Psychiatric Disorders
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Monday 7 May 2012
Room 109-110  16:30 - 18:30 Moderators: Stefan Sunaert, Murat Yucel

16:30 0122.   
White matter microstructural changes in bipolar disorder: A HARDI CSD tractography study
Louise Emsell1,2, Alexander Leemans3, Wim Van Hecke4,5, Camilla Langan2, Gareth J Barker6, Peter McCarthy2, Stefan Sunaert1, Dara Cannon2, and Colm McDonald2
1Radiology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2NUI Galway, Ireland, 3Image Sciences Institute, UMC Utrecht, Netherlands, 4University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium,5icoMetrix, Belgium, 6Department of Neuroimaging, King's College London,Institute of Psychiatry, United Kingdom

Structural brain changes detected by diffusion tensor tractography have been reported in bipolar disorder. However the investigation of heterogeneous clinical populations and the limitations of the tensor model for tractography have resulted in contradictory findings. We used high angular resolution diffusion imaging and a constrained spherical deconvolution approach to improve tract delineation in crossing-fibre regions. We investigated anatomically defined subdivisions of the corpus callosum, cingulum and fornix in a sample of 35 prospectively confirmed euthymic bipolar 1 disorder patients and 44 healthy controls. We detected widespread reductions in fractional anisotropy and increases in diffusivity measures in patients compared to controls.

16:42 0123.   Disrupted White-Matter Structural Networks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Ni Shu1, Qingjiu Cao2, Li Sun2, Li An2, Peng Wang2, Jinhui Wang1, Mingrui Xia1, Yufeng Wang2, and Yong He1
1State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China

In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging and graph theoretical approaches to investigate the whole-brain white-matter connectional architecture in ADHD patients. We found disrupted topological organization of white¨Cmatter structural networks in ADHD patients. Both decreased and increased connections in the patients were mainly located in the frontal regions, insula and striatum structures, providing evidence for the hypothesis of abnormal fronto-striatal-insular circuitry in ADHD. Specifically, the disrupted connections in the fronto-insular component were associated with the inattention performances in patients, improving our understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying the behavior deficits in patients with ADHD.

16:54 0124.   
Ketamine decreases resting state functional connectivity between networks via the dorsal nexus: implications for major depression
Milan Scheidegger1,2, Martin Walter3, Mick Lehmann2, Coraline Metzger3, Simone Grimm2,4, Heinz Boeker2, Peter Boesiger1, Erich Seifritz2, and Anke Henning1
1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Clinic of Affective Disorders and General Psychiatry, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Department of Psychiatry, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany, 4Cluster Languages of Emotion, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Using resting state fMRI (rsfMRI), the „dorsal nexus“ (DN) was recently identified as a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex region showing increased depression-associated fMRI connectivity with portions of the cognitive control (CCN), the default mode (DMN), and the affective (AN) network. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study we report decreased connectivity of the sgACC (AN) and PCC (DMN) via the DN 24 hours following the administration of an antidepressant dose of ketamine. We conclude that reducing the hyperconnectivity via the DN may play a critical role in reducing depressive symptomatology and thus represent a systems level mechanism of antidepressant treatment response.

17:06 0125.   Activation and deactivation in the cerebellum in schizophrenia studied using verbal working memory fMRI
Kayako Matsuo1, S.H. Annabel Chen2, Chih-Min Liu3, Chen-Chung Liu3, Hai-Go Hwu3, and Wen-Yih I Tseng1
1National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Division of Psychology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

We applied verbal working memory (VWM) fMRI to investigate schizophrenia specifically focusing on the cerebellum. We designed high and low load conditions to examine two contrasts: high > low load contrast for the VWM activation, and low > high load contrast for the default mode network (DMN) “deactivation”. The VWM contrast activation overlapped with the Cerebellum VI, Crus I and Vermis. In contrast, the DMN contrast yielded activation in the Crus II of the cerebellum. An extensive “deactivation” observed in the control group but not in the schizophrenia group might be an indicator of the disease.

17:18 0126.   Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assisted Diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder Using a Multiparameter Classification Approach based on Gray Matter Abnormality
Lihua Qiu1, Xiaoqi Huang1, Qizhu Wu1, Shiguang Li1, Su Lui1, Peiyu Huang2, and Qiyong Gong1
1Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

Past studies applied Support Vector Machine (SVM) using structural MRI data had yielded some promising results in distinguish psychiatric disorders. However, only volumetric information had been consideration in those past studies. In the present study, we use multiparameter(seven morphometric parameters including volumetric and geometric features on grey matter) classification approach to distinguish first-episode, drug-naďve MDD patients from normal controls. Among all parameters, we found cortical thickness measurement showed the highest accuracy in revealing group differences between control and MDD. Current study provided new approach which might be useful for translational application of MRI in future.

17:30 0127.   Magnetization Transfer Imaging Reveals Subcortical Biophysical Abnormalities in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Major Depression
Shaolin Yang1,2, Olusola Ajilore1, Minjie Wu1, Melissa Lamar1, and Anand Kumar1
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

Type 2 diabetes and major depression are disorders that are mutual risk factors. In this study, we examined the brain biophysical abnormalities in patients with both type 2 diabetes and major depression using magnetization transfer imaging. The subject population consisted of 4 groups: patients with type 2 diabetes and major depression, patients with either disease alone, and controls. We found the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in right head of caudate nucleus was significantly lower in patients with both diseases when compared with controls and the MTRs in patients with either disease alone were also significantly lower but with intermediate values.

17:42 0128.   Altered Frontostriatal Cortical Functional Connectivity in Heroin-dependent Individuals: A Resting-state fMRI Study
Yarong Wang1, Jia Zhu1, Qiang Li1, Wei Li1, Ning Wu1, Haifeng Chang1, Ying Zheng1, and Wei Wang1
1Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital,The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

Though MRI studies have associated heroin use with a large scale structural and functional brain abnormalities, few fMRI studies focused on the balance between local neuronal activity and global integrative processes during a resting-state in heroin-dependent individuals (HD). Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) can successfully characterize the nature and extent of signal change underlying spontaneous neuronal activities in HD. This paper strongly emphasizes the association between the heroin-use-induced ALFF alteration and the resting-state functional connectivity of these brain regions, and reveals a heroin-use-related dysfunction of frontostriatal cortical system, the substrate of an impaired inhibitory control in HD.

17:54 0129.   Long-term effects of antipsychotic treatment on cerebral function in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia: a two years longitudinal study by rfMRI
Fei Li1, Su Lui1, Wei Deng2, Xiaoqi Huang1, Qizhu Wu1, Tao Li2, and Qiyong Gong1
1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, chengdu, sichuan, China,2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, People

Our current study demonstrated long-term (2 years) effect of second-generation antipsychotic drugs on cerebral function of schizophrenia patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) signal

18:06 0130.   Decreased GABA in the anterior cingulate cortex of female borderline personality disorder patients
Gabriele Ende1, Markus Sack1, Nuran Tunc-Skarka1, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr1, Mareen Hoerst1, Anne Krause-Utz2, Anne-Christine Reitz2, Sylvia Cackowski2, and Christian Schmahl2
1Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany, 2Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany

Dysfunction and deficits in the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex as well as increased impulsivity have been reported in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Loss or dysfunction of GABAergic neurotransmission is associated with many neurological and psychiatric conditions. We report first GABA data from the ACC of 20 female BPD patients and 24 female healthy controls from an ongoing study. Two MEGA-PRESS edited spectra were obtained: with and without macromolecule (MM) suppression. Decreased GABA was found in the MM suppressed GABA data concordant with functional deficits observed in BPD patients.

18:18 0131.   Individualized Mapping of the Subgenual Cingulate in Individual Unipolar Depressed Patients Using FMRI
Leslie Baxter1, Gary Grove2, Ryan Smith1, Perri Handley1, Michael Purcell1, Francisco Ponce3, and Robert Spetzler3
1Neuroimaging Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 2Private Practice, Scottsdale, Arizona, United States, 3Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

Deep Brain Stimulation is a new intervention for treating severe depression; however, response rates may be improved with fMRI if the region in the dysfunctional subgenual cingulate is better targeted. We developed a novel fMRI sadness induction paradigm that collects standardized blocks of data within a “flexible-block” design. Specifically, when subjects attain the targeted emotional state (sad or neutral), they trigger a standardized 30” block through a button press. Only those blocks are analyzed in the post-processing steps. Our preliminary data show that depressed patients can perform this task and generally show greater subgenual responsivity compared to controls.