Osteoarthritis: Cartilage & Menisci
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Tuesday 8 May 2012
Room 219-220  13:30 - 15:30 Moderators: James M. Linklater, Ashley A. Williams

13:30 0275.   In vitro mapping of 1H ultrashort T2 and T2* of porcine menisci: analysis of the signal decay reveals collagenous fibril texture permission withheld
Stefan Kirsch1, Michael Kreinest2, Gregor Reisig2, and Lothar R Schad1
1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany, 2Department for Experimental Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

In this study, single-slice 1H mapping of ultrashort T2 and T2* was performed on porcine menisci. The signal decays were analyzed using a monoexponential, biexponential, and a Gaussian-exponential fit function. The quality of the curve fits was estimated and visualized by calculating the reduced chi-squared (lower case Greek chi2red, “goodness of fit”) for each pixel. Areas with different type of signal decay were identified. Analysis of the parameter maps suggests that these areas can be assigned to regions with different collagenous texture. In future, in-vivo mapping of ultrashort T2*/T2 may provide a tool for early detection of tissue degeneration of menisci.

13:42 0276.   T1p and T2 Show Regional Variation in Degenerate Human Menisci: Correlation with Biomechanics and Matrix Composition
Min-Sun Son1, Marc Levenston2, Brian Hargreaves3, Weitian Chen4, Stuart Goodman5, and Garry Gold6
1Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Mechanical Engineering, 3Radiology, Stanford University, 4GE Healthcare,5Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, 6Radiology

T1ρ and T2 values from different regions of degenerated meniscal specimens were obtained using 3D MAPSS sequence with short echo times. Proteoglycan and collagen content and different mechanical properties were additionally measured for those regions. While regional patterns of the T1ρ and T2 did not match those of the extracellular matrix composition or mechanical moduli, T1ρ and T2 showed strong correlation with water and moderate correlation with mechanical properties. A strong, positive correlation between T1ρ and T2 was also found for all pooled regions despite the apparent lack of correlation between proteoglycan and collagen content. The findings in this study provide insight to understanding the physical meaning of T1ρ and T2 values.

13:54 0277.   The GAG quantification in articular cartilage depends on the mechanical strain and gadolinium concentration - A microscopic MRI study permission withheld
Nian Wang1, and Yang Xia1
1Dept of Physics and Center for Biomedical Research, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States

To investigate the effects of mechanical strain and gadolinium (Gd) concentration on the quantitative determination of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in articular cartilage, MRI T1 procedure was used to map the depth-dependent profiles of Gd and GAG in cartilage at 17.6µm pixel resolution. T1 in native tissue (without the presence of Gd ions) was both strain-dependent and depth-dependent. Compression reduced the tissue T1 when the Gd concentration was low, but enhanced the tissue T1 when the Gd concentration was high. The loading or loading history of patients should therefore be considered in any dGEMRIC-like procedure, if the GAG quantification is desired.

14:06 0278.   UTE imaging of the patella with bi-component analysis: correlation with histopathology and polarized light microscopy
Jiang Du1, Chantal Pauli2, Won Bae1, Martin Lotz2, Graeme M Bydder1, Darryl DLima2, and Christine B Chung1
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States, 2Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California, United States


14:18 0279.   Multi-parametric MRI characterization of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage
Elli-Noora Salo1,2, Mikko J. Nissi2,3, Timo Liimatainen4, Shalom Michaeli3, Silvia Mangia3, Jutta Ellermann3, and Miika T. Nieminen1,5
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 2Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 4Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A. I. Virtanen Institute, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 5Department of Medical Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

The purpose of this study was to compare various MRI parameters, (T1, T2, dGEMRIC index, T1sat, continuous-wave T1lower case Greek rho, adiabatic T1lower case Greek rho and T2lower case Greek rho, and RAFF), after selective degradation of cartilage glycosaminoglycan and collagen. The MRI parameters exhibited different responses to the enzyme treatments: While native T1 and the dGEMRIC index detected significant differences between control and glycosaminoglycan-depleted tissue, the majority of parameters showed a significant change after collagenase treatment. Significant correlations were observed between the MRI parameters and the biomechanical properties of the tissue, indicating MRI parameters as markers of the functional properties of cartilage.

14:30 0280.   
In vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of articular cartilage of healthy and osteoarthritis (OA) subjects with coverage of all cartilage plates
Jose G Raya1, Mike Notohamiprodjo2, Svetlana Krasnokutsky3, Soterios Gyftopoulos3, and Christian Glaser3
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States, 2University of Munich, 3New York University Langone Medical Center

In vivo DTI of articular cartilage has demonstrated high-diagnostic accuracy for OA in the patellar cartilage. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and potential for diagnosis of in vivo DTI in all cartilage plates (patella, tibia lateral and medial and femur). DTI was performed sagittal on the right knee of 10 healthy volunteers and on 3 OA-diagnosed patients. MD and FA were measured on all cartilage plates. In the healthy population no difference in the diffusion properties among the cartilage plates was observed. OA subjects demonstrated abnormal diffusion properties in the patellofemoral and lateral tibiofemoral compartments.

14:42 0281.   T2 mapping and glycosaminoglycan-dependent chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) imaging of focal lesions in knee cartilage using 3 T MRI
Benjamin Schmitt1, Goetz H Welsch2, Moritz Zaiss3, Stefan Zbyn4, Sabine Goed4, and Siegfried Trattnig4
1Centre for High-Field MR, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2University Hospital Erlangen, 3German Cancer Research Center (dkfz),4Medical University of Vienna

This study presents initial results from gagCEST imaging performed on a clinical 3 T-MR scanner in 3 volunteers and 9 patients with focal knee injuries. In volunteers, the performance of a B0 correction method based on retrospective correction of z-spectra was evaluated by comparison with a standard phase mapping technique. Results from volunteers suggest applicability of the correction method and indicate that gagCEST effects can be measured at 3 T. Patient results show that gagCEST effects are susceptible to changes of T2 values, but could have a value for detection of GAG loss that occurs without affecting T2.

14:54 0282.   
Inversion Recovery Sodium MRI of Cartilage in Controls and Patients with Osteoarthritis at 7T
Guillaume Madelin1, Gregory Chang2, Alexej Jerschow3, and Ravinder R Regatte2
1Radiology, New York University, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology Department, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 3Chemistry Department, New York University, New York, NY, United States

Quantitative sodium MRI is highly specific to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage and could be used to assess the biochemical degradation of cartilage in early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). In this preliminary study we show that quantitative sodium MRI with fluid suppression by adiabatic inversion recovery reduces significantly the partial volume effect from synovial fluids or joint effusion in the measurements of sodium concentrations in articular cartilage, and therefore may allow to better differentiate OA patients from healthy controls.

15:06 0283.   
Multiparametric MRI Assessment of Early Osteoarthritis in a Rabbit Model of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection
Jari Rautiainen1, Mikko J. Nissi1,2, Timo Liimatainen3, Walter Herzog4, Rami K. Korhonen1, and Miika T. Nieminen5,6
1Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 2Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 3Department of Neurobiology, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 4Faculty of Kinesiology, Engineering and Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 6Department of Medical Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

The sensitivity of selected quantitative MRI parameters (Adiabatic T1ρ & T2ρ, continuous wave (CW) T1ρ, CPMG T2, Adiabatic double echo (DE) T2, T1 during off-resonance saturation, and relaxation along fictitious field (RAFF)) to early OA changes in rabbit anterior cruciate ligament transection model was investigated. Biomechanical testing of the samples revealed altered functional properties of the tissue in response to experimental OA, and a differential response to the various MRI methods was observed. Relaxation in the rotating frame of reference (continuous wave and adiabatic T1ρ and adiabatic T2ρ) proved to be most sensitive in detecting early cartilage degeneration.

15:18 0284.   
Improved Assessment of Cartilage Repair Tissue using Fluid-Suppressed 23Na Inversion Recovery MRI at 7 Tesla: Preliminary Results permission withheld
Gregory Chang1, Guillaume Madelin1, Orrin Sherman2, Eric J Strauss2, Ding Xia1, Michael P Recht1, and Ravinder R Regatte1
1Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States, 2Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States

Use of a fluid-suppressed, adiabatic inversion recovery 3D radial sodium MRI pulse sequence at 7 Tesla may allow more accurate quantification of sodium content within cartilage repair.