block, Ph.D.
09:10 Principles of whole body moving table MRI Peter Boernert, Ph.D.
09:45 Image reconstruction from multiple receivers Mark A. Griswold, Ph.D.
10:20 Break - Meet the teachers  
6 Measurement of physiological processes  
10:45 Strategies for collecting temporally-resolved physiological data Krishna S. Nayak, Ph.D.
11:20 Principles of phase manipulation for tissue characterization Scott B. Reeder, M.D., Ph.D.
11:55 Use of magnetization phase for velocity encoding Michael Markl, Ph.D.
12:30 Break  
12:30 - 12:45 - Meet the teachers  
13:50 Physics and  mathematical theory of the BOLD effect Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy, Ph.D.
7 Physics of High Field system  
14:25 Understanding RF field equations and reciprocity laws Christopher M. Collins, Ph.D.
15:00 Adjourn  
15:00 - 15:14 - Meet the teachers