Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Clinical Application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging I

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 101

14:00 4198.   Evaluation of Cerebrocerebellar Pathway Integrity in Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumor Patients with Cerebellar Mutism Syndrome 
Nicole Law1,2, Eric Bouffet3, Douglas Strother4, Suzanne Laughlin5, Normand Laperriere6, Marie-Eve Briere4, Dina McConnell7, Juliette Hukin8, Christopher Fryer8, Conrad Rockel1, Fang Liu1, and Donald Mabbott1,9
1Department of Psychology, Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Psychology, Collaborative Program in Neuroscience, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3Department of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4Southern Alberta Cancer Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 6Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 7Department of Psychology, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 8Department of Oncology, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 9Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Cerebellar Mutism Syndrome (CMS) can be observed following resection of posterior fossa (PF) tumors and presents with abnormalities in speech/language production, cognition, and emotion. We examined differences in the integrity of input/output pathways connecting the cerebellum with cerebral regions in patients with CMS relative to patients without CMS and healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. The cerebrocerebellar pathway connecting the right cerebellar hemisphere with left frontal regions showed greater damage in patients with CMS versus the other groups. Our findings suggest that the pathway connecting the cerebellum with areas of the brain important for language is disrupted in CMS.

Cristina Granziera1,2, Alessandro Daducci3, Xavier Gigandet3, Leila Cammoun3, Meskaldji Eddine Djalel3, Patrik Michel1, Philippe Maeder4, Alma Gregory Sorensen5, Jean-Philippe Thiran3, Reto Meuli4, and Gunnar Krueger6
1Neurology, CHUV, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 2BMI, EPFL, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 3STI / IEL / LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 4Radiology, CHUV, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 5Radiology, Martinos' Center-MGH, Boston, MA, United States, 6Healthcare Sector IM&WS S, Siemens Schweiz AG, Renens, VD, Switzerland

There is growing interest in the role of the contra-lateral hemisphere in stroke recovery. To determine the importance of the contra-lateral structural changes in post-stroke motor recovery, we studied with Diffusion Spectrum Imaging MRI a cohort of patients with motor deficits after stroke affecting the motor cortex and/or sub-cortical motor white matter. Changes in Generalized Fractional Anisotropy in patients significantly differed from GFA changes in controls, correlated with patients’ clinical scores, stroke size and demographics data and could be modeled through these variables in the majority of investigated motor connections. These findings may become particular interesting for outcome prediction and post-stroke rehabilitation.

15:00 4200.   Mean Kurtosis: a new potential biomarker for brain tumor grading? 
Sofie Van Cauter1, Jelle Veraart2, Jan Sijbers2, Uwe Himmelreich3, Ronald Peeters1, Stefaan Van Gool4, Wim Van Hecke1,2, and Stefan Sunaert1
1Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, 3Biomedical NMR Unit/Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Catholic University Leuven, 4Pediatric neuro-oncology, University Hospitals of Leuven

Current routinely used MR techniques are often insufficient in accurate grading of glioma. Hence, in most cases a biopsy is warranted in order to obtain a definitive diagnosis. In this study, we evaluate the potential role of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the grading of gliomas. 16 patients with cerebral glioma prior to any treatment underwent DKI imaging on a 3T MR scanner. Significant difference in mean kurtosis (MK) between high and low grade glioma was demonstrated, thereby showing a better separation in comparison to parameters from conventional diffusion imaging. MK is a potential new biomarker in grading of glioma.

15:30 4201.   Clinical Assessment of Standard and GRAPPA Parallel Diffusion Imaging: Effects of Spatial Resolution and Reduction Factor. 
Jalal Badi Andre1, Greg Zaharchuk1, Nancy J Fischbein1, Michael Augustin2, Stefan Skare1, Jarrett Rosenberg1, Maarten Lansberg3, Stephanie Kemp3, Christine Wijman3, Gregory W Albers3, and Roland Bammer1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Radiology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria, 3Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Earlier studies have indicated that parallel imaging might improve diagnostic quality of DWI, but the individual contributions of matrix and acceleration factor have not been investigated thus far. This prospective NIH funded study independently examines these effects in 192 patient scans, in which 3 blinded readers determined that accelerated scans (R=3) demonstrated improved image quality and less susceptibility artifact compared with unaccelerated standard DWI, without adverse effects on lesion conspicuity, subjective noise assessment, or motion artifact. The readers preferred R=3 accelerated 192x192 matrix scans to provide the most optimal imaging conditions for clinical DWI at 1.5T.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 101

13:30 4202.   Distribution of the functional atrophy in the striatum territory of Huntington's patients 
Linda Marrakchi-Kacem1,2, Christine Delmaire3, Alan Tucholka4,5, Pauline Roca1,2, Pamela Guevara1,2, Sophie Lecomte1,2, Fabrice Poupon1,2, Jerome Yelnik6, Alexandra Durr6, Jean-François Mangin1,2, Stephane Lehericy2,3, and Cyril Poupon1,2
1NeuroSpin, CEA, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France, 2IFR49, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France, 3CENIR, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, 4Centre de Recherche Hôpital Ste-Justine, Montreal, Canada, 5Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, 6CRICM, Inserm/UPMC, Paris, France

In this study, we focused on the study of distribution of the atrophy of each functional (associative, limbic and sensorimotor) territory of striatal nuclei in the case of the Huntington's disease. We proposed a novel method for measuring the proportion of each functional territory in the caudate and putamen nuclei. This method relies on the use of surface probabilistic connectivity maps of striato-cortical connectivity. The advantage of this new approach compared to the use of existing parcellations of the striatal nuclei is that it takes into account the overlap existing between the functional territories inside the striatum. The proportion of each functional territory was computed for healthy subjects and Huntington's patients to check whether the Huntington's disease can be responsable of the change of the distribution of the functional territories inside the striatum. The obtained results show that the distribution of the functional territory changes for patients suffering from the Huntington's disease. This could constitute a novel Biomarker of the Huntington's disease.

14:00 4203.   Trends and differences in DTI metrics across ages and spinal cord levels in normal children 
Izlem Izbudak1, Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul2, Carol B. Thompson3, Wesley Gilson4, Aylin Tekes5, Majda M. Thurnher6, and Thierry A.G.M. Huisman5
1John Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2John Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 3John Hopkins Bloomberg school of Public health, 4Imaging and Visualization, Siemens Corporate Research, Inc., 5John Hopkins Medical Institution, 6Radiology, Medical University of Vienna

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the spinal cord is an advanced MR imaging technique for analyzing the white matter changes in a microstructural level. A normative dataset of DTI parameters in children is necessary as a standard of reference to compare with those with cord pathologies. Our study formed a relatively large number (56 children) of normative data from cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord of neonates, infants, young children and adolescents. We found an age related change in FA and ADC values reflecting the maturation and development of the cord without differences in relationship with gender. We also showed differences in ADC means between upper and lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord across the age groups. We investigated the relation between differences in ADC and FA means and the orthograde maturation of the spinal cord.

14:30 4204.   ADC with higher b-value correlate better with viable cell count quantified from the cavity of the brain abscess 
Vaishali Tomar1, Abhishek Yadav1, Vikas Bharadwaj2, Bal Kishan Ojha2, Kashi Nath Prasad3, Ram Kishan Singh Rathore4, and Rakesh Kumar Gupta1
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Neurosurgery, Chatrapati Sahu ji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 3Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 4Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

DWMRI was performed on 15 patients with brain abscess. DW imaging was performed with b-values 1000 s/mm2, 2000 s/mm2, and 3000 s/mm2. The mean ADC values were quantified from ADC maps of different b-values generated from DWI data. We have calculated total viable cells per unit area in the abscess cavity. The mean ADC values were quantified from abscess cavity at different b-values. We found that as the b-value increases, mean ADC value decreases. A significant negative correlation was observed between cell counts and ADC values at different b-values. At b=3000 s/mm2 we got a near to perfect negative correlation between mean ADC and viable cell counts. The high b value picks more viable cells in the abscess cavity suggests that viability of cells in the abscess cavity represents the activity of diseases. In the BA b=3000 s/mm2 may predict activity of the diseases in response to therapy.

15:00 4205.   Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging and Perfusion of the Thalamus and White Matter during the First Month of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 
Elan J. Grossman1,2, Jens H. Jensen1,2, Matilde Inglese1,2, Ali Tabesh1, Kelly A. McGorty3, Joseph Reaume1, Qun Chen1,2, and Robert I. Grossman1
1Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States, 2Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States, 3Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York

Conventional imaging cannot detect damage that accounts for disabling cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The purpose of this study is to examine differences in deep gray and white matter regions of patients from controls within first month of injury by employing DKI, which measures non-Gaussian diffusion, and ASL, which measures perfusion, to identify potential biomarkers. Structural differences were found in thalamus, internal capsule, and splenium of corpus callosum, and perfusion differences in thalamus. Thalamic perfusion was correlated to frontal white matter and centrum semiovale. Results suggest perfusion changes are related to structural damage and that DKI and ASL might be prognostic markers of persistent post-concussive syndrome.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 101

13:30 4206.   Quantitative MRI Studies for Restless Legs Syndrome: Cerebral Iron, Mophology and DTI 
Byeong-Yeul Lee1,2, Jeffrey Vesek1, James R Connor3, and Qing X Yang1,3
1Center for NMR Research, Radiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Bioengineering, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 3Neurosurgery, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that has 5-10% prevalence in Western countries. A number of studies have suggested that brain iron deficiency is strongly coupled with RLS pathology. In this study we applied quantitative multimodal imaging techniques to investigate the mechanism of how cerebral iron deficiency affects brain structures and morphology in RLS. Multimodal data analysis provided converging evidence of hypomyelination resulting from iron deficiency in the sensorimotor pathway in RLS patients compared to controls: lower R2(1/T2) relaxation rates, increased radial diffusivity, decreasd fractional anisotropy values, and reduced brain volume. Therefore, the fusion of multi-modal imaging data provides a realistic approach to better understanding on the mechanism underlying RLS.

14:00 4207.   Two-Tensor Residual Bootstrapping on Classified Tensor Morphologies 
Nagulan Ratnarajah1, Andy Simmons Simmons2, and Ali Hojjatoleslami1
1Neurosciences and Medical Image Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom, 2Neuroimaging Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London., United Kingdom

A fast and clinically feasible two-tensor residual-bootstrapping algorithm is applied to classified tensor-morphologies for estimating uncertainty in fibre-orientation and probabilistic-tractography. The classification of tensor-morphologies allows information about the ‘true’ tensor morphology to be considered when selecting the most appropriate bootstrap procedure to use. We use a constrained two-tensor model for the planar voxels, so MRI acquisition times can be greatly reduced when compared to other multi-tensor approaches which will enable widespread clinical use. Based on our experimental evaluations, unlike previous bootstrap methods with other multi-fibre approaches our algorithm shows improved computational efficiency and accurately reconstructs fibre paths and recovers complex fibre configurations.

14:30 4208.   Computational White Matter Atlas for Young Rhesus Macaques 
Nagesh Adluru1, Hui Zhang2, Andrew S. Fox1, Elizabeth Zakszewski1, Chad Ennis1, Anne Bartosic1, Andrew L Alexander1, Steve Shelton1, and Ned Kalin1
1University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2University College London, London, United Kingdom

Brain imaging in non-human primates is becoming increasingly common for many experimental applications. Currently there is no publicly available DTI template for young Rhesus Macaques. It has been shown in human studies that using tensor-based registration and a population template can improve detection of WM differences. Representative DTI templates are also important for generating detailed white matter atlases. This work develops a high-quality DTI template using high-dimensional tensor-based image registration of a large sample of 271 young Rhesus Macaques. Several WM pathways were traced by performing tractography on the template. The atlas and the pathways will be made publicly available.

15:00 4209.   Predicting Effectiveness of Cortical Stimulation Therapy for Tinnitus using DTI 
Wolfgang Gaggl1,2, Brian Harris Kopell3, Christopher R Butson3,4, Rey R Ramirez4, Sylvain Baillet2,4, Klaus Driesslein4, Gang Chen2, and Shi-Jiang Li2
1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 4Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

Tinnitus affects over 40 millions of Americans with approximately 2 millions having problems functioning in day-to-day life. Epidural cortical stimulation can reduce the symptoms but outcomes vary greatly across patients and depend on finding biomarkers that predict its effectiveness and optimizing the implant location. We studied cortical connections between auditory and limbic networks using DTI tractography and characterized diffusion metrics at the target site with respect to behavioral stimulation effectiveness. Our results indicate that connections to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex play a role in modulating treatment effectiveness and also the mean diffusivity at the electrode site correlated significantly with effectiveness.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 101

13:30 4210.   Understanding Evolution of Neurocysticercosis through Diffusion Tensor imaging 
Rakesh Kumar Gupta1, Bharti Anand1, Rishi Awasthi1, Ram KS Rathore2, Richa Trivedi3, Vimal Kumar Paliwal4, and Kashi Nath Prasad5
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, 3Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, India, 4Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 5Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 25 neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients to look for any changes in DTI measures during the evolutionary course of NCC lesions from vesicular to calcified stage in the brain. A total 90 cyst were studied in 25 cases. DTI measures from NCC were calculated in different stages of evolution in all cases. Successive decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and spherical anisotropy (CS) values and increase in fractional anisotropy (FA), linear anisotropy (CL) and planer anisotropy (CP) values was observed, moving from vesicular to nodular calcified stage. We conclude that DTI measures vary in different stages of evolution of NCC and may be of some value in its characterization

14:00 4211.   Serial diffusion tensor imaging suggests progressive pathophysiology for weeks following traumatic brain injury, and possible white matter repair months after injury 
Virginia Newcombe1, Guy Williams2, Joanne Outtrim1, Doris Chatfield1, M G Abate1, T Geeraerts1, A Manktelow1, Peter Hutchinson3, Jonathon Coles1, and David Menon1
1Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 2Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Univerisity of Cambridge, 3Academic Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is clear that much of the sequelae are not just a direct consequence of the acute event represent a dynamic process with changes occurring many years after the precipitating injury. In this study, a consistent pattern was found of FA being low immediately post injury. It appears to worsen for several weeks, with a nadir at approximately six months. When patients are followed up past the six month time point there appears to be an increase in FA, which may indicate recovery.

14:30 4212.   Altered White Matter Microstructure in Elderly Major Depressive Disorder Patients: A DTI Study 
Daniel Han-en Chang1,2, L. Tugan Muftuler1,2, Huali Wang3, Orhan Nalcioglu1,2, and Min-Ying Lydia Su1,2
1Tu & Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 3Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing 10083, China, People's Republic of
Studies have suggested that white matter lesions (WML), which represent microvascular ischemic changes often indicative of tissue dysfunction, may have a significant effect on diffusivity measurements of the white matter of the brain. Here we compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values between one group of AD patients possessing WML and another group of AD patients possessing no WML with tract-based spatial statistics. Significant differences in FA were found in several brain regions corresponding to the anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, suggesting that the presence of WML has a significant effect on DTI measurements.

15:00 4213.   Corpus Callosum Wallerian Degeneration in Unilateral Brain Tumors: Evaluation with Diffusion Tensor Imaging 
Sona Saksena1, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh2, Jayant Narang1, Lonni Schultz3, Quan Jiang2, and Rajan Jain1
1Neuroradiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States

DTI data were acquired from twenty-seven patients with treatment naïve unilateral grade IV gliomas and eleven patients with solitary brain metastasis with no midline corpus callosum (CC) infiltration with an aim to retrospectively evaluate whether DTI can demonstrate water diffusivity changes in the CC not visible on morphologic imaging. We observed significantly decreased FA values in all regions of CC in patients with GBM and metastases compared to controls. In conclusion, DTI is more sensitive than morphologic imaging in the evaluation of changes within CC in brain tumors not infiltrating the CC. However, these changes of DTI metrics in CC are due to wallerian degeneration rather than tumor infiltration as proven by our results showing similar changes in high grade gliomas as well as non-infiltrating metastases.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Clinical Application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging II

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 102

14:00 4214.   Developmental differences in deep gray matter nuclei tissue integrity and neuropsychological performance in healthy children and patients treated with brain radiation 
Anna Nidecker1, Jarunee Intrapiromkul1, Firouzeh Tannazi1, Todd McNutt2, Siamak Ardekani3, Rebecca Martin4, Moody D. Wharam2, Ernest Mark Mahone4,5, and Alena Horska1
1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Institute for Computational Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

Whole brain radiation therapy has improved survival among children with brain malignancies but can generate an array of adverse effects. Diffusion tensor imaging of 9 pediatric patients receiving whole brain radiation and 9 age-matched controls over a period of 27 months demonstrated significantly higher ADC values in deep gray matter among patients at all time points, although they scored better on neuropsychological testing. The difference in diffusivity was apparent before the start of radiation, suggesting that RT is not completely responsible for the abnormalities observed, and that these changes are observed on DTI before they may become clinically apparent.

14:30 4215.   Secondary involvement of optic radiation in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy 
Giovanni Rizzo1, David Neil Manners1, Caterina Tonon1, Claudia Testa1, Emil Malucelli1, Maria Lucia Valentino2, Chiara La Morgia2, Piero Barboni2, Bruno Barbiroli1, Valerio Carelli2, and Raffaele Lodi1
1Department of Internal Medicine, Aging and Nephrology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 2Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Objectives. To use DWI to investigate the optic radiation in LHON patients and healthy carriers. Methods. MD maps from 22 LHON patients, 11 healthy carriers and 22 healthy controls were generated. ROIs at level of optic radiations were delineated. Results. OR MD values of patients were higher than in healthy carriers and healthy controls. Increased diffusivity was associated with both a history of lack of recovery of visual acuity and disease duration. Conclusions. We confirmed a retrochiasmatic involvement in LHON patients, which seems to be a secondary phenomenon, reflecting a downstream rather than a primary effect of the mitochondrial dysfunction.

15:00 4216.   Cerebral diffusion tensor imaging in prion diseases: voxelwise analysis and comparison with VBM 
Harpreet Hyare1,2, Enrico De Vita3,4, Chris Carswell1,2, Andrew Thompson1,2, Ana Lukic1,2, Tarek Yousry3,4, Peter Rudge1,2, Simon Mead1,2, John Collinge1,2, and John Thornton3,4
1MRC Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2National Prion Clinic, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, UCLH NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom, 3Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom, 4Academic Neuroradiological Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom

We present the application of voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the largest cohort of patients with a range of human prion diseases and compared our findings with voxel-based morphometry. DTI measures of tisssue integrity revealed diffuse white matter (WM) alterations, indepependent of atrophy. The distribution of these changes varied between the different forms of prion disease. Our findings suggest that loss of WM integrity occurs early in prion disease and the distribution of frontal involvement supports a role of compromised cortical circuitry in cognitive impairment of these patients.

15:30 4217.   Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease 
Joseph A Helpern1, Maria F Falangola1, Cathy Hu2, Ali Tabesh3, Jane Kwon3, James S Babb3, and Jens H Jensen3
1Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States, 2The Nathan S. Kline Institute, 3Radiology, New York University School of Medicine

Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging can simultaneously measure both Gaussian and non-Gaussian diffusion. The degree of diffusional non-Gaussianity can be regarded as a natural indicator of tissue microstructural complexity. Although the biophysical foundation for regional brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease remains unknown, it is reasonable to suppose that changes in brain tissue microstructure may precede the onset of atrophy. This study demonstrates that diffusional kurtosis can contribute additional microstructural information beyond that provided by conventional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), thereby helping to better characterize early brain tissue changes.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 102

13:30 4218.   Thalamic Microstructural Changes in Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease: A DT-MRI Study Before and After Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery. 
Malek I Makki1, Rabia Liamlahi2, Bea Latal3, Walter Knirsch2, Hintendu Dave4, Achim Schmitz5, Vera Bernet6, Christian Kellenberger1, and Ianina Scheer1
1Diagnostic Imaging, University Children Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Cardiology, University Children Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Child Development Center, University Children Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Congenital Cardiovascular Surgery, University Children Hospital, Zurich, 5Anesthesia, University Children Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 6Pediatric Intensive Care, University Children Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland

Using DT-MRI we investigated the micro-structural changes of the thalamus in neonates with congenital heart disease before and after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Our results demonstrated that: i) in the pre-surgery group there was a statistically significant side effect with parallel diffusion (left < right, p = 0.022) and perpendicular diffusion (left > right, p < 0.001); ii) in the post-surgery group there was also a side effect with parallel diffusion (left < right, p = 0.030) and fractional anisotropy (left < right, p = 0.018) and iii) there was no statistically significant side-to-side changes before and after surgery.

14:00 4219.   Do the language deficit in autism and specific language impairment (SLI) have a common neuro-anatomical substrate? 
Judith S Verhoeven1, Elena Prodi2,3, Sabine Deprez3, Nathalie Rommel4, Alexander Leemans5, Wim Van Hecke3, Ronald Peeters3, Paul De Cock1, Lieven Lagae1, and Stefan Sunaert3
1Pediatrics, University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Radiology, Istituto Neurologico Besta, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, 3Radiology, University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 4Neurosciences, Exp ORL, University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 5Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Clinical criteria make a clear distinction between primary speech and language disorders, as SLI, and those occurring as a part of a more global developmental problem, as ASD. However, in practice, these diagnostic boundaries are not always that clear, leading to the hypothesis that both might represent a spectrum of the same disorder. In this study, we examined the neuro-structural basis of language impairment in SLI and ASD using DTI of the SLF. We found a significant reduction of mean SLF-FA and increase of mean SLF-MD in SLI children compared to controls, which was not the case in the ASD children. We conclude that the structural differences in the SLF may indicate a different etiological substrate.

14:30 4220.   Longitudinal assessment of chemotherapy-induced structural changes in cerebral white matter and its correlation with impaired cognitive functioning in breast cancer patients 
Sabine Deprez1, Frederic Amant2, Judith Verhoeven1, Ann Smeets2, Marie-Rose Christiaens2, Alexander Leemans3, Ron Peeters1, Wim Van hecke1, Joris Vandenberghe4, Mathieu Vandenbulcke4, and Stefan Sunaert1
1Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, K.U. Leuven,3Image Sciences Institute, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 4Department of psychiatry, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, K.U. Leuven

Cognitive impairment is a potential adverse effect of systemic cancer treatment. In this longitudinal DTI study we assessed breast-cancer patients (n=34) before and after chemotherapy and evaluated possible changes in WM FA in combination with cognitive assessment. Voxel-based paired T-test revealed significantly decreased FA after treatment in frontal, parietal and occipital WM tracts, while this effect was not present in control groups assessed at matched intervals (non-chemotherapy-treated patients (n=16) and healthy-controls (n=19)). Significant correlations between differences in FA and differences in attention and verbal memory scores were found. These results suggest a link between WM integrity and treatment-induced impaired cognition.

15:00 4221.   DTI and Tractography of Military-related Traumatic Brain Injury and Correlation with Neuropsychological Functions 
Ping-Hong Yeh1, Binquan Wang1, Terrence R. Oakes1, Haiying Tang2, John Graner1, Hai Pan1, Wei Lui3, Lous M. French4, Fletcher Munter3, and Gerard Riedy3,5
1Henry Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, MD, United States, 2Uniformed Services University of The Health, 3National Capital Neuroimaging Consortium, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, 4Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, 5National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD, United States

Detecting white matter changes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and understanding their effects on neuropsychological consequence is important in treating and predicting the outcomes of brain trauma. We evaluated the combined tractography and spatial normalization methods, and examined the association between the DTI measures and neuropsychological test results in military TBI patients.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 102

13:30 4222.   MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy 
Izabela Kowalczyk1,2, Stuart Malcolm Kenne McGregor3, Neil Duggal1,4, and Robert Bartha1,2
1Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Centre for Functional and Metabolite Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada, 3Clinical Neurological Sciences, Univerity Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada, 4Clinical Neurological Sciences, University Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada

Seventeen cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients and ten controls underwent Diffusion Tensor Imaging on a 3.0 T Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio to characterize structural integrity of the motor and sensory cortex. Significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) was detected in the right motor cortex (p=0.02) in CSM group compared to controls with a similar trend in the left motor cortex (p=0.05). Increased FA suggests a response to inflammation or increased glial activity. No differences were detected in mean diffusivity. The right sensory FA correlated with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (r2=0.37, p=0.006). Future work will examine changes in associated white matter tracks.

14:00 4223.   Multisite Investigation of the Effect of Site and Protocol Variation on Fractional Anisotropy 
Karl Gerard Helmer1, Ming-Chung Chou2, Allen Song3, Jessica Turner4, Barjor Gimi5, and Susumu Mori6
1Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan,3Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 4The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 5Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States, 6Radiology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Univerity, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

Multi-site studies have become ubiquitous when large numbers of subjects are needed. Therefore, the characterization of site and protocol variation effects has become increasingly important. We present data from Siemens, Philips, and GE MR scanners and characterize the behavior of the fractional anisotropy as decreasing amounts of data and/or diffusion-weighted directions are used in the tensor calculation. In addition, the effect of a common protocol variation (TE) is investigated. The methods used in this study are also suitable for the site-reliability characterization before a multi-site study is begun or after upgrades during the study.

14:30 4224.   Comparison of White Matter Integrity between Alzheimer’s Disease Patients with and without White Matter Lesions Analyzed by Tract-Based Spatial Statistics 
Daniel Han-en Chang1,2, L. Tugan Muftuler1,2, Huali Wang3, Orhan Nalcioglu1,2, and Min-Ying Lydia Su1,2
1Tu & Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 3Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing 10083, China, People's Republic of
The fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values between subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and age-matched normal controls (NC) were compared with tract-based spatial statistics. Significant decreases in FA of MDD subjects were found in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus of the sagittal stratum and anterior corona radiata. No significant differences were found between MD values. The findings support the hypothesis that MDD may be associated with acute microstructural changes in the white matter of the brain.

15:00 4225.   Diffusivity alterations in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy 
Paula Bezerra Diniz1,2, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon2,3, Tonicarlo Velasco1,2, Americo Ceiki Sakamoto1,2, João Pereira Leite1,2, and Antonio Carlos Santos2,4
1Neuroscience and Behavior, FMRP, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 2CInAPCe (Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cérebro), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 3Physics and Mathematics, FFCLRP, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 4Internal Medicine, FMRP, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

In this study, we combined the use of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (Dave), parallel diffusivity (Dpar), and perpendicular diffusivity (Dper) to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelination in patients with TLE.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 102

Akira Yamamoto1, Mitsunori Kanagaki1, Tomohisa Okada1, Seiko Kasahara1, Emiko Morimoto1, Mami Iima1, Ryo Sakamoto1, Satoshi Nakajima1, Taha Mohamed Mehemed1, and Kaori Togashi1
1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan

We implemented RS-EPI DTI on 10 volunteers at 3T MR scanner with 32-channel head coil, and evaluated the feasibility of clinical application by analyzing trace, FA and color map images. RS-EPI has much higher spatial resolution compared with SS-EPI and can be a potential to be an alternative to SS-EPI DTI for evaluating the whole brain.

14:00 4227.   FA and tract changes in obsessive compulsive disorder 
An Vo1, Patricia Gruner1,2, Toshikazu Ikuta1,2, Katie Mahon1,2, Vivian Kafantaris1,2, Juan Gallego1,2, Katherine E. Burdick1,2, Aziz M. Ulug1,3, and Philip R. Szeszko1,2
1The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, United States, 2The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder and is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors. It has been hypothesized that some forms of OCD are a result of disinhibition in the cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuitry and the lesions in the anterior cingulate cortex might contribute. The purpose of this study is to use DTI derived metrics to explore disease affected circuits in OCD patients.

14:30 4228.   Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Cognition in patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Becky Ilana Haynes1, Nicholas G Dowell1, Jenny Rusted2, Tofts S Paul1, and Kevin A Davies1
1BSMS, Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom, 2University of Sussex, United Kingdom

This study compares patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erytheatosus (NPSLE) non-NPSLE and matched healthy controls on Diffusion Tensor Imaging parameters – Apparent Diffusions coefficient (ADC) and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and correlated these parameters with performance on cognitive tasks. Results indicate significant differences in white matter ADC with the NPSLE group showing significantly higher values than the control group. This did not however correlate with cognitive performance. Instead white matter FA correlated with performance on cognitive tasks in the NPSLE group, and the strength of this correlation increased when age was added as a covariate.

15:00 4229.   Brain function mapping of pre-mild cognitive impairment 
Amir M. Abduljalil1, Doug Scharre2, Nicoleta Stoicea2, Ananth Narayanan3, Michael Knopp1, and Petra Schmalbrock1
1Wright Center of Innovation, Radiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 2Neurology Department, 3Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies Program

Preliminary results were presented from an ongoing functional study of pre-Mild Cognitive Impairment (pre-MCI) patients. Published studies indicate that fMRI can be effective to study MCI patients. This objective of this study is to identify tasks and functional areas of the brain associate with pre-MCI. The tasks studied included attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial problem solving, and memory. Significant brain activations were found as a result of the attention, verbal fluency, Visuospatial problem solving task. The memory paradigm used did not show significant activation compared to the normal group which may be due to the mild state of the disease.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Clinical Application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging III

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 103

14:00 4230.   No evidence of acute or predisposing structural abnormalities in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA): a Tract Based Spatial statistics (TBSS) study 
Alex Foerster1, Martin Griebe1, Christina Rossmanith1, Achim Gass1, Rolf Kern1, Michael G. Hennerici1, and Kristina Szabo1
1Department of Neurology, UniversitaetsMedizin Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany

In a prospective explorative approach using DTI and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) we sought to elucidate a possible underlying more extensive disturbance of the hippocampal network in transient global amnesia (TGA). We performed voxelwise statistics comparing TGA patients with healthy controls matched for age, sex and extent of chronic white matter lesions. TBSS revealed no significant differences in FA and MD values despite persisting mild cognitive deficits in the subacute phase after the end of the episode in all patients. This finding suggests a transient functional perturbation than an impaired structural integrity of hippocampal and/or mesiotemporal memory circuits in TGA.

14:30 4231.   Structural and functional changes in visual pathways and visual cortex associated with visual field improvement after therapy in a case of hemianopia 
Yi-Ching Lynn Ho1,2, Laura Mancini3,4, Amandine Cheze2, Esben Thade Petersen2,5, Kong-Yong Goh6, Yih-Yian Sitoh2, and Xavier Golay3,4
1Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark, 2Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, 3Academic Neuroradiological Unit, Dept of Brain Repair & Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 4Lysholm Dept of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology & Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom, 5Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Singapore, 6Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore

No clear physiological correlates have yet been given for the apparent visual field improvements of patients with post-chiasmal lesions after Visual Restoration Therapy (VRT). Using DTI and fMRI retinotopic mapping, we assessed a patient before and after VRT. Before therapy, there was residual retinopy and surviving optic radiation fascicles around the lesion, despite the patient’s dense hemianopia. After therapy, there were improvements in the lower visual field of the affected side. Together with the fMRI results, we report the novel DTI results here, suggesting the modulation of the optic tract, the optic radiation and the visual cortex with visual therapy.

15:00 4232.   The visual ventral stream in posterior cortical atrophy 
Federica Agosta1, Raffaella Migliaccio1,2, Elisabetta Pagani1, Elisa Canu1, Stefania Sala1, Francesca Caso3, Giuseppe Magnani3, Alessandra Marcone4, Stefano Cappa4,5, Elisa Scola6, Andrea Falini6, Giancarlo Comi3, Paolo Bartolomeo2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 2U975 Centre de Recherche de l'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle Epinière, INSERM, Paris, France, 3Department of Neurology, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 4Department of Clinical Neurosciences, San Raffaele Turro Hospital, Milan, Italy, 5Vita Salute University, Milan, Italy, 6Department of Neuroradiology and CERMAC, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

In this study, diffusion tensor MRI tractography was used to explore the structural integrity of brain networks underlying the cognitive deficits in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). PCA patients showed damage to the ventral visual WM pathways of both hemispheres, with relative sparing of dorsal fronto-parietal connections. In agreement with these findings, the patients showed mainly deficits on recognizing faces and objects. These results may contribute to our understanding of the anatomical changes that occur in PCA and to explaining the variability of the phenotypical expressions of the disease.

15:30 4233.   Relationship between white matter tract damage and executive functions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a DT MRI tractography study 
Lidia Sarro1, Federica Agosta1, Elisa Canu1, Nilo Riva2, Alessandro Prelle3, Massimiliano Copetti4, Mauro Comola2, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy,2Department of Neurology, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 33Ospedale Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milan, Italy, 4Biostatistics Unit, IRCCS-Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

This study investigated the relationship between executive functioning and white matter (WM) tract damage in 16 non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In ALS patients, Trail Making test scores significantly correlated with the microstructural alterations of the corpus callosum, the major cortico-cortical association tracts, and the CST, bilaterally. Performances on fluency were related to decreased fractional anisotropy of the left cingulum and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus in ALS patients. The relationship between brain damage and executive performance in non-demented ALS patients suggests that DT MRI may have the potential to identify ALS patients at risk for cognitive impairment.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 103

13:30 4234.   Voxel-based analysis of high- and standard b-value diffusion weighted imaging, and voxel based morphometry, in Alzheimer disease 
Enrico De Vita1,2, Basil H Ridha3, Nick C Fox3, John S Thornton1,2, and H R Jager1,2
1Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom, 2Academic Neuroradiological Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 3Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been used widely to study Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Whilst most studies, employ standard diffusion-weighting, typically b~1000s/mm2, in several disease groups, higher diffusion-weightings (e.g. b~3000s/mm2), show an increased pathological-sensitivity. The few studies using high-b-values in AD employed region of interest or whole-brain histogram analyses. We performed voxel based analysis (VBA) to investigate the relative pathological sensitivity of high- and standard-b-value DWI over the whole brain and compared the results with voxel-based morphometry in an AD cohort. Conventional and high-b approaches gave comparable results suggesting there may be little advantage in using high-b DWI in AD.

14:00 4235.   Dynamic State of Water Molecular Displacement of the Brain During the Cardiac Cycle in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus 
Hirohito Kan1, Tosiaki Miyati1, Naoki Ohno1,2, Mitsuhito Mase3, Harumasa Kasai4, Masaki Hara4, Yuta Shibamoto4, Kazuo Yamada3, and Makoto Kawano4
1Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 3Department of Neurosurgery and Restorative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

To evaluate the dynamic state of water molecular displacement of the brain during the cardiac cycle in normal pressure hydrocephalus (I-NPH), we determined the change in regional displacement of the water molecules (delta-displacement) using q-space diffusion analysis, because there were many unsolved problems with this syndrome in terms of the diagnostic criteria and selection of appropriate patients for shunt surgery. Delta-displacement analysis makes it noninvasively possible to obtain dynamic state of the water molecular displacement in brain during cardiac cycle and thereby assist in the diagnosis of I-NPH.

14:30 4236.   Anatomical characterization of athetotic and spastic cerebral palsy using atlas-based analysis 
Shoko Yoshida1, Katsumi Hayakawa2, Kenichi Oishi3, Susumu Mori4,5, Toyoko Kanda6, Yuriko Yamori7, Naoko Yoshida8, Haruyo Hirota8, Mika Iwami8, and Sozo Okano9
1Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Malyland, United States, 2Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, 3Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 4Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5F.M.Kirby Resarch Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute,6Neuropediatrics, St.Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, 7St. Jpseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 8St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 9Pediatrics, Kyoto City Hospital

We analyzed diffusion tensor imaging of children with two different types (athetotic and spastic) of cerebral palsy (CP). For quantitative evaluation of the lesion distribution and severity, we applied atlas-based whole brain segmentation (159 structures) based on large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM). Z-score map and principal component analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and volume of the 159 structures could quantitatively delineate striking difference in brain anatomy of these two CP groups. This type of comprehensive and quantitative anatomical analysis could establish a foundation for more accurate MRI-based prognosis analysis.

15:00 4237.   Exploratory data analysis of tractographic measures: study of the cingulum in Autism Spectrum Disorders 
Lucia Billeci1,2, Sara Calderoni2, Laura Biagi2, Filippo Muratori3, Marco Catani4, and Michela Tosetti2
1Interdepartmental Research Center "E.Piaggio", University of Pisa, Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 2MR Laboratory, Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa, Italy, 3Division of Child Neuropsychiatry, Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa, Italy, 4NatBrainLab, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

In this study a tractographic analysis of the cingulm in Autism Spectrum Disorders was performed. Characteristic measures of the cingulum reconstructed from DTI data of ASDs and controls were analyzed by the techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA). The Wilcoxon test revealed a significant increase in the length of streamlines bilaterally in ASD group than in controls. The methods of EDA revealed that the length measures followed a log-normal probability distribution. The use of probability distribution allow to increase the robustness of statistics, to find outliers and to provide a basis for further data collection experiments.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
High Resolution Brain Imaging

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 104

14:00 4238.   How does White Matter Orientation affect Contrast in Gradient-Echo Magnitude and Phase Images? Simulation of a Three Compartment Model 
Andreas Schäfer1, Bibek Dhital1, Christopher J. Wiggins2,3, and Robert Turner1
1Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2CEA NeuroSpin, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 3IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

The fibre bundle orientation has been shown to affect gradient-echo image contrast, both in magnitude and phase images. It has recently been suggested that anisotropic susceptibility effects are responsible for the dependence of frequency on fibre orientation. Our simulations using a microstructural WM model show that both the magnitude and frequency of the MR signal depend on the orientation of the fibres to the magnetic field, even for isotropic susceptibility of myelin. The orientation dependency of each is stronger if an anisotropic susceptibility is assumed. Furthermore, the smaller the distance between the fibres the stronger is the orientation dependency.

14:30 4239.   Reconstruction of Phase images by Compressed Sensing using Low-pass filter 
Sung-Min Gho1,2, Wei Li2, Bing Wu2, Chunlei Liu2,3, and Dong-Hyun Kim1,4
1Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 3Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 4Radiology, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

High resolution 3D image has been studied for various research purposes such as venography using susceptibility weighted imaging, measuring iron concentration using susceptibility mapping, visualization of gray matter and white matter contrast using phase shift, and so on. obtain the high resolution 3D phase image, however, long data acquisition time is needed. In this abstract, therefore, we applied the modified compressed sensing method to accelerate the data acquisition.

15:00 4240.   Cerebral Cortex and Thalamic Sub-Region Contrast at 7T: Magnitude, Phase or Susceptibility? 
Wei Li1, Bing Wu1, Nan-Kuei Chen1, and Chunlei Liu1,2
1Brain Imaging & Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States

High resolution magnitude, phase and susceptibility map of human brain were reconstructed from the gradient echo images acquired at 7T. Both phase and susceptibility maps showed excellent gray and white matter contrast at cerebral cortex, while the detailed anatomical structures are different between phase and susceptibility. The structures revealed by susceptibility were closer to that by the magnitude. Susceptibility also showed much higher contrast at thalamic sub-regions than phase and magnitude. These results may suggest that susceptibility is more accurate than phase for visualization of brain structures, and more sensitive than magnitude in showing contrast at thalamic sub-regions.

15:30 4241.   Isotropic Multispectral qMRI with the Mixed-TSE Pulse Sequence and SENSE: Implications for Synthetic-MRI 
Stephan William Anderson1, Osamu Sakai1, Memi Watanabe1, Jorge A Soto1, and Hernan Jara1
1Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States

Purpose: To develop a pulse sequence for isotropic multispectral (PD, T1, T2) qMRI with clinically compatible scan times. Methods: A variant of the mixed turbo spin echo pulse sequence with parallel imaging (SENSE) and with true isotropic spatial resolution (voxel=1.25mm3) was implemented at 3T. Results: Isotropic volumetric PD, T1, and T2 maps were generated and used for synthetic MRI. Conclusion: Isotropic multispectral qMRI is feasible in clinically compatible times allowing for accurate multiplanar qMRI and synthetic MRI.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 104

13:30 4242.   Whole brain High Resolution T2w 3D TSE at 7Tesla with a tissue specific non linear refocus pulse angle sweep; initial results. 
Frederik Visser1,2, Jaco Zwanenburg1, and Peter Luijten1
17 Tesla, UMC-Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Philips Heathcare, Best, Netherlands

The aim of the present study is to develop a whole brain high resolution 3D T2w TSE sequence with good T2w contrast and high SNR at 7T, capable of sub-hippocampus segmentation and the detection of sub-millimeter lesions in general. Successful implementation of 3D T2w TSE sequences has been reported for 3T and lower field strengths. At 7T, implementation is not straightforward. A tissue specific refocusing angle sweep is used to reduce SAR and to improve SNR and CNR. Multiple compensation techniques are used to reduce artifacts induced by motion and B1 in-homogeneity.

14:00 4243.   High-resolution clinical 7T protocol for the depiction of cerebral vascular structures 
Soeren Johst1,2, Karsten H Wrede1,3, Sebastian Schmitter4, Philipp Dammann1,3, Marc U. Schlamann3, Ibrahim E Sandalcioglu5, Ulrich Sure5, Susanne C Ladd1,2, Mark E Ladd1,2, and Stefan Maderwald1
1Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MRI, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany, 3Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany, 4Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 5Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Essen, Germany

High-quality pre-operative / pre-interventional images are essential for the treatment of intra-cerebral vascular pathologies. Taking advantage of the inherently higher SNR at 7T, we generated a high-resolution 7T clinical whole-brain protocol for the depiction of cerebral vascular structures, which was optimized in volunteer scans and applied in 11 patients with vascular pathologies. To stay within clinically acceptable overall acquisition time, the acquisition of a considerably greater number of slices and higher GRAPPA acceleration factors were enabled. The VERSE algorithm was used for time-of-flight MR angiography and enabled theoretically 3 times as many slices within the SAR restrictions.

14:30 4244.   Acoustic feedback during motor dexterity training modulates brain structure in healthy adult individuals 
Maria Assunta Rocca1,2, Gianna Riccitelli1, Elisabetta Pagani1, Roberto Gatti3, Dennis Acella3, Andrea Falini4, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1,2
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy,2Department of Neurology, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 3Laboratory of Movement Analysis, School of Physiotherapy, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy, 4Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute and University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

In 45 healthy subjects, we investigated the short-term structural changes of the brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) associated with manual dexterity training, with and without acoustic feedback, and whether these changes persisted three months after the cessation of the motor training. We found that the feedback strategy applied during the motor training modulates the structure of the brain GM and WM. All the groups of our study experienced similar structural changes, but with a different temporal evolution. Structural changes occurred more rapidly in the group with the acoustic feedback.

15:00 4245.   Increased cross sectional area of genu and splenium of corpus callosum in professional musicians compared to amateur musicians and controls 

Professional musicians have significantly larger cross sectional areas of both genu and splenium of corpus callosum compared to amateur musicians and controls. This might suggest use-dependant adaptation in response to skill-acquisition.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 104

13:30 4246.   Morphometric changes detected in Hepatits C (HCV) and HCV/HIV co-infected adults 
Manoj K Sarma1, M. Albert Thomas1, Rajakumar Nagarajan1, April Thames2, Steven Castellon3,4, Elyse Singer5, Jason Smith4, Jonathan Truong6, Homayoon Khanlou7, Ann Ragin8, and Charles Hinkin3,4
1Radiological Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los angeles, CA, United States, 3Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Service, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 6Kaiser Permanente Lancaster, CA, United States, 7AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 8Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

Both Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have same routes of transmission, but little is known about how the co-infection effect the cortex. We have done a cortical surface-based analysis of the whole cortical mantle to investigate the cortical thickness/volume and cerebral white matter (WM) volume across a group of HCV/HIV co-infected and HCV mono-infected adult patients. Our results showed widespread brain regions with thinning of cortical thickness (CT) in HCV/HIV co-infected adults relative to HCV mono-infected. Thickening of CT is also seen in some regions. We also observed cerebral WM volume and cortical volume changes.

14:00 4247.   A Software Tool for Semi-Automated Quantification of Pituitary Volumes 
Zhiyue J Wang1,2, Dah-Jyuu Wang3, Jonathan M Chia4, Qing Yuan1, Michael C Morriss1,2, and Nancy K Rollins1,2
1University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Children's Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 3Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 4Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is the master gland of the endocrine system. Although many software tools are available for brain volumetric analysis, most are for white and gray matter segmentation, and not applicable for pituitary volumetry. An automatic approach is non-trivial due to various neighboring regions. The anterior pituitary has interfaces with the posterior pituitary, CSF and the air space of the sphenoid sinus that each require different threshold values. Measurement of the anterior and posterior pituitary volumes by manual tracing on MR images can be time consuming and has poor reproducibility. We have developed a semi-automated approach that combines manual tracing and threshold settings based on histograms that simultaneously measures the anterior and posterior pituitary volumes.

14:30 4248.   Anatomical details in brainstem and cisterns revealed by RESOLVE with unidirectional MPG; comparison with single-shot EPI diffusion weighted image 
Shinji Naganawa1, Hisashi Kawai1, and Masahiro Yamazaki1
1Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

High resolution RESOLVE images with uni-directional MPG reveals detailed anatomy of human brainstem and cranial nerves in cistern. This image can be obtained in clinically accepted scan time and easily added to routine protocol.

15:00 4249.   Meyer's loop delineated on magnitude images of susceptibility-weighted imaging: pre- and postoperative perimetric correlation in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy 
Nobuyuki Mori1, Yukio Miki2, Nobuhiro Mikuni3, Riki Matsumoto4, Seiko Kasahara5, Emiko Morimoto5, Mitsunori Kanagaki5, Akira Yamamoto5, Tomohisa Okada5, Satoshi Noma1, and Kaori Togashi5
1Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan, 2Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 4Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 5Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine

It has been reported that magnitude image of susceptibility-weighted imaging (mSWI) can delineate the entire length of the optic radiation, including its anterior part, Meyerfs loop (ML), as a low signal intensity bundle (LSB) in healthy volunteers. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the appearances of the anterior part of LSB on pre- and postoperative mSWI in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and compared them with the findings on post- and/or preoperative perimetry, proving the validity of preoperative assessment of ML on mSWI for preventing the unpredictable postoperative visual field defect due to damage to this fiber bundle.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 16:00 Computer 104

13:30 4250.   Which to choose for volumetry: MPRAGE or SPACE? 
Tomohisa Okada1, Mitsunori Kanagaki1, Akira Yamamoto1, Ryo Sakamoto1, Seiko Kasahara1, Emiko Morimoto1, Mami Iima1, Taha M. Mehemed1, Satoshi Nakajima1, and Kaori Togashi1
1Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan

T1-weighted 3D variable flip angle turbo spin-echo sequence called, SPACE, is gradually accepted as an alternative to MPRAGE. However, which is more suitable, if any, to brain volumetry is yet to be clarified. Therefore, we conducted a comparative study of the two sequences to investigate reproducibility of volumetric measurements of gray matter (GM) and any difference in segmented GM volumes in 10 healthy subjects. MPRAGE was superior to SPACE and such region was wide-spread. Probable reasons for the difference was discussed. SPACE may not be a substitute of MPRAGE for the purpose of cortical volumetry.

14:00 4251.   Contrast-enhanced T1-CUBE brain imaging with compressed sensing 
Kevin F King1, Matt A. Bernstein2, Donglai Huo1, Timothy J. Kaufmann2, and Kirk M. Welker2
1GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States, 2Dept. of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

The acceleration that can be expected with good image quality from compressed sensing is limited by the inherent compressibility of the images. T1-weighted 3D FSE CUBE has flat image contrast suitable for detecting small enhancing lesions in post-contrast brain exams. The lack of soft tissue structure should enhance image compressibility, making this technique a good candidate for CS acceleration. Radiologist reviews of results on two patients scanned after gadolinium injection at 3T showed that compressed sensing could accelerate acquisition by 1.5 fold more than conventional parallel imaging while still maintaining acceptable image quality.

14:30 4252.   Visualization of Posterior Fossa High-Resolution Anatomy in the Infant Brain using Tract Density Imaging 
Peter Yi Shen1, Christopher P Hess1, Donna Ferriero2, Cornelius von Morze1, Duan Xu1, A James Barkovich1, and Donna Ferriero3
1Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, Ca, United States, 2Neurology and Pediatrics, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, Ca, United States, 3Neurology and Pediatrics, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, United States

Super-resolution tract density maps allowed unprecedented visualization of brainstem and cerebellar anatomy, approaching the detail afforded by histologic sections. The technique should prove to be a useful tool for studying a number of developmental and acquired disorders in the infant brain.

15:30 4253.   Using a mean DSI dataset and targeted ROIs can increase the specificity and reproducibility of manual tractography in DSI. 
Aki Nikolaidis1, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng2,3
1National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University

Diffusion MRI has been used effectively to uncover detailed neuroanatomical information relating to many clinical disorders. Unfortunately some methodological problems persist which reduce the objectivity and specificity of the DSI method. We sought to create a new ROI selection and tractography method that could be applied to clinical settings. We believe that our method not only improves the objectivity and reproducibility of a given fiber tract, but it is also faster than manual fiber tract selection methods.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Manganese Enhanced MRI

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 15:00 Computer 105

14:00 4254.   Kinesin mutations induce defects in Mn2+ transport in the important memory circuit from hippocampus to basal forebrain 
Elaine L Bearer1,2, Octavian Biris3, Xiaowei Zhang2, and Russell E Jacobs4
1Pathology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 2Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States,3Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rho Island, United States, 4Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, california, United States

Axonal defects underlie many human brain degenerative diseases. MEMRI has the potential to detect these defects early and to determine their biological basis. The kinesin family of microtubule motors drives vesicular transport in the brain. Trangenic mice lacking a subunit of kinesin 1, KLC1 KO, display decreased transport in peripheral nerves, increased Abeta plaques, and decreased transport in the optic nerve. We present MEMRI of the hippocampal circuit in 10 KLC KO and WT mice imaged by time-lapse MR at 11.7T and analyzed by SPM. Results show that transport defects occur in the CNS and can be detected by MEMRI.

14:30 4255.   In vivo MEMRI of Early Postnatal Development in Rat Visual System 
Kevin C. Chan1,2, Joe S Cheng1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of

This study explores the capability of high-resolution Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) for in vivo assessment of the retinal projections in the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of early postnatal rat brains before eyelid opening. Eight hours (Hr8) after intravitreal Mn2+ injection into the right eye, significant increases in T1-weighted signal intensities (T1WSI) were observed in the left SC and LGN of the neonatal rats at postnatal days (P) 1, 5, and 10, and the adult rats and mice at P60. While the T1WSI of left SC and LGN continued to increase in the P60 rats, or remained the same in the P60 mice, the T1WSI of left SC and LGN dropped significantly in the neonatal rats at 1 day after Mn2+ administration (D1). A small but significant increase in T1WSI could also be observed in the right SC of neonatal brains at Hr8, as well as the adult mice at D1. These results suggested the high sensitivity of MEMRI for measuring retinotopic changes along both ipsilateral and contralateral visual pathways in normal development, disease, plasticity and therapy longitudinally in the neonatal brains in future studies.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 14:30 Computer 105

13:30 4256.   In vivo MEMRI of Neuronal Plasticity in Retinocollicular Projection 
Kevin C. Chan1,2, Iris Y. Zhou1,2, Shu juan Fan1,2, Joe S. Cheng1,3, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 3Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The Univrsity of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of

This study explores the capability of high-resolution Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) for in vivo assessment of the reorganization of retinocollicular projections between retina and the superficial layers of superior colliculus (SC) in rat models of early postnatal visual impairments. Eight weeks after neonatal monocular enucleation (ME, n=6) to the right eyes at postnatal day (P) 1, intravitreal Mn injection into the left eyes resulted in a significantly higher T1-weighted signal intensity in the ipsilateral left SC compared to the monocularly deprived (MD, right eye, n=6) or normal control (CTRL, n=6) rats at the same age. No significant difference was observed in the Mn-enhancement in contralateral right SC among ME, MD and CTRL groups. Complementary DTI findings suggested neurodegeneration in the right optic nerve and left optic tract of the ME rats, whereas a higher fractional anisotropy was observed in the left optic nerve of the ME rats compared to MD or CTRL rats. The results of this study demonstrated the sensitivity of in vivo MEMRI to detect neural plasticity of the uncrossed retinal projections in SC globally at high resolutions.

14:00 4257.   Myelin Mapping in Mouse Brain in Vivo Using Contrast-Enhanced Magnetization Transfer MRI 
Takashi Watanabe1, Jens Frahm1, and Thomas Michaelis1
1Biomedical NMR Research GmbH, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany

This work demonstrates the combined and complimentary use of MnCl2 and Gd-DTPA to improve the white/gray matter contrast in magnetization-transfer MRI (3D FLASH) of the brain of living mice. A systemic Mn2+ administration followed by an intraventricular Gd-DTPA administration increased the SNR by 26% in the white and by 46% in the gray matter, which resulted in a CNR improvement by 121%. The underlying T1 shortening was more pronounced in the gray (– 62%) than in the white matter (–39%). Intracellular Mn2+ and extracellular Gd-DTPA efficiently complement each other in shortening the T1 of brain tissue fluid.

Electronic Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the video presentation.
Human Brain Tumors

Monday May 9th
Exhibition Hall  14:00 - 16:00 Computer 106

14:00 4258.   Correlation of NMR metabolic profile and gene expression profiles in high grade glioma 
Jose Manuel Morales1, Eva Serna2, Ana Gonzalez-Segura3, Concha Lopez-Gines2, Jose Manuel Gonzalez-Darder4, Ramon Cardona5, Miguel Cerda-Nicolas2, and Daniel Monleon3
1Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 2Universidad de Valencia, 3Fundacion Investigacion HCUV, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 4Hospital Clinico Valencia,5Fundacion Investigacion HCUV

The metabolic consequences of different angiogenesis gene expression profiles in gliomas are still unknown. Gene expression profiling of different metabolic phenotypes of high grade glioma may provide new information for better management of this disease. In this communication, we show high grade glioma NMR molecular profiles correlated with gene expression profiles of 20 high grade glioma biopsies. Our results show a correlation between angiogenesis and metabolic profile. This correlation involves metabolites closely related to higher glycolytic rate, to proliferation and to hypoxia. Our approach suggests that combined analysis of existing data sets can reveal new insights and that the large amount of publicly available cancer data sets should be further utilized in a similar manner.

14:30 4259.   Correlation of MRI Contrast Enhancement in Gliomas with Immuno-histological Vascular Parameters using Image-guided Biopsy Specimens 
Rajan Jain1,2, Jayant Narang1, Jack P Rock2, Lisa Scarpace2, Lonni Schultz3, Syed Ali Arbab4, and Jorge Gutierrez5
1Neuroradiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 5Neuropathology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States

The purpose of this study was to correlate the status of MRI contrast enhancement with various immuno-histological vascular parameters such as microvascular cellular proliferation (MVCP), microvascular density (MVD), VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) expression, WHO grade and CT perfusion parameters using image-guided biopsy specimens. Functional imaging like perfusion studies are being increasingly used in today’s clinical practice to predict tumor grade and angiogenesis. But availability and expertise in interpretation are important limiting factors in their widespread use. Our study shows that MRI contrast enhancement correlates well with various immune-histological markers as well as CT perfusion parameters and can help assess regional heterogeneity of tumor angiogenesis.

15:00 4260.   Clinical protocol for brain tumour patients using a 3T Hybrid MR-BrainPET 
Nadim Jon Shah1,2, Irene Neuner1,2, Joachim B Kaffanke1, Christian Filss1, Gabriele Stoffels1, Hans Herzog1, and Karl-Josef Langen1
1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, JARA, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

In brain tumour patients different imaging modalities contribute to diagnosis and grading of malignancy in brain tumours. Clinicians are interested in the localization of the tumour, in differentiation of oedema and tumour tissue and in grading the tumour which has a large impact on the prognosis for the patient. Imaging within a hybrid MR-BrainPET scanner allows for the acquisition of essential clinical data in one stop in the same brain at the same time under the same physiological conditions within a time frame of approximately 45 minutes.

15:30 4261.   Diffusion Tensor Invasive Phenotypes Can Predict Time to Progression in Glioblastomas 
Laila A. Mohsen1,2, Veronica Shi3, Rajesh Jena4, Jonathan H. Gillard1, and Stephen J. Price3,5
1University Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2Radiology Department, Al-Menia University, Al-Menia, Egypt, 3Neurosurgery Division, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Invasion of the surrounding brain is a key feature of glioblastomas and major cause of treatment failure. The degree of invasion varies in individuals. We have assessed the invasive phenotype of 21 glioblastoma patients receiving similar treatment using the pq decomposition method. We have shown that 20% of patients have a minimally invasive phenotype. These patients have a longer time to progression and are more likely to be progression free at 18 months than the other subtypes.

Tuesday May 10th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 106

13:30 4262.   Changes in lipid droplet composition detected by 1H MRS during cisplatin treatment of DAOY cells 
Xiaoyan Pan1,2, Martin Wilson1,2, Carmel McConville1, Julian L Griffin3, Theodoros N Arvanitis2,4, Risto A Kauppinen5, and Andrew C Peet1,2
1Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom,3Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4School of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 5Department of Radiology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States

In this study, human medulloblastoma cells were treated with cisplatin and the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) was monitored by microscopy during cell kill. 1H MRS was performed on whole cells, the isolated LDs fraction and their extracts to investigate the spectral patterns of these accumulated lipids. The increase in detected lipids in cisplatin exposed DAOY cells was associated with the accumulation of LDs and occurred before the DNA fragmentation. 1H MRS of isolated LDs showed alterations in lipid signals at 5.4ppm and 1.25ppm after drug treatment indicating a shift towards unsaturation of the accumulated lipids.

14:00 4263.   Three-dimensional (3D) Amide Proton Transfer (APT) Imaging of Human Brain Tumors at 3T 
Jinyuan Zhou1,2, He Zhu1,2, Michael Lim3, Silun Wang1, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa3, Lindsay Blair4, John Laterra4, Peter Barker1,2, Peter C.M. van Zijl1,2, and Jaishri Blakeley4
1Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

We explored the use of fast gradient- and spin-echo (GRASE) 3D APT imaging for the visualization of human brain tumors at 3 Tesla. The preliminary results show that GRASE 3D APT imaging can be performed within a clinically feasible time of ~11 minutes. APT values were significantly different between the core of the tumor and peritumoral edema, and also between high-grade and low-grade tumors. 3D APT imaging is feasible at 3T and is a promising new MRI contrast mechanism for characterizing human brain tumors.

14:30 4264.   Glutamate and glutamine concentrations in recurrent high-grade gliomas. 
Alena Horska1, Antonin Skoch2, Eric Ford1, Stuart A Grossman1, and Jaishri O Blakeley1
1Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

Glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) concentrations were assessed with single voxel 1H MRS at 3T in patients previously treated for high-grade gliomas. Total NAA and Cr concentrations were lower in the lesions compared to the control regions while there was no difference in mean total Cho concentration between the lesions and control regions. Spectra collected in the lesions showed elevated Gln and lower Glu concentrations. While the MRS findings based on Cho and NAA concentrations were non-specific for tumor progression, all patients had a low Gln/(Gln+Glu) ratio in the lesion and had tumor progression.

15:00 4265.   Prognostic imaging markers in patients with GBM: comparison between functional versus mean KPS analysis 
Andrea Kassner1, Igor Sitartchouk1, Fang Liu2, Jeremy Hoisak3, Adam Gladwish3, Normand Laperriere3, and Cynthia Menard3
1Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 3Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor and has a very poor prognosis. Treatment assessment is difficult as early imaging changes cannot be easily differentiated from tumor progression (i.e. pseudo early progression). We used DCE-MRI to obtain coefficients of permeability estimates (KPS) from 25 GBM patients at three different timepoints (baseline, during radiotherapy, post radiotherapy) and found that mean KPS of pseudo early progressors was signifcantly greater than in early progressors (EPs)during radiotherapy and shows a potential for discrimination EPs from pseudo EPs.

Wednesday May 11th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 106

13:30 4266.   Glioma Grading: Comparison of Parameters from Dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) 
Seung-Koo Lee1, EunJu Kim2, and Hyun Seok Choi1,3
1Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Philips Healthcare, 3Department of Radiology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Transfer constant (Ktrans) and extravascular extracelluar space (ve) can be used in differentiating high-grade and low-grade gliomas. Extravascular extracelluar space (ve) was the most predictive parameter using DCE-MRI in our series. Further investigation of extravascular extracelluar space (ve) is needed in this stage.

14:00 4267.   Detection of abnormal water exchange rate in brain tumor patients 
Young Ro Kim1, Dominique L Jennings2, Thomas Benner2, Seonjoo Kwon2, Gyunggoo Cho3, Jeong Kon Kim2, Chris Farrar2, Peter Caravan2, Bruce Rosen2, and Greg Sorensen2
1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Korea Basic Science Institute

Detecting invasive brain tumor regions and assessing their response to potential new therapies that target both tumor angiogenesis and tumor invasion is highly important but complicated by the lack of available methods for detecting the early growth. It has been recently shown that transvascular water exchange and the choice of imaging method and parameters can influence the accuracy and precision of blood volume measurements when using an intravascular T1 contrast agent.[1] In this work, using human tumor patients and clinically available contrast agent (i.e., Gd-DTPA), we demonstrated that a novel water exchange sensitive imaging technique can define new tumor border regions in the brain, otherwise undetectable with conventional imaging methods.

14:30 4268.   Proton spectroscopy for lipid characterisation in paediatric brain tumours 
Antonio Napolitano1, Fotios Savvopoulos1, Timothy Jaspan2, Richard G. Grundy2, and Dorothee P Auer1
1Academic Radiology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottighamshire, United Kingdom, 2The Children's Brain Tumour Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

Proton MRS is increasingly used for tumour characterisation as it provides a non-invasive biochemical profile of the tumour tissue with typical patterns for high and low grade tumours and information for the differential diagnosis and prognosis. The high lipid content in Pilocytic Astrocytoma (PA) could be confusing as it is considered as a marker of necrosis and typically seen in highly aggressive tumours. Since necrosis is not a feature of PA at the histopathological level, hence we hypothesise that the lipid pattern in patients with PA is different from that present in high grade tumours suggesting different underlying biochemical composition.

15:00 4269.   Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Intracranial Tumors: Correlation with Histologic Grade 
Krishna Surapaneni1, Craig Horenstein1, Tian Liu2, Cynthia Wisnieff2, Yi Wang3, and Robert DeLaPaz1
1Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Cornell University, NY, NY, United States

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MRI technique that can determine inherent susceptibility properties of tissues, independent of MRI scan parameters. QSM was performed on 10 patients with primary intracranial tumors; QSM provided complimentary information about the tumors not readily available on conventional SWI images or ADC maps. In this pilot study, the relative change in intratumoral QSM values significantly correlated with histologic tumor grade (r=-0.66, p=0.3). This correlation may reflect differences in magnetic properties of the local tumor microenvironment.

Thursday May 12th
  13:30 - 15:30 Computer 106

13:30 4270.   Classification of Tissue Oxygenation Properties based on Simultaneous Dynamic Capital Greek DeltaR1 and Capital Greek DeltaR2* D(C)O2E-MRI 
Stefanie Remmele1, Andreas Müller2, Frank Träber2, Ingobert Wenningmann3, Marec von Lehe4, Juergen Gieseke2,5, Sebastian Flacke2,6, Winfried A Willinek2, Hans H Schild2, Jochen Keupp1, and Petra Mürtz2
1Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany, 2Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 5Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands, 6Department of Radiology, Lahey Clinic, Tufts University Medical School, MA, United States

We devised an approach to simultaneous and dynamic dR1, dR2* quantification to increase the specificity of O2 and CO2 enhanced MRI. The technique is applied to patients with cerebral tumors and a volunteer. The multi-parametric findings are related to tissue-specific oxygenation properties.

14:00 4271.   SWAN imaging substantially increases the Prevalence of hemorrhage in the wall of brain abscess -its implications in Clinical interpretation 
Rakesh Kumar Gupta1, Vaishali Tomar1, Rishi Awasthi1, Vikas Bharadwaj2, Bal Kishan Ojha2, Nuzhat Husain3, Kashi Nath Prasad4, Ramesh Venkatesan5, and Ram KS Rathore6
1Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2Neurosurgery, Chatrapati Sahu ji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 3Pathology, Chatrapati Sahu ji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 4Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 5Wipro-GE Healthcare, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, 6Mathematics & Statistics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

A total of 26 patients with intracranial abscess underwent conventional MRI as well as DTI. A total of 13 patients showed hemorrhage on SWAN imaging out of which 11 were confirmed of having hemorrhage on Prussian blue staining. We conclude that the presence of intracellular iron affects the DTI metrics. The existence of hemorrhage in intracranial abscess is not rare and by including new sensitive MR sequences e.g. SWAN can potentially improve its demonstration on MRI.

14:30 4272.   Functional and Structural Alterations in the Frontal Lobe in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Combined fMRI and Voxel-Based Morphometry Study 
Byeong-Yeul Lee1,2, Jianli Wang1, Kayla Davidson3, Paul J Eslinger1,4, and Qing X Yang1,5
1Center for NMR Research, Radiology, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Bioengineering, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 3Psychology, Messiah College, Grantham, PA, United States, 4Neurology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 5Neurosurgery, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. With increasingly effective treatments, long-term effects of cancer therapy have become an important focus of investigation. To assess the treatment effect on brain cognitive function and cerebral morphology, we applied both fMRI and voxel-based morphology (VBM) from the brain scans of children with ALL who were treated with prophylactic CNS-directed chemotherapy. fMRI and VBM analysis identified an affected brain region of the frontal lobe commonly to ALL cohorts at various time intervals since treatment. Both cognitive and educational interventions may help counter these anatomical, functional, and neurocognitive effects.

15:00 4273.   Meningioma metabolic subgroups revealed by NMR spectroscopy 
Daniel Monleon1, Jose Manuel Morales2, Ana Gonzalez-Segura1, Concha Lopez-Gines3, Jose Manuel Gonzalez-Darder4, Rosario Gil-Benso3, and Miguel Cerda-Nicolas3
1Fundacion Investigacion HCUV, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 2Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 3Universidad de Valencia, 4Hospital Clinico Valencia

Sometimes, meningiomas with histological diagnosis of benign meningioma show clinical characteristics of atypical meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions like resection extension, additional radiotherapy needs, treatment selection and patient follow up strategy after surgery. In this communication, we used NMR metabolic profiling for molecular characterization of 30 benign and 10 atypical meningiomas. The metabolic phenotype measured by HR-MAS allows detecting metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise benign tumors. The metabolic and genetic profile obtained for this new subgroup of meningiomas place them biochemically closer to atypical meningioma than to the conventional benign meningioma. Our study revealed a subgroup of benign meningiomas with aggressive metabolism and chromosomal instabilities. This is the first time than differential metabolic profiles are reported for tumors with the same histological grade. The methodology used in this study may also open new possibilities in the diagnosis of meningioma.