Perinatal Brain
Friday 7 May 2010
Room A6 10:30-12:30 Moderators: Nadine S. Girard and Patricia E. Grant

10:30 734. 

Study the Cerebral Wall of the Fetal Brain with DTI and Histology
Hao Huang1, Linda J. Richards2, Paul Yarowsky3, Susumu Mori4
Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States; 2Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia; 3Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States; 4Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

The cerebral wall of the fetal brain contains multiple layers and undergoes active structural changes during fetal development. DTI imaging can clearly identify three layers in the cerebral wall, which are cortical plate, subplate and inner layer. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively characterized the inner layer with both DTI and histology and found that radial structure, rather than the tangential structure of fetal white matter, is dominant in the inner layer during second trimester. Fractional anisotropy values in the inner layer are higher than those in the suplate but lower than those in the cortical plate.

10:42 735. 

Developing Connectivity in Human Fetal Brains: Emerging Regional Variations
Emi Takahashi1, Rebecca D. Folkerth2, Rudolph Pienaar1, Albert M. Galaburda3, P. Ellen Grant1,4
Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; 2Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United States; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; 4Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

Examination of the three-dimensional axonal pathways in the developing brain is key to understanding the formation of cerebral connectivity. Using high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) tractography, we imaged developing cerebral fiber pathways in human fetal specimens ranged from 18 to 33 post-gestational weeks (W). We observed dominant radial pathways at 18-20W, and at later stages, emergence of short- and long-range cortico-cortical association pathways, subcortical U-fibers in specific brain regions. Although radial pathways still remained, they were less dominant at 33W.  These results demonstrate that HARDI tractography can detect radial migration and emerging regional specification of connectivity during fetal development.

10:54 736. 

Cortical Folding Analysis for Normal Fetuses
Jue Wu1, Suyash P. Awate2, Daniel Licht3, Catherine Limperopoulos4, James C. Gee1
Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; 2Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ, United States; 3Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States; 4Mcgill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Eight cortical folding measures were applied to T2w in vivo MRIs of 40 normal fetuses with varied gestational ages. Correlations of these measures with gestational age are reported and Gaussian curvature L2 norm and intrinsic curvature index are the two most correlated measures. These measures may be help in characterization of normal neurodevelopment and in detection of abnormal brain growth in fetuses.

11:06 737.  

3D Fetal Brain Volumetry in Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Mellisa Damodaram1,2, Lisa Story1,2, Prachi Patkee1, Abhilasha Patel1,2, Amy McGuinness1, Joanna Allsop1, Sailesh Kumar, 2, Jo Hajnal1, Mary Rutherford1

1Robert Steiner MRI Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 2Imperial College Healthcare Trust, London, United Kingdom

Fetal intrauterine growth restriction is a significant problem that often results in iatrogenic premature delivery of the fetus. These children may have neurodevelopmental delay and exhibit problems that cannot be explained by the complications of prematurity alone. Little is known about the exact neurostructural deficiencies that arise as a result of intrauterine growth restriction, and MR studies have been limited by difficulties overcoming the inherent problem of fetal motion.  We describe a technique to conduct 3D reconstruction of the fetal brain that enables volumetric analysis of the whole brain and cerebellum in both normally grown and growth restricted fetuses.

11:18 738.

Development of Multi-Contrast Human Neonatal Brain Atlas
Kenichi Oishi1, Pamela Donahue2, Lynn Anderson3, Steven Buchthal3, Thomas Ernst3, Andreia Faria1, Hangyi Jiang1,4, Xin Li4, Michael Miller5, Peter van Zijl1,4, Susumu Mori1,4, Linda Chang3
1Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; 3Neuroscience and Magnetic Resonance Research Program, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI, United States; 4F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

We have developed neonatal brain atlases with detailed anatomic information derived from DTI and co-registered anatomical MRI. Combined with a highly elastic non-linear transformation, we attempted to normalize neonatal brain images to the atlas space and three-dimensionally parcellate the images into 122 brain structures. The accuracy level of the normalization was measured by the agreement with manual segmentation. This method was applied to 33 healthy term infants, ranging from 37 to 53 weeks of age since conception, to characterize developmental changes. The future applications for this atlas include investigations of the effect of prenatal events and the determination of imaging biomarkers.

11:30 739

Comparison of Cortical Folding Measures for Evaluation of Developing Cortex
Joshua S. Shimony1, Jason Hill1, John Harwell1, Tim Coalson1, Dierker Donna1, Terrie Inder1, David Van Essen1, Jeff J. Neil1

1Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States

A variety of measures have been proposed to evaluate cortical folding, many of which are based on the mathematical quantity of curvature.  We obtained MRI data from premature infants at <27, 30-31, 34-35, and 38-39 wks postmenstrual age (PMA).  We evaluated how 17 cortical folding measures change with increasing PMA.  There was considerable disparity in the sensitivity of the measures to cortical maturation, though a subset increased in a monotonic and predictable fashion, making them suitable for evaluation of brain development.

11:42 740

Quantification of Tissues’ Maturation in the Infant Brain with Multi-Parametric MRI
Jessica Dubois1,2, Cyril Poupon3,4, François Leroy1,4, Giovanna Santoro1, Jean-François Mangin3,4, Lucie Hertz-Pannier2,5, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz1,4
1U562, Inserm, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; 2LBIOM, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; 3LNAO, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; 4IFR49, Paris, France; 5U663, Inserm, Paris, France

Brain development proceeds with a specific spatio-temporal pattern across regions during early infancy and childhood. MRI has recently enabled to study this process non-invasively, but the functional significance of MRI indices is still controversial. Here we used multi-parametric quantitative MRI to investigate this issue in the developing brain of 10 healthy infants (age: 6 to 18weeks). Diffusion Tensor Imaging and T1-T2 mappings were performed over the whole brain in a short acquisition time with EPI sequences. The indices quantification highlighted variable age-related changes across different regions of grey and white matter, and specific relationships between indices according to maturational processes.

11:54 741

Gestational Age at Birth Influences Brain White Matter Development
L. Tugan Muftuler1, Claudia Buss2, Orhan Nalcioglu1, Curt A. Sandman2, Elysia Poggi Davis2
Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States; 2Psychiatry & Human Behavior, University of California, Orange, CA, United States

In the fetal brain, there is minimal myelinated WM at 29 weeks and a dramatic increase is seen after the 36th week. Therefore, this is a period when the brain development is highly vulnerable to insults caused by premature birth. Prior studies have investigated the mean differences between preterm and term children. But the fetal brain development is a continuous process and gestational age at birth will disrupt the process in different phases. Therefore, we studied the persisting effects of GAB on the WM of children. The results show that major WM pathways are strongly influenced by the GAB.

12:06 742.

Differences in Biochemical Maturation in Term and Preterm Newborns
Ashok Panigrahy1,2, Marvin D. Nelson1, Floyd H. Gilles3, Lisa Paquette4, Istvan Seri4, Stefan Bluml

1Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States; 2Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, United States; 3Department of Neuropathology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States; 4Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States; 5Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, United States

In this study, we compare age-dependent changes of metabolites using quantitative MR spectroscopy  in white and grey matter of premature neonates without brain injury with normal biochemical maturation in age-matched term neonates. There are subtle but significant differences in the biochemical maturation of white matter in premature infants with normal conventional MR imaging when compared to control term infants. The observations suggest accelerated white matter development in the premature brain possibly from increased sensory-motor stimulation in the extra-uterine environment or possibly a reparative response to subtle brain injury (i.e. possibly related to sepsis induced white matter injury).

12:18 743

The Functional-Structural Interplay During First Two Years' Brain Development
Wei Gao1, Pew-Thian Yap2, Hongtu Zhu3, Kelly Giovanello4, Keith Smith2, John Gilmore5, Weili Lin6

1Biomedical Engineering, UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; 2Radiology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; 3Biostatistics and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; 4Psychology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; 5Psychiatry, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; 6Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

In this study, normal and healthy pediatric subjects aged between 2wk to 2 yrs were studied so as to directly compare the temporal evolution of brain functional and structural connectivity. In so doing, we aim to determine the temporal correlation between functional and structural connectivity during the first two years of life and to reveal whether or not maturation of structural connectivity is needed for functional connectivity.



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