Advances in Pulmonary Imaging
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Thursday 10 May 2012
Room 219-220  13:30 - 15:30 Moderators: Isabel Dregely, Scott K. Nagle

13:30 0624.   
Pulmonary Parenchymal Blood Flow in Early Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): the MESA COPD Study permission withheld
Katja Hueper1,2, Jens Vogel-Claussen1,2, Megha Parikh3, John HM Austin3, David A Bluemke4, James Carr5, Thomas A Goldstein6, Antoinette S Gomes7, Eric A Hoffman8, Joao AC Lima1, Wendy Post1, Martin Prince3, Kiang Liu5, Jan Skrok1, Karol Watson7, Jie Zheng9, and Graham Barr3
1Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States, 4Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 5Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 6Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States, 7David Geffen UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States, 8University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United States, 9Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States

Pulmonary vascular changes are known to occur in very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that pulmonary parenchymal blood flow and volume were decreased in mild-moderate COPD. Using pulmonary perfusion MRI we quantified perfusion parameters on a pixel-by-pixel basis in 100 patients with different severities of COPD and controls. Pulmonary parenchymal blood flow and volume were decreased in mild, moderate and severe COPD after adjustment for multiple parameters including the stroke volume, smoking status and packyears. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate the value of pulmonary perfusion MRI for direct assessment of pulmonary vasculature in COPD.

13:42 0625.   
Automated assessment of regional lung perfusion in cystic fibrosis patients by using Fourier decomposition MRI
Grzegorz Bauman1, Tobias Heimann2, Eva Fritzsching3, Wolfhard Semmler1, Michael Puderbach4,5, and Monika Eichinger4
1Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Dept. of Medical and Biological Informatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 3Division of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Center, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 4Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 5Clinics for Interventional and Diagnostic Radiology, Chest Clinics at the University of Heidelberg, Germany

The aim of this work was to validate an automated scoring system of regional perfusion defects for data acquired by using a non-contrast-enhanced technique of Fourier decomposition 1H MRI (FD-MRI) in a group of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This work proves that automated assessment of regional perfusion defects in CF patients with FD-MRI is feasible and comparable to visual scoring. This diagnostic method could be well suited for reproducible and reader independent detection of early functional impairment and noninvasive monitoring of therapy response.

13:54 0626.   Oxygen-enhanced MRI vs. Quantitative CT vs. Perfusion SPECT/CT: Quantitative and Qualitative Capability to Predict Therapeutic Effect for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Candidates permission withheld
Yoshiharu Ohno1,2, Mizuho Nishio1, Hisanobu Koyama1,2, Takeshi Yoshikawa1, Sumiaki Matsumoto1, Daisuke Takenaka1, Katsusuke Kyotani2, Nobukazu Aoyama2, Hideaki Kawamitsu2, Makoto Obara3, Marc van Cauteren4, and Kazuro Sugimura1
1Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 2Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 3Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 4Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Tokyo, Japan

O2-enhanced MRI can assess regional ventilation and alveolocapillary gas transfer of molecular oxygen. However, none of these studies have examined the quantitative and qualitative capabilities of O2-enhanced MRI for evaluation of candidates for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), and compared with that of evaluation by means of thin-section MDCT and perfusion SPECT/CT. The purpose of the study was thus to prospectively and directly compare the quantitative and qualitative capabilities of O2-enhanced MRI, thin-section MDCT and perfusion SPECT/CT to predict therapeutic outcomes for LVRS candidates.

14:06 0627.   Free Breathing Ultra Echo Time Lung Imaging with Variable Density 3D Radial Sampling
Kevin Michael Johnson1, Scott K Nagle1,2, and Sean B Fain1,2
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madsion, Madison, WI, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Detailed lung structure is poorly visualized with conventional MRI due to low tissue density and rapid signal decay. Ultra-short echo time (UTE) imaging has long held promise to dramatically enhance signal from short T2/T2* species. Due to a long T1 and low tissue density, 3D UTE lung imaging remains extraordinarily sensitive to artifacts from Gibbs ringing, physiological motion, eddy current induced errors, and low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this work, we develop a robust technique for free-breathing, high-resolution 3D UTE imaging that aims to mitigate sources of diagnostically obscuring artifacts.

14:18 0628.   
Lighting-up the lungs: an UTE MRI investigation of the parenchyma signal enhancement due to intra-tracheal administration of an innovative Si-based Gd contrast agent
Andrea Bianchi1, François Lux2, Gael Dournes1, Olivier Tillement2, and Yannick Crémillieux1
1Center of Cardio-Thoracic Research, University of Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France, 2Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France

In this study we present the MRI investigation of the T1-enhancement of the lung signal due to the intra-tracheal administration of different concentrations of a silica-based gadolinium contrast agent, characterized by ultra-small nanoparticles and high relaxivity. The MRI investigation of the temporal evolution of the signal enhancement is also presented to get an estimate of the contrast agent residence time in the lungs. Notably high signal enhancements (> 200% for a 50 mM solution) with relatively small instilled volumes (50 µl) have been measured thanks to the high S/N and the negligibility of motion artifacts, typical of the UTE sequence.

14:30 0629.   Hyperpolarized Xe-129 CSI of the Human Lung: Preliminary Results from Healthy, Second-Hand Smoker and Cystic-Fibrosis Subjects
Sara Reis1,2, Kai Ruppert1, Talissa Altes1, John Mugler III1, Iulian Ruset3, Wilson Miller1, William Hersman3, and Jaime Mata1
1Radiology & Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 2IBEB - FCUL, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal,3Xemed, New Hampshire, United States

From the Xe-129 CSI data, we directly calculate image-maps reflecting the amount of Xe-129 in the airspaces (gas), and dissolved in the lung tissue (parenchyma/plasma), red-blood-cells (RBC), and other compartments, thus obtaining detailed spatial information regarding how Xe-129 is distributed in these multiple compartments and providing regional information about lung physiology. Here we demonstrate that Xe-129 3D-CSI technique can be a very useful and unique clinical tool for lung disease, capable to obtain more regional information than current clinical tools.

14:42 0630.   
Hyperpolarized Helium-3 and Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Elderly Never-smokers and Ex-smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Miranda Kirby1,2, Andrew Wheatley1, Adam Farag1, Alexei Ouriadov1, Giles E Santyr1, David G McCormack3, and Grace Parraga1,2
1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada, 2Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 3Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario

The objective of this study was to compare hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) and hyperpolarized xenon-129 (129Xe) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ex-smokers and age-matched never-smokers. 3He and 129Xe images were segmented using image segmentation/registration software. In 10 COPD subjects and 8 never-smokers, 129Xe ventilation defect percent (VDP) was statistically significantly higher than 3He VDP (p<.0001). This finding suggests that 129Xe may be more sensitive to the structural alternations that occur in the distal terminal and respiratory bronchioles and is a feasible alternative to 3He MRI with strong translational potential in COPD studies.

14:54 0631.   
Noninvasive in-vivo quantification of compensatory lung growth following pneumonectomy, via 1H and 3He MRI
Wei Wang1,2, Nguyet M. Nguyen3, Jinbang Guo1, Yulin Chang2, Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy2, Richard A. Pierce3, and Jason C. Woods1,2
1Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States,3Internal Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis

Pneumonectomy (PNX) is a robust, established model of compensatory lung growth. Understanding the time course and the mechanism of compensatory lung growth will promote understanding of post-natal lung growth and regeneration. 3He lung morphometry has been successfully implemented in humans for years, and was recently developed and validated in mice. Here we image in-vivo morphometry at baseline and serially assess compensatory growth after PNX in mice via 1H and 3He MRI. The results demonstrate that in addition to growth of alveolar size, the total lung volume, alveolar number and lung compliance are restored to baseline levels by compensatory lung growth.

15:06 0632.   
3He pO2 Mapping is Limited by Delayed-Ventilation and Diffusion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Helen Marshall1, Martin H Deppe1, Juan Parra-Robles1, and Jim M Wild1
1Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom

3He pO2 mapping assumes that all signal decay over time is due to RF depolarisation and oxygen-dependent T1 effects, but the method is sensitive to other sources of signal change. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD were scanned with a 3D single breath-hold pO2 sequence. Data showed signal increasing over time in some lung regions due to delayed ventilation during static breathold. Movement of gas within the lungs during breath-hold causes regional changes in signal over time, which are not related to oxygen concentration, leading to erroneous pO2 measurements.

15:18 0633.   In vivo 3D mapping of aerosol deposition in rat lungs
Mathieu Sarracanie1,2, Andrew Martin3, Marion Tardieu2, Najat Salameh2, Roberta Santarelli2, Kyle Hill4, Jose-Manuel Perez-Sanchez2, Julien Sandeau5, Lionel Martin2, Emmanuel Durand2, Georges Caillibotte3, Daniel Isabey5, Luc Darrasse2, Jacques Bittoun2, and Xavier Maître2
1Harvard University Department of Physics, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, Massachussets, United States, 2IR4M (UMR8081), Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Orsay, France, 3Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme (CRCD), Air Liquide, Les Loges-en-Josas, France, 4Oxford Univ, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5Biomécanique Cellulaire et Respiratoire (U955), IMRB, Inserm, Créteil, France

Systemic delivery across the oronasal route is investigated for a growing number of indications. Final drug distribution in the lung strongly depends on a variety of parameters like the aerosol administration protocol, particle size, density, and physicochemical properties, as well as the airway geometry. Quantification and spatial localization are of critical importance to better control and optimize drug deposition. Hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI has been developed as a powerful tool to quantitatively characterize the lung function and morphology. We present a new imaging modality developed on the grounds of hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI to probe SPIOs labeled aerosols in vivo,in rat lungs.