Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
Spinal Cord

Tuesday May 10th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30

2458.   In vivo myelin water imaging in rat spinal cord  
Piotr Kozlowski1,2, Andrew C Yung1, Henry S Chen1, Jie Liu2, and Wolfram Tetzlaff2
1UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2ICORD, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Myelin water imaging was carried out in rat spinal cord in vivo. CPMG data were acquired from 6 rats with 117 microns in-plane resolution and 1.5 mm slice thickness. The implantable coil system, consisting of a rectangular loop surgically implanted over the lumbar spine and inductively coupled to an external pick up coil, was used for both pulse transmission and signal reception. B1 field produced by a small implanted coil is sufficiently uniform to acquire good quality CPMG data. All reconstructed MWF maps showed good details of the cord morphology. This pilot study demonstrates feasibility of the high resolution myelin water imaging in rat spinal cord in vivo.

2459.   Ex vivo myelin water and DTI measurements of SKP-SC transplanted cell therapy in contused rat spinal cord: correlation with histology 
Andrew C Yung1, Peggy Assinck2, Leo Wu2, Jie Liu2, Wolfram Tetzlaff2, and Piotr Kozlowski1,2
1UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2ICORD, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Schwann cells differentiated from skin-derived precursors (SKP-SCs) have been shown to promote histological and functional recovery in a contusion model of rat spinal cord injury. In this work, we assess the myelin content and axonal integrity in an ex vivo specimen of contused thoracic cord treated with SKP-SCs by measuring myelin water fraction (MWF) [ref] and longitudinal diffusivity (Dlong). MRI results are compared to corresponding histological measures.

2460.   Prospects for quantitative imaging of myelin with dual-echo short inversion time 3D UTE MRI 
Michael J. Wilhelm1, Henry H. Ong1, Suzanne L. Wehrli2, Ping-Huei Tsai1, David B. Hackney3, and Felix W. Wehrli1
1Laboratory for Structural NMR Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2NMR Core Facility, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Department of Radiology and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States

Current MRI methods indirectly assess myelin by detecting myelin-associated water. Directly imaging myelin would enhance understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. Dual-echo short inversion-time UTE (de-STUTE) suppresses long-T2* while detecting short-T2* signals. 1H, 31P and 13C NMR of intact rat spinal cord (SC) and rat/bovine myelin extracts suggest that the short-T2* signal in SC arises predominantly from myelin lipids. de-STUTE images of rat SC shows short-T2* signal only from white matter which indicates that myelin is being imaged. 1H NMR of myelin extract exhibits a linear dependence between intensity and myelin concentration. These results suggest the potential for de-STUTE to directly image and quantify myelin.

2461.   In Vivo Rat Spinal Cord Relaxation Times Measured at 4.7 T and 11.1 T 
Garrett William Astary1, Xiaoming Chen2, Malisa Sarntinoranont2, and Thomas Harold Mareci3
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States, 2Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 3Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida

In vivo rat spinal cord relaxation times (T1 and T2) and relative proton density (PD) values were measured at 4.7 T and 11.1 T. At both field strengths, six measurements were performed with a quadrature birdcage volume coil for excitation and quadrature surface coil for detection. At 4.7 T and 11.1 T, differences in WM and GM T1 were not statistically significant; however, differences in T2 and relative PD values were found to be statistically significant. Frequency dispersion of relaxation times showed T1 dependence of the dipolar relaxation mechanism and T2 dependence on dynamic dephasing in susceptibility gradients.

2462.   MR Nerve Imaging using Blood Suppressed 3D T2 Weighted Imaging with Uniform Fat Suppression 
Ajit Shankaranarayanan1, Xhikui Xiao2, Hao Shen2, and Ananth Madhuranthakam3
1Global Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 2Global Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Global Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Boston, MA, United States

Application of blood suppressed 3D T2-weighted sequence to MR nerve imaging with uniform fat and water separation in a single acquisition is shown here. Fat/water separation is achieved by a modified 2-point Dixon reconstruction. Vessel suppression is achieved by the use of motion sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE), inserted in front of a 3D FSE module, in combination with optimized use of variable refocusing flip angles for the acquisition. In addition, images with and without fat suppression from the same acquisition can give complementary information related to the nerves and surrounding tissues with perfect co-registration.

2463.   Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) MRI of the human spinal cord: preliminary results and potentiality 
Virginie Callot1, Guillaume Duhamel1, Pauline Moulin1, and Patrick J Cozzone1
1Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale (CRMBM, UMR 6612 CNRS), Marseille, France

There is a lack of MR techniques able to provide human spinal cord (SC) haemodynamic information. Dedicated methods such as ASL or VASO techniques, which currently suffer from low sensitivity or CSF contamination in the absence of ECG-synchronization, need to be improved in order to provide reliable information. In this context, the IVIM (Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion) technique could be an alternative. In this work, we demonstrated that IVIM has the ability to easily provide information relative to the vascular status of the spinal cord (vascular blood fraction (f), blood velocity index (D*)).

2464.   In Vivo, High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) on Naive Rat Spinal Cord: from Cervial to Sacral Cord 
Joong Hee Kim1, Kathleen E. Chaffee1, and Sheng-Kwei Song1
1Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States

Synopsis: We present in vivo DTI derived parameter maps of the rat cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral cord. High–spatial-resolution diffusion tensor images were acquired at 4.7 T with respiratory-gated spin echo diffusion imaging sequence. The diffusion characteristics of gray and white matter tissue were reflected with DTI derived axial and radial diffusivity, and anisotropy maps providing pixel basis quantitative analysis and tissue localization. The presented rat spinal cord DTI parameters may serve as a reference for future inter-lab comparison on rat spinal cord diffusion measurements.

2465.   Diffusion and magnetization transfer imaging detects spinal cord lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Pierre-Francois Pradat1, Julien Cohen-Adad2,3, Mohamed Mounir Elmendili2, Stephane Lehericy4, Sophie Blancho5, Vincent Meininger6, Serge Rossignol7, and Habib Benali2
1Département des Maladies du Système Nerveux, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, Paris, France, 2UMR-678, INSERM-UPMC, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, 3A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States, 4Centre for Neuroimaging Research (CENIR), CRICM,INSERM U975, CNRS UMR 7225, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, 5Institut pour la Recherche sur la Moelle Epinière et l'Encéphale, France, 6Département des Maladies du Système Nerveux, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, France,7GRSNC, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada

Characterizing in vivo spinal lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is crucial to explore the anatomic structures affected by the disease more precisely. In this study we combined for the first time DW, MT imaging and atrophy measurements to evaluate the cervical spinal cord of ALS patients. In the ventro-lateral aspect of the cervical cord, significant differences were detected in FA, radial diffusivity and MTR. Spinal atrophy was correlated with some clinical measures. From a clinical perspective, it could provide new non-invasive tools for early diagnostic, measuring disease progression in ALS.

2466.   An Investigation of Motion Correction Algorithms for Pediatric Spinal Cord DTI in Normals and Patients with SCI 
Nadia Barakat1, Devon Middleton1, Louis Hunter2, Jürgen Finsterbusch3, Scott Faro1, MJ Mulcahey2, Amer Samdani2, and Feroze Mohamed1
1Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Shriners Hospital For Children, 3University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

Motion correction by image registration is important in the interpretation of medical images and plays a crucial role in diagnosis and treatment planning. Efforts can be made to reduce a subject's motion, such as using sedation, cardiac gating, and respiratory compensation. However, especially in pediatric imaging, these methods can become cumbersome and increase the patient's time in the scanner. The goal of this study was to (1) determine a reliable motion correction method for spinal cord Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and (2) show the effects of motion correction on DTI parameters in the normal and the injured SC.

2467.   MRI of neural and vascular injury pattern in contusion spinal cord injury 
Tsang-Wei Tu1,2, Philip V Bayly1, and Sheng-Kwei Song2
1Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 2Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States

The mechanic trauma results in a disruption of neural and vascular structures in spinal cord injury. Previous studies illustrated that the disruption of blood vessels results in the intraparenchymal hemorrhage at the epicenter and away from the impact site. The epicenter white matter surrounding the hemorrhagic gray matter shows a variety of degenerative lesions, including disrupted myelin, axonal and periaxonal swelling. However, little was known whether the white matter injury occurs concomitantly with the distal vascular disruption. By using diffusion- and T2*-weighted imaging, the current study provides direct evidence that vascular and white matter injury simultaneously appear at the distal site.

2468.   Vascular Stabilization with Angiopoitin-1 Improves Outcome in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury 
Juan Herrera1, Laura M. Sundberg1, and Ponnada A. Narayana1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, UTHealth Medical School, Houston, TX, United States

The effect of angiopoitin-1 (Ang-1) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) engineered to express Ang-1 on experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) was investigated using longitudinal in vivo MRI, including dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, and neurobehavioral studies. In treated animals, on MRI, improvement in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) integrity and reduced lesion volume were observed compared to the controls. A concomitant improvement in the neurobehavioral scores was observed in treated animals. These studies suggest that Ang-1 treatment is a promising therapeutic strategy in SCI.

2469.   Measures of quantitative MRI correlate with neurological outcomes in patients after acute spinal cord injury 
Yunyan Zhang1, V. Wee Yong1, R. John Hurlbert1, and Steve Casha2
1University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Sequential MR images from 52 patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) were examined. Maximum canal compromise (MCC), maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC), and the length and area of T2 hyperintensity on MR images were assessed at day1, day7, week4, and week52 after acute SCI. Neurological outcomes were evaluated using the ASIA score. MSCC and T2 hyperintensity were correlated significantly with motor and sensory scores over time (p<0.01 or 0.05). T2 lesion area was the best predictor of motor outcome at week52. It suggests that quantitative MRI could be invaluable to evaluate injuries in the spinal cord after acute attack.

2470.   Grey matter and white matter volume measurements in the Cervical Cord In-Vivo: a pilot study with application to magnetisation transfer 
Marios C Yiannakas1, Hugh Kearney1, Rebecca S Samson1, Declan T Chard1, Olga Ciccarelli2, David H Miller1, and Claudia A.M Wheeler-Kingshott1
1Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom

Measurements of grey matter and white matter volumes in the cervical spinal cord in-vivo with the use of clinically available MR systems remain technically challenging and highly underestimated, mainly due to signal to noise limitations coupled with the effects of motion. The aim of this pilot study is to present a high resolution imaging protocol that allows tissue specific volumetric measurements in the cervical cord by means of image segmentation and also to report normal tissue specific magnetisation transfer ratio values which may be used as a reference in future investigations of neurological diseases in the cord.

2471.   Novel lesions in the spinal cord of the EAE model of multiple sclerosis identified with SWI MRI 
Nabeela Nathoo1,2, Ying Wu1,3, Voon Wee Yong4,5, Samuel Barnes6, Andre Obenaus6,7, and Jeff F Dunn1,3
1Experimental Imaging Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 3Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 6Biophysics and Bioengineering, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, United States, 7Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, United States

SWI is an MRI sequence that is sensitive to iron induced perturbations in magnetic field. As iron deposition has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to study this phenomenon in an animal model of MS. We used SWI MRI to study iron deposition in the EAE animal model of MS. In vivo and ex vivo images of the lumbar spinal cords of EAE mice showed abnormalities and novel lesions on SWI and phase images which could be due to iron deposition. SWI shows great potential to elucidate the link between iron, EAE, and MS.

Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
Developing Brain

Wednesday May 11th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30

2472.   Distinctive temporal changes of FA at different cortical areas of human fetal brain 
Hao Huang1, Goran Sedmak2, Tina Jeon1, Paul Yarowsky3, and Nenad Sestan2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Neurobiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States,3Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States

During brain development, the organized columnar structures in the immature cortex are disrupted by synapse formation and dendrite growth. This process can be revealed with decreased FA in the cortical plate. In this abstract, we aimed to characterize the 4D spatial and temporal FA changes all over the cortical plate and during the second trimester fetal development. The FA distribution is overall inhomogeneous across the cortical plate. Distinctive temporal changes of FA were observed at different functional cortical areas and they may serve as biomarkers of development of these functional areas.

2473.   Regional Evaluation of White Matter Injury in Children Treated with Cranial-Spinal Radiation for Medulloblastomas 
Colleen Dockstader1, Todd Cunningham1, Eric Bouffet2, Nicole Law1, Normand Laperriere3, Suzanne Laughlin4, Douglas Strother5, Christopher Fryer6, Marie-Eve Briere5, Juliette Hukin7, Dina McConnell8, Fang Liu1, Conrad Rockel9, and Donald Mabbott1
1Psychology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3Haematology/Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 5Hematology, Oncology, and Transplant Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Ontario, Canada, 6Haematology/Oncology, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Ontario, Canada, 7Pediatric Neurology and Oncology/Hematology/BMT Programs, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 8Psychology, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Ontario, Canada, 9Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Cranial-spinal radiation (CSR) therapy for tumor treatment is associated with significant damage to the brain’s white matter. We wished to determine which regions are most affected by CSR in children treated for medulloblastomas. We compared regional values of white matter integrity in 24 healthy children and 16 patients. Regions with the lowest white matter integrity were the regions that received the highest radiation doses. This suggests that radiation directly resulted in white matter injury in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings may serve as an index of how dose gradient relates to white matter injury when considering treatment in this clinical population.

2474.   Characterisation of the BOLD signal Haemodynamic Response Function (HRF) in the neonatal somatosensory cortex 
Tomoki Arichi1, Gianlorenzo Fagiolo2, Alejandro Melendez3, Nazakat Merchant1, Nora Tusor1, Serena J Counsell1, Etienne Burdet3, Christian F Beckmann4, and A David Edwards1
1Neonatal Medicine Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, London, United Kingdom, 2Imaging Physics Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, 3Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, 4Mathematical Imaging Neuroscience, Donders Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Using a simple somatosensory stimulus and a short-stimulus event related experimental design, we aimed to characterise the morphology of the Haemodynamic Response Function (HRF) in the newborn brain. In comparison to the canonical adult waveform, it was identified that the HRF in newborn infants has a smaller positive peak amplitude with a longer lag time to the peak, and a proportionality deeper negative undershoot period. These results are likely due to differences in neurovascular coupling and may explain the previous inconsistencies utilising the technique in the newborn population.

2475.   Differences in thalamic activity and in the temporal pattern of Bold signal between neonates born at term and preterm: a fMRI study during passive auditory stimulation. 
Elisa Scola1, Silvia Pontesilli1, Roberta Scotti1, Valeria Blasi1, Roberta Longaretti1, Paola Scifo1,2, Sara Cirillo1, Antonella Iadanza1, Antonella Poloniato3, Graziano Barera3, Giuseppe Scotti1, and Cristina Baldoli1
1Neuroradiology Department - CERMAC, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 3Neonatology and Neonatological Intensive Care Unit, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy

Aim of this study was to asses, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in non-sedated preterm and healthy term neonates, the maturation of cortical areas activated during linguistic passive stimulation. Twenty preterm infants, 25-33 weeks of gestational age, and 16 at term newborn subjects underwent a longitudinal 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The longitudinal aspect of this study allowed the observation of the functional modifications of the auditory cortex during brain development since 29th week of EA. Moreover, results demonstrated a bilateral posterior thalamic activation in healthy term neonates not present in neonates born preterm.

2476.   A graph matching-based sulcal pattern analysis: Application to the study of twin brains 
Kiho Im1, Rudolph Pienaar1, Jong-Min Lee2, Joon-Kyung Seong3, Yu Yong Choi2, Kun Ho Lee4, and P. Ellen Grant1
1Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United States, 2Hanyang University, 3Soongsil University, 4Chosun University

We present a novel quantitative method for automatically comparing and analyzing sulcal patterns using a sulcal pit-based graph. We computed similarity between graphs by determining the optimal match using a spectral method which exploits geometric features of nodes as well as their relationships. Our method was applied to twin data and showed that the similarity of the sulcal pattern in twin pairs was significantly higher than in unrelated pairs. This method can be applied to various genetic developmental disorders, to provide a quantitative and reliable comparison of gyral folding based on sulcal anatomy.

2477.   Automatic segmentation and parcellation of subcortical white and grey matter using DTI in the preterm neonate 
Gareth Ball1, Serena J Counsell1, Ioannis S Gousias1, Paul Aljabar2, Jo V Hajnal1, Daniel Rueckert2, A David Edwards1,3, and James P Boardman1,4
1Imperial College London and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Division of Neonatology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom, 4Simpson Centre for Reproductive Health, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Tractography-based segmentation is a method for mapping structural connectivity in the brain but it is not yet feasible to perform this technique in neonates without a subjective and time-consuming process of manually labelling the cortex. Preterm birth is a leading cause of cognitive impairment in childhood, and is associated with aberrant thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical connectivity. Using a combination of atlas-based parcellation, tissue segmentation and multi-modal imaging, we have implemented a fully-automated pipeline for tractography-based segmentation in preterm neonates. This technique provides a tool to further study the impaired connectivity thought to underlie the common neurocognitive impairment in the preterm population.

2478.   Whole-brain oxygen extraction fraction is decreased in pediatric traumatic brain injury patients 
Dustin Kenneth Ragan1, and Jose A Pineda1
1Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) begins a series of pathological processes in its victims that can lead to long-term neurological disability. We investigated abnormal brain oxygen utilization by measuring whole-brain oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in pediatric TBI patients using a susceptibility-based oximetry technique. Magnetic field maps were acquired two weeks after injury that were used to generated magnetic susceptibility maps. OEF was quantified through the susceptibility change in the superior sagittal sinus. Severe TBI patients suffered reduced OEF compared to both mild TBI patients (20.5% vs. 31.4%) and controls (45.7%). This implies ongoing metabolic dysfunction in trauma patients.

2479.   Fast blood T1 measurement in children and adults 
Ruth L O'Gorman1, Cornelia Hagmann1, Hadwig Speckbacher1, Ajit Shankaranarayanan2, and Ernst Martin1
1University Children's Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland, 2Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States

An accurate estimate of the T1 of blood is necessary for reliable quantification of perfusion with arterial spin labelling methods. Knowledge of the blood T1 is particularly important for ASL studies in young children, where the decreased hematocrit and increased T1 relative to typical adult values may lead to an overestimate of the perfusion. Here we evaluate a fast T1 mapping protocol based on the variable flip angle, spoiled gradient echo method. This protocol was tested in a group of 8 adults and 10 children (including four neonates) and the age dependence of the blood T1 values was assessed.

2480.   Cerebral Plasticity Induced by Abacus-based Mental Calculation Training in Children 
Yuzheng Hu1, Fengji Geng1,2, Yunqi Wang1,2, and Feiyan Chen1
1BioX lab, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, People's Republic of

Many studies reported the training effects on brain structures and they provided deep insight into the relationship between brain functions and the underlying neural substrates. This study aimed to examine the effects of abacus-based mental calculation training on cerebral structure in 10-years olds, using voxle-based morphometric method. Results showed increased cerebral volume in some regions such as SMA in the training group when compared with the controls. Furthermore, volumes of these regions were found to be significantly correlated with individual digit memory spans. Thus, we suggested that abacus-based calculation training may affect some brain regions related to visuospatial functions.

2481.   Atypical development of dentatothalamic pathway in children with autistic spectrum disorders 
Jeong-Won Jeong1,2, Ajay Kumar1,2, Rajkumar Govindan1,2, Harry T. Chugani2,3, and Diane C. Chugani2,4
1Pediatrics, Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2PET center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 3Pediatrics, Neurology, Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 4Pediatrics, Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States

The dentatothalmic pathway (DTP) is a white matter pathway connecting dentate nucleus of the cerebellum to the contralateral thalamus. Many diffusion studies suggest disturbance in the intrinsic cerebellar circuitry in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study utilized Q-ball imaging (QBI) technique to delineate the DTP in children with ASD and quantitatively assess their age-related changes in axonal anisotropy and volume. We found that the age related increase in anisotropy of right DTP and volume of left DTP was significantly higher in ASD group compared to typically developing controls, suggesting microstructural abnormalities along with developmental dysregulation of DTPs in ASD.

2482.   Linking Myelination with Behavioural Development in Healthy Infants 
Sean C Deoni1, Douglas Dean1, Cara Quigley1, Frances Liu1, and Beth A Jerskey2
1School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI, United States

Development of myelinated white matter is essential for normative brain function, facilitating the rapid and efficient transfer of information through the complex neural systems. While histological studies have revealed a pattern of myelination in human infancy, spreading from deep to superficial brain regions, such studies cannot investigate the underlying relationships between myelination and the development of behaviour, cognition and other functions. In this work, we combined rapid myelin water fraction imaging with assessments of primary behaviour domains in healthy human infants 4 through 24 months of age. Results reveal, for the first time, development of regions sub-serving each domain.

2483.   MTR and T1 measurements in the very preterm brain – Markers for changes in tissue microstructure during early development 
Revital Nossin-Manor1,2, Omer Bar-Yosef3, Margot J Taylor1,2, Elizabeth J Donner3,4, and John G Sled5,6
1Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Neurosciences & Mental Health, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 5Physiology Experimental Medicine, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 6Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Increases in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and shortening of relaxometry values manifest maturational changes, which reflect distinct biological properties of tissue that need not be related. To investigate these markers of maturation we correlated MTR and T1 measurements using scans from fifteen neonates born between 24 and 31 weeks gestational age, scanned after birth. Six structures representing different stages of myelination in the immature brain were segmented. MTR varied linearly with T1, with similar slopes for all regions studied but significantly different intercepts. Interestingly, a different order of structures was demonstrated for MTR and T1 values.

2484.   White matter biomarker from DTI for children with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) 
Hao Huang1, Tien Nguyen2, Linsley Smith3, Nancy Clegg3, and Mauricio Delgado3
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Arlington, TX, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Dallas, TX, United States

DT-MRI is sensitive to subtle white matter structural changes which play essential roles in motor dysfunction of children with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP). The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) can be used to quantify “severity” of this disease related to motor outcome. Few studies have been conducted to survey the entire white matte to find the most sensitive white matter region which can be used for early diagnosis. Our goal is to find an effective white matter biomarker most sensitive to the severity of motor impairment of HSP for early diagnosis.

2485.   Neuroanatomical associates of the cognitive and motor abnormalities found in children with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency 
emma a Webb1, Michelle O'Reilly2, Jon Clayden2, Kiran Seunarine2, Tina Banks3, WK Chong3, Naomi Dale3, Alison Salt3, Mehul Dattani2, and Chris A Clark2
1Institute of Child health, london, uk, United Kingdom, 2Institute of Child health, 3Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children

Growth hormone (GH) plays an important role in normal brain development. However, its effect on brain growth and cognition in GH deficient individuals continues to be debated. We investigated a cohort of children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) using cognitive and motor skills assessment, volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and compared the findings with those in a cohort of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the presence of white matter abnormalities in the cortico-spinal tract and basal ganglia abnormalities, in association with deficits in cognitive function and motor performance, in children with IGHD. These findings provide evidence that the GH-IGF-1 axis plays a role in neural development.

2486.   Decrease in white matter volumes and commensurate deficits in neuropsychological performance following radiation therapy in children 
Steven A. Messina1, Rebecca Martin2, Trisha Hay2, Gerard Deib1, E. M. Mahone2,3, Wendy R. Kates2,4, and Alena Horska1
1Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins University College of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University College of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States

Longitudinal volumetric brain MRI analyses of patients undergoing brain radiation treatment for primary brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia demonstrate significantly decreased volumes of frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe white matter at 6 months following completion of radiation therapy when compared to age matched control subjects. Neuropsychological assessment including measures of attention, executive function, memory, language, and visual and motor skills were performed at each visit on patients and control subjects, and the subsequent intellectual and neurocognitive deficits exhibited by the patients corresponded with the resultant decreased lobar white matter volumes.

2487.   Preferential Posterior Damage of Central Visual Pathways in Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) : A TBSS and Probabilistic Tractography Study 
Rafael Ceschin1, Arabhi C Nagasunder2,3, Marvin D Nelson2, Stefan Bluml2,3, and Ashok Panigrahy1,2
1Radiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, United States

Children with a history of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) are susceptible to a spectrum of central visual pathway dysfunction. Our study aimed to determine whether there is preferential injury in tracts involved in central visual pathways in a cohort of children with PVL in whom we have previously demonstrated selective pulvinar microstructural abnormality. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), deterministic and probabilistic tractography demonstrate that while this cohort demonstrates widespread central white matter abnormalities, there is a preferential posterior extra-thalamic white matter injury involving the splenium and posterior thalamic radiations.

2488.   Early myelination in the very preterm brain – A combined MTR-DTI study 
Revital Nossin-Manor1,2, Dallas Card1, Drew J Morris1, Margot J Taylor1,2, and John G Sled3,4
1Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Neurosciences & Mental Health, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Physiology Experimental Medicine, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

MTR and DTI have been used to quantify maturation. MTR is related to myelin concentrations, whereas DTI parameters manifest restriction of water movement in tissue. We compare these modalities in very preterm neonates (<32 weeks gestational age) using voxel based analysis to propose a multi-modal approach towards a complete description of the maturation-myelination processes taking place in white and gray matter structures. Twenty-two neonates born between 27 to 31 weeks and scanned after birth were included. Voxel based linear regressions of FA against MTR values revealed different trends across brain regions separating axonal maturation into two components: order and myelination.

2489.   Probing micro-structural information using the CHARMED model in the non-myelinated human newborn brain at 3T 
Nicolas Kunz1, Hui Zhang2, Kieran R O'brien3, Yaniv Assaf4, Daniel Alexander2, François Lazeyras5, and Petra S Hüppi1,6
1Division of development and growth, department of pediatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Computer Science, University College London, United Kingdom,3Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, CIBM-Siemens Development group, University of Lausanne, University of Geneva and EPFL, 4Tel Aviv University, Neurobiology department, 5Department of Radiology-CIBM, Geneva University Hospitals, 6Department of Neurology, Children’s Hospital

DTI provides a unique insight of the cellular microstructure. However, the changes reported during brain development in diffusion tensor derived parameters (e.g. FA, MD) cannot be directly transposed on physical cellular process such as the myelination stage or axonal density. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-shell q-ball acquisition in human newborns of 3 months old at 3T, and to validate the CHARMED reconstruction model in the non-myelinated brain. This study demonstrate that water experienced restricted diffusion in the CC and Cst at a b-value > 2000 s/mm2 in human newborn brain.

2490.   Hippocampal shape variations in very preterm infants 
Deanne Kim Thompson1,2, Christopher Adamson1, Nathan Faggian2, Stephen J Wood3,4, Gehan Roberts1, Jeremy Lim1, Simon K Warfield5, Marc Seal1, Peter J Anderson1, Lex W Doyle1,6, Gary F Egan2, and Terrie E Inder1,7
1Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 2Florey Neurosciences Institute, Centre for Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 3Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 4School of Psychiatry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 5Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 7Department of Pediatrics, St Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, United States

The hippocampus is vulnerable in prematurity. Hippocampal shape alterations have been previously associated with various neurological disorders. This study is the first to examine hippocampal shape changes in very preterm infants, and to investigate shape changes in response to perinatal exposures. Hippocampi were segmented, and the SPHARM-PDM tool was utilized in 184 very preterm and 32 full-term infants. Working memory assessments were performed at 5 years. Very preterm infants showed a diffuse pattern of hippocampal shape change. Shape changes were associated with lung disease and white matter injury. Working memory performance was not associated with hippocampal shape change.

2491.   Cortical thinning in children with frontal lobe epilepsy 
Elysa Widjaja1, Sina Zarei Mahmoodabadi1, O. Carter Snead1, Abeer Almehdar1, and Mary Lou Smith1
1Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Rapid spread of seizure activity due to cortico-cortical connections is likely to result in alteration in cortical thickness within and beyond the frontal lobes in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). We investigated the cortical thickness of children with intractable FLE. The cortical thickness of 17 children with intractable FLE, 12 left FLE and 5 right FLE, and normal MRI were compared with 26 normal controls. We have found frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical thinning, in both right and left FLE patients. Frontal and extra-frontal cortical thinning may reflect the epileptogenic network in FLE.

2492.   Tract-based spatial statistics investigation of the effects of hypothermic therapy for neonatal encephalopathy in a South Indian neonatal unit 
David L Price1, Suhdin Thayyil2, Sonya Mahony1, Alan Bainbridge1, Frances M Cowan3, M Ayer4, B Guhan4, Neil Marlow2, S Shankaran5, Ernest B Cady1, and Nicola J Robertson2
1Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London Hospital Foundation NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom, 2Institute for Womens Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Institute of Clinical Science, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India, 5School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Michigan, United States

Although therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves neurological outcomes and reduces brain injury following asphyxial neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in high-income countries, its efficacy cannot be extrapolated to low and mid income countries because of different population co-morbidities. We assessed the effect of TH on brain tissue injury following NE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysed by Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) at a neonatal unit in South India. 12 infants were randomly allocated to TH and 12 to standard care. There was no significant fractional anisotropy (FA) difference between the two groups indicating a similar degree of injury to the white matter tracts.

2493.   Longitudinal changes in infant brain metabolites at age 6 and 13 months using 3D high-speed MR spectroscopic imaging at 3 Tesla 
Chenying Yang1, Neva Corrigan2, Mindy Olson3, Dennis Shaw2,3, Stefan Posse4, and Stephen Dager1
1Department of Radiology and Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 3Seattle Children's, Seattle, WA, United States, 4Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

A novel chemical imaging method, 3-D Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging, using high spatial resolution, short echo-time and short measurement time was applied to study infants brain development longitudinally at 6 and 12 months. The preliminary findings demonstrated the feasibility of a rapid 3D MR spectroscopic imaging protocol to evaluate metabolite changes during brain development in infants, and to further apply this approach to evaluate risk factors in abnormalities of Autism.

2494.   Development of Cerebellar Connectivity in Fetal Human Brains Revealed by Diffusion Tractography 
Emi Takahashi1, Emiko Hayashi1, Hannah Kinney1, Rebecca D Folkerth2, and P. Ellen Grant1
1Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United States, 2Brigham and Women's Hospital

Our understanding of the human cerebellum development has not advanced at the same level as our understanding of the cerebrum development, because it is especially difficult to image 3-dimensional cerebellar connectivity using diffusion tractography. Here, we applied high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) tractography to intact postmortem fetal cerebellums to explore the development of cerebellum pathways. Our results show the usefulness of HARDI tractography to image developing cerebellar connectivity. We observed regression of radial organization in the cerebellar cortex and the emergence of regional specificity of cerebellar peduncles that were similar to our previous observations on the development of cerebral cortex.

2495.   T2 layering pattern changes in primary motor cortex in the first two years of life: a study on normal children. 
Andrea Righini1, Andreana Ardemagni1, Thomas J Re1, Cecilia Parazzini1, Chiara Doneda1, Filippo Arrigoni1, and Fabio Triulzi1
1Radiology, Children's Hospital V. Buzzi, Milan, Italy

Very scarce imaging data are available on the cortical rim layering pattern over the first two years of life. We collected normative data on cortical ribbon appearance of maturing primary motor cortex analysing the signal profile of high spatial resolution T2-weighted images. Four patterns of cortical signal profile were detected by visual evaluation, which were confirmed by signal intensity plots; intracortical “train track like” pattern appeared to be the dominant (longer lasting) during first two years of life.

2496.   Longitudinal shape analysis of lateral ventricles during the first year of human life 
Shun Xu1, Hongtu Zhu2, Martin Styner1,3, Wei Gao4, Valerie Jewells5, Dinggang Shen1,4, and Weili Lin4,6
1Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States, 2Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States, 3Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States, 4Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States, 5Neuroradiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States,6Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States

It is prominent to be able to determine the normal growth patterns of brain structures in healthy infants and young children. However, such information is lacking for the first year of human life. In this ongoing longitudinal study, subjects were scanned repeatedly every 3 months during the first year of age. We developed longitudinal shape statistical methods to study the growth pattern of the lateral ventricles of the brain, and obtained significant findings that the growth of lateral ventricles at different locations/regions is not uniform or congruent during the first year of life, with the frontal and caudal ends of the ventricle extend most rapidly towards the anterior and posterior directions respectively and the mid-body remains relatively constant.

2497.   Atypical white matter microstructural integrity pattern in children with high functioning autism and low functioning autism identified with tract based spatial statistics 
Vijay Narayan Tiwari1,2, Jeong-Won Jeong1, Senthil K. Sundaram1, Harry T. Chugani3, and Diane C. Chugani4
1Pediatrics, Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2PET center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 3Pediatrics, Neurology, Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 4Pediatrics, Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States

In this study, we have applied tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) to assess fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI data in children with ASD with normal cognitive function (high functioning autism, HFA) or with impaired cognitive function (low functioning autism, LFA) compared to a group of typically developing children. The LFA group has more extensive involvement of cerebellum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) as compared to the HFA group. Bilateral clusters in the region of thalamus were found in LFA group whereas bilateral parahippocampal clusters were exclusively observed in HFA group.

2498.   Abnormal diffusivity changes in white matter regions of the children with autism spectrum disorder: comparison of TBSS, TSPOON, and SPM analysis 
Jeong-Won Jeong1, Ajay Kumar1, Senthil K. Sundaram1, Harry T. Chigani1, and Diane C. Chugani2
1Pediatrics, Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are well known pediatric developmental disorders that are typically characterized by impaired language, reciprocal social interaction, repetitive and stereotypical behaviors. Many diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies point to both microscopic and macroscopic white matter (WM) abnormalities in children with ASD. Although these studies have showed significant changes in diffusivity of WM pathways in ASD, the localization of affected WM region seems to highly depend on several factors such as how diffusivity maps are spatially registered and how resulting maps are analyzed across subjects (voxel-based vs. skeleton-based). To abbreviate this problem in investigating the changes of WM integrity that are manifest in children with ASD, this study combined three complimentary analyses including tract-based spatial statistical analysis (TBSS, skeleton based), tissue specific smoothing compensation analysis (TSPOON, voxel based), and conventional statistical parametric mapping analysis (SPM, voxel based) .

2499.   Quantitative morphometry analysis of the fetal brain using clinical MR imaging 
Meritxell Bach Cuadra1, Gabriele Bonanno1, Laurent Guibaud2, Stephan Eliez3, Jean-Philippe Thiran1, and Marie Schaer1,3
1Signal Processing Laboratories (LTS5), EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, France, 3Psychiatry Department, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland

We present a preliminary quantitative morphometry analysis of the fetal brain using clinical MR imaging. Our segmentation's and reconstruction's pipeline do not use any anatomical prior from atlases, thus our method can potentially answer clinically relevant question such as the true developmental age of the fetus without being biased by its biological age.

2500.   Quantitative proton MRS in a clinical setting for diagnosis and collection of reference data for children 
Marinette van der Graaf1,2, Bozena Góraj1, Cindy P.M. Frentz1, and Arend Heerschap1
1Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Clinical Physics Laboratory of the Dept of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Presently, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in clinical routine is still limited. We added one short single voxel PRESS measurement of white matter to the standard cerebral screening MR protocol for children performed by technicians in order (i) to obtain information on cerebral metabolite levels of the patient; (ii) to collect reference MRS data and (iii) to familiarize more technicians and radiologists with MRS. 13% of the MRS spectra obtained from 140 children showed a pathological pattern with diagnostic information. The rest of the spectra was used as reference data providing metabolite levels as a function of age.

2501.   DTI based tractography of fetal association fiber tracts in utero 
Christian Mitter1, Peter Christian Brugger2, Laura Perju-Dumbrava3, Daniela Prayer1, and Gregor Kasprian1
1Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

So far the 3-dimensional morphology of major white matter association fiber tracts and their development has not been successfully visualized and characterized in the living human fetus in utero. We used DTI based tractography to depict major association fiber pathways in 8 unsedated fetuses between gestational week 20 and 34. Non motion-degraded high quality 1.5 Tesla axial diffusion tensor sequences were selected and postprocessing with tractography was performed by using a multiple ROI approach. By using tractography we were able to visualize major cortical association fiber tracts like the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus.

2502.   Dynamics of the Upper Airway and Application to Sleep Apnea 
Raanan Arens1, Michael L Lipton2, Sanghun Sin1, and Mark E Wagshul2
1Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a growing public health problem affecting children and adolescents, linked to the rising prevalence of obesity in these age groups. Adequate assessment of interventions requires an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology including the precise temporal and anatomic features of upper airway obstruction. We developed a retrospectively-gated, 3D sequence to capture the dynamics of airway anatomy across the respiratory cycle. The sequence allows high-quality reconstruction of the airway from a single dynamic and multi-plane reconstruction for assessing local changes in airway anatomy over time. Real-time dynamics of airway obstruction can be studied with such a technique.

2503.   Towards the "Baby Connectome": Mapping the Structural Connectivity of the Newborn Brain 
Olga Tymofiyeva1, Christopher P Hess1, Nan Tian1, Donna M Ferriero2,3, A James Barkovich1,3, and Duan Xu1
1Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States

The characterization of the full connectivity structure of the human brain (the human "connectome") is a basic challenge in neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to establish a procedure of noninvasively mapping the structural connectivity of the newborn brain. Based on DTI imaging, a baby connectome was assembled capturing the common axonal connectivity pattern of the brain cortex across ten 6 month old babies. Network graph analysis was applied to the obtained connectivity matrix. The procedure established in this study can be applied to newborns of different age including premature babies, revealing structural maturation of the brain.

2504.   MRI Evidence of Brain Structure Alterations in Adolescence Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine 
Xu Chen1, Sonia Minnes2, Miaoping Wu2, John Jesberger1, Lynn Singer3,4, and Jean Tkach1,5
1Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Mandel School of Applies Social Sciences, CWRU, 3Pediatrics, CWRU, 4Environmental Health Sciences, CWRU,5Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH, United States

The structural effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the developing brain are not well studied, particularly with the potential confounds of the environment as well as other prenatal drug exposure. In this study, we investigated the structural gray and white matter alterations in PCE adolescence using the analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) respectively. After controlling for polydrug exposure and home quality environment, anatomically related gray and white matter alterations were revealed for PCE adolescence in both the right frontal lobe and the superior parietal lobule.

2505.   Longitudinal Regional Brain Development in Infants from Four to Nine Months of Age 
Arvind Caprihan1, Mustafa S Cetin1, Joy Van Meter2, Jean R Lowe3, and John P Phillips2,4
1Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 2Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, United States, 4Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, United States

We report normal developmental changes in regional brain tissue volumes in children from four to nine months of age. This is a longitudinal study where the growth of each child is individually studied. This data will be useful in mapping the trajectory of normal brain development during the child’s first year, which is usually accompanied by rapid growth. The data allows us to study the normal trajectory of brain development. The average growth in brain volume was 20% with the gray matter having the fastest growth of 34%. In the paired analysis for the longitudinal analysis the gray matter had the fastest growth in the subgenual regions (69%), and the white matter had the fastest growth in the DLPF region (29%).

2506.   Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the brain of adolescent binge drinkers 
Caroline Rae1, Maree Teesson2, Monique Bucci3, and Roland G Henry3
1Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia, 2NDARC, The University of New South Wales, Australia, 3UCSF, United States

In animal studies, binge alcohol consumption has been shown to have deleterious effects. Here, we examined the effects of binge consumption on the brains of adolescents aged 16-17 yo using MRI and MRS. Binge drinkers, while not showing deleterious effects on cellular markers, did have significantly elevated frontal Glx. There was also an effect of gender on Glx levels, which correlated with depression and anxiety levels in drinkers and related to alcohol consumption.

2507.   DTI Evaluation of White Matter integrity in Long Term Survivors of Pediatric Low Grade Gliomas 
Fang Liu1, Frank Wang1, Uri Tabori2, Eric Bouffet2, Katrin Scheinemann3, and Donald J. Mabbott1
1Neurosciences & Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

White matter integrity following treatment for PLGG has not been examined. We investigated the differences in white matter integrity between the long-term PLGG survivors and healthy controls and specifically DTI measures of brain white matter integrity between these groups. FA was significantly lower in PLGG patients versus healthy control children in multiple areas, including bilateral occipital WM regions, corpus callosum splenium, and the brain stem. These findings provide evidence for significant white matter compromise in patients diagnosed with and treated for PLGG.

2508.   Can Magnetic Resonance Imaging R2* Quantitation Elucidate Acute Cerebral Malaria Pathology? 
James E Siebert1, Matthew T Latourette1, Michael J Potchen1, Colleen A Hammond1, Gretchen L Birbeck2, J Kevin DeMarco1, Samuel D Kampondeni3, Karl B Seydel3,4, and Terrie E Taylor3,4
1Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States, 2International Neurologic & Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States,3Blantyre Malaria Project, University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi, 4Internal Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States

This project investigates the potential for R2* quantitation to measure local cerebral malaria (CM) disease via R2* modulation by [hemozoin] and microhemorrhage. A 0.35T MRI scanner in Blantyre, Malawi acquired 2D GRE images at 5 TE values and R2* maps were computed. The most prevalent locations for abnormal elevated R2* values in CM patients were in the pons (100%), internal capsule (78%), and periventricular white matter (89%). R2* maps discriminated the 3 normals from 9 CM patients. These first ever CM R2* maps suggest there is a detectable R2* modulation arising from local [hemozoin] and microhemorrhage even at 0.35T.

Traditional Posters : Neuroimaging
Click on to view the abstract pdf and click on to view the pdf of the poster viewable in the poster hall.
Imaging in Psychiatric Disorders

Thursday May 12th
Exhibition Hall  13:30 - 15:30

2509.   Similar traits of white matter disruption for major depression disorder (MDD) and high risk MDD of adolescents 
Hao Huang1, Xin Fan1, and Uma Rao2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

Unipolar Depression is among the leading causes of disability world-wide. Adolescence is the highest risk period for the development of unipolar depressive disorder, and there is evidence for an increasing secular trend. To test whether the white matter changes precede the onset of illness, a total of 43 adolescent subjects were recruited and underwent diffusion tensor imaging studies. An automated tract-based spatial statistics method incorporating JHU digital white matter atlas was used to analyze the scans. Pair-wise comparisons revealed lower FA values for both MDD and HR-MDD at identical white matter tracts, indicating similar traits of white matter disruption.

2510.   Proton MRS Reveals Striatal and Anterior Cingulate GABA Deficits in Adolescents with Tourette’s Disorder 
Vilma Gabbay1, Barbara Coffey1, Xiangling Mao2, Benjamin Ely1, Aviva Panzer1, James S Babb3, Nora Weiduschat2, and Dikoma C Shungu2
1Child Study Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

Abnormal GABA levels have been linked to Tourette’s disorder (TD) in preclinical studies, but no study to date has quantified brain GABA levels in TD subjects in vivo. We hypothesized that in TD subjects, GABA would be decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum, regions strongly implicated in the disorder. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we determined GABA levels in the ACC in 12 TD subjects and 20 controls, and in the striatum of 8 TD subjects and 8 controls. We found significantly decreased GABA levels in both regions in the TD group relative to the control group.

2511.   Advanced MRI Detection of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in US Military Personnel: Early Prediction of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Severity 
Christine MacDonald1, Dana Cooper1, Ann Johnson1, Elliot Nelson2, Nicole Werner1, Joshua Shimony3, Abraham Snyder3, Marcus Raichle3, John Witherow4, Raymond Fang5, Stephen Flaherty5,6, and David Brody1
1Neurology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 2Psychiatry, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 3Radiology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 4Radiology, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Landstuhl, Germany, 5Trauma Surgery, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Landstuhl, Germany, 6Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States

Current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, estimate numbers of blast-related TBIs as high as 320,000. Most are categorized as uncomplicated “mild” TBI from clinical criteria and absence of intracranial pathology on CT or conventional MRI. Little is known about these “mild” injuries and the relationship between TBI and PTSD remains controversial. In the current study, early abnormalities in white matter regions analyzed on DTI strongly predicted PTSD severity 6-12 months later. Blast-related axonal injury in specific brain regions may contribute to PTSD symptoms. Early DTI-based detection of axonal injury could aid triage and proactive PTSD treatment planning following blast-related TBI.

2512.   1H MRS Provides Evidence of Altered Frontal Cortex GABA and Glutamate-Glutamine in Schizophrenia In Vivo 
Lawrence S. Kegeles1,2, Xiangling Mao3, Arielle Stanford1, Najate Ojeil1, Beatriz Alvarez1, Ragy R. Girgis1, Roberto Gil1, Anissa Abi-Dargham1,2, Sarah H. Lisanby1, and Dikoma C. Shungu3
1Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

We used proton MRS to evaluate GABA and glutamate-glutamine (Glx) levels in frontal cortex in schizophrenia, an illness in which postmortem studies suggest frontal cortex GABA deficits. In the anterior cingulate but not the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, we instead found elevations in GABA and Glx in unmedicated patients compared to controls and medicated patients. These findings are opposite to the deficits found in major depression. They also suggest that antipsychotic medications may lower frontal GABA and glutamate to the normal range. These results are discussed in relation to postmortem GABA data and the NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia.

2513.   Diffusion tensor imaging of intact and injured rat hippocampus–Histopathological correlates for alterations caused by status epilepticus and traumatic brain injury 
Alejandra Sierra1, Teemu Laitinen1, Asla Pitkänen1,2, and Olli Gröhn1
1Department of Neurobiology, A.I. Virtanen for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, 2Department of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate cellular and tissue level features influence anisotropic diffusion of water in sub-regions of rat hippocampus. High resolution color-coded FA maps can detect tissue structure in hippocampus and etiology specific alterations after injury caused by status epilepticus (SE) or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our data indicate that diffusion anisotropy is influenced not only by major myelinated fiber bundles but also by other structures, e.g. neurons, in the hippocampus. These results shed light to cellular and tissue level alterations underlying diffusion anisotropy changes outside major white matter tracts and set the scene for even more wide use of DTI as a biomedical research tool and in diagnostics.

2514.   Towards a tract-based atlas of mouse brain maturation and gender differences 
Madhura Ingalhalikar1, Stathis Kanterakis1, Drew Parker1, Christos Davatzikos1, and Ragini Verma1
1Section of Biomedical Image Analysis, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

In this study we lay the foundation of a tract-based atlas of mouse maturation. Fiber tracking was performed in the cortex and the corpus callosum (CC) on the spatially normalized DT images of the C57BL/6J mice at various ages. The tracts in the cortical regions revealed radially oriented fibers in young mice that reduced on maturation, reflecting the growth of randomly oriented dendritic trees. In young females the fiber density dropped faster than in males till adolescence after which they progressed similarly. In the CC, the fiber density increased with maturation characterizing perhaps more organized axonal pathways and myelination.

2515.   Importance of Cardiac Rhythm in the assessment of Flow Rate and Stroke Volume in CSF flow 
Mario Forjaz Secca1,2
1Cefitec, Dep. of Physics, Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica, Portugal, 2Ressonância Magnética de Caselas, Lisboa, Portugal

Two different parameters are used in assessment of CSF flow abnormality at the Aqueduct for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Stroke Volume and Flow rate, leading to contradictory results. The data from 457 older patients out of our 731 studied, in conjunction with the variation of both values with heart rate on volunteers showed that both parameters are highly affected by cardiac rhythm, but SV is more affected. Therefore measurements should be accompanied by a recording of the cardiac rhythm with reference to the basal cardiac rhythm of the patient. Our analysis also suggests FR is a better parameter to evaluate NPH.

2516.   Simultaneous Perfusion MRI and FET-PET 
Ke Zhang1, Joachim Bernhard Maria Kaffanke1, Christian Filß1, Gabriele Stoffels1, Irene Neuner1,2, Karl-Josef Langen1, Hans Herzog1, and N. Jon Shah1,3
1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Medical Imaging Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425, Juelich, Germany, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, JARA, RWTH Aachen University, Faculty of Medicine, 52074 Aachen, Germany, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, JARA, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany

PET imaging using radiolabelled amino acids tracer can specifically deliver valuable information about tumour extent, malignancy, and tumour recurrence. Perfusion MRI, which measures microcirculatory parameters such as cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV), can precisely investigate vascular malformation, and help classify and grade brain tumours. In this study, FET-PET and perfusion MRI data were simultaneously acquired using a hybrid 3T MR-PET scanner [1,2]; data from a representative human brain tumour case are presented. After combination with MP-RAGE, this technique offers the opportunity to establish a reliable diagnosis of brain tumours and assessment of metabolism after therapy.

2517.   Cerebral blood flow response to hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes 
Silvia Mangia1, Federico De Martino2, Nolawit Tesfaye3, Anjali Kumar3, and Elizabeth Seaquist3
1CMRR - Dept. of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Dept. of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands, 3Dept. of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured at 3T using pulsed arterial spin labeling in 7 patients with type-1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness and in 7 age-matched controls, during conditions of normoglycemia and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Results demonstrate that controls have generally lower CBF as compared to patients in normoglycemic conditions. During hypoglycemia, CBF increases in controls in several brain regions, including the thalamus, whereas this hemodynamic response is significantly reduced in patients.

2518.   Abnormal resting state functional connectivity as a marker for diagnosing and predicting recovery in mild traumatic brain injury 
guangyu chen1, Thomas Hammeke2, gang chen1, Michael McCrea2, Barney Douglas Ward1, Sarah Miller3, and Shi-Jiang Li1,4
1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, milwaukee, wisconsin, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, milwaukee, wisconsin, United States, 3St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, Enid, Oklahoma, United States, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, milwaukee, wisconsin, United States

Mild traumatic brain (mTBI) injury shows significant functional connectivity changing between several cortex regions including hippocampus, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus et al, and several cerebellar regions. These functional connections also can be used to monitor the recovery processing in seven weeks. Some of these connections have significant correlation with memory and balance performance scores.

2519.   Brain bioenergetic changes caused by transcranial direct current stimulation; a 31P MRS study 
Caroline Rae1, Vincent Lee2, Colleen Loo3, and Roger Ordidge4
1Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia, 2School of Medical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia, 3School of Psychiatry, The University of New South Wales, Australia, 4Dept of Medical Physics, University College London, United Kingdom

We studied 9 normal subjects using a 3T-compatible transcranial direct current stimulator to apply anodal stimulation over the DLPFC in a sham-controlled study. 31P MR spectra were obtained from the fronto-temporal lobe before, during and for 20 min following stimulation. Intracellular pH, ATP and PCr were increased by tDCS, with pH and ATP rising rapidly during stimulation. PCr increased over time and continued to increase following stimulation, while inorganic phosphate decreased. These data show that direct current stimulation increases brain bioenergetic capacity, through net synthesis of ATP followed by equilibration with PCr.

2520.   Increased striatal iron accumulation in methamphetamine users 
Yosef A. Berlow1,2, David L Lahna3,4, Daniel L Schwartz3,4, Alex D Mitchell5, Alexander A Stevens2,3, William D Rooney1,2, and William F. Hoffman3,5
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 4Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, United States, 5Mental Health and Clinical Neurosciences Division, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, United States

Animal models have demonstrated that methamphetamine (MA) administration is associated with increased iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. This study used MRI techniques to investigate the effects of MA abuse on iron accumulation in human MA users. T2 weighted images from 37 individuals with a history of MA dependence and 33 control subjects were compared using region of interest and voxelwise approaches. Individuals with a history of MA dependence had lower T2 signal intensities in the caudate and putamen, consistent with increased iron accumulation. These results provide evidence that iron accumulation within the striatum is increased in human MA users.

2521.   MRI and histological evidence for the blockade of Cuprizone-induced Demyelination in C57/Bl6 mice by Quetiapine 
Prasant Chandran1, Jaymin Upadhyay1, Stella Markosyan2, Andrew Lisowski3, Wayne Buck3, Gerard B Fox1, Mark Day1, and Feng Luo1
1Translational Imaging and Biochemistry, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, United States, 2Neuroscience Discovery, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, United States, 3Cellular and Molecular Exploratory Toxicology, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, United States

Clinical neuroimaging studies have revealed that the schizophrenic brains exhibit oligodendrocytic white matter abnormalities. However, there is a lack of preclinical in vivo imaging assays addressing this issue. In the present study, mice fed with cuprizone mixed in diet exhibit myelin breakdown which was visualized using T2-weighted anatomical and Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging techniques. This was further confirmed by histological and immunohistochemistry staining methods. However, these pathological changes were prevented in cuprizone-exposed mice co-administered with quetiapine. These results suggest that the cuprizone-exposed mouse is a potential animal model to investigate the impact of treatments on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

2522.   Intra-orbital distance as a record of social brain dysmorphology in autism. 
Charlton Cheung1, Kevin Yu1, Antonia Yam2, Valencia Myint3, Yan Fung Yee4, Siew Chua5,6, and Grainne Mary McAlonan5,7
1Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, 2Neuroscience, University of Bristol, United Kingdom, 3Psychology, University of Cardiff, United Kingdom, 4University of Harvard, United States, 5Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 6State Key Laboratory for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, 7Key State Laboratory for Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Minor Physical Anomalies (MPAs) arise during the first trimester of prenatal life and occur more frequently in autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders. We measured intra-orbital distances from T1 weighted images of children with autism aged 6 – 16 years and typically developing peers. We report a significant increase in intra-orbital distance in autism. Using voxel-wise linear regression analysis intra-orbital distances were found to positively correlate with the volume of inferio-temporal regions including the amygdala in the autism group only. We suggest that intra-orbital MPA may provide a ‘fossil’ record of much earlier childhood brain expansion in autism.

2523.   The Siena/FSL whole brain atrophy measurement algorithm may require substantially larger group sizes at 3T than 1.5T for Alzheimer's disease 
Keith S Cover1, Ronald A van Schijndel2, Bob W van Dijk3, Alberto Redolfi4, Dirk L Knol5, Giovanni B Frisoni4, Frederik Barkhof2, and Hugo Vrenken2,6
1Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands,3Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4Laboratory of Epidemiology & Neuroimaging, IRCCS San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy, 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 6MS Center Amsterdam and Alzheimer Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

The back-to-back (BTB) reproducibility at both 3T and 1.5T of the Siena/FSL brain atrophy measurement algorithm was assessed. The BTB MPRAGEs at both 3T and 1.5T of 118 subjects, including MCI and AD patients, were acquired as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). A bootstrap simulation based on the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to estimate the group size required to detect a specified reduction in the disease progression. The 3T group sizes were consistently roughly 50% larger than those required by the 1.5T MPRAGEs. This preliminary result warrants further investigation into the underlying causes.

2524.   Dynamic response inhibition network in heroin addicts brain: evidence from functional neuroimaging with GO/Go-nogo task 
Zheng Yang1, Chunming Xie2,3, Yongcong Shao1, Liping Fu1, Gang Chen2, Wenjun Li2, Joseph Goveas4, Guangyu Chen2, Enmao Ye1, Lin Ma5, and Shi-Jiang Li2
1Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Science, Beijing, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 3Neurology, School of Clinical Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, People's Republic of, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 5The PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, People's Republic of

Reduction in the inhibitory control plays an important role in drug addiction. Recently, task-dependent neuroimaging studies have identified several brain regions involved in the response inhibition, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal cortex (MeFG), and cingulate cortex. However, little is known about the changes within the response inhibition network while performing a specific task in subjects with heroin addiction. In this study, we investigated the changes of the response inhibition network during Go/Go-nogo task in heroin addicts. We hypothesized that task-induced dynamic changes of the response inhibition network will be found in subjects with heroin addiction.

2525.   Decoupling of Intrinsic Insula Subregional Connectivity was Associated with Episodic Memory Decline in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment 
Chunming Xie1,2, Feng Bai1,3, Xiaobin Zhang1, Hui Yu1, Yongmei Shi3, Yonggui Yuan4, Alexander Cohen2, Joseph Goveas5, Gang Chen2, Wenjun Li2, Guangyu Chen2, Zheng Yang6, Zhijun Zhang3,4, and Shi-Jiang Li2
1Neurology, School of Clinical Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, People's Republic of, 2Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States,3Neurology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, People's Republic of, 4Institute of Neuropsychiatry of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, People's Republic of, 5Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 6Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Science, Beijing, Beijing, China, People's Republic of

Neuroimaging techniques have been widely employed to study the potential neural mechanisms underlying amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and identify the abnormalities of intrinsic connectivity networks in aMCI patients (1-3). However, little is known about the potential contribution of the insula subregional networks (ISNs) to cognitive performance in aMCI patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the contribution of ISNs to cognitive performance in aMCI patients.

2526.   In vivo MRI detection of HDAC5 during chronic amphetamine stimuli 
Christina H Liu1, Jinsheng Yang1, Jia Q Ren1, Charng-ming Liu1, Huifang Wang1, and Philip K Liu1
1Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States

Our research examines the mechanisms of adaptive memory in the effect of amphetamine –the drug that may have been used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, traumatic brain injury, narcolepsy, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome, and was used to diminish appetite. We have developed targeting MRI technology to view gene activities in live animal brains using micro DNA labelled- contrast agents. This technology has potential as a research tool to enable discovery of surrogate biomarkers to diagnose, target, and correlate the experimental therapies in the central nervous systems and in organs of other systems.

2527.   Multimodal assessment of medial temporal lobe function in schizophrenia 
Laura M Rowland1, Elena A Spieker1, Kimberly Kontson1, Kathryn W Buchanan1, Peter B Barker2, and Henry H Holcomb1,3
1Psychiatry, MPRC, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

This study examined the relationship between medial temporal lobe (MTL) biochemistry measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), MTL activation measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the integrity of the major white matter tract from the hippocampus measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in healthy and schizophrenia subjects. MTL multimodal measures predicted healthy and schizophrenia subject group membership. Subjects with schizophrenia displayed altered MTL activation, elevated hippocampal glutamate, and compromised fornix integrity. Results also provide evidence that relational learning relies on the MTL in healthy but not schizophrenia subjects

2528.   A 1H-MRS study of the auditory cortex in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 
Mark Steven Brown1, Katie Youngpeter2, Debra Singel3, Susan Hepburn2, and Don C Rojas2
1Radiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 2Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 3Brain Imaging Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States

1H-MRS of the left and right auditory cortex, centered around Heschl's gyrus, was performed on 11 subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 10 age matched controls. Metabolite concentrations were compared to a continuous measure of ASD symptom severity, the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Glutamate (Glu) and n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) were found to be greater on the left side in the ASD group then in the control group, with no differences found on the right side. The left side Glu was also inversely correlated with the communication subtest of the Autism Spectrum Quotient.

2529.   Alteration of Brain Metabolites in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and/or Major Depression Measured by Proton MR Spectroscopy at 3T 
Shaolin Yang1,2, Olusola Ajilore1, Minjie Wu3, Melissa Lamar1, and Anand Kumar1
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Neuology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

Type 2 diabetes and major depression are disorders that are mutual risk factors for each other. In order to understand the potentially shared pathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders, we examined their neurochemical basis using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T. By measuring metabolites in five brain regions (anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral frontal white matter, and bilateral subcortical regions that encompassed caudate nucleus) within four different subject groups (healthy control, depressed, diabetic, and diabetic depressed), we found alteration of glutamate and glutamine, choline, and myo-inositol between these patient groups.

2530.   Glutamate Correlations Between the Anterior Cingulate and Cerebellar Vermis 
Kevin Wayne Waddell1, Subechhya Pradhan2, Malcolm Avison1, and John Gore3
1Radiology, Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

Correlation networks among brain metabolites in the anterior cingulate (AC) and cerebellar vermis (CV) were measured with J-difference MRS. Glutamate varied linearly (r =0.61, p = 0.01) between the AC and the CV and additional inter-regional correlations were absent. Within both regions, correlations were observed between metabolites which were weakly significant when correcting for multiple comparisons (NAA and Glu; AC: r = 0.66, p = 0.01; CV: r = 0.64, p = 0.01). Correlations between and within these regions are potentially interesting and may enable further differentiation among disorders that involve the AC and CV acting in concert.

2531.   Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Genotype is Associated with Frontal Gray and White Matter Volume Recovery in Abstinent Alcohol Dependent Individuals 
Anderson Mon1, Timothy C Durazzo1, Kent Hutchison2, and Dieter J Meyerhoff1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Psychology, the MIND Institute, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States

In this report, we assessed the influence of BDNF, DRD2 and COMT genotype on the recovery of brain lobar tissue volumes in abstinent alcohol dependent individuals. We observed that only BDNF facilitates brain tissue recovery of the frontal lobe in short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals. In particular, the valine homozygous polymorphism is associated with greater tissue recovery than BDNF heterozygocity. This finding suggests that the amount of time needed by an individual to fully recover from the effects of chronic alcoholism is partly dependent on the individual’s genetic composition

2532.   Quantification of Cerebral Gene Activities In vivo by Gene-targeting MRI 
Christina Liu1, Jinsheng Yang1, Jia Q Ren1, Charng-Ming Liu1, and Philip Liu1
1Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States

In this work, we applied in vivo gene transcript targeting MRI technique and ex vivo Taqman probe-based gene analysis to quantify cerebral gene transcription. We found a positive correlation between in vivo MR signal change and cerebral gene activity as measured by messenger RNA (mRNA) copy number in the striatum of mouse brains. Such correlation advances this approach as a non-invasive method to quantitatively detect changes in gene transcription as well as mRNA-based cell typing in living brains.

2533.   Anterior Cingulate Metabolic Abnormalities in Late-Life Major Depression 
Olusola Ajilore1, Aifeng Zhang1, Rajakumar Nagarajan2, Albert Thomas2, and Anand Kumar1
1Psychiatry, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Unversity of California, Los Angeles

Previous studies have identified neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with late-life depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine biochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate using two-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Comparing 20 subjects with late-life major depression to 20 age and gender-matched controls, glycine and glutathione ratios were significantly elevated. Additionally, glycine and glutathione ratios were significantly correlated with severity of depression. This study provides preliminary evidence of metabolic alterations in the anterior cingulate that may be reflective of both excitotoxic and oxidative damage as mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of major depression.

2534.   MEG auditory evoked gamma phase locking correlates with 1H-MRS determined temporal lobe GABA levels 
Mark Steven Brown1, Peter Teale2, Dan Collins2, Bryce Pasko2, Debra Singel3, Don C Rojas2, and Martin Reite2
1Radiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, United States, 2Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 3Brain Imaging Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States

1H-MRS measurements of GABA/Cr correlate with MEG determined auditory evoked gamma band phase locking measurements in normal adult controls. The results suggest that MEG auditory evoked phase locking may be an index of GABAergic inhibitory interneuronal activity as indexed by GABA concentration. No previous studies have correlated MRS determined GABA concentration with auditory MEG phase locking metrics.

2535.   Effects of DTNBP1 (dysbindin) gene variants on hippocampal glutamate concentration determined by MRS at 3 T 
Florian Schubert1, Frank Seifert1, Christoph Wirth2, Andreas Klär2, Thomas Sander2, and Jürgen Gallinat2
1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany, 2Psychiatry, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany

DTNBP1 is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Reduced expression of DTNBP1 was found post mortem in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. We investigated the effects of genetic variants of DTNBP1 on the glutamate system and neuronal integrity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate of 79 healthy subjects using MRS at 3T. Hippocampal glutamate concentration was significantly affected by genotype of rs909706 and rs760665. The concentration of NAA was associated with rs760665. No metabolite measured in AC showed a significant connection with the genotypes. The results support a role of DTNBP1 gene variants for glutamate neurotransmission in hippocampus.

2536.   Effect of psychostimulants on basal ganglia structures in young ADHD children 
Laura Cyckowski1, Carolyn McIlree2, Brian Avants3, Philip Cook3, Melissa Narain4, Ruth Milanaik5, Li Kan5, Jeffrey Newcorn6, Josephine Elia7, James Gee3, Andrew Adesman8, and Manzar Ashtari7
1Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, United States, 3University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore LIJ Health Systems, Glen Oaks, NY, United States, 5Schneider Children's Hospital, New Hyde Park, NY, United States, 6Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 7Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 8Schneider Children's Hospital, New Hyde Park, PA, United States

Basal ganglia volumes in medicated (n=11) and med-naïve (n=20) ADHD children (7-11 years) and matched healthy controls (n=25) were analyzed. Images were obtained on a GE 1.5T magnet and analyzed with ANTS software. Partial correlations (controlling for brain volume) of basal ganglia volumes with Conners' hyperactivity scores showed a correlation for the right caudate in med-naïve subjects. Correlation analyses between duration of medication exposure in the medicated group and basal ganglia volumes revealed a negative partial correlation for the left (r=-0.61; p=0.032) and the right caudate (r=-0.51; p=0.06) with medication duration, with a longer duration corresponding to a smaller caudate.

2537.   Voxel-based morphometry in assessing a rat model of impulsivity: agreement with targeted Western blot analysis 
Stephen John Sawiak1,2, Daniele Caprioli3, E Merlo3, D Theobald3, B J Everitt3, T W Robbins2,3, T A Carpenter1, and Jeffrey W Dalley3,4
1Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, United Kingdom, 2Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom,3Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Voxel-based morphometry is used to identify areas of grey matter changes based on scores measured in a rat model of impulsivity. Significant reductions in grey matter correlating with impulsivity score are found in the nucleus accumbens and parietal cortex, and these are pursued with Western blot analysis. Protein changes found match the pattern of results found in VBM, showing that MRI and VBM are useful in this model to provide insight into impulsivity and brain structure.

2538.   Probing axon- and myelin-specific white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia using MRI/MRS 
Dost Ongur1, Fei Du1, Bruce M Cohen2, Alissa Cooper1, Scott Lukas2, and Perry F Renshaw3
1Psychotic Disorders Division, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, United States, 2McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, United States, 3Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies commonly report reduced WM integrity in schizophrenia but the biological nature of this phenomenon is unknown. In the current study, we used a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (a probe of myelin content) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (a probe of axon diameter) at 4 Tesla in a pure WM voxel underlying prefrontal cortex to examine myelin- and axon-related abnormalities separately in healthy individuals and matched participants with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with reduced myelin complement and increased axonal diameter in schizophrenia. Our work may provide novel treatment targets for this severe and chronic condition.

2539.   Hippocampal Structural MRI Abnormalities in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder 
Louise Emsell1,2, Camilla Langan1, Helen Casey1, Sarah Hehir1, Rory Nannery1, Wil Van Der Putten1, Peter McCarthy1, Colm McDonald1, and Dara M Cannon1
1NUI Galway, Galway, Co. Galway, Ireland, 2Developmental & Functional Brain Imaging, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

This study sought to identify trait related structural MRI abnormalities in the hippocampus in 60 prospectively confirmed euthymic bipolar I disorder patients compared to 60 individually age and gender matched controls. Hippocampi were traced manually using predefined anatomical boundaries. A repeated measures ANCOVA analysis including diagnosis, gender and hemisphere with age and total intracranial volume as covariates demonstrated subtle reductions in the hippocampal volume of patients bilaterally (p=0.046). There were no other significant findings including correlations within patients related to illness duration or medication status.

2540.   In vivo assessments of glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in schizophrenia 
Laura M Rowland1, Kimberly Kontson1, Jef T West1, He Zhu2, Elena A Spieker1, Henry H Holcomb1, and Peter B Barker2
1Psychiatry, MPRC, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) in medial prefrontal (MF) and centrum semiovale (CS) brain regions in healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Results showed reduced MF glutamate+glutamine and higher MF glutamate+glutamine/GABA ratios in chronic schizophrenia. These measures were related to performance on attention tasks. Higher CS NAAG levels were associated with greater negative symptoms in schizophrenia. These results provide further support of altered glutamatergic and GABAergic mechanisms in schizophrenia and illustrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements of GABA, glutamate, and NAAG in a single MR scan session.

2541.   Measurement of Creatine-Kinase Reaction Rate Constant in Human Brain using 31P Magnetization Transfer Image Selected In-vivo Spectroscopy (MT-ISIS): a Preliminary Application to Bipolar Disorder 
Xianfeng Shi1,2, Young-Hoon Sung1,3, Douglas G. Kondo1,3, Paul Carlson1,3, Tracy L. Hellem1, Kristen K. Delmastro1, SeongEun Kim2, Chun Zuo4,5, Eunkee Jeong2, and Perry F. Renshaw1,3
1The Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 4Brain Imaging Center, Harvard Med School, Belmont, MA, United States, 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Med School, Belmont, MA, United States

Synthesis of high energy phosphates such as phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role in supporting neuronal activity. Alternations in PCr and ATP concentrations have been observed in the brain of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion between PCr and ATP. Change in the CK reaction rate constant (kf)may be important in better understanding the pathophysiology of BD. By employing a phosphorus magnetization transfer, image selected in-vivo spectroscopy technique, kf in human brain for healthy volunteers and bipolar patients are presented.

2542.   White matter track integrity is not impaired by electroconvulsive therapy 
Erik B Beall1, Ken E Sakaie1, Sarah Szymkowicz2, David J Muzina3, Roman M Dale2, Donald A Malone2, Michael D Phillips1, and Mark J Lowe1
1Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Psychiatry and Psychology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Medco Neuroscience Therapeutic Resource Center, Fort Worth, TX, United States

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment for major depression. The consensus of past findings of white matter MRI of ECT that white matter track integrity measures are unaffected by the invasive treatment. However, none of these past studies have been performed using pre- and post-ECT imaging of the same subjects or using high-resolution whole brain fiber tracking to delineate pathways of interest. We present pre- and post-ECT white matter track integrity in ECT patients and confirm past observations that ECT has no effect on track integrity statistics in a controlled study.

2543.   Lower Glutathione Levels in Methamphetamine Users 
Steven Buchthal1, Linda Chang2, and Thomas Ernst2
1Dept. of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States, 2Dept. of Medicine, University of Hawaii

Methamphetamine (Meth) is a widely abused stimulant drug. Decreased glutathione (GSH) has been associated with greater neuronal loss in post-mortem brains of Meth users. The aim of this study was to determine whether Meth users have altered brain GSH using edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GSH was measured at 3 Tesla in the parietal region. GSH was 12% lower in Meth than control subjects ( p=0.003). GSH did not correlate with glutamate or NAA in this brain region. Lower glutathione in the methamphetamine users suggests lower anti-oxidant capacity which may render these individuals more susceptible to oxidative stress.

2544.   Free Water Modulation of White Matter Integrity Measures - with Application to Schizophrenia 
Ofer Pasternak1, Carl-Fredrik Westin1, Sylvain Bouix1, Martha E Shenton1,2, and Marek Kubicki1,2
1Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Brockton, MA, United States

We use the Free water analysis method to test the biophysical underpinnings of FA decreases in first episode Schizophrenia patients compared with matched controls. We find that an increase in the free water volume accounts for most group differences, otherwise explained with FA decrease and MD increase. Therefore it is unlikely that the FA reductions are caused by myelin (shape) changes, but rather by extra-cellular (volume) changes. Our findings lead us to speculate a new etiology for the early stages of Schizophrenia: a whole brain process affects the extra-cellular space, causing localized myelin deficiencies.