Electronic Posters : Musculoskeletal Imaging
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MRI of Articular Cartilage - New Methods

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 25

14:00 3229.   T1lower case Greek rho MRI of the glenohumeral joint cartilage  
Scott Puckhaber1, Matthew Fenty2, Nancy Major3, and Ravinder Reddy2
1Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States, 2CMROI, Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Glenohumeral arthritis is a disabling condition and may severely affect quality of life and activities of recreation and daily living. With shoulder injuries, either traumatic or from repeated stresses, the integrity of the cartilage may become compromised due to several factors such as abnormal loading conditions and repeated stresses. Osteoarthritic changes to articular cartilage such as loss and breakdown of proteoglycan molecules has been quantified with high sensitivity with T1lower case Greek rho MRI . The aim of this study was to develop a T1lower case Greek rho MRI protocol to accurately quantify biochemical properties of the glenohumeral articular cartilage to monitor the development of cartilage degeneration in vivo.

14:30 3230.   Feasibility of High Resolution T2 and T2* mapping of Metacarpophalangeal Joints in Children at 3T 
Chen Lin1, Scott A Persohn1, and Boaz Karmazyn1
1Department of Radiology and Imaging Science, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States

A pilot study of shows high resolution of T2 and T2* mapping metacarpophalangeal cartilage in children is feasible at 3T despite its small size. The mean T2 value for normal group is 42.6±5.5msec and the mean T2* is 20.9±5.1msec. The profiles of T2 and T2* along the thickness of cartilage are consistent between subject. However, both inter-subject and intra subject variation of T2* is greater than T2, suggesting that T2 values would be a more reliable biomarker for detecting and monitoring the involvement of cartilage in diseases such as Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

15:00 3231.   Quantitative Magnetization Transfer of Entire Human Patellofemoral Joint in 30 Minutes 
Nade Sritanyaratana1, Alexey Samsonov2, Samuel A Hurley3, Kevin M Johnson2, Pouria Mossahebi1, Walter F Block1,3, and Richard Kijowski2
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Longitudinal osteoarthritis (OA) research studies require non-invasive contrast mechanisms to observe disease progression. Since articular cartilage has a high macromolecular concentration consisting primarily of collagen and proteoglycan, quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) could be sensitive to its macromolecular content and structure. However, given the constraints of cost and patient tolerance, MR examination times in OA research studies are generally limited to only 30 to 45 minutes. As qMT requires the acquisition of multiple MT-weighted images, extremely long scan times are a limitation. We investigate methods for qMT imaging of the entire human patellofemoral joint in less than 30 minutes.

15:30 3232.   Evaluation of the Articular Cartilage of the Wrist Joint Using Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Sequences at 1.5T and 3T 
Albert Paul Meier1, Humberto Rosas1, Jonathan Tueting2, and Richard Kijowski1
1Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2Department of Orthopedics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

The study was performed to compare various two-dimensional and three dimensional MR sequences at 1.5T and 3T for evaluating the articular cartilage in human cadaveric wrist joints. Image quality and diagnostic performance was higher at 3T than at 1.5T. FGRE at 3T was the best sequence for evaluating articular cartilage and had the highest cartilage SNR, highest CNR between cartilage and bone, highest subjective rank for image quality, and highest diagnostic performance for detecting cartilage lesions.

Electronic Posters : Musculoskeletal Imaging
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Bone: Assessment of Traveculae & Structural Analysis

Tuesday May 10th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 26

13:30 3233.   The effects of organic nitrates on lumbar spine bone mineral density and marrow blood perfusion in ovariectomized female rats. 
Yi-Xiang Wang1, Min Deng1, and James F Griffith1
1Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong

Recent evidences suggest that nitrates, drugs typically prescribed for the treatment of angina, may be effective in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the mechanism of how nitrates influence bone mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the relation among the effect of nitrates on bone marrow perfusion and bone mineral density in female ovariectomized rats. This study shows isosorbide-5-mononitrate orally administered 50 mg/kg per day b.i.d partially prevented the lumbar spine bone loss due to ovariectomy, and maintained the blood perfusion in lumbar vertebral marrow. Histology showed vertebral marrow composition reflected these changes.

14:00 3234.   Feasibility of Assessing Trabecular Structure Using a Standard Clinical MRI Scanner 
Christie McComb1, Christopher Leddy2, John Foster1, Gillian Anderson2, and S Faisal Ahmed2
1Clinical Physics, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, United Kingdom

This study aimed to assess the feasibility of acquiring high resolution (micro) MRI images of the proximal tibia using routinely available coils and pulse sequences, and to determine whether this could be used to assess trabecular bone structure. Images were obtained from healthy volunteers and volunteers with Osteogenesis Imperfecta using a 3T Siemens Verio MRI scanner with a Tx/Rx extremity coil. Four key bone parameters were quantified from the images using in-house analysis software developed using IDL. The results showed that the clinical MRI facilities in our institution can successfully be used to discriminate between healthy and diseased states of trabecular bone.

14:30 3235.   Quantification using Textural Analysis on MR Bone Data 
Victor Rakesh Lazar1, Gary P Liney2, David J Manton1, Peter Gibbs1, Celia Gregson3, Sue Steel4, Joern Rittweger5, Jonathan Tobias3, and Lindsay W Turnbull1
1Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull & HYMS, Hull, Humberside, United Kingdom, 2Radiation Physics, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom,3Academic Rheumatology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, 4Centre for Metabolic Bone Disease, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull, United Kingdom, 5Institute for Biomedical Research into Human Movement and Health, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of textural analysis (TA) tool for possible quantification of MRI trabecular bone. Segmented trabecular MRI image from distal tibia and radius was processed from 52 volunteers with pQCT data using MATLAB to produce five basic textural parameters and bone volume fraction (BVF). Good correlation was observed between pQCT (BMD) and MRI (BVF) data. Mild to moderate correlation was observed in certain TA properties with relation to pQCT and MRI. TA shows good potential for bone quantification in MRI in addition to structure and composition.

15:00 3236.   Analyses of restricted diffusion of water molecules using trabecular bone phantom 
Risa Yorimitsu1, Tosiaki Miyati1, Takashi Minami1, Harumasa Kasai2, Nobuyuki Arai2, Hirohito Kan1, Akihiro Kitanaka1, Tatsuhiko Matsushita1, Masaki Hara2, and Yuta Shibamoto2
1Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital

The purpose of our study was to clarify the relationship between fast and slow diffusing components obtained diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and trabecular bone structure with an original phantom. Our original phantom enables to analyze restricted diffusion, and this analytical method could obtain more detailed information of trabecular bone structure.

Electronic Posters : Musculoskeletal Imaging
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Quantitative MRI: Link to Material Properties
Wednesday May 11th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 27

13:30 3237.   Quantitative MRI as an indirect evaluation tool of the mechanical properties of muscles 
Delphine Périé1,2, Renaud Grenier1, Guillaume Gilbert3, and Gilles Beaudoin4
1Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 3Philips Healthcare, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 4Physics and Biomedical Engineering, CHUM Notre Dame, Montréal, Québec, Canada

It is well established that MR parameters obtained by quantitative MRI (qMRI) are linked to the mechanical properties and biochemical composition of cartilages. We hypothesise that a relationship exists between mechanical properties and MR parameters of muscles. A qMRI acquisition and a tensile test were performed on adult rabbit muscles, in a state of rigor or post-rigor mortis. The tension variation between rigor mortis and post-rigor mortis comes from the degradation of myosin and actin. The results indicate that the muscle Young’s modulus, i.e. the passive mechanical behaviour, can be evaluated indirectly from qMRI using magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor acquisitions.

14:00 3238.   Association of MR Relaxation Times and Functional Behavior of Osteoarthritic Cartilage using Loaded Knee MRI 
Karupppasamy Subburaj1, Richard B Souza1,2, Christoph Stehling3, Brad T Wyman4, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le Graverand-Gastineau4, Thomas M Link1, Xiaojuan Li1, and Sharmila Majumdar1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 3Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Münster, Germany, 4Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, United States

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between MR relaxation times and biomechanical response of articular cartilage to physiological loading (cartilage-on-cartilage contact area and deformation) in OA subjects and controls. The contact area in the medial compartment was significantly higher in OA subjects than controls. The pooled data show that cartilage deformation in medial compartment was significantly higher than the lateral compartment. The T1lower case Greek rho and T2 relaxation times, contact area and cartilage deformation in OA subjects were higher than normal subjects. These results suggest that the structural degradation affects the load bearing capacity of the cartilage.

14:30 3239.   Relationship between Relaxation Component T2 values and Weight Fractions and Mechanical Moduli in Native Cartilage 
Onyi Irrechukwu1, Sarah von-Thaer1, Eliot Frank2, David Reiter1, Alan Grodzinsky2, and Richard Spencer1
1National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

The objective of this study was to correlate the components and fractions determined from multiexponential analysis of cartilage transverse relaxation with tissue mechanical properties. Analysis was performed on bulk T2 relaxation data obtained from bovine nasal cartilage explants. Identical explants were mechanically tested in unconfined compression to determine matrix dynamic and equilibrium moduli. Four relaxation components, interpreted in terms of tissue water compartments, were detected in all explants. Compressive moduli were positively correlated with fractions representing macromolecules and negatively correlated with macromolecular component T2 values. This is consistent with increased stiffness resulting from increasing macromolecular concentration and decreasing water mobility.

15:00 3240.   Estimating the short-time elastic modulus of cartilage using T1lower case Greek rho and T2 
Kathryn E Keenan1,2, Thor Besier1, R Lane Smith1,2, Gary S Beaupre1,2, and Garry E Gold1
1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Bone & Joint RR&D Center, VAHCS, Palo Alto, CA, United States

Cartilage material properties have been related to MR parameters, but initial elastic modulus, which is useful in subject-specific finite element models of walking, has not been studied. Initial elastic modulus (E0) of human patellar cartilage was regressed with T1lower case Greek rho and T2 relaxation times. T1lower case Greek rho did not individually correlate with E0, nor did T2. However, sGAG and collagen were individually correlated with E0. T1lower case Greek rho was related to sGAG, while T2 was not related to collagen. T1lower case Greek rho and T2 were significantly correlated in this study.

Electronic Posters : Musculoskeletal Imaging
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Intervertebral Disk: Quantitative Analysis

Thursday May 12th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 28

13:30 3241.   Assessment of mechanical properties of isolated intervertebral discs using quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
Delphine Périé1,2, Maximilien Recuerda1,3, Guillaume Gilbert4, and Gilles Beaudoin5
1Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 3Reserach Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 4Philips Healthcare, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 5Physics and Biomedical Engineering, CHUM Notre Dame, Montréal, Québec, Canada

We hypothesed that the compressive modulus and hydraulic permeability of the intervertebral disc can be explained by a combination of MRI parameters. Mechanical properties from unconfined compression tests, confined compression tests and direct measurements of permeability, and MRI properties from quantitative T1, T2, ADC, FA and MT acquisitions were evaluated on in-situ and digested bovine isolated discs. Relationships were found between axial or radial hydraulic permeability and quantitative MRI parameters. The changes induced by the trypsin treatment were detected by both mechanical tests and quantitative MRI. Thus the relationships found between permeability and MRI parameters are valid for both groups.

14:00 3242.   Correlation between ADC and T1lower case Greek rho-Relaxation Time for In-Vivo Assessment of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration 
Hon J Yu1, Shadfar Bahri1, Lutfi Tugan Muftuler1, Orhan Nalcioglu1, and Vance Gardner2
1Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Orthopaedic Education and Research Institute of Southern California, Orange, CA, United States

Measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T1rho-relaxation time were investigated as a combined means for in-vivo assessment of the degenerative states in lumbar discs. Visual classification of disc degeneration based on morphological change such as Pfirrmann grades, currently only-accepted means to assess disc-degeneration in vivo, is fundamentally inadequate as a quantitative means for assessment of disc degeneration or for validating other quantitative measurements in correlation with disc degeneration. The results indicate a strong positive linear correlation between the ADC and T1rho-relaxation time values in association with disc degeneration, demonstrating the potential values of ADC and T1rho as a combined means for in-vivo assessment of disc-degeneration.

14:30 3243.   Sensitivity of quantitative MRI to the compressive state of the isolated intervertebral discs 
Delphine Périé1,2, Yann-Guirec Manach1, Guillaume Gilbert3, and Gilles Beaudoin4
1Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 3Philips Healthcare, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 4Physics and Biomedical Engineering, CHUM Notre Dame, Montréal, Québec, Canada

The present question focuses on the influence of mechanical loading during MRI acquisition on the relaxation times, magnetization transfer and diffusion parameters within the intervertebral disc. Quantitative MR measurements were carried out on isolated bovine discs submitted to 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% deformation. No significant differences were observed between the loading cases for all MR parmeters. Even if the disc conditions changed between the different MR sequences, loading and relaxation of disc tissues did not affect the MRI parameters. Quantitative MRI of isolated discs is not sensitive to the compressive state when changing from 0% to 40% deformation.

15:00 3244.   In Vivo Sodium and Proton T1rho MR Imaging of Human Spine Disc at 3T 
Chan Hong Moon1, Jung-Hwan Kim1, Xiang He1, Tiejun Zhao2, and Kyongtae Ty Bae1
1Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2MR Research Support, Siemens Healthcare, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

We obtained consistent T2, T1rho, and sodium concentration in intervertebral discs from normal subjects using spin-lock, and ultra-short echo-time spiral sequence with a dual-tuned multi-channel RF torso coil at 3T human scanner. These MR-based measures of intervertebral discs may play an important role as imaging biomarkers for early diagnosis of degenerative disc disease..

Electronic Posters : Musculoskeletal Imaging
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MSK - New Sequences, Interesting Applications

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 29

14:00 3245.   T2-weighted-MRI and Dielectric Spectroscopy to investigate collagen structure behaviour during cartilage dehydration 
Cesare E. M. Gruber1,2, Cesare Cametti1,3, Bruno Maraviglia1,4, and Silvia Capuani1,2
1Physics, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 2CNR-IPCF UOS, Rome, Italy, 3CNR-CRS-SOFT, Rome, Italy, 4Santa Lucia Foundation, Neuroimaging Laboratory, Rome, Italy

Cartilage aging, associated to a reduction in water content, is one of the leading risk factor for the developing of osteoarthritis. Aim of this study was to investigate cartilage dehydration, by means of quantitative T2-weighted-MRI and radiowave dielectric-spectroscopy (DS) measurements as a function of dehydration time. Both techniques provided indirect information on the structural cartilage changes. In particular, DS provides the fraction of the broken hydrogen bounds between microfibrils, while T2 is most sensible to the fleeble interacting water with collagen network. Our experimental data can help to elucidate the ability of T2 maps to detect cartilage damage.

14:30 3246.   Clinical Feasibility of a new partial spoiling T2 Mapping approach after Cartilage Repair of the Knee 
Goetz Hannes Welsch1,2, Oliver Bieri3, Klaus Scheffler3, Tallal Charles Mamisch4, Kolja Gelse2, Alina Messner1, Stefan Marlovits1, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Trauma Surgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany, 3University of Basel, 4University of Berne

Aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new quantitative T2 mapping approach using partial spoiling in patients after cartilage repair of the knee; furthermore to compare and correlate the results against the established methodology of T2 mapping with a multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) technique. Both quantitative T2 techniques showed comparable results and a high correlation in the evaluation of cartilage repair tissue and healthy reference cartilage. The new technique may provide additional benefits and possibilities in future approaches allowing for high resolution and three-dimensional, isotropic quantitative T2 mapping.

15:00 3247.   A model-based approach for fast T2 mapping of articular cartilage 
Chuan Huang1, Mihra S Taljanovic2, and Maria I Altbach2
1Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States, 2Radiology, University of Arizona

Quantitative T2 measurements have been explored for evaluating articular cartilage and a correlation between increasing T2 values and cartilage degeneration has been observed. Conventional multi-echo imaging techniques have been used for cartilage T2 mapping. However, the acquisition of data with adequate spatial resolution requires long scanning times. Reducing acquisition time is generally done at the expense of temporal resolution (i.e., small number of TE points), lower spatial resolution, lower SNR, or reduced number of slices. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to use a Principal Component Model-based algorithm to reconstruct high resolution T2 maps of cartilage from highly undersampled radial Fast Spin-Echo (FSE) data, hence achieving multi-fold acquisition time reduction.

Michael Muelly1, Willis Huang2, Weitian Chen3, Donglai Huo4, Xiaoli Zhao4, and Garry Gold2
1Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 4PSD and Applications, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States

Rapid 3D-FSE sequences allow for isometric acquisition of images that can be reformatted in multiple planes without slice gaps, enabling acquistion of an full diagnostic knee MR dataset in 6 minutes. These methods typically require a trade-off between signal-to-noise ratio and image blur. We present a 3D-FSE sequence with improved SNR and decreased blur for diagnosis of pathologies of the knee. Improvements in phantom, volunteer, and patient images are presented.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 29

13:30 3249.   Joint anatomical and biochemical imaging using 3D FSE 
Weitian Chen1, Tao Zhang2, Eric T Han1, and Garry E Gold3
1Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 3Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States

Intermediate- or T2-weighted FSE sequences are commonly used in clinical MRI for detection of joint abnormalities such as meniscus tears, ligamentous injury, or cartilage damage. Current standard MRI is used for diagnosis of anatomy change only. T1rho and T2 mapping have been reported to have potential for early detection of biochemical symptoms of osteoarthritis. In this work, we invesitage a 3DFSE based approach for joint high resolution biochmeical imaging and T2-weightged anatomical imaging with a clinical reasonable scan time.

14:00 3250.   Impact of Compressed Sensing on Volumetric Knee MRI 
Shreyas S Vasanawala1, Peng Lai2, Marcus T Alley1, Garry E Gold1, John M Pauly3, and Michael Lustig4
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2ASL West, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 3Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 4Electrical Engineering & CS, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States

We investigate whether compressed sensing (CS) volumetric FSE joint MRI enables thinner slices with improved quality of reformatted images. A volumetric FSE sequence was modified for compatibility with both parallel imaging (ARC) L1-SPIRiT compressed sensing (CS) reconstructions. 24 consecutive routine knee MRI patients additionally underwent volumetric imaging: 12 each at low and high acceleration. For each subject, 12 anatomic structures were evaluated on both volumetric ARC and CS images and compared with conventional 2D FSE. Thinner slices afforded by the higher acceleration of CS improves volumetric knee MRI, particularly for delineation of structures primarily evaluated on reformatted images.

14:30 3251.   Simultaneous MRI acquisition of Both Knee Joints with Multitransmit Technology at 3T 
Wenbo Wei1, Guang Jia1, David C Flanigan2, Christopher C Kaeding2, Steffen Sammet1, Peter Arjan Wassenaar1, and Michael V Knopp1
1Wright Center of Innovation in Biomedical Imaging and Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 2Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States

Multitransmit technology has the potential to overcome local SAR limitations and make flip angles more uniform. In this study, color coded SNR maps and B1 frequency shift maps are generated to compare the multitransmit technology to traditional, single channel technology. It is shown that the the local SAR is reduced substantially and image homogeneity is improved with multitransmit.

15:00 3252.   Bilateral Hip MRI using Dual-Band Excitation with Slab-Phase Modulation 
Misung Han1, Brian Andrew Hargreaves2, and Roland Krug1
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

For conventional high-resolution MRI of the hip to assess cartilage degeneration or the trabecular bone microstructure, only a single hip is imaged at a time because of the relatively large distance between the two hips. However, bilateral 3D hip imaging would allow more accurate diagnosis of pathologies with increased SNR compared to two separate MR scans, and could be also beneficial for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of bone marrow. In this work, we demonstrate time-efficient sagittal bilateral hip imaging using dual-slab excitation incorporating slab-phase modulation. This imaging technique was validated in 3D RF-spoiled gradient-echo and 3D balanced steady-state free precession sequences.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 29

Larry Hernandez1, Jessica L Klaers1, Walter F Block1,2, and Rick Kijowski3
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, WI, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, WI, United States

The study was performed to compare normalized SNR and CNR efficiency of VIPR-ATR and currently used MR sequences for evaluating the elbow joint. VIPR-ATR produces multi-planar images of the elbow joint with 0.4 mm isotropic resolution in 5 minutes. VIPR-ATR has significantly higher (p<0.05) cartilage and fluid normalized SNR efficiency and significantly higher (p<0.05) normalized CNR efficiency between fluid and adjacent joint structure when compared to PD-FSE, T2-FSE, SPGR, and FSE-Cube. VIPR-ATR can create reformat images in any plane following a single acquisition which is especially useful when evaluating the complex anatomic structures of the elbow joint.

14:00 3254.   Magnetic Resonance Lymphography at 3T: A Promising Noninvasive Approach to Characterize Inguinal Lymphatic Vessel Leakage 
Qing Lu1, Jianrong Xu1, Ningfei Liu2, and Xihai Zhao3
1Department of Radiology, Renji hospital Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 2Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People¡¯s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Center for BioMedical Imaging Research (CBIR), Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China, People's Republic of

Inguinal lymphatic vessel leakage is a severe complication due to the injury of lymphatic vessels. This study sought to characterize the lymphatic vessel leakage using MR lymphangiography (MRL) in 16 patients with suspected injury of lymphatic vessels after surgery or blunt trauma. We found that the effusion of lymphoceles or lymphatic fistulas can be clearly depicted by MRL. Additionally, the number and maximum diameter of enhanced lymphatic vessels in legs with lymphatic leakage were significantly greater than that of legs without lymphatic leakage. Our findings demonstrated that MRL is a promising noninvasive approach to assess inguinal lymphatic vessel leakage.

14:30 3255.   3T high resolution MR Neurography of sciatic neuropathy 
Avneesh Chhabra1, Theodoros Soldatos2, Gustav Andreisek3, and John A Carrino4
1MSK Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Radiology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Purpose: To assess quantitative and qualitative models to evaluate patients with and without sciatic neuropathy to increase the accuracy of 3T MRN. Methods: 3T MRN of the pelvis and thighs of 32 subjects, 15 sciatic neuropathy and 17 control cases. Results: The abnormal sciatic nerves exhibited higher nerve/vessel SI ratios, higher incidence of nerve and fascicular abnormalities and muscle denervation changes. A cut-off value of nerve/vessel SI ratio of 0.89 exhibited high accuracy. 27% of sciatic neuropathies did not show muscle denervation changes. Conclusion: Both qualitative and quantitative criteria should be employed to suggest a MRN diagnosis of sciatic neuropathy.

15:00 3256.   Magic Angle effect: a relevant artifact in MR Neurography at 3T? 
Thorsten Kästel1, Sabine Heiland2, Philipp Baeumer2, Andreas Bartsch2, Martin Bendszus2, and Mirko Pham2
1Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 2University of Heidelberg Medical Center

MR Neurography (MRN) is an emerging diagnostic test to localize nerve lesions by hyperintense T2-w contrast. An artefact potentially mimicking lesions is the “Magic Angle Effect” appearing in tissue densely composed of collagen. To what extent this artefact is able to provoke false positive findings in MRN is unclear. In this experimental study, 25 healthy subjects underwent MRN of the sciatic nerve using a dual-echo turbo-spin-echo sequence to calculate T2-relaxation at seven precisely adjusted angles relative to B0. We show, that the potential for false positive findings is low, particularly at angulations < 30° relative to B0.


Electronic Posters : Musculoskeletal Imaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Muscle: Diabetes, Muscular Dystrophy, Diffusion Tensor

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 30

14:00 3257.   Diffusion tensor imaging evaluation of upper leg muscular changes after long distance running 
Martijn Froeling1,2, Gustav J Strijkers1, Mario Maas2, Klaas Nicolay1, and Aart J Nederveen2
1Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Very mild muscle damage cannot be evaluated using traditional techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging is a noninvasive technique that allows the quantification of the diffusion properties of water in anisotropic tissue in vivo. We hypothesize that diffusion perpendicular to the fiber direction will increase because of swelling or disruption of diffusion-hindering membranes. This could serve as an early indicator for exercise induced muscle injury. To investigate this hypothesis we acquired DTI data of 5 amateur long distance runners one week before, and 2 days and 3 weeks after they participated in a marathon.We have shown that rigorous muscle exercise by running increases the diffusivity of water in skeletal muscles that are known to suffer most, like the ST and BF

14:30 3258.   T2-weighted imaging and stimulated echo diffusion tensor imaging in chronic exertional compartment syndrome calf muscle 
Eric Edward Sigmund1, Dabang Sui1, Philip A Hodnett2, Kecheng Liu3, KellyAnne McGorty1, Michael Mechlin1, and Jenny Bencardino1
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Center, New York, New York, United States, 3Siemens Medical Systems, United States

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a muscular disorder with fluid retention following exertion causing hypoperfusion and disability whose microscopic pathophysiology is not completely understood. T2-weighted imaging (T2w) and stimulated echo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were applied to suspected CECS patients before and after exertion. T2w signal intensity increases following exercise by at least 20% in some groups (defined as “CECS positive”). Diffusion eigenvalues increase in all groups following exertion by ~10%, and larger increases occur in CECS positive groups (20-40%). Fractional anisotropy also decreases in all groups following exertion, suggesting at least a partial role of myofiber dilation.

15:00 3259.   Towards a general approach for skeletal muscle DTI acquisition and post-processing 
Martijn Froeling1,2, Aart J Nederveen2, Maarten R Drost3, K Nicolay1, and Gustav J Strijkers1
1Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Department of Human Movement Science, School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands

In this study we present a generalized strategy for acquiring and post processing of in vivo skeletal muscle DTI data in order to correct and minimize the above complications. The approach is demonstrated with fiber tractography of skeletal muscle in five regions of the human body : lower back, pelvic floor, upper leg, forearm and masticator muscles.

15:30 3260.   Fiber architecture of the female pelvic floor: An exploratory investigation using different diffusion MRI tractography algorithms 
Martijn Froeling1,2, Gustav J Strijkers1, Ben Jeurissen3, Marije P van der Paardt2, Jaap Stoker2, Klaas Nicolay1, Aart J Nederveen2, and Alexander Leemans4
1Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 4Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

In this study, we explored both DTI and CSD based tractography algorithms to invesitgate the female pelvic floor muscle anatomy in vivo. We have shown that both DTI and CSD can adequately describe the global architecture of the female pelvic floor. However, in regions with complex structures they show different results.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 30

13:30 3261.   Two pools of inorganic phosphate in canine model of DMD caracterized by magnetization transfer 31P NMRS 
Claire Wary1,2, Thibaud Naulet1,2, Jean-Laurent Thibaud1,3, Aurélien Monnet1,2, Stephane Blot3, and Pierre G Carlier1,2
1NMR Laboratory, Institute of Myology, Paris, France, 2IdM NMR Laboratory, CEA, I²BM, MIRCen, Paris, France, 3UPR of Neurobiology, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d'Alfort, Maisons Alfort, France

We have identified a resonance, 0.3 ppm upfield from cytosolic Pi (Pia), which appears to be a second, more alkaline, Pi resonance (Pib) in muscle of dystrophic dogs (GRMD). Interestingly, Pib/Pia decreased with disease progression, and pHb was correlated to pHa Chemical exchange by inverse hydrolysis of ATP was measured by a combination of magnetisation transfer measurements and T1 with magnetisation transfer, in an attempt to distinguish and chacterize the two components. The T1 of Pia and Pib were equivalent, but chemical exchange of both compartments were very reduced in GRMD dogs compared to controls.

14:00 3262.   Single- versus multipeak modeling of Dixon images to determine the fat fraction in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 
Beatrijs H.A. Wokke1, Clemens Bos2, Holger Eggers3, Janneke C. van den Bergen1, Andrew Webb4, Jan J. Verschuuren1, and Hermien E. Kan4
1Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands, 3Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany, 4Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

With the development of potential therapies for muscle diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) methods for quantitative follow-up are becoming increasingly important. Chemical-shift based water-fat separation can be used in the quantitative assessment of the fat fraction in affected muscles. In our study, we have applied a multipeak fitting method in patients with DMD and our results show that single peak modeling of the fat signal consistently results in lower values of the fat fraction compared to multipeak fitting, especially in the midrange of fat fractions. This can be particularly important in the inclusion and follow up of DMD patients in therapeutic trials.

14:30 3263.   Reduced T2* values in Soleus Muscle of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Chun S Zuo1, Donald Simonson2, Young-Hoon Sung1, Rosemond Villafuerte1, and Perry F Renshaw1
1McLean Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

We have examined T2* of soleus in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) compared to that of normal healthy subjects in a cross-sectional study. We found that soleus T2* is significantly correlated with age and the presence of diabetes. Among factors that may contribute to T2* values, the lowered T2* value in the T2DM soleus muscle is most consistent with poor regional microvascular circulation which suggests that the T2DM soleus is likely under tissue oxygenation stress.

15:00 3264.   In vivo 1H MRS monitoring of intra-myocellular lipids after acute muscle injury in healthy and dystrophic mouse muscles 
Su Xu1,2, Da Shi1,2, Steven Roys1,2, Alan McMillian1,2, Rao Gullapalli1,2, and Rich Lovering3
1Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ Maryland University of Maryland School, 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

We assessed the potential of in vivo 1H MRS to monitor the intra-myocellular lipids in acute skeletal muscle injury in healthy and mdx mice (an animal model for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy). We found that mdx mice demonstrated very low intra-myocellular lipids level. However, injury caused a significant increase in intra-myocellular lipids in the mdx group only. Histology confirmed the changes quantified by the in vivo 1H MRS. We propose that in vivo 1H MRS is a sensitive measure of muscle injury with potential applicability in preclinical therapeutic screening studies in rodents.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 30

13:30 3265.   Distinct inter- and intra-muscular features observed by MR imaging and spectroscopy in patients with FSHD uncover pathobiological processes in disease development 
Barbara H Janssen1, Rob J.W. Arts2, Nicoline B.M. Voet3, Christine I.H.C. Nabuurs1, Baziel G.M. van Engelen2, and Arend Heerschap1
1Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands,3Rehabilitation, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands

To assess muscular involvement and progression towards a diseased state in FSHD-patients we used fat infiltration and PCr/ATP measured by 1H¬-MRI and 31P-MRS of the thigh muscles as non-invasive biomarkers. Almost all investigated muscles were either not or entirely fat infiltrated. In muscles showing intermediate fatty infiltration we found that fat-content increased over the length of the muscle in the distal direction. Interestingly only the intermediately affected muscles also showed a change in fat-content over time. The fat-infiltration is inversely correlated with muscle strength. A decreased PCr/ATP ratio shows that energy metabolism is compromised in remaining muscles.

14:00 3266.   Quantitative MRI for muscle characterisation – initial comparison of young adults with cerebral palsy to normal subjects 
Jonathan James Noble1,2, Sanjay Vijayanathan3, Adam P Shortland1,3, and Geoff D Charles-Edwards1,3
1King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 3Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom

The aim of this study was to compare quantitative MRI measurements from Dixon-based imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the calf muscles of young adults with cerebral palsy and healthy volunteers. A higher average percentage fat content was observed for the CP group compared to the ND group, which was significant when all three muscles are combined (p=0.019). The mean ADC value for the CP group was consistently lower for all muscles investigated, and statistically significant for the lateral gastrocnemius (p=0.013) and muscles combined (p=0.009). No significant difference was found between CP and ND subject groups FA values.

14:30 3267.   Metformin severely impairs in vivo muscle oxidative capacity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes 
Bart Wessels1, Jolita Ciapaite1, Klaas Nicolay1, and Jeanine Prompers1
1Biomedical NMR, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands

In this study we investigated the effect of the anti-diabetic drug metformin on in vivo and in vitro skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and high-resolution respirometry, respectively. In vivo dynamic 31P MRS demonstrated that two weeks of treatment with metformin severely impairs in vivo muscle oxidative capacity both in diabetic and healthy ZDF rats. In vitro complex I-supported respiration was only reduced in the diabetic group. The 2-fold decrease in in vivo muscle oxidative capacity could therefore not be fully attributed to metformin’s inhibitory effect on mitochondrial complex I.

15:00 3268.   Assessment of changes in regional distribution of skeletal muscle adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes using quantitative IDEAL gradient echo imaging 
Dimitrios C Karampinos1, Thomas Baum1, Lorenzo Nardo1, Julio Carballido-Gamio1, Paran S. Yap1, Huanzhou Yu2, Ann Shimakawa2, Thomas M. Link1, and Sharmila Majumdar1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States

Changes in adipose tissue compartmentalization within skeletal muscle have been observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Segmentation of T1-weighted images has been traditionally used to characterize these changes with significant limitations in quantifying fat content alterations in localized muscle anatomical regions. Quantitative chemical shift-based water/fat separation, like IDEAL gradient echo imaging, enables fat quantification with the spatial resolution of conventional imaging. In the present study, quantitative IDEAL is applied in a study of 46 post-menopausal women to investigate changes in regional distribution of calf muscle adipose tissue between controls and patients with type 2 diabetes.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 30

13:30 3269.   Diffusion tensor imaging of acute muscular injury in normal and dystrophic mice 
Alan B McMillan1, Da Shi1, Su Xu1, and R M Lovering2
1Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2University of Maryland School of Medicine, Orthopaedics, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

This work investigates diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 parameter mapping in acute muscle injury of normal and dystrophic mice. Dystrophic mice experienced a force loss that was 2x greater than normal, indicating a more significant injury. Consistent with post-injury edema, significant increases in T2 are observed in proximal sections of the tibialis anterior (TA). However, significant changes in DTI parameters are seen in both the middle and proximal sections of the TA, suggesting that DTI may be a more sensitive marker of acute skeletal muscle injury.

14:00 3270.   The Effect of Diffusion Tensor Imaging SNR on Skeletal Muscle Tractography 
Armen Alex Gharibans1, Curtis Laurence Johnson1, Danchin Daniel Chen1, and John G Georgiadis1
1Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States

Since skeletal muscle DTI has relatively low SNR, the choice of the tractography method and minimum SNR required should be important parameters in the design of any DTI protocol for skeletal muscle, if the results are to be compared across subjects and scanners. This work is focused on studying the effect of DTI SNR on tractography in skeletal muscle by comparing the convergence of a number of geometrical tract characteristics for four deterministic tracking algorithms. As an indication, the interpolated streamline method converged at SNR~15, Tensorline and Runge-Kutta at SNR~20, and FACT at SNR~40.

14:30 3271.   Quantitative Effects of Inclusion of Fat on Diffusion Tensor MRI of Human Thigh Muscles 
Sarah E Williams1,2, Anneriet Heemskerk3,4, Edward Brian Welch2,3, Bruce M. Damon2,3, and Jane H Park3,5
1Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 5Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

Adipose infiltration into skeletal muscle due to disease may confound muscle diffusion measurements. We determined the water signal percentage which must be present in a region of interest to allow it to represent the diffusion properties of the muscle accurately. Quantitative fat-water percentage maps were created, and the indices of the diffusion tensor were related to the water percentage in regions of interest in the image. The measured diffusion properties for regions containing water signal percentages of <40% differed significantly from those of pure muscle. This should be considered when using water diffusion to represent microstructural damage in muscle.

15:00 3272.   In Vivo Muscle Fiber Curvature Measurements Using DT-MRI 
Anneriet Heemskerk1,2, Zhaohua Ding1,3, Tuhin Sinha1,4, Kevin J. Wilson3, and Bruce M. Damon1,3
1Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Radiology, UC-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Muscle fiber curvature is an important architectural parameter that may affect pressure development and perfusion patterns during contraction. Here we show the capability of measuring fiber curvature using DT-MRI fiber tracking data, the improvement in the estimates by using fiber tract smoothing methods, and the changes in curvature that result from changes in muscle-tendon unit length.