Neurodegenerative Disease Including Dementia & Parkinson's Disease
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Thursday 10 May 2012
Room 201  13:30 - 15:30 Moderators: Toshiaki Taoka, Klaus Fritzsche

13:30 0584.   Introduction
Marc A. van Buchem
13:42 0585.   Planning-free Regional Arterial Spin Labeling Provides Evidence for Flow Asymmetry as a Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease
Manus Donahue1,2, Erin Hussey3, Tracy Porchak1, Swati Rane1, Matthias van Osch4, Nolan Hartkamp5, Jeroen Hendrikse5, and Brandon Ally2,3
1Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Radiology, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands, 5Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

The overall aim of this work is to apply a novel, planning-free regional perfusion imaging (RPI) approach in patients with varying cognitive impairment to better understand the relationship between flow territory asymmetry, cognitive performance, and dementia risk. Average (n=20) flow-territory maps demonstrate high symmetry within the vertebrobasilar flow territory, and between right and left middle cerebral artery flow territories; however, volunteers with lower cognitive scores demonstrated increased flow territory asymmetry (P<0.05). These results demonstrate the first planning-free application of RPI in patients with cognitive impairment, and furthermore support an association between cognitive performance and asymmetric collateral flow patterns.

13:54 0586.   Rapamycin as a therapy for vascular damage in Alzheimerís disease
Ai-Ling Lin1, Timothy Q Duong1, Eric Muir1, Anuradha Soundararajan1, Peter T Fox1, Arlan G Richardson2, and Veronica Galvan2
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Anotnio, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2Barshop Institute for Logevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Anotnio, San Antonio, TX, United States

Rapamycin is known to be associated with increased lifespan and delayed aging in mice. Recent studies show that treatment of mice modeling Alzheimerís disease (AD) (e.g., hAPP(J20)) with rapamycin halts the progression of AD-like memory deficits and reduces AŖ accumulation. Here we used multimodal neuroimaging methods (MRI and PET) to investigate the effect of rapamycin on vascular and metabolic functions in hAPP(J20) mice. Our results showed that hAPP (J20) mice had significant vasucular dysfunction (relative to metabolic), especially in the regions involved cognitive function (e.g., hippocampus; memory and learning). Rapamycin treatment restored the vascular function in hippocampus, which may consequently preserve the memory and learning ability of the hAPP (J20) mice.

14:06 0587.   
Significant reduction of grey matter loss with vitamin B treatment in cognitively impaired elderly
Gwenaelle Douaud1, Helga Refsum2, Celeste de Jager2, Robin Jacoby2, Stephen Smith1, and A. David Smith2
1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 2OPTIMA, University of Oxford

We investigated the impact of B vitamin treatment on grey matter (GM) loss over a 2 year period on cognitively impaired elderly. Using FSL-VBM, we found significant loss of GM in placebo and vitamin groups. However, the GM loss was significantly smaller over time in the vitamin group compared to the placebo group in regions vulnerable to the Alzheimerís disease process and showing marked atrophy in the placebo group. Remarkably, higher levels of plasma homocysteine were associated with significantly increased GM atrophy, but this deleterious effect was compensated for by the B vitamin treatment.

14:18 0588.   Magnetic susceptibility of the ageing brain is correlated with motor function decline
Chunlei Liu1,2, Wei Li1, Christian Langkammer3, Reinhold Schmidt3, and Stefan Ropele3
1Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

In this study of 126 healthy subjects, magnetic susceptibility of the brain nuclei is found to be highly correlated with a number of cognitive test scores. Of the six anatomical regions analyzed, the globus pallidus and the putamen demonstrated the most significant correlation. For instance, increased susceptibility is shown to be associated with deteriorated motor skill which is particularly relevant to Parkinsonís disease. The red nucleus shows significant correlation with the language functions. If the results are further validated in diseased populations, magnetic susceptibility could be a potential useful quantitative biomarker for certain neurological diseases and cognitive impairment.

14:30 0589.   Voxel-based Relaxometry in Parkinson Variant of Multiple System Atrophy: a pilot R2* study on 3T and comparison with Voxel-based morphometry
Bo Hou1, Han Wang2, Hui YOU1, and Feng Feng1
1Department of radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China

Relaxation rate is thought to be a sensitive marker to reflect regional degeneration prior to morphological changes, while the available voxel-based relaxometry(VBR) studies on Parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy(MSA-P) did not reveal the distribution of abnormal relaxation as voxel-based morphometry (VBM).This study tries to explore this issue with a 3T scanner and a multi-echo GRE sequence. The objective voxel-based method was used for statistical analysis. The result of VBR comparing MSA-P and control matches well with the VBM results, and also revealed corpus callosum involvement which is spared in VBM, confirming a good availability of this method.

14:42 0590.   Grey matter loss in cognitively impaired Parkinsonís disease
Tracy R Melzer1,2, Richard Watts1,3, Michael R MacAskill1,2, Toni L Pitcher1,2, Leslie Livingston1,2, Ross J Keenan4, John C Dalrymple-Alford1,5, and Tim J Anderson1,2
1New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand, 3College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States, 4Christchurch Radiology Group, New Zealand, 5University of Canterbury, New Zealand

We used structural MRI to characterize grey matter differences associated with cognitive status in Parkinsonís disease (PD). PD patients were classified as cognitively normal (PD-N), with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), or with dementia (PD-D). Those with PD-D exhibited widespread grey matter atrophy relative to healthy individuals, PD-N, and PD-MCI; limited atrophy was identified in PD-MCI. Global cognitive score was significantly associated with regional grey matter loss. The development of dementia in Parkinsonís disease is associated with extensive atrophy, however limited atrophy occurs earlier. Longitudinal follow up will help clarify the utility of structural MRI to predict PD-related cognitive decline.

14:54 0591.   White Matter Damage in Parkinsonís Disease Patients With Glucocerebrosidase Gene Mutations: A Study Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Federica Agosta1, Kristina Davidovic1, Nikola Kresojevic2, Lidia Sarro1, Marina Svetel2, Iva Stankovic2, Giancarlo Comi3, Vladimir S. Kostic2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy, 2Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 3Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, Italy

In this study, we investigated brain white matter (WM) damage in patients with Parkinsonís disease (PD) carrying mutations in the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA) compared with idiopathic PD patients, at similar disease stage. GBA mutation PD carriers showed a damage to the genu of the corpus callosum and cingulum. PD patients without GBA mutations did not show significant diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities when compared with healthy controls. Future research will clarify whether WM damage in these patients may have an impact on the clinical phenotype, in particular on the development of cognitive impairment.

15:06 0592.   Magnetization transfer and adiabatic R1lower case Greek rho MRI in the brainstem of Parkinson disease
Silvia Mangia1, Andrew Tyan1, Paul Tuite2, Michael Lee3, Michael Garwood1, and Shalom Michaeli1
1CMRR - Dept. of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 2Dept. of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 3Dept. of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

In addition to classic midbrain pathology, Parkinson disease (PD) is accompanied by changes in pontine and medullary brainstem structures. Using novel rotating frame adiabatic R1lower case Greek rho (i.e., measurements of longitudinal relaxation during adiabatic full passage pulses) and modified magnetization transfer (MT) MRI mapping, we sought to identify brainstem alterations in nine individuals with mild-moderate PD (off medication) and ten age-matched controls at 4 Tesla. We observed significant differences in MRI parameters within midbrain and medullary brainstem structures of PD patients as compared to controls that may be due to early stages of the disease.

15:18 0593.   Diffusion changes in thalamus and subthalamus for Parkinsonís disease with depression
Wu Li1, Jiangtao Liu2, Jie Tian1, Yijun Liu3, and Kuncheng Li2
1Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University,3McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida

The neural basis of depression in Parkinsonís disease (PD) remains unclear. We aim to investigate diffusion changes in thalamus and subthalamus nucleus (STN) in PD patients with depression using DT-MRI. Voxel-based analysis was conducted in the regions of thalamus and STN among depressed PD (DPD) patients, non-depressed PD (NDPD) patients and healthy controls. Decreased fractional anisotropy was found in mediodorsal thalamus as well in the STN in DPD patients; while in NDPD patients, the decrease was found only in STN. Our results suggest the thalamic role and provide an explanation for the high percentage of depression in PD patients.