Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Functional & Structural MRI in Neurodegeneration

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 95

14:00 4106.   Neuromelanin Imaging in Dementia with Lewy Body (DLB) 
Masahiro Ida1, Shunsuke Sugawara1, Yuko Kubo1, Keiko Hino1, Naoya Yorozu1, Tomohiro Suzuki1, Shuzo Ikuta1, and Yuko Kawaguchi1
1Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara Hospital, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan

The purpose of this study was to compare the alteration of the neuromlanin (NM) signal in the substantia nigra (SN) and locus ceruleus (LC) of dementia with Lewy body (DLB) patients with that of PD and AD patients and normal controls (NC) to elucidate the clinical significance at 3T. NM imaging can detect signal reduction in the SN and LC which indicates alterations in the NM concentration and catecholaminergic neurons. The NM signals of the SN and LC in DLB were lower than normal subjects and AD. NM signal intensity in DLB was decreased to the same degree as PD patients. NM imaging is a helpful tool to distinguish DLB from AD in diagnosing patients with dementia.

14:30 4107.   PRGN mutation modulates brain damage and reorganization from preclinical to symptomatic stages of frontotemporal dementia 
Marco Bozzali1, Mara Cercignani1, Antonella Alberici2, Enrico Premi2, Laura Serra1, Carlo Cerini2, Maura Cosseddu2, Carla Pettenati2, Marina Turla2, Silvana Archetti2, Roberto Gasparotti2, Alessandro Padovani2, and Barbara Borroni2
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 2Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Progranulin (PGRN) mutations have been recognized as monogenic causes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, their effect on brain tissue dysfunction/damage is poorly understood. Here, using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state fMRI, we investigated pre-symptomatic carriers and patients with FTLD with the same PGRN mutation. We show that PRGN mutation is an independent contributor to GM loss in FTLD. Using RS-fMRI, we show both, processes of disruption and reorganisation in specific networks, the latter being present since the preclinical stage of asymptomatic carriers . Again, the balance between functional disconnection and reorganization is unfavourable for FTLD patients carrying PRGN mutation.

15:00 4108.   Concordant brain structural and diffusion changes in frontotemporal dementia with and without motor neuron disease 
Yu Zhang1,2, Norbert Schuff1,2, Maria Carmela Tartaglia2, Joel Laxamana1,2, Howard J Rosen2, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini2, Bruce L Miller2, and Michael W Weiner1,3
1Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3University California, San Francisco, CA, United States

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with syndromes of motor neuron disease (FTD/MND) is a subtype of FTD that involves neurons controlling voluntary movement. Clinical and neuroimaging studies revealed overlaps between FTD and FTD/MND but their differences were unknown. This study aimed to evaluate these differences in concordant variations of regional atrophy and mean diffusivity (MD) changes of gray (GM), and concordant variations of regional atrophy and fractional anisotropy (FA) changes of white matter (WM). The findings of that FTD/MND had severer concordant GM damages than FTD reflected that the neuropathological features of FTD/MND are different to FTD syndromes without MND.

15:30 4109.   DTI reveals abnormal white matter pathways to classic language areas in semantic dementia 
Julio Acosta-Cabronero1, Karalyn Patterson1, Tim D Fryer1, John R Hodges2, George Pengas1, Guy B Williams1, and Peter J Nestor1
1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 2Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Australia

Using tract-based spatial statistics, we compared diffusion tensor data from 10 semantic dementia (SD) patients and 21 controls. Abnormalities in all metrics were highly statistically significant in ventro-rostral temporal white matter, more extreme on the left side. To examine more remote changes, we performed an average-control tractography—three major neural pathways were found to emanate from the lesion: uncinate (UF), arcuate (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF). At a less conservative threshold, tensor abnormalities in the SD group mapped onto the tractography for the UF and AF well beyond the rostral temporal lobe; but not further caudally along the ILF.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 95

13:30 4110.   Cranio spinal Hydrodynamic view of neurodegenerative disease by 2D-PCMRI 
Olivier Balédent1, Soraya El Sankari2, Catherine Gondry-Jouet3, anthony Fichten4, Olivier Pottie1, Roger Bouzerar1, Jean-Marie Serot5, Olivier Godefroy2, Hervé Deramond3, and Marc-Etienne Meyer1
1Image processing, University hospital Jules Verne, Amiens, Picardie, France, 2Neurology, University hospital Jules Verne, Amiens, Picardie, France, 3Radiology, University hospital Jules Verne, Amiens, Picardie, France, 4Neurosurgery, University hospital Jules Verne, Amiens, Picardie, France, 5Geriatry, University hospital Jules Verne, Amiens, Picardie, France

Our purpose was to evaluate PC-MRI on intracranial flows in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD). Patients underwent 3T MRI with 2D Phase Contrast (2D-PCMRI) pulse sequences to evaluate CSF oscillations and cerebral blood flows. Results were compared to normal values in age matched elderly healthy volunteers, and to Chronic Adult Hydrocephalus (CAH) patients. Arterial flow was significantly increased in MCI patients. Aqueductal CSF flow was normal in AD, hyper dynamic in MCI patients but less than in CAH patients. In conclusion this study highlights the interest of 2D-PCMRI and supports the vascular theory of AD pathophysiology

14:00 4111.   High resolution MTR at 3T using Automated Analysis Targeting Small Functional Brain Regions – A Validation Study on Normal Subjects 
Ying Wu1,2, Hongyan Du3, Christopher Glielmi4, Shawn Sidharthan1, Ryan Hutten1, Ann Ragin5, Paul S Tofts6, and Robert R. Edelman1
1Radiology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 2Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Center for Clinical Research Informatics, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 4MR Research and Development, Siemens Healthcare, Chicago, IL, United States,5Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, United States, 6Imaging Physics, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom

Obtaining magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements of hippocampus and other basal ganglia regions necessitated human manual operation in the past. Most of studies of MT had been conducted at 1.5T. The validity of MTR at 3T has not been fully established. This investigation tested a high resolution MT sequence targeting small brain functional regions and implemented automated subcortical segmentation to eliminate human operator bias. We demonstrate excellent reliability in critical small brain regions that are susceptible to neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

14:30 4112.   Evaluation of T1 and T2* Mapping Reproducibility at 3T Using Histogram Analysis 
Christopher Glielmi1, Ryan Hutten2, Shawn Sidharthan2, Hongyan Du2, Todd Parrish3, Ann Ragin4, Robert R Edelman2, and Ying Wu2
1Cardiovascular MR R&D, Siemens Healthcare, Chicago, IL, United States, 2NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

T1 and T2* mapping are useful approaches to detect and monitor degenerative brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, reproducibility between repeated measures must be evaluated for clinical studies involving serial scanning. This study explores reliability and reproducibility of various histogram analysis metrics for T1 and T2* mapping in healthy subjects at 3T. Specifically, focus is on subcortical regions relevant to neurodegenerative diseases such as PD and AD.

15:00 4113.   Reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values at hippocampus measured by high-resolution readout-segmented DWI vs. Single-shot DWI with 2DRF excitations. 
Ryo Sakamoto1, Tomohisa Okada1, Akira Yamamoto1, Mitsunori Kanagaki1, Seiko Kasahara1, Emiko Morimoto1, Mami Iima1, Satoshi Nakajima1, Taha Mohammed Mehemed1, and Kaori Togashi1
1Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan

Clinical applications of ADC measurement for disorders involving hippocampus are highly important. It requires reasonable reproducibility in acceptable scan time. In single-shot EPI, 2D-RF excitations enables reduced FOV, and less distorted DWI (2DRF-DWI) can be obtained. For multi-shot EPI, readout-segmented EPI can be used for DWI measurement (RS-DWI). These two methods gave highly reproducible CV values of ADC: 1.82 } 1.12 and 2.42 } 1.36 %, respectively for RS-DWI and 2DRF-DWI. However, ADC values at hippocampus were 0.881} 0.027~10-3 mm2/s and 0.463 } 0.039~10-3 mm2/s, respectively, and the latter resulted from low SNR in 2DRF-DWI.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 95

13:30 4114.   A multimodal MRI investigation in patients with Alzheimer¡¯s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitively normal subjects 
Sun Mi Kim1, Min Ji Kim1, Chang-Woo Ryu1, Eui Jong Kim2, Woo Suk Choi2, Geon-Ho Jahng1, and Dal-Mo Yang1
1Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

We prospectively evaluate if the gray matter(GM) loss, the diffusion aniotropic change, the cerebral perfusion reduction demonstrate a pattern of concordance or dissociation in subjects with AD, MCI, compared with cognitively normal(CN) subjects. 3D isotrophic T1WI, DT-MRI, and pulsed ASL were obtained in 26 AD, 26 MCI, and 26 CN subjects. Multimodal investigations can demonstrate the pattern of concordance or dissociation in patients with AD and MCI. Concordance areas of GM loss, the diffusion change, and perfusion reduction were mainly in the temporal lobes, the cingulum, and the parietal lobes.

14:00 4115.   MRI Morphological and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Analysis to Early Alzheimer Disease 
Yongxia Zhou1, Yulin Ge1, and John H Dougherty2
1Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Medicine and Cole Neuroscience Center, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, United States

Using recently developed shape and thickness analysis, 17 subcortical brain structures have been studied in 9 early Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 9 age-matched controls. Shape analysis via spherical harmonic approximation method showed either overall or tail/head deformation in AD patients on their 3D surface rendering views. Thickness analysis also showed structural distance map differences between two groups in several structures including amygdala and dorsal caudate. A strong negative correlation between structural thickness and fractional anisotropy from DTI was found in controls only. Local morphological changes demonstrated with 3D-shape and thickness analysis may have potential in early diagnosis of AD.

14:30 4116.   Is Myelin Content Altered in Alzheimer's Disease? 
Sean C Deoni1, Stephen Correia2, Tanja Su2, Jessica Man2, Paul Malloy3, and Stephen Salloway3
1School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States, 2Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States, 3Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder, characterized by progressive impairment in memory, language, cognitive and behaviour. An emerging hypothesis of AD centers on the role of white matter alteration and, specifically, myelin loss, as a driving mechanism in the pathogenesis of the disorder. In this work, we directly investigate alteration in myelin content in mild AD for the first time using a rapid multicomponent relaxation time myelin imaging technique. Compared with healthy age-matched controls, we show reduced myelin content within the mild AD group that is significantly correlated with disability score (MMSE).

15:00 4117.   New insight in the Alzheimer's disease progression revealed by a combination of functional and structural information 
Eini Niskanen1,2, Mervi Könönen2,3, Sara Määttä3, Merja Hallikainen4, Miia Kivipelto4,5, Silvia Casarotto6, Marcello Massimini6, Ritva Vanninen2, and Hilkka Soininen4,7
1Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland,3Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland, 4Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 5Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, 6Department of Clinical Science "L. Sacco", Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy,7Department of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

The structural information from cortical thickness analysis of anatomical MRI and the functional information from transcranial magnetic stimulation study of motor cortex excitability are combined in patients with AD or MCI and healthy controls. We found negative correlation between cortical thickness and motor cortex excitability in M1, S1, cuneus and precuneus. In AD, the motor cortex hyperexcitability seems to protect the motor functions, whereas in MCI this protective mechanism has not started yet. Our results show that the evolution of the disease proceeds with different dynamics in the structure and function of neuronal circuits from healthy via MCI to AD.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 95

13:30 4118.   Diagnosing Alzheimer Disease in Individuals: Volumetric Imaging 
Song Lai1, John Lackey1, and Jianrong Shi1
1Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

A novel data-driven volumetric imaging statistical analysis methodology was developed for accurate differential diagnosis in individual subjects of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This research explored the use of the unique datasets in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to develop methodologies for identification of MRI biomarkers for differential diagnosis of AD and MCI in individual subjects. The rich ADNI MRI database were used to train models that recognize the structural differences between groups in comparison (i.e., normal vs. AD, MCI vs. AD, and normal vs. MCI). Preliminary study showed high diagnostic accuracy on individual subjects.

14:00 4119.   CA1 specific loss in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment 
Min-Ji Kim1,2, Geon-Ho Jahng1, Hyck-Gi Kim1, Sun-Mi Kim1, Chang-Woo Ryu1, Dal-Mo Yang1, Hack-Young Lee3, Won-Chul Shin3, Dong- Kyun Lee4, and Jong-Min Lee4
1Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gandong, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2East-West Neo Medical Center Kyung Hee Huiversity, Seoul, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, 3Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gandong, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

To investigate regional shape differences of hippocampus through automated hippocampal segmentation in healthy aging (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer¡¯s disease (AD), a three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (i.e. MPRAGE) sequence was run in subjects with 26 MCI, 26 probable AD, and 26 HC. A fully automated hippocampal segmentation method was used for reconstructing three dimensional hippocampal shapes in each subject. The result showed a regional pattern of shape difference between normal control and amnestic MCI, more evident for inward deviation of lateral zone of the hippocampus, which intersects the area of the hippocampus containing the CA1 region.

14:30 4120.   MRI Intensity Tissues Normalisation for Longitudinal Surface Based Analysis of the WM/GM Contrast, application to Alzheimer’s Disease 
Vincent Doré1, Jurgen Fripp1, Pierrick Bourgeat1, Oscar Acosta1,2, and Olivier Salvado1
1Biomedical Imaging ICT, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, CSIRO, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 2Université de Rennes1, France

MR imaging has been widely used to highlight the brain changes occurring in neurodegenerative diseases by comparing affected patients to healthy individuals. However, only few studies focus on contrast changes between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). To our knowledge, no longitudinal study of tissue intensities has been reported. We hypothesize that tissue alteration as measured by WM/GM could provide insights into the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We investigate the longitudinal evolution of the contrast using a new tissue normalisation method. The MRI intensity normalisation enable to measure significant change in contrast between AD patient and healthy elder.

15:00 4121.   Correlating white matter integrity loss and gray matter atrophy in Alzheimer's disease 
Amy Kuceyeski1, Yu Zhang2,3, and Ashish Raj1
1Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized as neuronal death primarily affecting the brain’s gray matter (GM). However, recent evidence shows altered white matter (WM) integrity in early AD and in asymptomatic people with genetic predispositions for AD. We propose a computational methodology that utilizes structural and diffusion image data of healthy and AD brains to identify correlations between WM loss and GM atrophy in AD patients. GM regions identified with our method agree with clinical knowledge of the progression of AD, and, more convincingly, our prediction correlates highly with observed atrophy in AD patients.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
fMRI in Brain Disorders I

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 96

14:00 4122.   Detecting Acute Cortical Plasticity in Rats using High Field fMRI, Part 1- fMRI Maps and Cytoarchitectonic Boundaries 
Carolyn W.-H. WU1,2, Artem Goloshevsky2,3, and Alan P Koretsky2
1NeuroSpin / CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, Île-de-France, France, 2NINDS / NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Bruker BioSpin, Billerica, MA, United States

The sensory maps of the brain are capable of changes throughout life in respond to incoming input activities, thus allowing it to be continuously modified by learning experience. It is well known that long-term denervation causes large-scale anatomical changes. The present study is designed to investigate the acute effect of elimination of input activities following denervation, using high field fMRI and taking averaging of multiple scans to define fMRI boundaries. Consistent with previously reported high-resolution fMRI and electrophysiological experiments, we found denervation causes immediate expansion of neighboring region into the denervated zones. Taking together, these results indicate that high-fields together with multiple-scans averaging can accurately detect subtle modification of cortical maps.

14:30 4123.   Independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI reveals diminished functional connectivity in callosal dysgenesis 
Yi-Ou Li1, Fan-Pei Yang1, Charvi Shetty1, Sandya Venugopal1, Polina Bukshpun1, Mari Wakahiro1, Elliott H. Sherr1, and Pratik Mukherjee1
1University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

We perform a data-driven whole-brain analysis of resting state fMRI using independent component analysis (ICA) to a group of patients with partial or complete agenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) and a group of normal controls. Our objective is to determine which resting state networks of AgCC patients have the greatest functional connectivity alterations relative to controls. Three cortical networks were identified with significantly reduced functional connectivity localized to the precuneus, the posterior cingulate, and the bilateral insular/perisylvian network. The results of the data-driven ICA analysis were verified using hypothesis-driven seed voxel correlation analysis.

15:00 4124.   Detecting Acute Cortical Layer-Specific Plasticity in Rat Model using High Field fMRI, Part 2- a non-thresholded, raw data analysis study 
Alexandra Petiet1, and Carolyn W.-H. WU1
1NeuroSpin / CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, Île-de-France, France

Cortical information processing is mediated by its functional organization. Here we carefully examined high- resolution spin-echo BOLD fMRI data previously collected from the high field that has excellent spatial and temporal stability. Without using conventional statistical data processing, in the raw, non-thresholded data, we quantified and compared the magnitude of cortical plasticity in different conditions, and found cortical plasticity is detectable in the layers- and location-specific manners. This finding may reflect the intrinsic interplay of S1 microcircuitry, and opens up the possibility of using BOLD fMRI to quantify changes of brain microcircuitry and functional reorganization in the diseased animal models.

15:30 4125.   Varying resting-state brain activity in the "default-mode network" in post-stroke aphasia 
Quan Zhang1, Li Sang1, Ming Song2, Yunting Zhang1, and Tianzi Jiang2
1Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 2National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Fifteen patients with expressive aphasia after cerebral infarction and 15 normal subjects were selected to investigate the changes of intrinsically organized default mode network (DMN) with the resting fMRI. Functional connectivity among 13 regions in DMN was computed with the Pearson¡¯s correlation analysis. As compared to the controls, most nodes within the DMN exhibited reduced functional connectivity in aphasic patients. The only one pair of medial prefrontal cortex (anterior) and cerebellar tonsils showed increased functional connectivity in patients. Our findings suggest that the varying functional connectivity in DMN in aphasia may be brain reorganization secondary to the ischemic damage.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 96

13:30 4126.   Developmental Deviation in the Cortico-Striatal Response in Children with ADHD: fMRI Evidence using a Sustained Attention Task 
Vaibhav A. Diwadkar1, Jacqueline Radwan1, Mahya Rahimian Mashhadi2, Dalal Khatib1, Olivia McGarragle1, Patrick Pruitt3, Arthur Robin1, David R. Rosenberg1, and Jeffrey A. Stanley1
1Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Psychology, Eastern Michigan University,3Neuroscience, University of Michigan

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a serious public health problem. We recently reported age-related biochemical deficits in the prefrontal cortex of ADHD children using 31P spectroscopy suggesting a lack of a progressive neurodevelopment in ADHD children. However, the functional basis of this effect has not been investigated using fMRI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ADHD children would show a similar lack of age-related changes in sustained attention performance. We hypothesized that healthy children will show an age-related increase in the fMRI BOLD response to attention performance, which will be absent in ADHD children.

14:00 4127.   A Combined Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting State Functional Connectivity Investigation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 
Fei Li1, Bin Li2, Su Lui1, Xiaoqi Huang1, Qizhu Wu1, Lihua Qiu1, Yanchun Yang2, and Qiyong Gong1
1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC),Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, People's Republic of

The purpose of the present study was to characterize the association between clinical symptoms and anatomical and functional cerebral deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity analysis.

14:30 4128.   Modification in functional connectivity of resting state networks in patients affected by psychogenic erectile dysfunction during visual erotic stimulation: an fMRI study 
Nicoletta Cera1, Ezio Domenico Di Pierro2, Gianni Perrucci1, Gianna Sepede1, Francesco Gambi1, Armando Tartaro1, Carlo Vicentini2, Cosimo Del Gratta1, Gian Luca Romani1, and Antonio Ferretti1
1Dept of Neuroscience and Imaging, ITAB - University G.d'Annunzio of Chieti, Chieti, CH, Italy, 2Department of Health Sciences University of L'Aquila, Hospital "G.Mazzini", Teramo, Italy

In this fMRI study differences in resting state networks between patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction and healthy controls during visual erotic stimulation were investigated using independent component analysis. Compared to controls, patients showed a decreased functional connectivity in the dorsal attention and salience networks, suggesting a failure of emotion regulation and a reduced coding of salience of visual erotic stimuli in psychogenic patients.

15:00 4129.   Impaired Small World Efficiency in Functional Networks in Liver Cirrhosis Patients 
Tun Wei Hsu1,2, Wei Che Lin3, and Chin Po Lin1
1Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital - Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Using graph theory evaluate small world efficiency in resting-state functional connectivity networks in liver cirrhosis patients.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 96

13:30 4130.   Brain and Functional Abnormalities as Results of Genetic Mutation with the DCC (Deleted in Colon Cancer) Gene Deletion 
Liya Wang1,2, Brocha F. Tarshish3, Andres Moreno De Luca3, Michael Rossi3, and Hui Mao1,2
1Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Center for Systems Imaging, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States

Mirror movements (MM) are synkinesias occurring in the opposite side during the intentional use of a limb. MM is occasionally present in healthy children, but persistence beyond age 10 is considered abnormal [1, 2]. The gene mutation found to cause mirror movements is called DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma). Heterozygous mutations in DCC (deleted in colon cancer) were recently identified as the cause of congenital MM in two pedigrees with multiple affected family members. (Srour et al. 2010).This important discovery provides new understanding on how mirror movements happen and improve scientific knowledge concerning how the brain functions.

14:00 4131.   Thalamo-cortical functional connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders 
Mariana Lazar1, Joy Carol Ming2, Laura Miles1, and Jeffrey Donaldson1
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States, 2Livingston High School, Livingston, New Jersey, United States

Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by deficits in a wide range of functional domains including motor, sensory, behavioral, and cognitive functions. Concurrent data suggest that atypical brain connectivity is one of the key features of these disorders. In this abstract we investigate the thalamo-cortical functional connectivity during rest in a group of young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a typically developing group of individuals.

14:30 4132.   Sensorimotor functional connectivity changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Federica Agosta1, Paola Valsasina1, Martina Absinta1, Nilo Riva2, Stefania Sala1, Alessandro Prelle3, Massimiliano Copetti4, Mauro Comola2, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy,2Department of Neurology, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 33Ospedale Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milan, Italy, 4Biostatistics Unit, IRCCS-Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) vs. controls showed a significantly increased functional connectivity between the left primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and the right cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum-crus II. The pattern of increased functional connectivity to the left SMC was more widespread when considering only patients with no corticospinal tract damage than the whole group of patients. In ALS patients, disease severity correlated with reduced SMC functional connectivity. Functional brain changes do occur in ALS. These changes might have a role in compensate for (limited) structural damage and might exhaust with increasing burden of disease pathology.

15:00 4133.   Mood Congruent Hippocampal Activation Biases: Double Dissociation of Negative and Positive Contexts in Depressed and Healthy Adults 
Kirstine Carter1, Wendy Ringe1, Cybeles Onuegbulem1, Kaundinya Gopinath2, and Richard Briggs2
1Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

Negatively-biased emotional information processing is a salient feature in depression, and the hippocampus has commonly been implicated as dysfunctional in depression. This study presents an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging technique suited to explore hippocampal response to positive (Pos) and negative (Neg) stimuli in depressed (DEP) and healthy adults (CON). Results showed left hippocampal activation: DEP>CON during Neg, and CON>DEP during Pos. These data suggest a selective role of the hippocampus in the processing of the emotional valence of external stimuli that appears to be related to the intrinsic mood state of the subject

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 96

13:30 4134.   Framework for Studying Changes in the Functional Connectivity Network After Stroke Using Resting state fMRI 
Siamak Pourabdollah Nejad-Davarani1, Michael Chopp1, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian1, Scott Peltier2, Douglas C Noll2, M Peter Kostiuk1, Shiyang Wang1,3, Panayiotis Mitsias1, and Quan Jiang1
1Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 3Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States

Resting State connectivity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has recently been used for evaluating post stroke neuro-restoration and functional reorganization. In this study, we have defined a connectivity network in the brain in which every brain region is considered as a node and correlation is calculated between every two nodes in this network. The correlation between the temporal signals at every node in this network is calculated for normal subjects and is used as a reference for evaluation of the functional reorganization of the brain in stroke patients.

14:00 4135.   Integration of structural and functional biomarkers of MRI data toward early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease 
Jong-Hwan Lee1,2, Junghoe Kim1, Yong-Hwan Kim1, Dong-Youl Kim1, and Soohyun Ha2
1Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2College of Information and Communication, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

In this study, integration of MRI- and fMRI-driven biomarkers toward early detection of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was addressed, in which three types of feature vectors including (1) volumetric information from MRI, (2) neuronal activity from fMRI, and (3) volumetric information together with neuronal activity were employed as input of a support vector machine classifier. Minimum error rates were 24.0%, 12.0%, and 8.0% from the regional volume information only, neuronal activity only, and both the regional volume and neuronal activity, respectively. MRI-based diagnosis of the AD seems to be more feasible when both the MRI- and fMRI-based biomarkers are employed.

14:30 4136.   Resting state functional connectivity correlated with neuropsychological tests in temporal lobe epilepsy patients 
Martha J Holmes1,2, John C Gore1,2, Brad S Folley3, Bassel Abou-Khalil3, Hasan H Sonmezturk3, and Victoria L Morgan1,2
1Vanderbilt University Institute of Imagining Science, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States,3Neurology, Vanderbilt University

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients typically have memory deficits from structural damage to the left hippocampus (LH). The objective of our analysis is to identify regions whose resting state connectivity to the LH is correlated to a verbal memory retrieval neuropsychological test in TLE patients. We found a region in the left insula that showed increased connectivity to the LH with increased memory scores, and a region in the left limbic lobe region whose connectivity to LH decreased with increased memory scores. These results suggest a possible compensatory mechanism to overcome these memory deficits in TLE.

15:00 4137.   fMRI of pain processing in diabetic neuropathy 
Jennifer L Davies1, Dinesh Selvarajah2, Michael D Hunter3, Elaine Cachia1, Adithya Sankar1, Irene Tracey4, Solomon Tesfaye2, and Iain D Wilkinson1
1Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom, 2Diabetes, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, 3Academic Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, 4Oxford University

Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a common, debilitating complication of diabetes, often associated with chronic pain. This study investigates the brain’s response to acute thermal pain stimulation in: 10 patients with Painful-DN; 10 with Painless-DN and 10 Healthy Volunteers (HV), using BOLD fMRI at 3T. The response was evaluated using a GLM. At the group level, greater BOLD-response in the foot (neuropathic area) vs the thigh (control area) was present in the somatosensory, prefrontal and anterior cingulated cortices when comparing the painful-DN to the HV groups and in the prefrontal cortex when comparing the painful-DN to the painless-DN groups.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
fMRI in Brain Disorders II

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 97

14:00 4138.   Functional Activation Within Hippocampal Subfields During Scene Memory Encoding In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy 
Sandhitsu Das1, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton2, Marc Korczykowski2, John Pluta1, John Detre2, and Paul Yushkevich1
1PICSL, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2CfN, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

We report, for the first time, patterns of functional activation in hippocampal subfields in a cohort of temporal lobe epilepsy patients and healthy controls during a complex scene memory encoding task. We detect group differences in activation between controls and patients, with higher activation in controls and in patients' non-epileptogenic side than patients' epileptogenic side, with the greatest effects in dentate gyrus (DG) and in anterior hippocampus. DG is also found to be more active than CA1 in controls, but not in patients.

14:30 4139.   Spatio-temporal mapping of interictal epileptic discharges based on mutual information of concurrent EEG and fMRI 
Cesar Caballero Gaudes1, Serge Vulliemoz2, Frederic Grouiller3, Magritta Seeck2, Dimitri Van De Ville1,4, and François Lazeyras1
1Radiology Department, CIBM, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genéve, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Neurology Department, Epilepsy Unit, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genéve,3Neurology Department, Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, 4Institute of Bioengineering, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland

This work demonstrates that an information theoretic analysis based on the mutual information between the EEG-score and the fMRI data provides further insight in the study of epileptiform networks and interictal epileptic discharges with concurrent EEG-fMRI. This method balances the information provided by both imaging modalities, and does not require a-priori models for the haemodynamic response nor does it assume a linear relationship between the spiking epileptic activity detected on the scalp-EEG and BOLD responses. The technique was evaluated in 5 epileptic patients, confirming neurological assessment in 4 cases and showing better or equivalent performance than conventional GLM-based analysis.

15:00 4140.   Presurgical evaluation using Functional Connectivity Resting-State fMRI 
Leslie Vlerick1,2, and Eric Achten1,2
1Dept. Neuroradiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, 2GIfMI (Ghent Institute for Functional and Metabolic Imaging), Ghent, Belgium

Functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI (fcrs-fMRI) has been shown to be a robust non-invasive method for localization of functional areas and networks throughout the brain on an individual level. Its use for preoperative planning could overcome some of the disadvantages of traditional task-evoked fMRI. We acquired fcrs-fMRI data of 10 patients in presurgical evaluation, and compared the results with traditional task-fMRI data. In most of the subjects there is a good concordance between fcrs- and task-fMRI results, i.e. similar regions are found. We hereby provide evidence for the potential use of functional connectivity resting-state fMRI data in presurgical planning.

15:30 4141.   Loss of functional network efficiency is associated with cognitive decline in cryptogenic epilepsy 
Maarten Vaessen1,2, Marielle Vlooswijk2,3, Jacobus Jansen1,2, Marc de Krom3, Marian Majoie3,4, Paul Hofman1,2, Albert Aldenkamp3,4, and Walter Backes1,2
1Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands,3Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands, 4Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, Netherlands

The nature of cognitive difficulties in chronic epilepsy ranges from circumscribed memory deficits to global intellectual decline. With functional connectivity MRI and graph theoretical network analysis, the topology of the whole cerebral network can be investigated. To study the relation between possibly altered whole brain topology and intellectual decline in chronic epilepsy, a combined study of neurocognitive assessment, and fMRI with graph theoretical network analysis was performed. In patients with epilepsy a disruption of both local segregation and global integration was found. Additionally, an association of more pronounced intellectual decline with more disturbed local segregation was observed.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 97

13:30 4142.   Brain Function Disruption of Thalamus Related Low Frequency Resting State Networks in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 
Lin Tang1, Yulin Ge1, Daniel K Sodickson1, Laura Miles1, Joseph Reaume1, and Robert I Grossman1
1NYU CBI, New York, NY, United States

A consistent and symmetric pattern of thalamic resting state functional networks (RSNs) is described for better understanding of thalamocortical pathways and neurocognitive function. Thalamic RSNs are disrupted in patients with MTBI, indicating there is compensatory upregulation of neural connectivity associated with subtle thalamic injury that appears to be related to the performance in neurocognitive testing, suggesting RS-fMRI can be used as an additional imaging modality for detection of abnormalities and for elucidating the pathophysiology behind persistent postconcussive syndrome.

14:00 4143.   Separating global and regional effects of hydrocortisone medication using normalized fMRI 
Hanzhang Lu1, Daren Denniston2, Binu Thomas1, Jinsoo Uh1, Thomas J. Carmody2, Richard Auchus3, Ramon Diaz-Arristia4, Carol Tamminga2, and E. Sherwood Brown2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 3Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States,4Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

An important application of fMRI is to provide a marker for medication effect on neural activity. A potential problem is that other consequences of the medication, including global changes in physiology, are often not considered, but could influence the amplitude of fMRI signal independent of neural activity. Here we demonstrated that hydrocortisone, a stress and corticosteroid hormone that are used to treat asthma and other medical illnesses but could cause memory decline, reduces resting venous blood oxygenation and that normalized fMRI signal after accounting for this global change allowed the detection of hippocampal alterations after merely three days of medication.

14:30 4144.   Resting-state functional connectivity of the thalamus is reduced in absence epilepsy 
Richard Andrew James Masterton1, Patrick W Carney1,2, and Graeme D Jackson1,2
1Brain Research Institute, Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Generalised spike wave (GSW) discharges are a hallmark of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). Previous EEG-fMRI studies have identified a common network of brain regions that are active during these events. In this study we measured fMRI functional connectivity in a group of CAE patients during periods free from GSW and compared this with healthy controls. We found patients had relatively decreased connectivity in the thalamus and increased connectivity in parietal cortex. This may contribute to increased cortical excitability and create a permissive environment for generation of GSW discharges, as well as explain the subtle cognitive impairments in these patients.

15:00 4145.   Disruption of Default Mode Network following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 
Chandler Sours1, Josh Betz1, Steve Roys1, Bizhan Aarabi2, Kathirkamanthan Shanmuganathan2, Joel Greenspan3, and Rao Gullapalli1,4
1Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ Maryland (CTRIM), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences and Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

Based on cognitive deficits associated with mild TBI, we hypothesize that the default mode network (DMN) would be disrupted. Using resting state MRI, we measured the strength of functional connectivity within the DMN in TBI patients immediately following injury and at one month, comparing these to a control group. We found the strength of functional connectivity was decreased at the initial time point in the right medial temporal lobe, bilateral frontal cortex, and bilateral thalamus. This decreased functional connectivity began to normalize at one month with the exception of the frontal cortex suggesting that executive function may still be effected.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 97

13:30 4146.   Effect of rTMS on cerebello-thalamo-cortical connectivity in Essential Tremor 
Cécile Gallea1, Léa Marais1, Traian Popa1, David Grabli2,3, Emmanuel Roze2,3, Vincent Perlbarg4, David Coynel4, Bertrand Degos2,3, Marie Vidailhet2,3, Stéphane Lehéricy1,2, and Sabine Meunier2,3
1Centre for Neuroimaging Research - CENIR, Paris, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, France, 2Centre de Recherche de l'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, UPMC - INSERM UMR S975 - CNRS UMR 7225, 3Fédération des Maladies du Système Nerveux, AP-HP Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, 4Laboratoire d'Imagerie Fonctionnelle, INSERM - UPMC - UMR S678

Essential tremor (ET) is a movement disorder involving cerebellar dysfunction. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of cerebellar repetitive magnetic transcranial stimulation (rTMS) during five days on the fMRI functional connectivity in the sensorimotor network (SMN)in ET patients. Before rTMS, functional connectivity between the cerebellum and both the cortical SMN and default brain network (DBN) was decreased in TE as compared with control subjects. After rTMS, the cerebello-cortical connectivity was specifically and partially restored in TE patients in the SNM only. Therefore, the therapeutic effects of rTMS in ET patients may be mediated by a partial restoration of a reduced functional connectivity in the sensorimotor network.

14:00 4147.   Impaired fMRI Activation in Patients with Primary Brain Tumors 
Zhen Jiang1,2, Alexandre Krainik1,3, Olivier David3, Dominique Hoffmann1, Irene Tropres4, Sylvie Grand1,3, Emmanuel Barbier3, Stephan Chabardes1,3, Jan Warnking3, and Jean-Francois Le Bas1,3
1University Hospital Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 22nd Affiliated Hospital - Soochow University, Suzhou, China, People's Republic of, 3Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble, France, 4Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France

In patients with brain tumor, motor-related activation in primary sensorimotor cortex was decreased in the ipsitumoral hemisphere, in case of meningiomas and high grade gliomas, but not in low grade gliomas. It was related to the vicinity of the lesion. Changes in basal perfusion did not account for the variance of activation asymmetry. BOLD signal evaluated using carbogen inhalation, a gas mixture of CO2 (7%) and O2 (93%), showed a similar asymmetry in eloquent cortices. Decreased interhemispheric ratio of the BOLD response to carbogen was the best predictor of the asymmetry of motor activation.

14:30 4148.   Functional changes in the cerebro-cerebellar verbal working memory network in Schizophrenia 
Kayako Matsuo1, Annabel S.-H. Chen2, Su-Chun Huang1, Chih-Min Liu3, Chen-Chung Liu3, Hai-Go Hwu3, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng1
1Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Division of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan

Working memory dysfunction is a core cognitive symptom in schizophrenia. We applied a cerebro-cerebellar verbal working memory (VWM) model using fMRI to examine the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortico-circuit (CCTCC) in patients with schizophrenia and their matched healthy controls. We observed overall greater activity in patients than healthy controls during VWM. In particular, patients showed a significantly larger extent of activations but of similar intensity values within relevant ROIs. We also found a pattern shift from left to bilateral activations in cortico-cerebellar regions. These findings suggested a compensatory system to cope with a functionally weakened VWM network in schizophrenia.

15:00 4149.   Combination of Structural and Functional MRI with Rapid Prototyping as a Neurosurgical Tool 
Yu-Chun Chang1, Fred Nicolls2, and Bruce S Spottiswoode3,4
1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Province, South Africa, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa, 3MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa, 4Department of Radiology, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa

This work presents methods to adapt MRI data to create rapid prototyped scale models of a subject’s brain showing important structural and functional regions relative to a tumour. The grey matter of the structural MRI was segmented and co-registered to the fMRI data. This volume was split into two portions and meshed using a marching cubes and Laplacian smoothing algorithm. The accuracy of the model was shown to be 84.96%. The technique may prove useful for neurosurgical planning by providing clear reference landmarks on the surface of the brain, and by giving an intuitive indication of the depth and extent of the tumo

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 97

13:30 4150.   Resting State Functional Connectivity Changes with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in a Parkinson's Disease Patient 
Jenny Wu1,2, Erik B Beall1, Mark J Lowe1, Benjamin L Walter3,4, Andre Machado5, and Micheal D Phillips1
1Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, United States, 3Neurological Institute, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States, 4Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, United States, 5Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

This study compared resting state functional connectivity in a Parkinson's Disease (PD) patient between on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) conditions. MPRAGE and resting state fMRI studies were acquired from a unilateral STN-DBS PD patient. Seed-based correlation analyses using basal ganglia regions of interest generated z-score maps of significant correlation to each region. Stimulation decreased bilateral connectivity in putamen and globus pallidus but increased thalamic connectivity with supplementary motor areas. These stimulation-associated changes may be involved with desynchronization of pallidal output to thalamus leading to strengthened connectivity to cortical areas.

14:00 4151.   Functional connectivity between areas involved in emotion and executive control is abnormal in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures 
Sylvie JM van der Kruijs1, Maarten J Vaessen2, Nynke MG Bodde1, Richard HC Lazeron1, Paul AM Hofman2, Walter H Backes2, Albert P Aldenkamp1, and Jacobus F.A. Jansen2
1Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands

This study sought to investigate whether patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) differ from controls in their resting-state functional connectivity between regions typically activated during attentional processes. Eleven PNES patients and thirteen healthy controls underwent 2 task related (encode and Stroop) and resting state functional MRI. The encode and stroop paradigm did not reveal any differences between the 2 groups. Functional connectivity maps from the resting state fMRI (based on seeds from the encode and Stroop tasks) indicated statistically stronger correlations in the PNES patients. We observed a connectivity abnormality between areas involved in emotional responses and cognitive integration systems, which could explain the involuntary dissociative states typically seen in patients with PNES.

14:30 4152.   Effects of Levodopa Therapy on Resting Brain Perfusion and Functional Connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Measured by ASL Perfusion MRI 
Marta Vidorreta1, Elisa Mengual2,3, Gonzalo Arrondo1, María A Pastor1, and María A Fernández-Seara1
1Functional neuroimaging laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research (University of Navarra), Pamplona, Navarra, Spain, 2Neuroanatomy of basal ganglia laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research (University of Navarra), Pamplona, Navarra, Spain, 3Deparment of Anatomy, Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain

The effects of levodopa therapy were assessed in a group of Parkinson’s Disease patients using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI during rest. Changes in perfusion between patients in their clinical “on” and “off” state were evaluated, finding a significant decrease in perfusion after medication intake in SMA and the posterior putamen contralateral to the affected body side, among other areas.These results suggest that levodopa relatively normalizes abnormally high perfusion levels typically observed in PD. A functional connectivity analysis with seed on the putamen showed how abnormal connectivity patterns related to the disease appear to be balanced by the medication.

15:00 4153.   Morphometric and Functional Connectivity Correlates of Hippocampal Changes in Migraine Frequency 
Nasim Maleki1, Gautam Pendse1, Lauren Nutile2, Rami Burstein3, Lino Becerra1,4, and David Borsook1
1P.A.I.N. Group, Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, United States, 2Department of Psychology, Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania, United States, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 4Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA

The role of the hippocampus in migraine has not been well characterized. In this study we assessed whether there are any anatomical changes in the hippocampus in migraine patients based on the frequency of their migraine attacks and what the corresponding functional connectivity correlates are.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
fMRI in Brain Disorders III

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 98

14:00 4154.   Functional connectivity in strabismic adults during saccadic eye movements 
Suk-tak Chan1, Ka-Yue Chan2, Sau-fan Ma2, Shuk-ling Law2, Shuk-yee Ho2, Hiu-kwan Lee2, Kwok-wing Tang3, Andrew Kwok-cheung Lam4, James Yuk-ling Cheung3, and Kenneth K Kwong1
1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States, 2Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, 4School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

The functional interactions among brain regions in the network for saccadic eye movements would provide information on how the strabismic brains adapt to the visual deficits. Context-dependent correlation approach was used to study the functional connectivity for saccadic eye movements in both strabismic and healthy brains. Dominant negative correlations were demonstrated in strabismic brains relative to healthy brains. The connectivity findings imply the possible modulation of the functional connectivity for saccadic eye movements in a complicated network of brain regions in the frontal, supplementary, parietal and occipital eye fields, and midbrain of strabismic adults.

14:30 4155.   Altered Cerebral Perfusion and Functional Connectivity in a Response-control Network in Parkinson’s Disease Measured by ASL 
María A. Fernández-Seara1, Marta Vidorreta1, Maite Aznárez-Sanado1, Francis Loayza1, Federico Villagra1, and Maria Pastor1
1Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain

Using ASL perfusion MRI, we have detected perfusion and functional connectivity abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease patients in their clinical ON state. Decreased perfusion has been observed in parietal, motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas. More interestingly, however, increased functional connectivity has been detected in a network involving pre-SMA, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus and the frontal cortex. These areas have been previously identified as key nodes in a functional-anatomical network critical for response suppression.

15:00 4156.   Altered medial temporal lobe activations in aMCI subjects during encoding and recognition tasks 
Mingwu Jin1, Victoria Pelak1, Tim Curran2, Rajesh Nandy3, and Dietmar Cordes1
1University of Colorada Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 2University of Colorada at Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States, 3UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Using a region of interest analysis on fMRI data from three memory paradigms including both encoding and recognition tasks, we investigate the altered functions in twelve subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in aMCI subjects. Our results revealed: 1) Significant functional changes occur before significant structural changes; 2) The recognition task using face and occupation stimuli is more sensitive to detect dysfunction in MTL subregions in aMCI; 3) There exists an anti-correlation relationship between fMRI activations and neuropsychological test scores indicating possible compensation during abnormal cognitive decline.

15:30 4157.   Aberrant resting-state activity in default mode network of subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment 
Mingwu Jin1, Victoria S Pelak1, and Dietmar Cordes1
1University of Colorada Denver, Aurora, CO, United States

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a syndrome with faster memory decline than normal aging, and frequently represents the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, group independent component analysis was conducted for resting-state fMRI data with slice perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus to investigate the default mode network (DMN). Decreased activity in left MTL was observed for aMCI. No volume difference between the aMCI group and the control group were found in the MTL. Altered DMN activity in aMCI may indicate deficiencies in functional brain architecture even before MTL atrophy is detectable.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 98

13:30 4158.   Alterations in neural network activity of methamphetamine abusers performing an emotion matching task: fMRI study 
Hui-jin Song1, Jeehye Seo1, Seong-uk Jin1, Moon-jung Hwang2, Young-ju Lee2, and Yongmin Chang1,3
1Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 2GE healthcare, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of

Methamphetamine (MA) abusers often exhibit socially problematic behaviors such as diminished empathy, decreased emotional regulation, and interpersonal violence, which may be attributable to alterations in emotional perception. However, few studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to directly examine perceptual processing of threatening or fearful non-face images in methamphetamine abusers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the difference in neural correlates of negative emotion processing between MA abusers and healthy subjects using a small subset of complex visual scenes depicting fear or threat, derived from IAPS. Based on our finding that MA abusers showed reduced activation in both insula and increased activation in FG, PG, and PCC relative to MA abusers. Hypoactivation of the insula in MA abusers relative to healthy subjects suggests that the ability of emotional awareness to threatening scenes and empathy for another¡¯s pain could be compromised in MA abusers. Hyperactivity in the FG, PG, and PCC in MA abusers relative to healthy subjects indicates that threatening and fearful images from the IAPS may remind MA abusers of episodic memory related to antisocial behaviors towards others. Therefore, functional impairment of these neural networks in MA abuse may contribute to altered perception of fearful scene, which could lead to diminish empathy and increase risk to aggressive behavior.

14:00 4159.   Functional MRI Analysis of a Novel Short-Term Motor Learning Task 
Ryan J. Cassidy1, Shaun Boe2,3, William McIlroy4,5, and Simon J. Graham6,7
1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2School of Physiotherapy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada,3Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, 4Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 5Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 6Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 7Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Functional MRI analyses of motor skill acquisition have the potential to inform rehabilitative treatments of neurologic conditions, but experimental tasks used therein often face challenges including being mastered quickly and difficult to generalize. To address this, we have devised a novel short-term visuomotor learning task involving asymmetric bilateral gripping. Group analysis of fMRI data collected pre- and post-training confirms a gradual learning process involving cerebellar, thalamic, supplementary/primary motor regions, along with ventrolateral prefrontal cortical involvement illustrating a learning effect. Analysis with a varied task post-training confirms generalizability in the same regions, which is consistent with pilot behavioral results.

14:30 4160.   Default-mode Resting Network in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) 
Yongxia Zhou1, Lin Tang1, Daniel K Sodickson1, Joseph Reaume1, Laura Miles1, Robert I Grossman1, and Yulin Ge1
1Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

We used resting state fMRI to investigate the fronto-posterior connections; especially the posterior cingulate and medial frontal nodes contained in default mode networks (DMNs). Three different methods including seeding-based PCC connectivity, single-subject Informax ICA based and probabilistic multi-session temporal concatenation based group PICA were used to compare 23 MTBI patients to 18 controls. All three methods showed increased DMNs in medial frontal regions and slightly decreased DMNs in doros-lateral prefrontal regions in MTBI patients, suggesting that the MTBI patients might recruit more of medial orbito-frontal regions to mediate the resting networks when dorsolateral prefrontal connectivity is decreased due to injury.

15:00 4161.   fMRI reveals that basolateral amygdala responsiveness to aversive stimuli as a neural correlate of trait anxiety is modulated by Neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor genotype 
Harald Kugel1, Udo Dannlowski2, Friederike Franke2, Christa Hohoff2, Peter Zwanzger2, Thomas Lenzen2, Dominik Grotegerd2, Thomas Suslow2,3, Volker Arolt2, Walter Heindel1, and Katharina Domschke2
1Dept. of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 2Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 3Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, SN, Germany

Anxiety disorders are debilitating psychiatric diseases that are related with hyperactivity of the amygdala, a central structure in the fear circuit. The neuropeptide S (NPS) is highly expressed in the amygdala, and a functional polymorphism in the NPS receptor gene has been associated with panic disorder and anxiety sensitivity. fMRI revealed a strong association of NPSR T alleles with right amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant faces. The association peak was located in the basolateral amygdala. NPSR rs324981 apparently causes an indirect effect on trait anxiety and potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 98

13:30 4162.   An fMRI study of cognitive functions in adolescents with spina bifida 
Xiawei Ou1,2, Jeffrey H Snow3, John J Hall3, Amy Byerly3, and Charles M Glasier1
1Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States, 2Radiology, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States

FMRI studies on adolescents with spina bifida revealed lack of activation in the frontal lobe for a response inhibition task, suggesting poor frontal lobe functions for this population. In addition, normal adolescents had bilateral brain activation while adolescents with spina bifida had primarily right hemisphere activation. This pattern was present in both posterior brain regions and frontal lobes, and may indicate decreased left hemisphere functioning in adolescents with spina bifida.

14:00 4163.   Diminished Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Lateral Occipital Cortex in Early HIV Infection 
Paul Foryt1,2, Xue Wang1, Renee Ochs1, Jae-Hon Chung1,2, Ying Wu1,3, Todd Parrish1, and Ann B. Ragin1,3
1Radiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States,3Radiology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois, United States

Using resting state functional connectivity MRI, thirty subjects, fifteen HIV+ and fifteen controls, were scanned on a 3.0T Siemens Trio to evaluate connectivity between brain networks. ICA component analysis was used on the collected data, finding that scanned HIV+ subjects had diminished connectivity within the lateral occipital cortex network, one of the main resting state networks. This network has been associated with visuospatial attention.

14:30 4164.   Reliability analysis of the resting state sensitively and specifically identifies Parkinson disease 
Frank M Skidmore1,2, Mark Yang3, Lewis Baxter2, Karen von Deneen2, Guojun He2, Keith White4, Kenneth Heilman5, Mark Gold2, and Yijun Liu2
1Neurology, North Florida/South Georgia VA Medical Center, Gainesville, Florida, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States, 3Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States, 4Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States, 5Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States

We wished to evaluate if resting state fMRI could identify individuals with Parkinson disease (PD_. Analyzing the resting state and using a cross-validation approach, we were able to separate individuals with PD from controls with a 92% sensitivity and 86% specificity. Our work shows proof of concept for use of fMRI as a biomarker technique for identification of PD.

15:00 4165.   fMRI detection of Asperger's Disorder using support vector machine classification 
Yash Shailesh Shah1, Daehyun Yoon1, Opal Ousley2, Xiaoping Hu2, and Scott J Peltier1
1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States, 2Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Asperger’s Disorder is a type of high functioning autism. An earlier study showed that resting state fMRI scans of subjects with Asperger’s Disorder show less synchronized activity between nodes of the default mode network. In this study, we have employed a machine learning algorithm using Support Vector Machine(SVM) to classify Asperger’s Disorder subjects from normal subjects. It also elicits the possibility of using Support Vector Regression(SVR) to quantify the severity of autism by relating it to the fMRI resting state functional connectivity measures.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 98

13:30 4166.   Differential brain activation associated with the effects of emotional and non-emotional distracters during a delayed-response working memory task in patients with schizophrenia 
Gwang-Won Kim1, Moo-Suk Lee2, Heoung-Keun Kang3, Tae-Jin Park4, Young-Chul Chung5, Jong-Chul Yang5, Gyung-Ho Chung6, and Gwang-Woo Jeong1,3
1Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Chonnam, Korea, Republic of, 2Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Hospital, Korea, Republic of, 3Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Korea, Republic of, 4Psychology, Chonnam National University, Korea, Republic of,5Psychiatry, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Korea, Republic of, 6Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Korea, Republic of

Impairment of working memory (WM) is an important factor of the cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) closely related to delayed-response WM is potentially involved with cognitive impairment of the WM observed in schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential frontal activation patterns reflecting the effects of emotional and non-emotional distracters during maintenance processes of WM for the human faces in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls by using a 3 Tesla function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

14:00 4167.   Central pain processing in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy 
Elaine Cachia1, Dinesh Selvarajah2, Michael D Hunter3, John Snowden4, Sam H Ahmedzai5, and Iain D Wilkinson1
1Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom, 2Diabetes, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, 3Academic Psychiatry, University of Sheffield,4Haematology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, 5Palliative Care, University of Sheffield

Chemotherapy has significantly extended life expectancy in myeloma, but it has resulted in a high incidence of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which can be debilitating. This study investigates the brain’s response to pain stimulation in patients with CIPN using BOLD fMRI at 3T. 12 myeloma patients and 12 healthy volunteers underwent heat-pain stimulation in a boxcar-design paradigm. The BOLD response was evaluated using a general linear model. Painful stimuli to the foot produced significantly greater thalamic response than thigh stimulation in subjects with CIPN compared with healthy volunteers.

14:30 4168.   Slow fluctuation BOLD signal component analysis during active press pain stimulation in fibromyalgia patients 
Ji-Young Kim1, Jeehye Seo2, Jae-jun Lee2, Hui-jin Song2, Seong-Uk Jin2, and Yongmin Chang2,3
1School of Medicine, Kyungpook Nataional University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 2Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of

Fibromyalgia is a medical disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, a heightened and painful response to pressure. Currently no investigation is available for identifying low frequency BOLD fluctuation components during active press pain stimulation paradigm while recent study evaluated low frequency fluctuation during resting-state. Using independent components analysis (ICA) of active press pain paradigm, our results demonstrated (1) the existence of intrinsic slow fluctuation BOLD signal components during active pain stimulation paradigm and (2) the possible differences in intrinsic brain connectivity between FM patients and healthy controls.

15:00 4169.   fMRI investigation of voluntary and involuntary motor activation in hypnotic paralysis 
Harald Kugel1, Markus Burgmer2, Bettina Pfleiderer1, Adrianna Ewert1, Thomas Lenzen3, Regina Pioch2, Martin Pyka4, Jens Sommer4, Volker Arolt3, Gereon Heuft2, and Carsten Konrad4
1Dept. of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 2Dept. of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 3Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 4Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Marburg, Marburg, HE, Germany

The neurobiological basis of nonorganic movement impairments is still unknown. As conversion disorder and hypnotic states share many characteristics, we applied an experimental design established in conversion disorder to investigate hypnotic paralysis. In nineteen healthy subjects movement imitation and observation were investigated by fMRI with and without hypnotically induced paralysis of their left hand. Hypnotic paralysis during movement imitation induced hypoactivation of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and ipsilateral cerebellum, indicating a specific impact of hypnosis on executive control.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
MRS of Animal Brain (except Cancer)

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 99

14:00 4170.   Neurochemical profile of the striatum and hippocampus in mice at 16.4 T using in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy 
Dinesh K Deelchand1, Isabelle Iltis1, Gregor Adriany1, Emily Colonna1, Malgorzata Marjanska1, Kamil Ugurbil1, and Pierre-Gilles Henry1
1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

In this work, we demonstrate that highly resolved 1H NMR spectra can be obtained in different regions of the mouse brain in vivo at 16.4 T. Spectra were acquired in the striatum and hippocampus of anesthetized mice using the LASER sequence (TE of 16.5 ms) with a voxel size less than 5 µl. Using LCModel analysis, 16 and 17 metabolites (out of 19) were quantified in the hippocampus and striatum respectively with Cramér-Rao Lower bounds < 20%. Future studies in mouse models will benefit from the excellent spectral resolution and accurate localization obtained at 16.4 T.

14:30 4171.   Neurochemical profile in the hippocampus of aging mice as detected by in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T 
Joao M. N. Duarte1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1Laboratory for functional and metabolic imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne, Switzerland

The concentration of metabolites in different cerebral areas, so called neurochemical profile, can be taken as biomarker of regional development, differentiation or degeneration. Aging-associated functional alterations may be accompanied by neurochemical alterations that were now evaluated in aging mice, using in vivo proton spectroscopy at 14.1 T.

15:00 4172.   In vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T 
Joao M. N. Duarte1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1Laboratory for functional and metabolic imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 3Departments of Radiology, Universities of LAusanne and Geneva

The combination of dynamic 13C NMR spectroscopy with the infusion of 13C-enriched substrates is a powerful method to probe metabolic fluxes in vivo. The increase in magnetic field opens the opportunity for gain in sensitivity and spectral resolution, which was now explored to study brain metabolism.

15:30 4173.   In vitro and In vivo Studies of 17O NMR Sensitivity at 9.4 and 16.4 Tesla 
Ming Lu1,2, Xiao Wang1,2, Ryan Taylor1,2, Yi Zhang1,2, Kamil Ugurbil1,2, Wei Chen1,2, and Xiao-Hong Zhu1,2
1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Application of in vivo 17O MRS has been proposed and examined for imaging the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption through detecting metabolically produced H217O from the inhaled 17O-labeled oxygen. In this study, we investigated the 17O sensitivity for detecting natural abundance H217O from phantom solution and rat brain at 9.4 and 16.4 Tesla. The 17O SNR measured at 16.4T was 2.9 and 2.6-fold higher than that at 9.4T for the phantom and rat brain studies, respectively. This SNR gain due to the increasing magnetic field strength could improve the spatial and temporal resolution for localized 17O MRS and imaging applications. It provides an opportunity for detecting altered oxidative metabolism associated with brain function and neurological diseases.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 99

13:30 4174.   Short Erythropoietin treatment following Hypoxia-Ischemia in the immature rat brain: macro-, micro-structural and metabolic assessment using multimodal MR 
Yohan van de Looij1,2, Alexandra Chatagner1, Petra S Hüppi1, Rolf Gruetter2,3, and Stéphane V Sizonenko1
1Division of Child Growth & Development, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

Animal models of preterm brain injury can be achieved by Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) and Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective in different ischemic models. Here we investigated the neuroprotective effect of short EPO treatment in a model of neonatal HI injury in the P3 rat brain using high-field multimodal NMR techniques: MRI, MRS and DTI. This study shows a full characterization of the P3 HI model 22 days following insult by using multimodal NMR techniques. Acute treatment of EPO appears to not have any effect neither on tissue loss nor on white matter injuries or altered metabolism.

14:00 4175.   Dynamics of cerebral glucose analysed in vivo with a four-state conformational model 
Joao M. N. Duarte1,2, and Rolf Gruetter1,3
1Laboratory for functional and metabolic imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

Glucose is the primary fuel required for brain function. We now evaluated brain glucose dynamics by employing a four-state conformational model that accounts for transport inhibition, and a dynamic method that allows distinguishing the parameters defining transport from comsumption.

14:30 4176.   Effects of chronic uncontrolled diabetes on neurochemical profile and glucose transport in the rat brain in vivo by 1H MRS at 9.4 T 
Wen-Tung Wang1, Phil Lee1,2, Irina V Smirnova3, and In-Young Choi1,4
1Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 2Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 3Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States,4Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States

Acute uncontrolled hyperglycemia results in significant increases in osmolytes. In chronic stage, osmolarity dysregulation indicated by plateau levels of osmolytes leads to significant reduction of Ala, Asp, GSH, and NAA. This study explores effects of chronic hyperglycemia on neurochemical profile and glucose transport. The results show that acute glycemic normalization restores alterations in all metabolites except Ala, Ins, and NAA. The remained reduction in NAA level indicates that neuronal damage caused by hyperglycemia can not be reversed. The relationsip between plasma and brain glucose concentration of STZ-induced diabetic rats indicates an un-altered glucose transport.

15:00 4177.   Metabolic changes in the focal brain ischemia in rats treated with human induced pluripotent cell-derived neural precursors 
Daniel Jirak1,2, Karolina Turnovcova3, Nataliya Kozubenko3, Pavla Jendelova3, and Milan Hajek1,2
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic, 2Center for Cell Therapy and Tissue Repair, Prague, Czech Republic, 3Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Republic

We describe the use of human-induced pluripotent cell-derived neural progenitors for transplantation into the rat brain after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. The aim of our study was to determine metabolic changes by 1H MR spectroscopy in the striatal tissue after focal brain ischemia during four months. Four months after cell transplantation, spectroscopy revealed that the concentrations of brain metabolites in grafted animals returned nearly to the values found in unlesioned animals. Our results suggest that cells integrate into the striatal tissue, partially improve functional outcome and can serve as a safe tool for cell transplantation therapy.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 99

13:30 4178.   Towards the assessment of intracellular viscosity: diffusion spectroscopy at ultra short diffusion time in the rat brain 
Charlotte Marchadour1, Martine Guillermier1, Diane Houitte1, Marion Chaigneau1, Philippe Hantraye1, Vincent Lebon1, and Julien Valette1
1CEA-MIRCen, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

Given the intracellular compartmentation of brain metabolites, diffusion-weighted (DW) spectroscopy is a unique tool to assess properties of the intracellular space. Long diffusion times Td are traditionally used for DW-spectroscopy, yielding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that depend on restriction. In contrast, ADC measured for shorter Td would reflect free diffusion and yield an indirect estimate of intracellular viscosity. Using a modified LASER sequence incorporating oscillating gradients, we could measure ADC of NAA, creatine and choline for Td down to ~1 ms. It is shown that metabolite ADC dramatically increases as Td decreases, approaching values consistent with the free diffusion regime.

14:00 4179.   Decrease of glutamate in the hippocampus of the fmr1 knockout mouse during myelingenesis detected by in vivo 1H MRS 
Da Shi1,2, Su Xu1,2, Steven Roys1,2, Rao Gullapalli1,2, and Mary Cathrine McKenna3
1Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ University of Maryland, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Fragile-X syndrome is the most common form of mental retardation caused by silencing of the Fmr1 gene. There are studies detailing the molecular mechanisms of this disease, however there are only few publications using 1H MRS in patients. We use in vivo 1H MRS to measure metabolites in the hippocampus of the developing fmr1knockout mouse compared to the wild type. We found increase in glutamate in the fmr1 knockout mouse in the hippocampus during myelingenesis which could indicate an increase in synapse excitability. In vivo 1H MRS is a novel technique for the longitudinal study of fmr1 knockout mouse.

14:30 4180.   Early Metabolic Changes in Hippocampus and Cingulate Cortex after Fear Conditioning 
Iris Yuwen Zhou1,2, Abby Y Ding1,2, Qi Li3,4, Shujuan Fan1,2, Kevin Chuen Wing Chan1,2, Peng Cao1,2, April Mei Kwan Chow1,2, Grainne M McAlonan3,4, and Ed Xuekui Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, People's Republic of, 3Department of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong, 4Centre for Reproduction Growth and Development, The University of Hong Kong

In this study, in vivo 1H MRS was employed to investigate the metabolic changes in the hippocampus and cingulate cortex of the mouse brain after conditioned-fear training. Reduced NAA:Cr was found in hippocampus and cingulate cortex, indicating the cellular dysfunction in the acute phase of fear-conditioning. An increase in Cho level indicated proliferation of neuroglia at the expense of neuronal number preceding any morphological changes. The results of this study showed that the early metabolic changes after fear-experiencing could be detected by in vivo 1H MRS prior to any significant structural alterations, which may facilitate prompt intervention in neurobiological rehabilitation.

15:00 4181.   Brain N-acetylaspartate is Increased in Mice with Hypomyelination 
Jun-ichi Takanashi1,2, Shigeyoshi Saito1, Ichio Aoki1, A. James Barkovich3, Hitoshi Terada4, Yukiko Ito5, and Ken Inoue5
1Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba, Japan, 2Pediatrics, Kameda Medical Center, Kamogawa, Chiba, Japan, 3Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California Sanfrancisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Radiology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura, Chiba, Japan,5Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan

To evaluate a hypothesis that hypomyelinating process may affect N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) biochemical pathways, we performed single voxel 1H-MRS for msd mice (model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease) with a 7.0 tesla magnet. 1H-MRS in msd mice revealed increased tNAA (NAA+NAAG) and decreased choline. HPLC analysis revealed increases of both in msd brain. This study suggested hypomyelination could affect NAA and NAAG biochemical pathways leading to increase both of them. Increased tNAA with decreased choline on 1H-MRS may be an important marker for hypomyelinating disorders, which can be distinguished from more common neurological disorders with decreased tNAA.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 99

13:30 4182.   The influence of physical activity on the structure and metabolism of the mouse hippocampus - combining 1H MRS and VBM at 9.4T 
Wolfgang Weber-Fahr1, Sarah Biedermann1, Lei Zheng1,2, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza1, Johannes Fuss3, Alexander Sartorius3, Peter Gass3, and Gabriele Ende1
1Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany, 2Experimental Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany,3Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany

Voluntary wheel running in mice is known to effectively increase hippocampal neurogenesis within weeks. We assessed metabolic and structural profiles of the right hippocampus in two groups of mice which differed by their access to wheel running, using in vivo 1H MRS and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) with a cryogenic mouse-brain coil. The MRS findings show a significant decrease of Glutamate in the right hippocampus of the sport-group. The VBM over the whole brain revealed a significant cluster of increased grey matter in the right hippocampus and a negative correlation between Glutamate and volume in the same region.

14:00 4183.   Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Reproducibility of Rhesus Macaque Brain Metabolites: Proton MR Spectroscopy at 3 T 
William E. Wu1, Ivan Kirov1, Ke Zhang1, James S. Babb1, Chan-Gyu Joo2, Eva-Maria Ratai2, R. Gilberto Gonzalez2, and Oded Gonen1
1Radiology, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States

Non-human primates are often used as preclinical model systems to study the effects of (mostly diffuse) neurological disorders and their experimental treatment. Due to cost considerations, such studies frequently utilize non-invasive, non-destructive imaging modalities, MRI and proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). These costs may explain why the inter- and intra-animal reproducibility of 1H-MRS-observed brain metabolites, N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol, are not reported. To this end, we performed test-retest three-dimensional 1H-MRS scans in five healthy rhesus macaque brains at 3 T. We demonstrate the advantage of the approach and its utility for cross-sectional and longitudinal preclinical studies of diffuse neurological diseases.

14:30 4184.   Choline’s relationship to pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein and glial activation 
Eva-Maria Ratai1,2, Robert Fell1, Margaret Lentz1,2, Julian He1,2, Tricia Burdo3, Lakshmanan Annamalai4, Elkan Halpern2,5, Eliezer Masliah6, Susan Westmoreland2,4, Kenneth Williams3, and R. Gilberto González1,2
1Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, United States, 4Division of Comparative Pathology, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA, United States, 5Institute for Technology Assessment, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 6Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, United States

The objective of this study was to understand the changes in choline concentrations measured by MR spectroscopy in an accelerated SIV-infected macaque model of neuroAIDS. During the first two weeks of SIV infection, choline significantly increases, then returns to baseline values or below. With further disease progression, choline elevations are again observed at 8 weeks post infection. Acute/early increases in choline levels at 2 weeks correlated with the initial inflammatory response measured by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 while increases in choline levels during later stages of SIV-infection correlated with astroglial activation measured by glial fibrillary acidic protein.

15:00 4185.   The 1.28 ppm signal – A Translational Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Marker for Neurogenesis? 
Conny Frauke Waschkies1,2, Basil Künnecke1, Aline Seuwen2, Markus von Kienlin1, and Markus Rudin2
1Magnetic Resonance Imaging & Spectroscopy, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland, 2Animal Imaging Centre, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Recently, an MRS signal at 1.28 ppm has been proposed as a biomarker for neuronal progenitor cells (Manganas et al., Science 2007). In two animal models with high neurogenesis, namely exercise in the running wheel and early postnatal brain development, we have not been able to reliably detect this 1.28ppm signal using LCmodel analysis for quantification.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Animal Models of Brain Disease Other Than Stroke

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 100

14:00 4186.   Efficacy of Ginkgo biloba in Aluminium induced neurotoxicity on Rat brain: Magnetization transfer and Diffusion weighted MRI study 
Shatakshi Srivastava1, Sandeep Tripathi2, Abbas Ali Mahdi2, and Raja Roy1
1Centre of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Department of Biochemistry, Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Aluminium is known to cause neurotoxicity in terms of cognitive decline and the patients undergoing regular dialysis are at a high exposure risk to this metal ion. It results in neurofibrilar degeneration significantly similar to the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Therefore, in the present study, efficacy of herbal extracts obtained from Ginkgo biloba (GB), a known neuro-protective agent have been investigated on aluminum induced neurodegenerative changes in rat’s brain using in vivo MT-MRI and DWI. The study demonstrates effective therapeutic role of GB against Aluminium induced neurotoxicity.

14:30 4187.   Correlating longitudinal and quantitative MRI metrics elucidates white matter changes in the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination 
Jonathan Dale Thiessen1, Yanbo Zhang2, Handi Zhang2, Lingyan Wang2, Richard Buist3, Jiming Kong4, Xin-Min Li2, and Melanie Martin5,6
1Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 2Psychiatry, University of Manitoba, 3Radiology, University of Manitoba, 4Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, 5Physics and Astronomy/Radiology, University of Manitoba, 6Physics, University of Winnipeg

To understand the interplay different MRI methods have as white matter changes longitudinally in the cuprizone mouse model, in vivo T2-weighted and magnetization transfer images (MTI) were acquired weekly in control and cuprizone-fed mice. As well, diffusion tensor imaging, quantitative MTI, T1/T2 relaxometry, T2-weighted imaging, and histopathology were used to analyze ex vivo tissue after 6 weeks of cuprizone delivery. Correlation between both longitudinal and quantitative datasets was measured with a focus on the corpus callosum. Ultimately, correlation of both longitudinal and quantitative MRI metrics may help elucidate white matter changes beyond the application of individual MRI methods.

15:00 4188.   Correlation between diffusion tensor imaging indices and sociability, a behavioral endophenotype relevant to autism: A longitudinal study in the BALB/cJ mouse strain 
Manoj Kumar1, Stephen Pickup1, Ranjit Ittyerah1, Sungheon Kim2, Andrew H Fairless3, Ted Abel4, Edward S Brodkin3, and Harish Poptani1
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Radiology, New York University, United States, 3Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 4Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Behavioral tests and DTI studies were longitudinally performed on postnatal days [28 (prepubescence), 48 (post pubescence) and 68 (early adulthood)] in BALB/cJ mice. We observed significantly reduced FA in left caudate putamen and corpus callosum at day 30 as compared to 70 days. Sociability scores were lower at 30 days as compared to 50 and 70 days and showed significant correlation with DTI indices. The correlation of DTI with abnormal behavior suggests that DTI may be used as a surrogate marker in assessing behavioral abnormalities in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.

15:30 4189.   A DTI investigation of neuroanatomical differences in a mouse model of early life neglect 
Daniel Coman1,2, Alvaro Duque3, Elizabeth D George4, Xenophon Papademetris2,5, Fahmeed Hyder2,5, and Arthur A Simen4
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 2Quantitative Neuroscience with Magnetic Resonance (QNMR), Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 3Department of Neurobiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Early life neglect and abuse is a common problem in the USA with little discrimination for race, gender or socio-economical status. Recently, a novel mouse model of early life neglect based on maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW) was developed. In the present work we used DTI to examine the consequences of MSEW with regard to neuroanatomical structure. MSEW animals showed decreased FA in several white matter fiber tracks including the cingulum, corpus callosum, anterior commissure and septofimbria, but also in gray matter regions including the cingulate gyrus, basolateral amygdala, thalamus, and middle and deeper cortical layers.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 100

13:30 4190.   Prediction of Behavioral Deficits using Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Experimental Hydrocephalus 
Mark E Wagshul1,2, Shams Rashid3, Maria Gulinello4, and James P McAllister5
1Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 4Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States, 5Neurosurgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

A better understanding of hydrocephalus pathophysiology is needed to improve surgical outcome. We investigated white matter pathology in a rat model of hydrocephalus using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its relationship to motor and cognitive function. Hydrocephalus was induced using basal cistern kaolin injection. Kaolin animals had moderate to severe motor and exploration deficits, and significant increase in corpus callosum and external capsule radial and mean diffusivity. There was significant correlation between FA and balance beam performance. Changes in FA appear to correlate with motor deficits in this model, providing strong support for using DTI in predicting hydrocephalus outcome.

14:00 4191.   Cortical metabolic alterations induced by genetic redox deregulation in GCLM KO mice and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment: Relevance for schizophrenia 
Joao M. N. Duarte1,2, Anita Kulak3, Kim Q Do3, and Rolf Gruetter1,4
1Laboratory for functional and metabolic imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 3Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Univ. Hosp. Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne, Switzerland

Schizophrenia is associated with genes of glutathione (GSH) metabolism. GSH is decreased in cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. We now evaluated the role of genetic-induced redox deregulation in brain metabolism and investigated whether partially restoring the redox balance with the GSH precursor and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could normalize impaired metabolism.

14:30 4192.   Cerebral blood volume and metabolite levels in mouse models for Alzheimer (APP/PS1) and atherosclerosis (ApoE4 and ApoE knockout): genotype differences and early effects of DHA and cholesterol containing diets 
Valerio Zerbi1,2, Diane Jansen1, Andor Veltien2, Carola IF Janssen1, Bastian Zinnhardt1, Daan van Rooij1, Yang Liu3, Alan J Wright2, P Jos Dederen1, Laus M Broersen4, Amanda J Kiliaan1, and Arend Heerschap2
1Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands,3Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Germany, 4Danone Research, Wageningen, Netherlands

Research into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) suggests that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cholesterol may affect the course of AD, possibly by influencing cerebral circulation and brain metabolism. Here we investigated cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hippocampal metabolite levels with MR imaging and spectroscopy in three different mouse models for genetic AD (APP/PS1) and atherosclerosis (ApoE4 and ApoE-ko) fed with cholesterol-enriched and DHA-enriched diets. Results showed decreased CBV, decreased NAA and increased myo-inositol in APP/PS1, and partly in ApoE4 and ApoE knockout mice. The DHA diet increased NAA levels in the AD mouse model in agreement with neurocognitive improvement.

15:00 4193.   Preliminary characterization of Apolipoprotein E targeted replacement mice using MRI techniques 
Renuka Sriram1, James Goodman1, Zhiyong Xie1, and Kelly Bales1
1Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, United States

Synopsis The lower case Greek epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) combined with an earlier age of disease onset (1). Mechanistically, very little is known about how the lower case Greek epsilon4 allele confers disease susceptibility. Mouse models expressing one of the human apoE alleles (lower case Greek epsilon2, lower case Greek epsilon3 or lower case Greek epsilon4) in the place of endogenous mouse apoE protein by targeted replacement (TR) serve as ideal in vivo models to investigate how apoE4 may influence normal brain function. We utilized structural, functional and metabolic MRI techniques, to enable a better understanding of the differences and similarities amongst mice that are homozygous for human apoE2, E3, and E4.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 100

13:30 4194.   Validation of Neurite Remodeling after TBI Using MRI and Histopathology 
Shiyang Wang1,2, Michael Chopp1,2, Guangliang Ding1, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh1, Siamak Pourabdollah Nejad D.1, Changsheng Qu3, Zhenggang Zhang1, Asim Mahmood3, Lian Li1, Li Zhang1, and Quan Jiang1,2
1Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 3Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States

We investigated neurite remodeling after cell-based treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) using MRI neurite density imaging and gold standard immuno-histochemistry staining. We demonstrate that MRI measured neurite densities are highly correlated with immuno-histochemistry measurements and MRI neurite densities provide a marker for brain structure remodeling after TBI.

14:00 4195.   Transplantation of Marrow Stromal Cells Restores Cerebral Blood Flow and Reduces Cerebral Atrophy in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury: in vivo MRI Study 
Lian Li1, Quan Jiang1, Chang Sheng Qu2, Guang Liang Ding1, Qing Jiang Li1, Shi Yang Wang3, Ji Hyun Lee3, Mei Lu4, Asim Mahmood2, and Michael Chopp1,3
1Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 4Biostatistics and Research Epidemiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States

Cell therapy promotes brain remodeling and improves functional recovery after various central nervous system disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested the hypothesis that treatment of TBI with intravenous administration of human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) provides therapeutic benefit in modifying hemodynamic and structural abnormalities, which are detectable by in vivo MRI. Our data demonstrate that hMSCs administration following TBI diminishes hemodynamic abnormalities by early restoration and preservation of CBF in the brain regions adjacent to and remote from the impact site, and reduces generalized cerebral atrophy, all of which may contribute to the observed improvement of functional outcome.

14:30 4196.   Hemodynamic response from Ketamine and effect of mGluR2/3 agonist (LY404039) pretreatment. 
Anders Andersson1, Mattias Lindberg1, Fu-Hua Wang1, and Tomas Klason1
1AstraZeneca R&D, Sodertalje, Sweden

Ketamine, given at subanesthetic doses, have been used in the literature to produce schizophrenic-like symptoms both in animals and man. In this study, phMRI was used to investigate the effects of a selective mGlur2/3 agonist (LY404039) on the Ketamine activation pattern. A SpinEcho EPI single shot sequence with USPIO contrast agent (Resovist™) at 9.4T was used. The response was calculated as area-under-the-curve in defined brain regions, giving a significantly attenuated response from the LY404039 pretreated group compared with the saline control group. This shows a great potential of phMRI in drug research using the Ketamine induced schizophrenia model.

Nicolas Coquery1,2, Nicolas Pannetier1,2, Régine Farion1,2, Didier Clarencon3, Jian-Sheng Sun4, Marie Dutreix4, Emmanuel Luc Barbier1,2, and Chantal Rémy1,2
1Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience, Grenoble, France, 2Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 3Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, La Tronche, France, 4Institut Curie Hospital, Department of Translational Research, Orsay, France

Tumor resistance to radiotherapy is often associated with enhanced DNA repair activity. Short and stabilized DNA molecules (Dbait) have been recently proposed as efficient strategy to inhibit DNA repair in tumor. Dbait is thus a serious candidate to sensitize tumor to RT. Here, we use Dbait coupled with cholesterol (CoDbait) to sensitize rat orthotropic glioma to a fractionated radiotherapy. We characterize the effect of several treatment combinations on animal survival. We further analyze the growth and the microvascular properties of the implanted tumor using in vivo multiparametric MRI.