Educational E-Posters
Available Monday thru Thursday at the Educational E-Poster Tables

  Body - Non-Cancer Cardiovascular Diffusion + Perfusion – Neuro  
  Cancer Functional MRI Neuro  
  Musculoskeletal Engineering Pulse Sequences, Reconstruction + Analysis  

Educational E-Posters : Body - Non-Cancer
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4624.   Tissue- and Magnetic Resonance-Based Metrics for Quantifying Hepatic Content: Implications for Validation Studies using Tissue as the Reference Standard 
Scott Brian Reeder1,2, Catherine D Hines1, Charles A McKenzie3, and Claude B Sirlin4
1Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 3Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 4Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

Hepatic steatosis is the abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes. Validation of quantitative MRS/MRI methods that measure hepatic fat content (proton density fat-fraction) requires the use of tissue-based reference standards. Liver biopsy, although invasive and limited by sampling variability is the most widely accepted reference standard. Tissue triglyceride extraction is an attractive alternative that accurately measures tissue fat concentration. Unfortunately, MRS/MRI-based metrics of fat concentration and tissue-based measured metrics are inherently different, complicating direct comparisons. The purpose of this e-poster is to describe commonly used metrics used to measure fat with histology, chemical extraction, and MRS/MRI.

  4625.   Whole Body MRI; Improve Lesion Detection and Characterization with Diffusion Weighted Techniques 
Rajpaul Attariwala1, and Wayne Picker1
1AIM Medical Imaging, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Whole body diffusion with coregistered conventional T1, STIR, T2 sequences is a sensitive method for lesion detection and can be used on modern MRI machines. The exquisite sensitivity of this technique may limit gadolinium for lesion detection in the body, and has the ability to quantify tissue properties.

  4626.   Non-contrast-enhanced Hepatic MR Angiography with Time Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse 
Hiroyoshi Isoda1, Tomohisa Okada1, Kotaro Shimada1, Seiya Kawahara1, Hironori Shimizu1, and Kaori Togashi1
1Kyoto University, kyoto, kyoto, Japan

The purpose of this presentation is to provide the latest information in the field of non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography. The focus is on the basics of angiography sequences and time spatial labeling inversion pulse techniques, clinical applications in hepatic arteries, portal veins, and hepaticveins, and new developments on the horizon, including 3T non-contrast-enhanced MRA.

  4627.   Magnetic resonance enterography in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric population including DWI, cine MR and Post gadolinium dynamic MR. 
Jorge Humberto Davila Acosta1,2, Nagwa Wilson3, and Elka Miller4
1Diagnostic Imaging, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 3Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Canada, 4Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario

MR enterography is state of art imaging in the assessment of small bowel. Use of techniques as DWI, Cine MR and dynamic post gadolinium enhancement increase the accuracy of this tool in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease and its complications. It helps to make the diagnosis, extension and severity of the disease in new patients and the response to treatment in patients under different kind of therapy.

  4628.   MRI of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Review of the findings with comparison to CT and fluoroscopy and discussion of the role of MR-Enterography in establishing and following the disease. 
Joseph Yacoub1, Christine Schmid-Tannwald1, Barbra White1, Xiaobing Fan1, David Rubin2, and Aytekin Oto1
1Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Gastroenterology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

MRI is playing an increasing role in evaluating GI pathology and hence recognizing the findings of IBD on MRI will be increasing important. In addition, advanced MR sequences and MR Enterography have the potential for providing functional information which can be helpful in monitoring disease activity and response to treatment in Crohn’s disease.

  4629.   Imaging Features of Ovarian Cystic Lesions with Emphasis on Differential Diagnosis 
Sung Bin Park1
1Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Ovarian cystic lesions are broad spectrum from physiologic, benign functional cyst to the malignant cystadenocarcinoma. Treatment of choice may often be problematic, especially in young reproductive women. Precise knowledge of clinical and imaging features, especially MR imaging is crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining treatment.

  4630.   Imaging Features of the Hypointense Solid Lesions on T2-Weighted MR Images in the Genitourinary Tract 
Sung Bin Park1
1Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

The vast majority solid lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images and suggest malignancy. Rarely, however, some solid lesions may appear hypointense on those images. Causes for this uncommon appearance include deposition, related to the presence of blood degradation products, macromolecules and other conditions.

  4631.   How to Differentiate Medically Treated Vs. Surgically Treated Crohn's Disease on MR Enterography 
Andrew Dean Hardie1
1Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States

MR Enterography can accurately identify the findings of Crohn's disease but more importantly can differentiate between patients requiring medical treatment and surgical treatment. A multi-parametric MRE protocol (including T2, diffusion, functional, and dynamic enhanced sequences) is essential to achieving a highly clinically focused examination.

  4632.   Functional imaging of the female pelvis 
Helen Clare Addley1, Penelope Moyle2, Caroline Reinhold1, and Evis Sala3
1Radiology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2Hinchingbrooke Hospital, United Kingdom, 3Addenbrooke's Hospital, United Kingdom

Functional imaging in gynecological malignancy can provide additional information and the main teaching points of the exhibit are to illustrate its role by highlighting the pearls and pitfalls of functional imaging techniques.

  4633.   Diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidney 
Helen Clare Addley1, Nesreen Abourokbah1, Alla Khashper1, and Caroline Reinhold1
1Radiology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the assessment of the indeterminate renal lesion can provide additional valuable information. The aim of the exhibit is to highlight the use of DWI in both the initial evaluation of the renal lesion and also in post treatment appearances.

  4634.   Real-time MRI with Synchronous Polysomnography of the Upper Airway in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. 
Lewis K Shin1,2, Andrew B Holbrook1, Catherine E Chang1, Juan M Santos3, Nancy J Fischbein4, Robson Capasso5, and Clete A Kushida6
1Radiology / Lucas Center for MRI, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2PAVAHCS, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 3HeartVista Inc, Palo Alto, CA, 4Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 5Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 6Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

We present a unique, real-time MRI protocol that images the upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with synchronous polysomnography performed. OSA is a clinical disorder characterized by occlusion and/or narrowing of the upper airway occurring during sleep which results in breathing cessation (apnea) or decreased airflow (hypopnea). An overview of OSA, MRI technique utilized, polysomnography setup (e.g. EEG, EMG, EOG, and nasal/oral airflow monitoring) is reviewed. The potential utility of this protocol is illustrated by a clinical case where unexpected findings altered the planned surgery.

Educational E-Posters : Cancer
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4635.   Optimizing Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3.0 Tesla 
Habib Rahbar1,2, Savannah Partridge1,2, Wendy DeMartini1,2, and Constance Lehman1,2
1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Radiology, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA, United States

While breast MRI at higher field strength 3.0T technique promises many potential imaging benefits, technical, physical, and safety considerations present challenges for fully realizing these advantages. In this educational poster, we review the clinical utility of breast MRI, discuss techniques to optimize breast MRI at 3.0T, address specific challenges, and provide perspective on additional clinical issues.

  4636.   Optimizing Clinical Breast MRI: How to identify common artifacts and correct them 
Basak Erguvan Dogan1, Jigfei Ma2, and Gary J Whitman3
1Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 2Imaging Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 3Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

Using a proper, high-field-strength MR imaging system and an optimal imaging protocol are important for the accurate diagnosis of breast lesions on MRI. Difficulties involving breast positioning and choosing an appropriate imaging volume requires training MR imaging technologists and providing them with imaging-based feedback. Optimal in plane resolution and fat suppression are crucial to ensure state-of-the art image quality. Recognizing and correcting imaging artifacts such as suboptimal fat suppression, susceptibility, chemical shift, image wrap, RF noise) is essential to optimize clinical breast MRI imaging technique.

  4637.   MRI staging of endometrial carcinoma according to new FIGO staging system (2009). 
Alla Khashper1, Helen Addley1, Nesreen H. AbouRokbah1, Evis Sala2, and Caroline Reinhold1
1McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Endometrial cancer remains the most common neoplasia of the female reproductive tract. MRI provides important diagnostic information and aids in the correct staging of the disease. The main teaching points of the exhibit are to outline the new International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system of endometrial cancer and demonstrate typical MRI findings for each stage with an optimized imaging protocol and as such ensure triage into appropriate management pathways.

  4638.   Applications of Perfusion MRI in Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancers 
Jing Cai1, and Fang-Fang Yin1
1Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States

Perfusion MRI of the lungs has been intensively investigated in the filed of radiology in the past decade. Its application in radiation therapy, however, has been largely limited. There is an urgent need of incorporating information provided by perfusion MRI in radiation therapy to improve lung cancer treatment. This education poster provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of this particular application, including different radiation therapy techniques in treating lung cancers, different perfusion MRI techniques, recent clinical findings, and latest technical developments. Future research directions are also discussed.

  4639.   Evaluation of Focal Liver Lesions with Diffusion Weighted MRI and ADC maps 
Omar Saleh1, Judy Rose James1, and Manohar Roda1
1Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States

Diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI) is utilized in characterizing focal liver lesions. Based on institutional data, we will discuss how DWI analyzes focal liver lesions with not only qualitative data, but also quantitative data, which is based on ADC values from our institutional data set. This multi case presentation will demonstrate the advantages of DWI in oncologic body imaging. DWI has the functional advantages of PET, with better image resolution and redcuced background noise. Our presentation will also discuss how DWI can be used to analyze benign lesions, differentiate between malignant and benign lesions, follow up treated malignant lesions, and to detect micro-lesions that are too small to be detected on contrasted MR or PET.

  4640.   Preoperatively mapping Perforator Flap Artery for Autologous Breast Reconstruction 
Mukta Dilipkumar Agrawal1, Zou Zhitong1, Tiffany M Newman1, Michelle Cerilles1, Julie Vasile2, Joshua L Levine2, David R Greenspun2, and Martin R Prince1,3
1Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Center of Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, United States

Magnetic Resonance Angiography using blood pool contrast agents accurately images multiple donor sites in single study to identify small caliber perforator vessels and map their exact anatomy with respect to surface anatomic landmarks without exposing patients to ionizing radiation. This decreases operative time and post operative complications. This presentation will detail our experience with contrast enhanced MRA of multiple donor site for harvesting free flap for autologous breast reconstruction in over 100 mastectomy patients.

Educational E-Posters : Musculoskeletal
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4641.   Soft tissue lipomatous tumors : Review of MR imaging characteristics with emphasis on differentiation between benign and malignant lesions 
Isabelle Drolet1, and Patricia Noël2
1Radiology Department, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, 2Radiology Department, CHUQ - Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

Soft tissue lipomatous tumors are common lesions frequently referred to MR imaging to confirm their lipomatous nature and to determine if a complex lipomatous tumor such as a liposarcoma must be considered. We will review the MR imaging features that are suggestive of a liposarcoma instead of a lipoma. The most important MR imaging features of the 5 subtypes of liposarcomas will also be described, with illustrative examples. Finally, the imaging characteristics of the benign variants of lipomatous tumors will be reviewed since their knowledge is important to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and refine the differential diagnosis.

  4642.   Ankylosing Spondylitis from well known to some less observed findings  
Hatice Tuba SANAL1, Sedat YILMAZ2, Muhammet CINAR2, Ayhan DINC2, and Cem TAYFUN2
1Gulhane Military medical Academy, Ankara, NA, Turkey, 2Gulhane Military medical Academy, Turkey

Ankylosing spondylitis is a common occurring chronic, inflammatory rheumatic disease starting most often with sacroiliitis. The inflammation goes hand-in-hand with spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, and spondylarthritis in many of the cases. Arthritis of the peripheral joints, entheseal organs and fracture like complications may accompany as well. Here in this exhibit, we aimed to display the well known axial skeleton findings of AS together with some unrecognized, less observable ones.

  4643.   Rare Involvement in Behcet Disease: Myositis  
Sedat YILMAZ1, Muhammet CINAR1, Hatice Tugba SANAL2, Omer KARADAG1, Yýldýrým KARSLIOGLU3, Ismail SIMSEK1, Hakan ERDEM1, Salih PAY1, and Ayhan DINC1
1Division of Rheumatology, Gulhane School of Medicine, Kecioren, Ankara, Turkey, 2Department of Radiology, Gulhane School of Medicine, Kecioren, Ankara, Turkey,3Department of Pathology, Gulhane School of Medicine, Kecioren, Ankara, Turkey

Myositis is very rare involvement in Behcet Disease. MRI of the affected muscle helps to make diagnosis. It is important to note that it is a treatable condition. In the present study, we defined the typical findings of myositis in MRI.

  4644.   Imaging of internal derangement of various joints with Isotropic turbo-spin echo sequence  
Young Cheol Yoon1
1Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

With this presentation, each of attendee is expected to understand the basic physics and clinical usefulness of isotropic turbo-spin echo sequences.

Educational E-Posters : Cardiovascular
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4645.   MRI “Triple Rule-Out”: MRI for Acute Chest Pain Evaluation  
Christopher J François1, Mark L Schiebler1, Scott B Reeder1, Michael P Hartung1, and Scott K Nagle1
1Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States

MRI has an increasing role in the diagnosis of three important causes of acute chest pain: (1) acute pulmonary embolism, (2) acute aortic syndrome, and (3) acute ischemic heart disease. This educational exhibit will review the indications for performing MRI, the MRI sequences used, and MRI findings for each of these life-threatening diagnoses.

  4646.   Contrast agents and MR protocols for molecular imaging of murine myocardial infarction 
Leonie Elisabeth Paulis1, Bram Franciscus Coolen1, Tessa Geelen1, Klaas Nicolay1, and Gustav Jacobus Strijkers1
1Biomedical NMR, Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands

Recently, major progress has been made in the field of molecular MRI of mouse myocardial infarction. Contrast agents have been designed and successfully applied to image cell death, inflammation and LV remodeling. To visualize these contrast agents, dedicated MRI sequences are required. Specifically, T1- and T2-weighted sequences have been optimized, quantitative T1 and T2 mapping protocols have been developed and first-pass perfusion measurements have been implemented.

  4647.   Techniques and applications of mouse cardiac MRI for the study of heart function and failure. 
Moriel Vandsburger1
1Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

This educational poster describes preparation, planning, and optimization of a variety of MRI applications for the study of heart function and failure in mouse models. Specific parameters of heart function and corresponding MRI applications will be discussed, as well as special considerations for mouse heart imaging.

  4648.   MR imaging in cardiomyopathy 

The exhibit will study 1.The extent and pattern of myocardial involvement in different types of cardiomyopathy. 2. Study the LV /RV function and pattern of delayed contrast enhancement 3. Assess the feasibility of endocardectomy and subsequent follow up and 4. Differentiate endomyocardial fibrosis from other non-ischemic cardiomyopathies

  4649.   Practical Tricks for 3.0T Whole-Heart Coronary MRA 
Qi Yang1, Kuncheng Li1, Xiangying Du1, and Debiao Li2
1Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

This education exhibit will provide an overview of the role of 3.0T contrast enhanced whole-heart coronary MRA for diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac disease. This course will also provide practical tricks as well as insight into new techniques for coronary MRA.

  4650.   Role of MRI in venacaval anomalies of complex congenital heart disease 

Both superior and inferior venacaval anomalies are associated with complex congenital heart disease like various heterotaxy syndrome.The purpose of the exhibit is to define the role of MRI in depiction of vena caval anomalies.The efficacy of various sequences of MRI in depicting the lesion is studied.

  4651.   What is the role of Pulmonary MRA in this "Medical radiation sensitized" Era? 
Mark L Schiebler1, Scott K Nagle1, Christopher J Francois1, Azita G Hamedani2, Michael D Repplinger2, Thomas M Grist1, and Scott B Reeder1,3
1Radiology, UW-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Emergency Medicine, UW-Madison, 3Medical Physics, UW-Madison

Pulmonary embolism is an important cause of death. Diagnosis using non ionizing imaging is important for children and young adults. Reviewed here are the clinical indications for Pulmonary MRA in light the PIOPED III recommendations and the strengths and weaknesses of this modality. Specific attention to the imaging pitfalls is shown (i.e. Gibbs artifact and bolus timing). Recognition of these issues will improve the accuracy of Pulmonary MRA interpretation. Pulmonary MRA is a good alternative imaging modality to CTA in patients that are possibly impacted by medical radiation.

  4652.   Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Renal Transplant Patients: Current State of the Art 
Mark L Schiebler1, Scott B Reeder1,2, Eric Bultman2,3, Scott K Nagle1, Oliver Wieben2, and Christopher J François1
1Radiology, UW-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Medical Physics, UW-Madison, 3School of Medicine, UW-Madison

Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Angiography (NCE-MRA) is useful for the workup of Renal Transplant patients that are recently post surgery. When renal function is altered in these patients, workup can include both Doppler ultrasound and NCE-MRA to evaluate for the presence of vascular complications. These patients are at a higher risk for the development of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis limiting the role of Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography. This educational exhibit will focus on the current state of the art for the NCE-MRA techniques that can be applied to study the commonly encountered vascular pathologies found after renal transplantation.

  4653.   Non-contrast MRA of the Finger and Toe Using time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse (time-SLIP) technique 
Jun Isogai1, Takeshi Shimada2, Hideo Hatakeyama2, Mitsue Miyazaki3, Kenji Yodo4, and Tomoko Miyata4
1Shuwa General Hospital, Kasukabe, Saitama, Japan, 2Hasuda Hospital, 3Toshiba Medical Research Institute, USA, United States, 4Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.@

Visualization of small arteries of the finger and toe is quite difficult in using conventional non-contrast MR angiography (MRA) techniques, including time-of-flight (TOF) and phase contrast MRA, due to tortuous vessels out of plane and slow velocity. In addition, Gadolinium-enhanced MRA has also several problems on an injection rate or the amount of contrast materials. Due to the recent concerns of Gadolinium-related Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF), non-contrast MRA solutions have gained interest. The time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) MRA was investigated for the depiction of small arteries of the finger and toe.

  4654.   Thoracic DCE-MRI for Estimating Pharmacokinetic Parameters Using Diffusible Tracer 
Jae-Hun Kim1, Yoo Na Kim1, In Young Song1, and Chin A Yi1
1Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Tumor angiogenesis is one of the most important biomarkers of cancer. It can be visualized with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) with pharmacokinetic parameters using diffusible tracer. The purpose is to demonstrate how to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters from DCE-MRI, and demonstrate usefulness of pharmacokinetic parameters for thoracic DCE-MR.

Educational E-Posters : Functional MRI
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4655.   Functional connectivity: biophysical underpinnings and ramifications 
Yash Shah1, Cameron Craddock2, Stephen LaConte3, and Scott James Peltier1
1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Waco, Texas, United States, 3Baylor College of Medicine, Waco, Texas

This review covers the biophysical background of resting state functional connectivity.

  4656.   Optimal Sampling and Reconstruction Patterns for Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging and MR-Encephalography 
Irtiza Ali Gilani1, and Raimo Sepponen2
1Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Centre, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Espoo, Uusima, Finland, 2Department of Electronics, Aalto University, Espoo, Uusima, Finland

Recent technological developments, inspired by magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization techniques, in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have resulted in advanced techniques that can provide millisecond temporal resolution. For applications such as hemodynamic based functional MRI and physiological monitoring, high temporal resolution is desirable. In this review, two techniques, i.e., dynamic magnetic resonance inverse imaging of human brain function (InI) and MR-Encephalography, are compared. Additionally, optimized sampling and reconstruction patterns for desired spatial and temporal resolution are hypothesized.

Educational E-Posters : Engineering
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4657.   Lots of Loops: Constructing a Highly Parallel Brain Array Coil 
Boris Keil1, Christin Y Sander1,2, Veneta Tountcheva1, Jennifer A McNab1, Kyoko Fujimoto1, Christina Triantafyllou1,3, and Lawrence L Wald1,4
1A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States, 3McGovern Institute for Brain Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States, 4Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

As the number of elements used in array coils increases, the complexity of the construction procedure also increases and a careful optimized workflow is required. The aim of this educational e-poster is to provide a multi-media, step-by-step procedure for constructing and bench testing a 32-channel phased-array coil. We describe an optimized protocol for constructing, tuning and decoupling the array coil showing video recording and network analyzer trace captures at each step. The methodology is demonstrated with the construction of a 32-channel pediatric brain array coil for 3T.

  4658.   Interpreting “Spatial Field Gradient” MR Conditional Device Labeling and the IEC 60601-2-33 3rd edition Fringe-Field Compatibility Technical Specification Sheet Requirements 
Michael C. Steckner1, Georg Frese2, Johan van den Brink3, and Daniel J Schaefer4
1TMRU, Mayfield Village, OH, United States, 2Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany, 3Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands, 4General Electric Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States

While MRI manufacturers generally contra-indicate scanning patients with implants, the implants frequently carry the MR Conditional label. Implant labels imply safety under certain specific conditions. MRI users compare implant vendor labeling with the MRI Compatibility Technical Specification. Terminology can be confusing (“Spatial Gradient Fields” are not the switched spatial encoding imaging gradients) and there is misunderstanding of the intent and use of information provided by MR vendors. The result is requests to MR vendors for additional information. Members of the IEC 60601-2-33 committee who assisted in writing the Compatibility Technical Specification requirements, clarify the technical aspects of this issue here.

  4659.   A Unified Framework for SNR Comparisons of Four Array Image Combination Methods 
Nicola De Zanche1,2, Adam Maunder1, Tyler Charlton1, Keith Wachowicz1,2, and B. Gino Fallone1,2
1Dept. of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Dept. of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Expressions are derived for the SNR resulting from four common methods of image combination from array data. Comparisons highlight fundamental differences and the roles of sensitivities and noise covariance.

  4660.   Common modes and cable traps 
Benoit Michel Schaller1, Arthur William Magill1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

Current on the outside of coaxial cables produces unwanted effects such as radiation, sensitivity to external interference and probe sensitivity to cable positioning. This problem becomes significantly worse as frequency increases. Cable traps block current on the outside of the coaxial cable by creating a high impedance for the common mode signal, making the probe insensitive to different cable loading conditions. This study reviews wave propagation in coaxial cable, describes three common cable trap designs (ferrite, tank and bazooka), and presents a simple method for measuring trap effectiveness.

Educational E-Posters : Diffusion + Perfusion – Neuro
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4661.   Mapping the human connectome with Lausanne Neuroimaging Tools 
Patric Hagmann1, Stephan Gerhard1,2, Alessandro Daducci2, Leila Cammoun2, Elda Fischi2, Alia Lemkaddem2, Djalel Meskaldji2, Xavier Gigandet2, Reto Meuli1, and Jean-Philippe Thiran2
1Radiology, CHUV-UNIL, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 2LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland

Connectome science emerges from the conjunction of several major technological and scientific developments. With the aim of making connectomics as accessible as possible to the scientific community we present our set of freely available tools to map the human connectome and provide a stepwise explanation on how to proceed from a raw MRI acquisition up to the network analysis.

  4662.   Understanding the Principles and the Challenges of Intravoxel Voxel Incoherent Motion MRI 
Christian Federau1, Reto Meuli1, Philippe Maeder1, and Patric Hagmann1
1Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland

Separation of diffusion and perfusion signal is a possible application of the intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging method. While the measurement of diffusion showed a wide variety of clinical applications in the past 20 years, the measurement of perfusion using the IVIM method remained confined to a few sporadic publications, due to low signal-to-noise ratio, but showed nevertheless promising results. In the context of impressive improvements in the last few years in terms of both the hardware and software technology, the IVIM method for measuring perfusion is back in focus.

  4663.   The Angular Signal Modulation Observed in Double-Wave-Vector Diffusion-Weighting Experiments at Short Mixing Time: A Phase Evolution Perspective 
Jürgen Finsterbusch1,2
1Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany, 2Neuroimage Nord, University Medical Centers Hamburg-Kiel-Lübeck, Hamburg-Kiel-Lübeck, Germany

In double-wave-vector diffusion-weighting experiments with short mixing times, an angular signal modulation is observed yielding a signal difference between parallel and antiparallel wave vector orientations. This effect is often considered to be surprising because the polarities of diffusion gradients usually do not affect the signal attenuation. Here, an illustrative depiction for this signal difference based on the spins’ phase evolution is presented which demonstrates the higher dephasing for the parallel orientation. Taking the populations of the phase states into account, the signal decays calculated for small gradient integrals differ by a factor of three as expected from the theory.

  4664.   Methods for Reorienting and Retransforming Diffusion Weighted Imaging Data 
Thijs Dhollander1,2, Wim Van Hecke1,3, Frederik Maes1,2, Stefan Sunaert1,3, and Paul Suetens1,2
1Medical Imaging Research Center (MIRC), K.U.Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), K.U.Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of the K.U.Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

In the context of registration algorithms, the application of spatial transformations to images is crucial. This poses a challenge of its own for diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data, since the information in every voxel is dependent on the angular structure of the underlying tissue. After interpolation, an extra reorientation step to correct the data in each voxel is necessary. We review different reorientation strategies, starting from the basic methods that operate on the tensor from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and building up to full fiber orientation distribution function (fODF) retransformation and methods that work on the raw data in q-space.

Educational E-Posters : Neuro
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4665.   Applications of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) Perfusion MRI in Clinical Pediatric Neuroimaging 
Arastoo Vossough1, Robert A. Zimmerman1, and Tamara Feygin1
1Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging has many potential clinical advantages over gadolinium based brain perfusion methods in the imaging of children. In this educational exhibit we will demonstrate the clinical utility of various neuroimaging applications of ASL perfusion in the pediatric population. Various clinical applications such as arterial ischemic stroke, moyamoya disease, hypoxic-ischemic injury, migraine, vascular malformations, congenital heart disease, and postradiation therapy will be illustrated. Use of ASL in the imaging evaluation of pediatric brain masses and tumors will be exemplified. Specific limitations and interpretive nuances in the use of ASL perfusion will be discussed.

  4666.   Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula: which MR angiography is the best for diagnosis? 
Masaaki Hori1, Shigeki Aoki1, Koji Kamagata1, Atsushi Nakanishi1, Keigo Shimoji1, Koichi Asahi1, Haruyoshi Houshito1, Ryohei Kuwatsuru1, and Keisuke Sasai1
1Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan

The purpose of this exhibit is to present the MR angiography (MRA), including time-of –flight MRA, contrast-enhanced time-resolved MRA and non-contrast MR digital subtraction angiography characteristics of dural arterio-venous fistula (DAVF), to illustrate cases where MRAs is valuable in diagnosis, and to understand the limitation and pitfalls of each MRA method. Moreover, we will also discuss the suggestive sequence parameters and imaging option for each MRA in clinical use. In occlusion, complementary combination use of two or more MRA techniques will be helpful for diagnosis of DAVF.

  4667.   MRI and MRA of Spinal Cord Arterio Venous Shunts 
Stéphanie CONDETTE-AULIAC1, Anne BOULIN1, Oguzhan COSKUN1, and Georges RODESCH1

Spinal cord arterio venous shunts are rare lesions and often not well known. SCAVSs are divided into four groups depending of the localization, and the type of the shunt. The imaging findings are different for each of them. The first step in the diagnosis of vascular lesion is usually MRI and knowledge of those lesions will help us to choose the sequences and technical parameters, especially MRA in order to obtain all useful data of angio-architecture and consequences on spinal cord to properly diagnose those lesions and manage the patients. Imaging characteristics of each type of lesion will be detailed.

  4668.   Future Clinical Applications of High Resolution Anatomical Imaging of the Brain at 7.0 Tesla MRI 
Anja Gwendolyn van der Kolk1, Jaco JM Zwanenburg1,2, Fredy Visser1,3, Peter R Luijten1, and Jeroen Hendrikse1
1Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands

High resolution anatomical imaging of the brain at 7.0 Tesla – for instance FLAIR, T1-, T2*- imaging and MR angiography – will be able to discern pathology and anatomical variations not seen at lower field strengths. It could therefore contribute to faster and more accurate diagnosing. In this Educational Review we show the clinical potential of the anatomically highly detailed images of the brain which can be obtained with 7.0 Tesla MRI. A series of illustrative 7.0 Tesla MRI patient examples will be included.

  4669.   MR characterization of Autism Spectrum Disorders 
Yash Shah1, and Scott James Peltier1
1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

This review covers the major MR findings for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

  4670.   MR Imaging of Epidermoid Tumors-Histopathological Correlation and Surgical Implications 
Bejoy Thomas1, Divyata Rajendra Hingwala1, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas1, Girish Menon2, and Vishnupuri Venkataraman Radhakrishnan3
1Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 2Neurosurgery, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 3Pathology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Advanced MR imaging features of Epidermoid tumors for accurate pre- operative diagnosis are described and their potential surgical implications are discussed.

  4671.   High-resolution 3D MR imaging of the sellar and parasellar space using SPACE at 3.0 T 
Emiko Morimoto1, Mitsunori Kanagaki1, Akira Yamamoto1, Tomohisa Okada1, Seiko Kasahara1, Satoshi Nakajima1, Mami Iima1, Ryo Sakamoto1, and Kaori Togashi1
1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan

The purpose of this presentation is to describe advantages of high-resolution 3D MR imaging of the sellar and parasellar regions using SPACE, inclusive of discussion on image characteristics of 3D-SPACE. High-resolution 3D MR imaging using SPACE has important advantages in the following points: 1) high-resolution volume images that allows multi-planer reconstruction, 2) less susceptibility artifact and 3) superior contrast of Gd-contrast agent. High-resolution 3D MR imaging using SPACE at 3T can be very helpful for imaging of complicated small anatomical structures at sellar and parasellar regions, which may be applicable at other regions such as brain stem or inner ear

  4672.   Diffusion kurtosis imaging in vivo; from basics to clinical applications. 
Masaaki Hori1, Yoshitaka Masutani2, Ryo Sato1,3, Koji Kamagata1, Koichi Asahi1, Nozomi Hamasaki1, Shuji Satou1, Atsushi Nakanishi1, Keigo Shimoji1, Haruyoshi Houshito1, Ryohei Kuwatsuru1, Keisuke Sasai1, Masaru Takashima4, Yuriko Suzuki4, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 2Radiology, TheUniversity of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 3Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, 4Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan

The purpose of this exhibit is to present the basics of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), normal DKI atlas of the brain, and to discuss clinical usefulness. DKI is recently developed technique that characterizes non-Gaussian water diffusion, which are different from conventional diffusional metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA). In some clinical situations, DKI has showed better results, compared with conventional FA or apparent diffusion coefficient investigation. This technique has potential to provide new and additional information to conventional diffusional metrics in routine clinical study.

  4673.   Anatomic, functional and postprocessing MRI techniques in the evaluation of epileptic patients 
Diego A. Herrera1,2, Sergio A. Vargas1,2, Jon E. Duque1,2, and Arthur B. Dublin3
1Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia, 2CediMed, Colombia, 3University of California Davis Medical Center, United States

In this E-Poster the authors review the use of anatomical MRI, fMRI, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) and curvilinear reformatting in the diagnosis of the epileptogenic lesion and surgical planning. The imaging findings of several neuropathologic substrates of epilepsy are presented. Language lateralization by means of fMRI, and the application of memory, motor and visual paradigms are illustrated with clinical cases. Finally, post-processing based techniques like VBM applied to single subjects, and curvilinear reformatting of the brain are introduced.

  4674.   Neonatal perfusion imaging with pulsed continuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) 
Ruth L O'Gorman1, Cornelia Hagmann1, Hadwig Speckbacher1, Brigitte Koller1, Ajit Shankaranarayanan2, David C Alsop3,4, and Ernst Martin1
1University Children's Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland, 2Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 3Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States, 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

This study systematically addresses several potential sources of error and variability in the quantification of perfusion in neonates and young children using pulsed continuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL), including the vascular anatomy and the position of the labelling plane, vascular flow, transit time effects, and differences in blood T1. These effects are investigated in vivo and their impact on the accuracy of perfusion values is discussed. A pCASL acquisition and quantification protocol suitable for use in neonates is presented.

  4675.   Focal cortical dysplasia: classification and role of advanced MRI techniques in evaluation 
Chandrasekharan Kesavadas1, Bejoy Thomas2, Divyata Hingwala3, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan3, and Kurupath Radhakrishnan3
1Imaging Sxciences and Interventional Radiology, SCTIMST, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 2SCTIMST, India, 3SCTIMST

The educational poster will discuss on the classification of Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD), describe the conventional MRI findings in FCD with pathological correlation and describe the role of advanced MRI and image processing techniques in evaluating FCD

  4676.   Using MR-measured cerebral blood flow to assess stroke risk in pediatric sickle cell patients 
Amanda K. Wake1, and John C. Gore1
1Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States

The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the potential for using phase contrast MR (PCMR) to quantify cerebral blood flow to determine stroke risk in pediatric sickle cell disease patients. Because of the ramifications of cerebrovascular accidents in this patient population, it is vital to accurately assess cerebral blood flow, and phase contrast MR (PCMR) is singularly well suited for this application.

  4677.   Two dynamic studies in one MR examination: Three alternative combinations of different dynamic studies 
Keiichi Kikuchi1, Yoshiyasu Hiratsuka1, Shogo Oda1, Shohei Kohno2, Hideaki Watanabe2, Shiro Ohue2, Teruhito Mochizuki1, and Kenya Murase3
1Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime, Japan, 2Neurosurgery, Ehime University, Ehime, Japan, 3Medical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Japan

We demonstrate three alternative combination to obtain two different dynamic data in one MR examination. A combination of 4D-MRA and DSC-MRI (MR perfusion) is considered for patients with cerebral occlusive vascular disease. Another combination involves acetazolamide (ACZ) loading. DSC-MRI can be performed before and after ACZ administration. For brain tumor cases, a combination of a T1W dynamic study (DCE-MRI) and DSC-MRI can be used.

  4678.   Conventional and Advanced MR imaging of Parkinson`s Disease 
Koji Kamagata1, Shigeki Aoki1, Yumiko Motoi1, Masaaki Hori1, Atsushi Nakanishi1, Keigo Shimoji1, Ryohei Kuwatsuru1, Keisuke Sasai1, and Nobutaka Hattori1
1juntendo university, Tokyo, bunkyouku, Japan

We reviewed conventional and advanced MR imaging of Parkinson disease. Using DTI, FA in the substantia nigra and cingulum reduced in PD patients compared to normal controls. ASL showed hypoperfusion in the occipital lobes. Advanced technique such as DTI and ASL may clarify new pathophysiological changes of PD and help early diagnosis and monitoring of PD.

  4679.   Grading Glioma- moving closer to pathology with advanced MRI techniques 
Chandrasekharan Kesavadas1, Bejoy Thomas2, Tirur Raman Kapilamoorthy3, and V V Radhakrishnan3
1Imaging Sxciences and Interventional Radiology, SCTIMST, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 2SCTIMST, India, 3SCTIMST

The educational poster will review the role of advanced MRI techniques of perfusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy in grading glioma.

  4680.   In Vivo Sodium MRI: Biomedical Applications 
Guillaume Madelin1, Alexej Jerschow2, and Ravinder R Regatte1
1Radiology Department, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Chemistry Department, New York University, New York, NY, United States

Sodium MRI is clinically interesting as it gives biochemical information non-invasively. The nucleus of the 23Na+ ion has a spin 3/2 with a quadrupolar moment that interacts with the surrounding electric field gradients and leads to biexponential T1 and T2. Multiple quantum filters can be used to discriminate between slow motion nuclei (intracellular) and fast motion (extracellular). Because of the sodium short T2, ultrashort TE sequences and high field systems are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and reduce the acquisition time. Biomedical applications are mainly: neurology (brain tumors, MS, Alzheimer's), MSK (cartilage, skeletal muscle), cardiac, body (breast, kidney, spine). Limitations of sodium MRI and perspectives are presented.

  4681.   Proton spectral editing with the PRESS sequence 
Atiyah Yahya1,2
1Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada

The PRESS sequence is a versatile sequence for spectral editing. Its structure lends itself to the incorporation of a number of spectral editing techniques that can be employed for the detection of a variety of metabolites in vivo. The purpose of the proposed educational e-poster is to describe a number of PRESS based spectral editing methods that have been designed for the detection of a number of key metabolites in vivo.

  4682.   Bright stuff on T1 – Applications in Clinical Neuroradiology 
Ulf Jensen-Kondering1, and Olav Jansen1
1University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Institute of Neuroradiology, Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Classically, fat, proteins, gadolinium, melanin and blood are considered to appear hyperintense in T1w images. Additionally, e.g. flow, calcium, manganese can appear hyperintense as well. The mechanisms leading to this appearance are different: short spin-lattice relaxation time (proteins, fat), modification of the magnet field (melanin, gadolinium), and “time of flight effect” (flow).

Educational E-Posters : Pulse Sequences, Reconstruction + Analysis
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
  4683.   Biophysical Principles and Models of SSFP Functional MRI Contrast Mechanisms in the Brain at High and Ultra-High Magnetic Fields 
Irtiza Ali Gilani1, and Raimo Sepponen2
1Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Centre, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Espoo, Uusima, Finland, 2Department of Electronics, Aalto University, Espoo, Uusima, Finland

Intrinsic short repetition times and short data acquisition periods of the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) fMRI scheme allows 3D, distortion-free, isotropic and high-resolution MR imaging. In this work, the principles of classification of the bSSFP fMRI methods for the brain are reviewed. Different modeling methodologies for bSSFP functional contrast are described. Furthermore, a nonbalanced SSFP fMRI is also reviewed. Feasibility analysis of balanced and non-balanced techniques at the high and ultra-high magnetic fields is presented. Additionally, new models for SSFP fMRI contrast in the brain are suggested.

  4684.   T1 Mapping: Methods and Challenges 
Nikola Stikov1, Christine L Tardif1, Joelle K Barral2, Ives Levesque2, and G Bruce Pike1
1Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

In this educational abstract, we provide an overview of the main T1 mapping methods and we outline the challenges in performing quantitative T1 measurement. We describe the gold standard (Inversion Recovery), as well as two widely used alternative methods (Look-Locker and Variable Flip Angle) that speed up the scanning and fitting procedures at the expense of accuracy and precision. The e-poster will include sample T1 maps of phantoms and in-vivo human brains acquired with each of the above methods, and it will provide a list of useful T1 mapping references.

  4685.   Prospective motion correction: the benefits and the challenges 
Julian Maclaren1, Oliver Speck2, and Maxim Zaitsev1
1Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany

Prospective motion correction is a means to avoid motion artifacts in MR imaging of the brain. This educational e-poster explains how the technique works and reviews the latest developments. Particular emphasis is placed on the various tracking mechanisms currently used to obtain the required head motion data. Finally, a number of effects that introduce errors into the correction process are described, including B0 distortions, gradient non-linearities, and non-uniform coil sensitivity profiles, among others. The aim of this work is to clearly explain the state of the art and to motivate future work in the field.

  4686.   A visual, interactive introduction to basic and advanced magnetic resonance techniques 
Lars G. Hanson1,2
1Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, 2Biomedical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

Teaching of basic NMR and MRI techniques often involves a fair amount of hand-waving, literally, in order to explain concepts such as resonance, rotating frames, dephasing, refocusing, sequences and imaging. Using a freely available, interactive, graphical simulator that runs directly in any web browser, the presentation introduces fundamental MR techniques in a way that encourages further experimentation. As an example of a basic technique, the NMR phenomenon is visualized. One-dimensional k-space imaging is demonstrated to exemplify the advanced capabilities of the software that is designed for use by lecturers and students.

  4687.   An Overview of Registration Methods used for the Automatic Analysis of Abdominal DCE-MRI 
David Pilutti1, Claudia Weidensteiner1, Martin Büchert1, Ulrike Fasol1, and Stathis Hadjidemetriou1
1Radiology - Medical Physics, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Efficient image registration applied to DCE-MRI in abdominal region is still an open problem. Because of its high dimensionality and non rigid displacement, the problem is not trivial and there are margins to improve the performance of registration techniques. In our work we took an overview of some recent works and techniques used for the automatic analysis of abdominal DCE-MRI.

  4688.   Metal-Induced Artifacts in MRI 
Brian A Hargreaves1, Garry E Gold1, John M Pauly2, Kim Butts Pauly1, and Kevin M Koch3
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Applied Science Lab, General Electric Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States

Metallic implants cause large, varying shifts in resonanct frequency that cause signal loss, distortion, and “pile-up” artifacts in MR images. The origin of different distortion artifacts is due to the use of frequency-selective excitation and imaging, and can be explained intuitively. Similarly, the mechanisms of various correction techniques such as high-bandwidth, view-angle tilting and additional phase-encoding are graphically demonstrated. Examples of artifacts and different types of correction are shown for different types of metallic implants in different anatomic locations.

  4689.   Accuracy and Precision in Quantitative Rotating Frame Relaxometry at High and Ultra-High Magnetic Fields 
Irtiza Ali Gilani1, and Raimo Sepponen2
1Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Centre, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Espoo, Uusima, Finland, 2Department of Electronics, Aalto University, Espoo, Uusima, Finland

Rotating frame relaxation rates, T1lower case Greek rho and T2lower case Greek rho, are noninvasive and sensitive markers of the neurodegeneration processes in diseases, such as, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. A comprehensive review of contemporary MRI methods, that can be employed to probe the biophysical mechanisms affecting the T1lower case Greek rho and T2lower case Greek rho relaxations of the human tissue, is presented. Spin-Locking and adiabatic radiofrequency irradiation schemes are compared. Additionally, different MRI acquisition strategies for accurate and precise quantitative imaging at the high and ultra-high magnetic field are reviewed.

  4690.   T1rho and Steady-State MRI: The Odd Couple 
Walter RT Witschey1, Silvia Mangia2, Shalom Michaeli2, Michael Garwood2, Ravinder Reddy3, Jürgen Hennig1, and Maxim Zaitsev1
1Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg i. Breisgau, Baden Württemburg, Germany, 2CMRR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States,3CMROI, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

It's all radiofrequency, all the time. This educational e-poster explores some of the similarities between conventional continuous wave spin lock and balanced steady-state free precession sequence. By comparing the transient and steady-states of the two techniques, further insight is gained into the physical origins of the endogenous contrast generated by RF pulses.

  4691.   What is Magnetic Resonance? 
Lars G. Hanson1,2
1Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, 2Biomedical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

The presentation shows that MR is a classical phenomenon that can be understood intuitively by everybody. The special case of nuclear magnetic resonance has additional complexity, but is accurately described by classical mechanics and is also understood relatively easily. Nevertheless, the typical explanation of basic MR relies on confusing concepts from quantum mechanics (QM). It takes outset in the claim that nuclei align either parallel or anti-parallel to the main magnetic field. This non-intuitive claim is inspired, but not supported by QM. An established alternative explanation consistent with QM is presented using graphical tools. It can improve understanding considerably.

  4692.   Fundamentals and Visualization of the SWIFT Sequence 
Curtis Andrew Corum1, Djaudat Idiyatullin1, Steen Moeller1, Ryan Chamberlain1, Robert O'Connell1, and Michael Garwood1
1CMRR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

We review the basics of the SWIFT sequence. Due to the short T2 sensitivity and rapid RF switching, there are unique hardware requirements for implementing SWIFT. Also due to the frequency swept pulse and interleaved signal reception, there are novel signal processing and correction strategies.

1Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Department of Radiology, VA Medical Center, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, San Francisco, United States

Image segmentation plays an important role in many medical imaging applications to evaluate possible diseases in patients. But mostly medical images contain noise and low contrast and a lot of methods are being proposed to solve specific problems. Then, our study is based on the application of normalized cuts, a general segmentation algorithm, for MRI images. This method is robust to noise and initialization and it has also been used for medical segmentation giving promising results. We describe the method and combine it with the nyström approximation to reduce the computational cost. Some results are shown.