ISMRM 21st Annual Meeting & Exhibition 20-26 April 2013 Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • MUSCULOSKELETAL
3457 -3480 Bone, Menisci, Tendon & Spine
3481 -3504 Technical & Miscellaneous
3505 -3528 Muscle
3529 -3552 Cartilage

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • MUSCULOSKELETAL
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (10:00-11:00) Exhibition Hall
Bone, Menisci, Tendon & Spine

  Computer #  
3457.   49 Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) Bi-Component Analysis of Bound and Free Water in Cortical Bone - A Field Dependence Study
Shihong Li1,2, Won C. Bae1, Eric Chang1, Sheronda Statum1, Christine Chung1, Graeme M. Bydder3, and Jiang Du1
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, 3Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
The existence of two distinct T2* components in cortical bone has been demonstrated in recent studies, where a bi-component model has proven to be superior to a single-component model in fitting ultrashort echo time (UTE) images of cortical bone with progressively increasing TEs. However, all these studies were performed on a clinical 3T whole body scanner. The field dependence of UTE bi-component analysis of cortical bone has not been studied. In this study we investigated how cortical bone bound and free water T2*s and their relative fractions change at 1.5 T and 3 T.

 
3458.   50 Excitation and Preparation Pulses Affect UTE Bi-Component Analysis of Bound and Free Water in Cortical Bone
Shihong Li1,2, Monica Tafur1, Won C. Bae1, Eric Chang1, Christine Chung1, Graeme M. Bydder3, and Jiang Du1
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, 3Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
Biological tissues frequently contain distinct water compartments with different transverse relaxation times. Multi-component fitting techniques are important for realistic analysis of T2 relaxation curves. For cortical bone it is impractical to generate T2 relaxation curves using whole-body clinical MR systems due to the relatively long minimum TEs of spin echo sequences. It is much easier to generate T2* relaxation curves which potentially can be used to separate bound water with a shorter T2* from free water with a longer T2*. In this study we investigated the effect of excitation pulse shape, fat saturation pulse, long T2 saturation pulse and adiabatic inversion pulse on ultrashort echo time (UTE) bi-component analysis of bound and free water in bovine and human cortical bone samples.

 
3459.   51 A Longitudinal Study on the Relationship Between BMD and Bone Marrow Perfusion of Proximal Femur Based on DCE-MRI
Heather T. Ma1, James F. Griffith2, Haiyan Lv1, Alvin FW Li2, David K.W. Yeung2, Anthony Kwok2, and Ping-Chung Leung2
1Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Harbin Insitute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 2Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

 
This study investigated relationship between bone marrow perfusion and bone mineral density (BMD) at proximal femur over 4 years. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI data was extracted pixel-by-pixel and classified into 3 patterns to indicate the perfusion function. For the subjects with good bone marrow perfusion, their BMD would keep stable after 4 years, while for those with bad perfusion, their BMD consistently decreased over 4 years. The results indicated that the perfusion function could have a long term effect on BMD and a good perfusion function would help to keep the bone health.

 
3460.   52 Addressing Overlapping Water-Fat Peaks and Water-Fat Chemical Shift Displacement Effects in Single-Voxel MRS of Bone Marrow
Dimitrios C. Karampinos1,2, Gerd Melkus1, Thomas Baum2, Jan S. Bauer2, Ernst J. Rummeny2, and Roland Krug1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

 
There is a growing interest in understanding the linkage between bone mineral density and bone marrow adiposity. Single voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) has been previously used to measure fat content in bone marrow. However, single-voxel MRS of bone marrow is characterized by overlapping water-fat peaks due to broad linewidths and is sensitive to chemical shift displacement effects due to finite RF pulse bandwidths. We describe a methodology addressing the above issues using an acquisition with two center frequencies and MRS fitting routines taking into account an a priori known model for the chemical structure of triglycerides.

 
3461.   53 Fat Fraction and Bone Mineral Density in the Proximal Femur: A Localized Assessment of Their Relationship in Fragility Fractures
Julio Carballido-Gamio1, Dimitrios C. Karampinos1,2, Andrew Lai1, Sonia Lee1, and Roland Krug1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

 
Bone strength is yielded by bone mineral density (BMD) and by bone quality. Studies have suggested that bone fat content can partly explain bone strength independently of BMD, and that bone fat content and BMD are negatively correlated. In this study, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT), and Computational Anatomy to assess the spatial relationship between fat fraction (FF) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) in the proximal femur of normal postmenopausal women, and women with fragility fractures. FF and vBMD were mostly negatively correlated in both normal women and women with fragility fractures, however there was a trend towards a different spatial pattern of the strength of these relationship.

 
3462.   54 Feasibility of in vivo 3-D MRI of Femoral Neck Bone Microarchitecture at 3 T
Gregory Chang1, Ryan Brown2, Graham C. Wiggins2, Chamith S. Rajapakse3, Stephen Honig4, and Ravinder R. Regatte2
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States,3Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Rheumatology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

 
We demonstrate the feasibility of performing in vivo 3-D MRI of bone microarchitecture of the femoral neck.

 
3463.   55 Use of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) for Evaluation of Bone Viability
Sandra Rutigliano1, adam zoga1, suzanne long1, and William Morrison1
1radiology, thomas jefferson university hospital, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
AVN and alternate causes of BME have similar clinical presentations and often are referred to MR for evaluation. However, the appearance of these conditions can be nonspecific on non-contrast MR. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI in cases of bone marrow edema for the differentiation of ischemia and hyperemia associated with bone marrow disease. DCEMRI was performed in 14 patients with bone marrow edema. T1, T2 and dynamic contrast characteristics were analyzed for each subject and correlated with clinical, imaging and/or surgical follow-up for the presence of AVN.

 
3464.   56 Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetization Transfer (UTE-MT) Imaging of Meniscus
Jiang Du1, Shihong Li1,2, Michael Carl3, Monica Tafur1, Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi1, Eric Chang1, Christine Chung1, and Graeme M. Bydder4
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, 3Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, San Diego, CA, United States, 4Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
Clinical magnetization transfer (MT) sequences employ off-resonance saturation pulses followed by a conventional data acquisition. The MT pulse typically results in selective saturation of tightly bound water and collagen protons which exchange with the loosely bound water and then free water, leading to a loss of longitudinal magnetization and hence a signal reduction. However, clinical MT sequences cannot detect MT effects in short T2 tissues such as the menisci, ligaments, tendons and bone when there is little or no detectable signal present. In this study we evaluated ultrashort echo time (UTE) MT imaging of the meniscus. The angular dependence of MT ratio (MTR) as well as T2 and T1rho of meniscus were investigated.

 
3465.   57 Analysis of Menisci Using Bi-Exponential T2* Fitting with VTE Sequence at 3T
Vladimir Juras1,2, Sebastian Apprich1, Pavol Szomolanyi1, Lukas Zak3, Oliver Bieri4, Xeni Deligianni4, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava, Slovakia, 3Department of Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

 
Bi-exponential fitting in the meniscus may be useful for evaluating degenerative menisci by removing incorrectly calculated mono-exponential pixels. This reflects the changes in collagen fiber orientation, which is modified in degenerative menisci.

 
3466.   58 A Comparison of T2* Measured by a Variable Echo Time Sequence at 3 and 7T in Connective Tissues in the ex vivo Knees -permission withheld
Vladimir Juras1,2, Sebastian Apprich1, Pavol Szomolanyi1, Claudia Kronnerwetter1, Oliver Bieri3, Xeni Deligianni3, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava, Slovakia, 3Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

 
This study showed the feasibility of VTE images to calculate T2* maps with superior accuracy (mean R2 was 0.998) in relatively short scan times (~12 min 16 sec). The advantage of VTE over radial or spiral sequences is the elimination of unwanted artifacts, such as image blurring or sensitivity to incorrect gradient timing. However, it seems that one-stop shopping is still problematic, since the range of echo times did not allow the calculation of T2* maps for all tissues with the same accuracy (especially the cartilage, with a relatively high T2*). In conclusion, VTE has a great potential in the clinical environment, not only for morphological imaging, but also for quantitative assessment of rapidly relaxing tissues.

 
3467.   59 Automatic Segmentation of the Medial and Lateral Meniscus in Knee MRI Using Chan-Vese Model with Shape Prior
Junga Baek1, Helen Hong1, and Joon Ho Wang2
1Department of Multimedia Engineering, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, Korea, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

 
For diagnosis of meniscus tears and its reconstruction, we propose an automated segmentation method of the meniscus from knee MR images using Chan-Vese model with shape prior. First, meniscus candidates are extracted by automatically estimating a threshold value using Gaussian Mixture Modeling. Second, cartilage which has similar signal intensity with the meniscus and has a horizontally thin and long shape is removed by shape analysis. Third, Chan-Vese model with shape prior is performed to segment the meniscus without leakage to its neighbor ligament. Our proposed method with shape prior extracts the meniscus without leakage to its neighbor soft tissues such as cartilage and ligament and can be used for the diagnosis of meniscus tears or its reconstruction.

 
3468.   60 Quantitative Characterization of Meniscal Pathology: UTE MRI Versus Long T2 Techniques
Michael Im1, Ja-Young Choi2, Reni Biswas3, Won C. Bae1, Sheronda Statum1, Eric Chang3, Jiang Du3, Graeme M. Bydder1, Darryl D. D'Lima1, and Christine Chung3
1Radiology, UCSD, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Radiology, UC San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
Menisci have short T2 relaxation times, ranging from 5-8 ms. Ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences allow detection of signal from short T2 tissues. We investigated UTE T2* and T2 for collagen assessment and UTE T1 rho and T1 rho for proteoglycan evaluation. UTE T2*, T2, UTE T1 rho, and T1 rho values for pathologic menisci were higher compred to normal. UTE T2* values were more sensitive in identification of pathology than T2 values. Quantitative MR values correlate with structural and biochemical meniscal alterations, providing additional insight into meniscal pathology, which may aid in early diagnosis and quantifying treatment outcomes.

 
3469.   61 UTE MRI and Biomechanical Properties of Normal and Pathologic Human Menisci
Won C. Bae1, Reni Biswas1, Ja Young Choi2, Robert Healey3, Jiang Du1, Darryl D. D'Lima4, Sheronda Statum1, and Christine B. Chung1,5
1Dept. of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, 3Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States, 4Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, United States, 5Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA, United States

 
Establishing a relationship between biomechanical properties and long (SE T2) and short (UTE T2*) T2 MR properties will be useful for clinical evaluation of meniscal injuries and degeneration. Using grossly normal and pathologic menisci, we found that short T2 properties are markedly altered in pathology than long T2, and that correlation of indentation vs. short T2 properties is also effected by pathology, unlike the long T2 properties. UTE T2* sequence may be useful for early evaluation of human meniscus involving biomechanical changes.

 
3470.   62 Effects of Repetitive Freeze-Thawing Cycles on Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Achilles Tendon
Eric Y. Chang1,2, Sheronda Statum2, Tanya Wolfson2, Anthony Gamst2, Jiang Du3, Won C. Bae2, Graeme M. Bydder4, and Christine B. Chung1,2
1Dept of Radiology, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Dept of Radiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Dept of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 4Dept of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
In this pilot study, we have not found a significant difference in quantitative MR values on Achilles tendons imaged fresh and up to 5 freeze-thaw cycles.

 
3471.   63 Quantitative T2*-Mapping of the Achilles Tendon Using a Multi-Echo VTE SPGR-Sequence at 3 Tesla: Preliminary Results.
Sebastian Apprich1, Vladimir Juras1, Oliver Bieri2, Stefan Zbýn1, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1Department of Radiology - MR Center of Excellence, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Basel, Switzerland

 
A new multi-echo (me) spoiled gradient echo sequence (SPGR) with an variable echo time (vTE) scheme (me –vTE-SPGR) enables quantitative MR imaging of tissues with very short T2 relaxation times such as the Achilles tendon (AT). Within the present study, T2*-relaxation times of the Achilles tendon are shown to differ significantly between patients and healthy volunteers. Furthermore a strong correlation is found between T2*-values and clinical scoring. In future this new me –vTE-SPGR might be a predictive value for patients who are at risk of Achilles tendon tear or re-rupture after therapy.

 
3472.   64 VIMATS – Vienna Morphological Achilles Tendon Score
Sebastian Apprich1, Klaus Friedrich2, Veronika Schöpf2, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1Department of Radiology - MR Center of Excellence, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

 
Injuries to the Achilles tendon are common injuries in sport actives and even after therapy (conservative or surgical), patients are at risk for a re-rupture of the AT. Within this study we present a new morphological MRI-Score to semi-quantitatively assess the state of the AT in patients: the Vienna Morphological Achilles Tendon Score (VIMATS). The VIMATS uses several parameters like thickness, continuity, signal and associated pathologies (max 100 points) to assess the state of the AT. Due to excellent inter- and intraobserver agreement we conclude that this score might be powerful tool for radiologists to assess injuries of the AT.

 
3473.   65 Dipolar Anistropy Reveals Sub-Structures in Achilles Tendon at 11.7 Tesla
Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi1, Paul A. DiCamillo1, and Graeme M. Bydder2
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
Residual dipolar effects influence T2 relaxation times and are responsible for the magic angle effects known in MR imaging. In this study we manipulated the orientation of a human Achilles specimen in an 11.7 T animal system producing high contrast images, which at certain orientations revealed fine sub-structures that could not otherwise be observed. A 17-fold change in signal intensity was obtained for the most fibrous structures. Coefficient of variation images were computed from co-registered datasets (DAFI approach) providing a new tissue parameter and a novel technique for visualizing fiber content.

 
3474.   66 Magic Angle Enhanced Imaging in High-Field MRI Using an Automated MR-Conditional Positioner
Christopher Mershon1, Alex Squires1, Yabiao Gao1, Kevin C. Chan2, and Zion Tse1
1College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States, 2Departments of Ophthalmology and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

 
Magic Angle (MA) effect has been demonstrated in tendon and cartilage MRI studies, where positioning these structures at approximately 55° can increase T2/T2* values and signal intensity. An automated positioner, using a custom-designed pneumatic motor and optical encoder, could permit accurate placement of tissues. Results showed MA enhanced high-resolution imaging of the tendinous and fibrous microstructures by 218% in a 9.4T small-bore scanner along with excellent MRI compatibility of the positioner. The positioner may be applicable to other orientation-sensitive MR techniques and potential in vivo animal studies.

 
3475.   67 in-vivo MR-Imaging of the Endplates of the Lumbar Spine -permission withheld
Klaus M. Friedrich1, Sebastian Apprich1, Sonja M. Walzer2, Stefan Zbýn1, Vladimir Juras1, Iris Nöbauer-Huhmann1, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Orthopaedics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

 
Annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus, and the endplates are the major structural components of the intervertebral discs. In this study endplates were identified side by side on both, histological and MR images. Additionally, in-vivo visualization of the endplates on dedicated MR images and correlated with disc degeneration and Schmorl nodes on conventional MR images.

 
3476.   68 Accelerated T1rho Relaxation Quantification in Intervertebral Disc Using Limited Spin-Lock Times
Pu-Xuan Lu1, Feng Zhao2, Jing Yuan2, Greta S.P. Mok3, James F. Griffith2, and Yi-Xiang Wang2
1Department of Radiology, the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, 3Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Macau, Macau, Macau

 
For traditional T1rho MR imaging applications like spine, multiple spin-lock times (SLT), often ~5 SLTs, are used to ensure the accuracy and robustness of T1rho mapping. The reduction of the applied SLT numbers is an apparent strategy to enhance T1rho imaging efficiency as long as the accuracy and reliability of T1rho mapping could be maintained. In this study, the agreement of liver T1rho measurements using 3 and 5 SLT points was evaluated. We found that using 3 SLTs of 1, 20, and 60 ms can be an acceptable alternative for disc T1rho measurement.

 
3477.   69 Non-Gaussian Diffusion Weighted Imaging for Assessing Diurnal Changes in Intervertebral Disc Composition -permission withheld
Masaki Katsura1, Yuichi Suzuki2, Junichi Hata2, Hiroki Sasaki1,2, Hiroyuki Akai1, Wataru Gonoi1, Harushi Mori1, Akira Kunimatsu1, Yoshitaka Masutani1, Masaaki Hori3, Shigeki Aoki3, and Kuni Ohtomo1
1Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 3Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan

 
In the present study, changes in T2 values and diffusion metrics of QSI data in IVDs before and after a diurnal load cycle were investigated. T2, ADC, and RMSD metrics in the evening were significantly lower than those in the morning, while the AKC value showed a significant increase in the evening, compared to the morning in the middle of the NP. No significant differences were observed between the morning and the evening in other areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of various diffusion metrics using QSI analysis to estimate IVD composition diurnal changes in vivo.

 
3478.   70 Maximum Likelihood Estimation of T1rho Relaxation Time in Lumbar Intervertebral Disc at 3T
Jing Yuan1, Pengyu Yan2, Greta S.P. Mok2, Yi-Xiang Wang1, Anil T. Ahuja1, and James F. Griffith1
1Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, 2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Macau, Macau, NA, Macau

 
T1rho relaxation has potentials for quantitative evaluation of intervertebral disc degeneration. T1rho mapping is traditionally performed using least-squares (LS) fitting but LS method is a biased estimator in the presence of Rician-distributed noise for MR magnitude images. This study investigates the use of maximum likelihood (ML) estimation for lumbar disc T1rho mapping at 3T through Monte-Carlo simulation and in vivo scan. Results show that ML obtains less biased and more accurate estimation of lumbar disc T1rho compared to LS, particularly at low signal-to-noise ratios. ML benefits high spatial resolution spine T1rho imaging without compromising the accuracy of T1rho estimation.

 
3479.   71 MR Evaluation of Multiple Myeloma at 3.0 Tesla: How Do Bone Marrow Signal Intensity and Selection of Protocols Affect Lesion Conspicuity? -permission withheld
Miyuki Takasu1, Yoko Kaichi1, Miho Ishikawa1, Yuji Akiyama1, Shuji Date1, Akira Sakai2, Yoshiaki Kuroda3, and Kazuo Awai1
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan, 2Department of Radiation Life Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan, 3Department of Hematology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan

 
The present study compared various imaging sequences in terms of CNR and percent contrast and assessed the dependence of lesion conspicuity on background bone marrow signal intensity in multiple myeloma. Bone marrow-focal lesion CNR and percent contrast in T1-dark marrow were significantly lower when compared with those in T1-bright marrow. Conspicuity of focal myeloma lesion in the spinal bone marrow was dependent on the fat signal fraction in fat-suppressed MRI. No significant difference in lesion conspicuity was found among fat suppression techniques in T1-dark marrow, suggesting the need for a multimodality imaging approach to evaluate focal lesions in multiple myeloma.

 
3480.   72 7 Tesla, High Resolution Dixon Imaging of the SI Joints in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis
Wouter M. Teeuwisse1, Monique Reijnierse2, and Andrew G. Webb1
1Radiology, C.J.Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, ZH, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, ZH, Netherlands

 
The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of high resolution 7 Tesla scanning for patients with ankylosing spondylitis in different stages of pathology progression. Fifteen patients were imaged on a whole body 7T system. Using a custom-built RF coil high spatial resolution 3-point Dixon images of the SI joints were acquired rendering water- and fat-only images with excellent delineation of the whole SI joint. 7 Tesla MRI is a promising adjunct imaging modality for early detection and following the progression of ankylosing spondylitis.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • MUSCULOSKELETAL
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (11:00-12:00) Exhibition Hall
Technical & Miscellaneous

  Computer #  
3481.   49 Dynamic Functional Imaging of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles Under Isometric and Active Extension-Flexion Contraction.
Shantanu Sinha1, Ali Moghadasi2, Vadim Malis3, and Usha Sinha3
1Radiology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States,3Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States

 
A detailed understanding of the dynamics of quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles will be a valuable clinical tool to evaluate association of muscle function with disease conditions such as osteoarthritis and dystrophy. We report velocity and strain rate mapping in the quadriceps and hamstring muscle under isometric and active extension-flexion contraction using a MR compatible computer -controlled, motorized hydraulic actuator. Spatial heterogeneity of velocity and strain rate is seen in the quadriceps and hamstring muscle; these patterns could potentially be altered in disease conditions or with muscle disuse.

 
3482.   50 Quantitative Kinematics of the Wrist Using Dynamic MRI
Michael H. Buonocore1,2, Robert D. Boutin1, Igor Immerman3, Gerald J. Sonico2, Zachary Ashwell1, Robert M. Szabo3, and Abhijit J. Chaudhari1
1Radiology, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States, 2Imaging Research Center, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States, 3Orthopedic Surgery, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States

 
The abstract describes the use of the TrueFISP pulse sequence for observation and quantitative measurement of carpal bone angles and distances during active wrist motion, and demonstrates its performance in healthy human volunteers. High spatial and temporal resolution dynamic images provide diagnostically important measurements for assessment of carpal bone instability, tendon dislocation, and other pathologies of the wrist joint.

 
3483.   51 Flexible Real-Time Imaging of Highly-Dynamic Knee Joint Motion
Ozan Sayin1, Haris Saybasili1,2, Liheng Guo1, John A. Carrino3, Frances T. Sheehan4, Mark A. Griswold2,5, Nicole Seiberlich5, and Daniel A. Herzka6
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Rehabilitation Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

 
Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of musculoskeletal defects require high-quality noninvasive imaging of dynamic phenomena in vivo. Real-time MRI is an emerging potential imaging strategy to achieve such a goal, thanks to recent advancements in parallel imaging. The current study demonstrate that real-time MRI with very low-latency display can be utilized to capture fast musculoskeletal motion on the knee joint. Specifically, radial GRAPPA with high degrees of undersampling (R=12) was applied and a reconstruction framework designed for low-latency display to observe free motion of the knee joint.

 
3484.   52 Feasibility of Accelerating 3 T Hip Imaging Using Compressed Sensing
Riccardo Lattanzi1,2, Alicia W. Yang1,2, Li Feng2,3, Michael P. Recht4, Daniel K. Sodickson1,2, and Ricardo Otazo1,2
1Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2The Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 4Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

 
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip joint requires high-spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which results in long scan times. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction approaches are currently used in research to achieve very large accelerations for advanced MR studies. We explored the feasibility of using CS to achieve moderate acceleration factors in routine hip imaging, while maintaining diagnostic quality. Our results suggest that it could be possible to accelerate 2D turbo spin echo acquisitions by a factor of 4 using CS and that 6-fold acceleration is also feasible for T2 mapping based on multi spin echo time-series.

 
3485.   53 Optimizing 3D FSE FS Sequences of the Knee at 3 T for Clinical Use, Automated Segmentation, Quantitative Analysis of Articular Cartilage and Templating for T2 Maps: Creating a Single MR Data Set for Morphological and Quantitative Functions
Joshua Michael Farber1, Jose Tamez-Pena2, saara Totterman3, Hubert LeJay4, Edward Schreyer3, and Karl Baum3
1Radiology, Qmetrics/Rad Ass of N KY, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 2Mathematics and Statistics, Tec de Monterrey, Monterrey, NL, Mexico, 3Imaging, Qmetrics, Rochester, NY, United States, 4MRI - Global, GE, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

 
New 3D FSE sequences acquire rich MRI data sets. In the knee, this sequence can provide morphological and quantitative data, with a single acquisition. The data can be used for to render 3D articular cartilage thickness and 3D T2 Maps.

 
3486.   54 Evaluation of T2-Weighted Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction in Patients with Recalled Orthopedic Hip Implants
Conny Ström1, Jörgen Strinnholm1, Sead Crnalic2, Morten Bruvold3, Ulrike A. Blume4, Chiel den Harder3, and Clemens Bos5
1Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeå, Sweden, 2Department of Ortopedy, Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå, Sweden, 3Philips Healtcare, Best, Netherlands, 4Philips Healtcare, Hamburg, Germany, 5Division Image, University Medical Center in Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

 
Wear in metal-on-metal hip implants and released metallic debris and consequent complications caused recall of some products. Evaluation of the risk of complications is important, even before clinical symptoms arise, with T2 weighted (T2w) MRI to show inflammatory pseudotumor and synovitis locally. Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction (SEMAC), resolves metal induced distortions. Here, T2w SEMAC and conventional T2w TSE are compared in their potential to show soft tissue changes close to the metal in 23 asymptomatic patients with metal-on-metal hip implants. With reduced artifact size (P<0.001), SEMAC unveiled significantly more osteolysis, fluid collection or pseudotumor, when present (P<0.001).

 
3487.   55 Quantitative DCE-MRI in Patients with Hip Implants
Greg O. Cron1,2, Kawan Rakhra1,2, Paul E. Beaule1,3, Isabelle Catelas4, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco1,2, Ian G. Cameron1,2, and Mark E. Schweitzer1,2
1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 3Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 4Mechanical Engineering; Surgery; Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

 
Histological differences have been observed in periprosthetic tissues from metal-on-metal (MM) compared to metal-on-polyethylene (MP) hip implants, suggesting that a perfusion difference might be expected. We developed and applied a quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI technique to measure and compare the perfusion parameter Ktrans (index of flow and permeability) in soft tissues adjacent to MM and MP implants. We demonstrated a trimodal distribution of Ktrans values between tissues from MM and MP implants and observed higher Ktrans values in women. The trimodal distribution remains to be further investigated, however the gender difference is consistent with brain and cardiac perfusion literature.

 
3488.   56 The Optimizations of SEMAC-VAT Technique for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Total Knee Prosthesis: Comparison of 1.5T and 3T for Different Metal Materials
Tao AI1, Frank F. Goerner2, Abraham Padua3, Mathias Nittka4, Xiaoming Li1, and Val M. Runge5
1Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 2Radiology, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, Texas, United States, 3Healthcare Sector, Siemens AG, Malvern, PA, United States, 4Healthcare Sector, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Deutschland, Germany, 5Editor-in-Chief of Investigative Radiology, Galveston, TX, United States

 
In vitro agarose phantom and animal tissue phantom with three different types of clinically wide-used metal materials were scanned by SEMAC-VAT with a range of SEMAC-encoding steps, high bandwidth and conventional 2D TSE sequence at both 1.5T and 3T. The performance of SEMAC-VAT technique in metal artifact correction was evaluated by both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results demonstrated SEMAC-VAT significantly reduced metal artifact due to different metal materials and optimal SEMAC-encoding steps of 15-20 for Cobalt chromium and 5-10 for both Oxidized Zirconium and Titanium were recommended for clinical use.

 
3489.   57 Improve Volume Selective 3D Fast Spin Echo Acquisition
Weitian Chen1, Donglai Huo2, Kristin Granlund3, Garry E. Gold3, and Yuval Zur4
1Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 2PSD Applications, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States, 3Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 4GE Healthcare, Haifa, Israel

 
Fast spin echo imaging plays a central role in clinical imaging. Recently there is growing interest in using pseudo-steady-state FSE with flip angle modulation for high-resolution 3D anatomical imaging due to its high SNR efficiency. Fast spin echo sequences require the CPMG condition and the violation of it can result in image artifacts such as banding or SNR loss. A major cause to the violation of CPMG condition occurs with volume selective 3D FSE due to the eddy current effect from gradients, particularly when imaging at far off isoceter. This problem has been previously addressed in 2D FSE acquisitions, but solutions for 3D FSE can be time consuming or difficult to implement. In this work, we demonstrate that a recently developed phase correction approach can be used to improve the robustness of volume selective 3D FSE acquisition and its relevant applications.

 
3490.   58 MR Spectroscopy (MRS) in Objective Measurement of Intramuscular Fat as a Non-Invasive Biomarker: Comparison Study in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Healthy Boys.
Suraj D. Serai1, Hee Kyung Kim1, Paul Horn2, Brenda L. Wong2, and Diana Lindquist1
1Radiology, CCHMC, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 2Neurology, CCHMC, Cincinnati, OH, United States

 
T1W imaging is not able to differentiate boys with DMD and minimal fatty infiltration from healthy boys. Most of the healthy boys and one-third of the boys with DMD demonstrated a minimal degree of fatty infiltration of the gluteus muscle. However using quantitative MRS, fatty infiltration measured by MRS is substantially higher in boys with DMD than in healthy boys. In fact, MRS can completely separate boys with DMD from healthy boys. Hence, we hypothesize that the advantage of using MRS over the traditional T1W imaging likely will be greater when applied to patients in the early stage disease.

 
3491.   59 Improved IVIM Image Quantitation of Exercised Lower Back Muscles by Local Principle Component Analysis
Patrick Hiepe1, Daniel Güllmar2, Alexander Gussew2, Reinhard Rzanny2, and Jürgen R. Reichenbach2
1Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany, 2Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

 
In this contribution the intra-voxel incoherent motion model (IVIM) imaging and local principle component analysis (LPCA) denoising was used to evaluate muscle fatigue by quantifying the load-induced perfusion changes in lower back muscles following exercise. LPCA decomposition was applied to improve image quality. Mapped diffusion coefficients (parameterized via D) and perfusion-related signal losses (parameterized via f) were used for ROI-based analyses. Mean D and f values revealed spatially varying increases post exercise which can thus be used for spatially resolved perfusion quantification as a physiological marker of muscle activity and fatigue during exercise.

 
3492.   60 Difussion Tensor Imaging Studies in Limb-Girdle Muscular Distrophies
Hidalgo-Tobon S. Silvia1, Gabriela R. Hernandez Salazar2, S Vargas-Cañas3, O. Marrufo-Melendez4, S. Solis Najera5, Alfredo O. Rodriguez6, and Rosa Delgado-Hernandez7
1Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City, Mexico, Mexico, 2Insituto Nacional de Neurologia, Mexico, Mexico, Mexico, 3Insituto Nacional de Neurologia, Mexico, MExico, Mexico, 4Insituto Nacional de Neurologia, DF, Mexico, Mexico, 5UNAM, MExico, Mexico, Mexico, 6UAM, DF, Mexico, Mexico,7Imagenologia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, DF, Mexico, Mexico

 
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a group of autosomal dominantly or recessively inherited muscular dystrophies that also present with primary proximal (limb-girdle) muscle weakness. This type of dystrophy involves the shoulder and pelvic girdles, distinct phenotypic or clinical characteristics are recognized. LGM dystor-phies affect posterior thigh muscle compartment, predomi-nantly gracilis and sartorius muscles. In the thigh, muscles at the back are affected, with a tendency to preserve the tibi-alis anterior and gastrocnemius. In this study we analyze DTI images, relation between the number of tracts, FA, and lenght in sartorius and gracilis muscle.

 
3493.   61 Three Dimensional Mapping of Oxidative Capacity in Human Lower Leg Muscles with Compressed Sensing 31P-MRI
Prodromos Parasoglou1, Li Feng1, Ding Xia1, Ricardo Otazo1, and Ravinder R. Regatte1
1Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

 
The rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis following physical exercise is an accepted index of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Several diseases can affect the efficiency of muscles� oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria, which could lead to spatial heterogeneity of the muscles� response to physical exercise. However, very little is known about these spatial gradients of metabolic properties due to the lack of imaging tools with sufficient muscle coverage and temporal resolution to measure oxidative capacity in larger areas of tissue. In this work, we developed and implemented a novel compressed sensing (CS) 3D-31P-MRI technique for imaging PCr resynthesis following exercise.

 
3494.   62 Development of MR Compatible Muscle Stimulation Device: Deformation and Velocity Imaging of Rat Muscle Contraction.
Shantanu Sinha1, Raj Rajasekaran2, Ali Moghadasi3, Youngseop Chang2, and Usha Sinha4
1Radiology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Medicine, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 4Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States

 
The rat muscle has been shown to be ideal for modeling several MSK disease states under controlled conditions [1]. While structural imaging including diffusion tensor imaging has been performed to elucidate architectural changes in rat muscle model [2], dynamic functional imaging of the rat muscle is still a challenging unresolved problem because of electronic noise generated by stimulation circuitry. Using special noise reduction electronics as well as modulation, we successfully stimulated the rat hind leg and monitored both tissue deformation and velocity using spin tag and PC-VENC acquisitions.

 
3495.   
63 Optimizing Diffusion Weighted Imaging of Skeletal Muscle.
Martijn Froeling1, Gustav J. Strijkers2, Aart J. Nederveen3, and Peter R. Luijten1
1Department of Radiology, Universiy Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 3Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

 
The purpose of this educational poster is to define a framework for choosing the most optimal protocol for diffusion-weighted MRI of skeletal muscle.

 
3496.   64 Demonstration of Striations in Articular Cartilage at High Field
Paul A. DiCamillo1, Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi1, Sheronda Statum1, and Graeme M. Bydder2
1Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, California, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

 
Magic angle effects in articular cartilage have been studied extensively. The lamellar appearance of articular cartilage with signal decreasing from superficial to deep is seen at the lower end of the femur and in the tibial plateau when patients are examined with B0 parallel to the long axis of the body. However, equally striking in articular cartilage is the appearance of vertical striations, which are orthogonal to the layers described above. In contrast to studies performed at 1.5 and 3T, striations have not been observed or commented on in the very detailed studies performed at high field (7T) over a decade or more in which magic angle effects were identified as the source of the lamellar structure seen in cartilage. In order to determine whether or not vertical striations can be seen at high field, studies of articular cartilage were performed at 3T and 11.7T.

 
3497.   65 Robust Image Registration for In-Vivo Human Osteoarthritic Knees and Cartilage Specimens and Correlation Between In-Vivo and Ex-Vivo T1lower case Greek rho
Wei-Ching Lo1, Karupppasamy Subburaj1, Lorenzo Nardo1, Sharmila Majumdar1, Michael Ries2, and Xiaojuan Li1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

 
Along with the efforts of developing prevention strategies and new treatment methods for osteoarthritis, there are increasing demands for early diagnosis and critical treatment monitoring of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis. As a non-invasive imaging technique, it would be critical to link the biochemical analysis with in vivo imaging measures. This study developed a robust registration algorithm for in vivo and ex vivo cartilage imaging to explore the link between imaging measures and biochemical analysis.

 
3498.   66 Feasibility Study of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Guyon's Canal -permission withheld
Eiko Yamabe1, Ryo Miyagi2, Toshinori Sakai3, Toshiyasu Nakamura4, and Hiroshi Yoshioka1
1Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA, United States, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Miyoshi City National Insurance Nishi-Iya Clinic, Tokushima, Japan, 3Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan, 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

 
We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging of Guyonfs canal in healthy volunteers and compared diffusion values of the ulnar nerve with those of the median nerve. The ulnar nerve at Guyonfs canal, including the superficial and the deep branches, was well appreciated on fiber tracking images. FA and location of the ulnar nerve demonstrated a strong negative linear correlation from the proximal to the distal while ADC showed a moderate positive linear correlation. FA and ADC of the ulnar nerve showed lower and higher values than those of the median nerve, respectively.

 
3499.   67 Age Estimation of Soft Tissue Hematomas
Bernhard Neumayer1, Eva Hassler1,2, Thomas Widek1, Kathrin Ogris1, and Eva Scheurer1
1Clinical Forensic Imaging, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute, Graz, Styria, Austria, 2Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Styria, Austria

 
The estimation of the time since the origin of a hematoma is often needed to reconstruct juridically relevant events. This estimation is currently done by visual inspection which has been shown to be unreliable. This study presents an MRI model to estimate the age of soft tissue hematomas using standard clinical sequences. The application of this method results in a 95% confidence interval of approximately plus-or-minus sign1 day for hematoma ages of up to 2 weeks and, thus, shows considerable advantages compared to the current standard.

 
3500.   68 The Association of Femoral Neck Stress Fractures with Femoral Acetabular Impingement
Kathryn Stevens1, Michael Goldin2, Michael Fredericson3, Christian Anderson4, and Marc R. Safran4
1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department of PM & R, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States,3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Redwood City, CA, United States, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Stanford University, Redwood City, CA, United States

 
The purpose of our study was to determine if there was an increased incidence of femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) in patients presenting with femoral neck stress fractures. We evaluated the imaging studies of patient presenting with stress injuries of the femoral neck for features to suggest either cam or pincer-type FAI. Our results suggest that patients with bony abnormalities associated with pincer impingement, such as coxa profunda and acetabular retroversion, may be at increased risk of developing stress fractures. Over-coverage of the femoral head may place additional stresses on the femoral neck, predisposing an athlete to stress fracture

 
3501.   69 Can 3D Shape and Textural Analysis Differentiate Liposarcomas from Benign Lipomas?
Rebecca E. Thornhill1, Greg O. Cron2, Mohammad Golfam1, Gina DiPrimio1, Adnan Sheikh1, Eric A. White3, Joel Werier4, and Mark E. Schweitzer1
1Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2Medical Imaging, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada,3Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States, 4Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

 
Conventional imaging assessment of lipomatous tumors offers limited accuracy to predict malignant potential. We have identified a number of quantitative morphological and textural features that can be extracted from standard T1-weighted spin echo MR images that are capable of delineating lipomas from liposarcomas with 88% sensitivity, 90% specificity and 89% accuracy. These advanced 3 dimensional shape and textural features may identify a 'signature' pattern associated with highly malignant lipomatous tumors and offer improved diagnosis compared to conventional radiologic methods.

 
3502.   70 The Potential Pitfalls and Image Artifacts in Integrated Whole-Body PET/MR Imaging -permission withheld
Hye Jin Yoo1, Sung Hwan Hong1, Ja-Young Choi1, Sung Eun Kang1, and Hye Young Sun1
1Radiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

 
Knowledge of potential pitfalls and artifacts of whole-body PET/MR is essential before interpreting hybrid imaging to avoid misdiagnosis.

 
3503.   71 Dental MRI
Volker Rasche1, Erich Hell2, and Magrit-Ann Geibel3
1Experimental Cardiovascular Imaging, Ulm University, Ulm, NA, Germany, 2Research and Development, Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Hessen, Germany, 3Department of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Pedodontics, Ulm University, Ulm, Baden Wuerttemberg, Germany

 
The application of MRI in dental imaging is not widespread. With the introduction of ultra-short echo time imaging techniques, a major step has been taken for the application of MRI as an increasingly important imaging tool in dentistry. The aim of this educational poster is to discuss recent developments in dental MRI and its potential in the different fields of dentistry.

 
3504.   72 Towards Theranostics of Rheumatoid Arthritis: 1H/19F Imaging of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Hand and Wrist at 7 Tesla
Helmar Waiczies1,2, André Kühne3,4, Lukas Winter2, Tobias Frauenrath2, Werner Hoffmann3, Bernd Ittermann3, Sonia Waiczies1,2, and Thoralf Niendorf2,5
1Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Immunology, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), a cooperation of the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany, 2Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Physics and Metrological Information, Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany, 4Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 5Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charité University Medicine Campus Berlin-Buch, Berlin, Germany

 
We have developed a double-tuned 1H/19F birdcage resonator dedicated for hand and wrist imaging at 7 T to locally image non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) such as 2-{[3-(Trifluoromethyl) phenyl]amino}benzoic acid. The preliminary in vivo images acquired by the double-tuned 1H/19F birdcage resonator demonstrate the feasibility for 1H/19F hand- and wrist-imaging at 7 T. While the diagnostic quality of the coil needs to be assessed in patients with inflammatory rheumatoid disease, first 19F images of the NSAID are encouraging, and point towards the prospect of applying 19F-MRI to visualize and quantify the concentration of therapeutically-active compound at the sites of inflammation.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • MUSCULOSKELETAL
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (10:00-11:00) Exhibition Hall
Muscle

  Computer #  
3505.   73 Functional 31P-MR Chemical Shift Imaging in Lower Back Muscles During Isometric Load
Patrick Hiepe1, Alexander Gussew2, Reinhard Rzanny2, and Jürgen R. Reichenbach2
1Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany, 2Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

 
This contribution demonstrates the feasibility of applying 31P-MR-CSI in lower back muscles during an isometric load to detect and quantify changes of PCr, Pi and pH. For this purpose 14 healthy volunteers were investigated, which performed a modified Sørensen test over a time period of 10 min. Load induced changes of phosphorus metabolites and increased SDs of quantified PCr and Pi intensity were observed. The latter is assumed to reflect inter-individual differences for metabolic changes and, thus, for varying degrees of muscle fatigue.

 
3506.   74 Investigation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Indices, Mean BOLD Signal and Calf Muscle Cross Sectional Area Following Bed Rest
Alyaa H. Elzibak1 and Michael D. Noseworthy2
1Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

 
Changes in posture, from erect to supine, are known to affect muscle cross sectional area (CSA) measurements due to fluid shifts. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and blood oxygen level dependent imaging (BOLD) have been applied to assess muscle microstructure and vasculature, respectively. In this study, we investigated changes in calf muscle DTI indices (λ1, λ2, λ3, apparent diffusion coefficient, and fractional anisotropy) and BOLD signal due to supine rest. These parameters were measured in five calf muscles at three time points: baseline, 30 and 60 minutes of bed rest. We also measured calf muscle CSA at these three times.

 
3507.   75 Temporal Changes in Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the mdx Mouse
Su Xu1,2, Stephen J.P. Pratt3, Roger J. Mullins1,2, and Richard M. Lovering3
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

 
In vivo high resolution T2-weighted MRI at 7 Tesla was used to monitor dystrophic hindlimb muscles in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy murine model (mdxmouse) over time. The results clearly show areas of brightness in mdx muscles, which peaks near the critical period, when the muscles are thought to undergo maximal degeneration/regeneration. Such findings suggest that researchers need to consider the age of mdx mice when evaluating MRI findings.

 
3508.   76 In Vivo Transverse Relaxation and Magnetization Transfer Imaging of Human Thigh Muscles at 3.0 Tesla
Ke Li1,2, Richard D. Dortch1,2, Nathan D. Bryant1,2, Amanda K.W. Buck1,2, Theodore F. Towse2,3, Daniel F. Gochberg1,2, Mark D. Does1,2, Bruce M. Damon1,2, and Jane H. Park4
1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
In this work, a multi-echo sequence for T2 and a selective inversion recovery (SIR) sequence for qMT were implemented for in vivo human thigh muscle imaging at 3.0 Tesla, and their repeatability was investigated. It is shown that these methods are reliable and repeatable and have potential applications in longitudinal studies of recovery from muscle damage and treatment response.

 
3509.   77 Evaluation of Muscle Blood Flow of the Lower-Leg After Exercise Using 3D-PCASL Volume Data -permission withheld
Shuya Fujihara1, Tosiaki Miyati1, Saori Watanabe1,2, Naoki Ohno1, Takashi Hamaguchi1, Masako Takanaga1, and Takayuki Miyazaki3
1Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, 3School of Health Sciences, College of Medical Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

 
To comprehend the clinical physiology of the skeletal muscle disease, direct assessment of the muscle blood flow is essential. However, muscle blood flow (MBF) is the low baseline flow, and which tends to be maintained even in disease states. Thus MBF measurement should test under stress [1]. The objective of our study is to evaluate how much change in the MBF of each lower-leg muscle at the long axis before and after exercise using three-dimensional (3D) pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI.3D-pCASL makes it possible to obtain volume blood flow data of the lower-leg muscle and evaluate change in regional blood flow of the lower-leg muscle after exercise.

 
3510.   78 Multi-Parametric Characterization of Polymyositis at 3.0 T: A Preliminary Study
Ke Li1,2, Richard D. Dortch1,2, E. Brian Welch1,2, Susan F. Kroop3, Bruce M. Damon1,2, and Jane H. Park4
1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Rheumatology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
Polymyositis (PM) is a form of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis (IIM), with symptoms of muscle inflammation, fat infiltration/replacement, and atrophy. In this work, several quantitative methods, including Dixon fat/water imaging, T2, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been applied for the first time in a PM patient at 3.0 Tesla. It is shown that these quantitative methods may provide an improved understanding of the pathological processes associated with PM at a microscopic level, and can objectively and quantitatively characterize, on an individual basic, the severity of muscle damage.

 
3511.   79 In Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Human Thigh Muscles at 3.0 Tesla
Ke Li1,2, Richard D. Dortch1,2, Ha-Kyu Jeong1,2, Amanda K.W. Buck1,2, Theodore F. Towse2,3, Bruce M. Damon1,2, and Jane H. Park4
1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
DT-MRI indices from the normal human thigh muscles have particular significance because of the proximal-to-distal presentation of many neuromuscular disorders, causing the thigh muscles to be an early site of pathology. In this work, DT-MRI has been performed in healthy thigh muscles at 3.0 T in order to investigate the normal values obtained by, and the repeatability of, this technique.

 
3512.   80 Functional T2 Measurements in Lower Back Muscles Before and After Isometric Muscle Contraction
Patrick Hiepe1, Alexander Gussew2, Reinhard Rzanny2, and Jürgen R. Reichenbach2
1Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany, 2Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

 
This contribution evaluates the feasibility of applying SE-EPI in lower back muscles to determine T2 relaxation changes in lower back muscles during exercise in a group of healthy volunteers. A series of T2-weighted images with incrementally increasing echo times was acquired pre- and post-exercise. Exercise was performed over a time period of 10 min and arranged as a modified Sørensen test. In all examined lower back muscles significantly increased T2 values were observed, whereby T2 increases revealed spatial variations. Hence, functional T2 quantitation can be used for spatial resolved studies of muscle fatigue.

 
3513.   81 Detectability of Exercise-Induced Muscle Activities of Abdominal Oblique Muscle Using Muscle Functional MRI
Noriyuki Tawara1, Takahiro Ohnishi2, Katsuya Maruyama2, Vladimir Jellus3, Naoyuki Tamura4, Hideyuki Takahashi4, Mamoru Niitsu5, Atsuto Hoshikawa1, Kohei Nakajima1, Toru Okuwaki1, and Takashi Kawahara1
1Medical Center, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 2Siemens Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 3Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany, 4Department of Sports Science, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Radiology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan

 
MRI can evaluate muscle activity; T2 of exercised muscle is greater than that of rested muscle. However, it is necessary to improve the temporal resolution of the T2 calculation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate visualization of the trunk muscle activation induced by exercise using DESS sequence. Although the DESS sequence has a temporal resolution as high as can be acquired under single breath-holding, these images have a high spatial resolution. In this study, we presented the detectability of trunk muscle activities by DESS T2 mapping.

 
3514.   82 Analysis of the Stiffness Anisotropy Structure Using MR Elastography in the Skeletal Muscle
Hata Junichi1, Numano Tomokazu2, Mizuhara Kazuyuki3, Washio Toshikatsu4, Takamoto Kohichi5, Homma Kazuhiro4, Yagi Kazuo2, Yano Keichi1, and Ohtomo Kuni1
1The University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyou, Tokyo, Japan, 2Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa, Tokyo, Japan, 3University of Tokyo Denki, Adachi, Tokyo, Japan, 4National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Jamaica, 5University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama, Japan

 
When the stiffness of the skeletal muscle is evaluated, the cell structure anisotropy becomes a problem. Then, this research aimed at the analysis and the evaluation of the organization anisotropy by MRE. We had examined two mainly. At first, the change in the frequency of the wave was analyzed by an isotropic structure as an anisotropic structure. Stiffness was similarly analyzed. It ..scorching.. was suggested it was necessary to consider anisotropy when MRE was analyzed enough.

 
3515.   83 Characteristics of Off-Center Anatomy-Related Artifact in Open MRI
CheolPyo Hong1, Donghoon Lee1, Si Seung Kim2, and Youngkeun Woo3
1Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, Korea, 2Research and development, SciMedix Co.,Ltd, Incheon, Incheon, Korea, 3Physical Therapy, Jeonju University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Korea

 
Characteristics of off-center anatomy-related artifact in open MRI

 
3516.   84 MR Quantification of Fatty Fraction in the Muscle Atrophy in Rotator Cuff Tears from T2*-Corrected Dixon Fat/Water Separation VIBE -permission withheld
Young Han Lee1, Daekeon Lim1, Ho-Taek Song1, InSeong Kim2, and Jin-Suck Suh1
1Yonsei University College of Medicine Severance hospital, Seoul, Korea, 2Siemens Healthcare, Seoul, Korea

 
Rotator cuff tears are the common problem in the shoulder. Fatty degeneration of muscles accompanied by tendon tears is an important prognostic factor. An accurate fat assessment is essential to set up treatment plan and to predict prognosis. However, there has been no standardized quantitative grading system, and the most widely used method for fatty infiltration is still disputed. We investigated the fat quantification using fat fraction map MR from the T2*-corrected in-phase and oppose-phase Volume Interpolated Breathhold Examination (VIBE) sequence in the patients with rotator cuff pathology on a 3-T clinical MRI scanner.

 
3517.   85 31-Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Following Isovolumetric Muscle Exercise
Dong-Ho Ha1 and Sunseob Choi2
1Dong-A university, Busan, Busan, Korea, 2Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan, Busan, Korea

 
Previous researches 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy after muscle exercise were performed after isotonic stress exercise. These studies need the various custom-built exercise devices made by nonferrous materials and were limited by the space constraints. 31P-MRS study following isovolumetric muscle exercise was effective for evaluating the muscle metabolism without specialized device and space constraints.

 
3518.   86 Mitochondrial Skeletal Muscle Uncoupling in a Murine Cancer Cachexia Model
Valeria Righi1,2, Cibely Cristine Fontes De Oliveira3, Alexander A. Shestov4, Dionyssios Mintzopoulos1,5, Nikolaos Psychogios1,5, Caterina Constantinou1,6, Silvia Busquets3, Francisco J. Lopez-Soriano3, Sylvain Milot7, Francois Lepine8, Michael N. Mindrinos9, Laurence G. Rahme6, Josep M. Argiles3, and Aria A. Tzika1,5
1NMR Surgical Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Burn Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 2Department of Science for Life Quality, University of Bologna, Rimini, Rimini, Italy, 3Cancer Research Group, Department de Bioquýmica y Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 4Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center of Biomedical Imaging, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 6Molecular Surgery Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Burn Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 7INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, Laval, Quebec, Canada, 8INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, Leval, Quebec, Canada, 9Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States

 
We tested the hypothesis that cancer promotes mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle. We employed in vivo 31P NMR on intact mice and GC-MS in skeletal muscle samples, in a mouse cancer cachexia model. ATP synthesis rate and TCA cycle flux were significantly reduced in cancer-bearing mice. The ratio of ATP synthesis rate/TCA cycle flux, which provides an index of mitochondrial coupling, was 32% less in cancer-bearing mice. Our results were cross-validated with genomic analysis, showing aberrant expression levels in key regulatory genes and by electron microscopy showing abnormal giant mitochondria.

 
3519.   
87 Chemical Shift-Based Imaging to Measure Fat Fractions in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle
Celine Baligand1, William Triplett1, Sean C. Forbes2, Rebecca J. Willcocks2, Donovan J. Lott2, Soren De Vos2, Jim Pollaro3, William D. Rooney3, H. Lee Sweeney4, Carsten G. Bonnemann5, Krista Vandenborne2, and Glenn A. Walter1
1Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States, 2Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States, 3Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States, 4Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 5Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
We used chemical-shift based MRI to quantify fatty infiltration in dystrophic muscles. We evaluated the combined influence of the model used for fat spectral decomposition, T1 variations, and signal to noise on the calculated fat fraction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), congenital muscular dystrophy (C6), and control muscles, using localized 1H-MRS as a validation measure. Our results indicated that noise bias correction and the use of a 6-peak spectral model for fat allow good agreement between MRI and MRS measurement over a large range of fat fraction values, making chemical-shift based MRI a potential complementary quantitative measure in clinical trials.

 
3520.   88 Analysis of the Relationship of Mandibular Movement with the Condition of the Masseter Muscles and the Temporomandibular Joint Using Multi-Section Dynamic MRI and DTI and a T1, T2 Map -permission withheld
Ryusuke Nakai1,2, Takashi Azuma3, Keiji Shigeno1, Osamu Takizawa4, and Hiroo Iwata1
1Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 3National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 4Siemens Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan

 
We analyzed trajectories of the mandibular condyles and articular disks during mouth opening and shutting movements using multi-section dynamic imaging. The conditions of masseter muscles were examined based on high-resolution 3D-images, the DTI technique, and T1 and T2 values; and the relationships among mandibular movement, articular disks, and the conditions of the masseter muscles were determined. In the present investigation of mandibular movement, articular disks, and masseter muscles, MRI revealed relationships among mandibular trajectories, disorder in articular disks, and the condition of the masticatory muscles. This study shows the importance of the MRI technique for identifying causes of temporomandibular-joint disease.

 
3521.   
89 Isolating CEST and MT in the Human Calf Muscle at 7T
Prodromos Parasoglou1, Jae-Seung Lee1,2, Ding Xia1, Gregory Chang1, Alexej Jerschow1,2, and Ravinder R. Regatte1
1Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY, United States

 
CEST techniques allow the indirect detection of protons associated with chemically exchangeable functional groups. Alteration in the kinetics of several chemical exchange processes in skeletal muscle have been associated with several diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is often very challenging to isolate genuine CEST from MT effects that can demonstrate asymmetries with respect to the main water resonance, and can affect quantification of CEST measurements. In this work we demonstrate the in vivo application of a simultaneous two frequency CEST imaging method that allows for MT-independent CEST measurements in the human calf muscle at 7T.

 
3522.   90 3D Strain Rate Mapping of the Calf Muscle and Correlation of Strain Rate Orientation to Muscle Fiber Direction.
Usha Sinha1, Ali Moghadasi2, and Shantanu Sinha3
1Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States, 2University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

 
The objective quantification of regional muscle deformation is a valuable clinical tool to evaluate normal and diseased muscle. 2D Strain and strain rate are kinematic properties that have been used to characterize myocardial and lingual deformation. However, the strain rate is 3 Dal as the tissue deformations are 3 dimensional. 3D strain rate measurement is challenging and requires 4D data acquisition. We report here, 3D strain tensor mapping of the medial gastrocnemius and show that the eigenvector associated with the negative eigenvalue deviates by 8-12o from the muscle fiber direction determined from diffusion tensor imaging.

 
3523.   91 3D Mapping of Creatine Kinase Reaction Rates and Metabolic Fluxes in the Human Calf Muscle at 3T
Ding Xia1, Prodromos Parasoglou1, Gregory Chang1, and Ravinder R. Regatte1
1Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States

 
The creatine kinase (CK) reaction plays an important role in provision and transport of ATP. Alteration in the kinetics of the CK has been associated with many diseases, such as diabetes, inflammatory myopathies and heart diseases. Non-invasive measurement of the forward CK reaction rate and metabolic flux can be achieved through phosphorous (31P) magnetization transfer (MT) techniques. In our study, we developed and implemented a novel three-dimensional 31P-MT imaging sequence on a 3T clinical scanner that maps forward CK reaction rate and metabolic flux among different calf muscles in clinically relevant times with relatively high spatial resolution.

 
3524.   92 Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Kinetics Using Quantitative BOLD (QBOLD)
Xiang He1, Serter Gumus1, Jung-Hwan Kim1, Ted Huppert1, Bret Goodpaster2, Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy3, and Kyongtae Ty Bae1
1Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 22Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States

 
In this study, calf muscle oxygen kinetics was investigated utilizing an MR single-voxel qBOLD (quantitative BOLD) approach during muscle exercise. Changes in muscle hemodynamics such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and deoxygenated blood volume (DBV) were measured during and after isometric or dynamic knee dorsiflexion. This study demonstrated that while post-exercise hyperemia was evident, muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) response during static or dynamic exercise was dominated by changes in deoxygenated blood volume and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration.

 
3525.   93 Preliminary MR DTI Study of Age-Related Regeneration Process of Skeletal Muscle with Ischemia Injury -permission withheld
Ke Jiang1, Xiaotian Wang1,2, Hulong Lei1, Wei Yang1, and Yin Wu1
1Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for MRI, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 2Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

 
DTI is a powerful tool to investigate muscle structures. Most DTI studies of probing ischemic muscle were performed on adult species, results of which may not apply on other age populations. In this study, we aim to investigate age-related regeneration process of ischemic muscle. 10 young and old SD rats were longitudinally studied using DTI before and after ischemia induction. Results showed that the young group was more sensitive to ischemia and recovered more rapidly than the old group. This study demonstrates the age-related discrepancy of muscle regeneration process, and may provide supplemental information for understanding of muscle repair evolution.

 
3526.   94 Changes in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Eigenvalues of Skeletal Muscle Due to Hybrid Exercise Training
Yoshikazu Okamoto1, Tomonori Isobe1, and Graham J. Kemp2
1University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, 2University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

 
Changes in eigenvalues of skeletal muscle due to hybrid training

 
3527.   95 Non-Contrast MRI Perfusion Angiosome in Diabetic Feet
Jie Zheng1, Mary K. Hasting1, David Muccigrosso1, Darrah Snozek1, Zhaoyang Fan2, John Curci1, and Michael Mueller1
1Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 2Cedars-Sinal Medical Center, Los Angelas, California, United States

 
A non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome method was developed to assess skeletal muscle perfusion in feet. The study was performed in healthy volunteers and age-matched patients with diabetes mellitus, at rest and during a foot challenge. Significant attenuations in muscle perfusion reserve were observed in diabetic feet, even without developing foot ulcers.

 
3528.   96 Changes in Elastic Modulus of Muscles from Multi-Parametric MRI and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering
Delphine Perie1,2 and Daniel Curnier3,4
1Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Research center, CHU Sainte Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,3Kinesiology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Research center, CHU Sainte Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada

 
The long-term objective is to quantify the early changes in the muscle elastic modulus that occur with different muscle diseases using multi-parametric MRI. We hypothesized that multi-parametric MRI is able to characterize muscles with large mechanical differences. We developed an evaluative quantitative tool of the mechanical properties of muscle tissue using multi-parametric MRI associated to principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering. We confirmed that a non linear relationship exists between the Young’s modulus and the MRI parameters of different types of muscle. The natural division into two clusters on the dendrograms reflected the ability of our method to classify different muscle tissues.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • MUSCULOSKELETAL
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (11:00-12:00) Exhibition Hall
Cartilage

  Computer #  
3529.   
73 Quantitative 11.7 T MRI and EPIC-µCT Assessment of Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Glenohumeral Joint Model Following Microfracture and Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis
Ziying Yin1, Andrew S. Lee2, Geoffrey S. Van Thiel2, Vasili Karas2, Kristen Hussey2, Elizabeth F. Shewman2, Dale R. Sumner2, Brian J. Cole2, Vincent M. Wang2, and Richard L. Magin1
1Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States

 
Microfracture (MFX) and autologous matrix induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) are two surgical treatments currently used for cartilage defects. There is a growing need to compare the effectiveness of the MFX and AMIC treatments. T1ρ and T2 are highly correlated with the proteoglycan (PG) and collagenous changes that occur in cartilage regeneration, while EPIC (Equilibrium Partitioning of an Ionic Contrast-agent)-µCT provides complementary data for cartilage morphology and PG content distribution. The purpose of this study is to examine the regenerative potential of AMIC treatment in comparison to MFX in a rabbit glenohumeral joint repair model using T1ρ, T2, and EPIC-µCT.

 
3530.   74 in vivo DTI of Articular Cartialge at 3T with a Spin Echo Radial Diffusion Tensor Imaging (RAISED) Sequence
Jose G. Raya1, Eike Dettmann1, Ali-mohammad Golestani1, and Kai Tobias Block2
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

 
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of articular cartilage has demonstrated high accuracy (90%) for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). In vivo DTI of articular cartilage has been performed at 7 T, which limits its clinical applicability. To perform DTI of articular cartilage at 3 T we developed a radial spin echo diffusion tensor imaging (RAISED) sequence. We optimize the RAISED sequence for articular cartilage. Phantom measurements were used to test the accuracy of the DTI parameters. In vivo validation on healthy and OA subjects demonstrated the feasibility of the RAISED sequence for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage at 3 T.

 
3531.   75 The Effect of Bone Marrow Edema-Like Lesions on Knee Articular Cartilage Laminar MR Relaxation Time
Joseph Alan Schooler1, Deepak Kumar1, Xiaojuan Li1, Thomas M. Link1, and Sharmila Majumdar1
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
The association of bone marrow edema-like lesions with quantitative T1rho and T2 relaxation time. Deep and superficial human knee articular cartilage layers were probed to analyze laminar degenerative patterns

 
3532.   76 T2* of the Osteochondral Junction Measured by VTE at 7T and Correlated with Histology -permission withheld
Vladimir Juras1, Maria Isabel Menedez2, Jochen Hofstaetter3, Martin Brix3, Sonja M. Walzer3, Pavol Szomolanyi1, Oliver Bieri4, Xeni Deligianni4, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2The Wright Center of Innovation in Biomedical Imaging, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, United States, 3Department of Orthopaedics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

 
This study shows that vTE-GRE is suitable tool for measuring the thickness of osteochondral junction; however, the measured values from MR images probably combine the signal from deep and calcified layer (it is not purely calcified cartilage) which would explain the discrepancy with histologically obtained values. The optimization of the two TE combinations for the best contrast is necessary. Low TEs in VTE sequence allow accurate calculation of T2* of osteochondral junction (in the range of ~5-10ms). Histological grading of the cartilage condition corresponds to changes in T2* in osteochondral junction which may suggest the changes in collagen matrix and calcified cartilage front in different OA stages. It was shown that lead accumulates in the tidemark which may significantly contribute to T2* alteration. Relatively low number of samples does not allow generating conclusive statements; in the future, it needs to be validated in the higher number of subjects.

 
3533.   77 Automated Cartilage Morphometric and T2 Mapping Using 3D-FSE MRI at 3T
Jurgen Fripp1, Rachel Surowiec2, Erin Lucas2, Craig Engstrom3, Chandra Shakes4, Raphael Schwarz5, Charles Ho2, and Stuart Crozier6
1The Australian eHealth Research Centre, CSIRO ICT Centre, Brisbane, Qld, Australia, 2Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colarado, United States, 3School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia, 4Australian eHealth Research Centre, ICT Centre, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland, Australia, 5Healthcare, Siemens, Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany, 6The School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia

 
Quantitative MRI sequences such as T2 mapping are considered to be sensitive to the earliest biochemical changes that occur prior to gross cartilage tissue loss during Osteoarthritis (OA). We present and validate the results of an automated segmentation scheme, to segment the cartilage from clinically 3D-Fast-Spin-Echo (3D-SPACE) MR images and extract biochemical information from co-registered T2 mapping images.

 
3534.   78 In Vivo High-Resolution T1lower case Greek rho MRI of the Wrist at 3T: Usefulness of Realignment During Post-Processing
Hon J. Yu1, Dave Michael Hitt2, and Hiroshi Yoshioka3
1Tu & Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States, 2U.S. Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, United States

 
T1lower case Greek rho scans with varying TSL were performed for T1lower case Greek rho mapping of wrist cartilage at a 3T clinical scanner. The effect of motion correction prior to the fitting for T1lower case Greek rho mapping was tested off-line via ROI-averaged value from the T1lower case Greek rho maps with and without motion correction and also use of R2 map for overall fitting quality. A measurable deviation in ROI-averaged T1lower case Greek rho value of cartilage (up to 22%) occurred even in presence of small mis-alignments in T1lower case Greek rho series (< 1°/< 0.5 mm in rotation/translation) due to the thin anatomical nature of cartilage. Overall fitting quality improved with motion correction (R2=0.94-0.96 vs. 0.72-0.80). Mapping-based techniques for cartilage require a motion-correction/realignment for more accurate assessment of cartilage.

 
3535.   79 Planar Hip Cartilage Quality Maps – a Novel Approach to 3D Cartilage Assessment by Combining DGEMRIC with Automated Segmentation
Carl Siversson1,2, Alireza Akhondi-Asl1, Young-Jo Kim3, and Simon K. Warfield1
1Computational Radiology Laboratory, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden, 3Department of Orthopaedics, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

 
Delayed Gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a technique for assessing cartilage quality using T1 quantification. In this work it is shown that by combining an isotropic 3D T1 map with an isotropic 3D TrueFISP image it is both feasible and robust to apply fully automated cartilage segmentation to hip-dGEMRIC data. It is also shown that it is possible to apply cartographic algorithms to the segmented cartilage, generating planar T1 maps covering the entire cartilage surface. Such planar maps are very suitable for studying patterns of cartilage degeneration.

 
3536.   80 Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of the Fibrocartilage Disc of the Temporomandibular Joint - Feasibility Study
Elisabeth Pittschieler1, Pavol Szomolanyi2,3, Martina Schmid-Schwap4, Michael Weber5, Hanns Plenk6, and Siegfried Trattnig2
1Department of Orthodontics, Bernhard-Gottlieb University Dental Clinic, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2High field MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria, 3Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, 4Department of Prosthodontics, Bernhard Gottlieb Universitity of Dentistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 5Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria, 6Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

 
The dGEMRIC technique is feasible for the in-vivo assessment of the fibrocartilage disc of the TMJ, by evaluating T1(Gd) within the diagnostic window 60 to 120 minutes post contrast agent application. 2D-IR sequences showed a statistically highly significant drop of T1(Gd) in the articular disc of the TMJ after i.v. contrast agents administration of the 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. The 3D-GRE sequence based T1(Gd) mapping confirmed results, providing higher temporal resolution by measuring in shorter time steps. The regional distribution of T1 values showed similarities to histological GAG specific staining techniques of the TMJ disc.

 
3537.   81 Comparison of T2 Relaxation Time in Knee Cartilage Using Quantitative DESS, CubeQuant and 2D-FSE
Kambiz A. Asher1, Bragi Sveinsson1,2, and Garry E. Gold1,3
1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

 
Multiple MRI techniques exist that assess the health of the knee cartilage. Assessment of T2 relaxation time is useful in such situations. In the assessment of knee cartilage abnormalities, 2D-FSE imaging is most often used in clinical practice, providing excellent SNR between tissues; qDESS imaging is useful in assessing morphological changes; and CubeQuant is a highly SNR efficient 3D T2 quantification method. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the T2 measurements as acquired through qDESS and CubeQuant techniques have similar relaxation times in healthy participants compared to T2 measurements acquired through the 2D-FSE technique.

 
3538.   82 In Vivo High-Resolution Angular/Depth Dependent T2 and T1lower case Greek rho Mapping Analysis of Femoral Cartilage at 3T
Hon J. Yu1, Peter Huy Pham2, Dave Michael Hitt3, and Hiroshi Yoshioka4
1Tu & Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 3U.S. Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States, 4Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, United States

 
T2 and T1lower case Greek rho scans were performed for T2 and T1lower case Greek rho mapping of femoral cartilage at a 3T clinical scanner. Using a novel segmentation methodology previously demonstrated, this study shows the angular-orientation (magic-angle effect) and cartilage-depth dependent effects on T2 values of medial condyle whereas no such dependency was observed on T1lower case Greek rho. Despite of small sample size, the potential for quantitative, in vivo functional assessment of cartilage via T2 and T1lower case Greek rho mapping is clearly demonstrated in this study.

 
3539.   83 Biomechanical MR Imaging of the Human Knee Cartilage After Cartilage Transplantation
Elisabeth Schoenbauer1, Pavol Szomolanyi1,2, Vladimir Juras1,2, Toshiyuki Shiomi1, Stefan Zbýn1, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1High field MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

 
T2 mapping of the articular cartilage is the technique of choice for joint MR imaging because it shows degeneration associated with changes in water content and damage to the collagen fiber network. Our current study shows that, in patients after cartilage transplantation, T2 mapping patterns, under loading, behave differently compared to the characteristic T2 mapping behavior in volunteers with healthy intact cartilage under loading conditions. This could possibly be attributable to the different ultra-structural composition of the collagen fiber network in repair tissue compared to normal healthy cartilage, and thus, could explain the different biomechanical properties.

 
3540.   84 The Effect of the Selection of Measured Tissue and Assumed Constant T1 Values on the Measurement of T1rho in Patients with Minimal and Severe Osteoarthritis (OA) at 3.0T MR System
In Chan Song1, Hyeonjin Kim1, Hye Jin Yoo1, Ja-Young Choi1, and Sung Hwan Hong1
1Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

 
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the selection of measured tissue and assumed constant T1 values on the measurement of T1rho using 3D-gradient echo-based T1rho-weighted imaging sequence in patients with minimal and severe osteoarthritis (OA) at 3.0T MR system. The severity of cartilage degeneration was shown to have larger effect on T1rho from the assumed constant value to the measured tissue values in T1 value at the femoral cartilage at 3.0T. Therefore the usage of measured tissue T1 when T1rho is measured should be taken into consideration for the precise diagnosis of cartilage pathphysiology or the multi-center comparative study irrespective of the selection T1 value.

 
3541.   85 T2 Mapping of the Articular Disc of the Temporomandibular Joint–a Feasibility Study
Pavol Szomolanyi1,2, Martina Schmid-Schwap3, Margit Bristela3, Elisabeth Pittschieler4, Astrid Skolka3, Michael Weber5, Eva Piehslinger3, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1High field MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, 3Department of Prosthodontics, Bernhard Gottlieb University of Dentistry, Vienna, Austria, 4Department of Orthodontics, Bernhard Gottlieb University of Dentistry, Vienna, Austria, 5Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria

 
Our study shows that T2 relaxation time measurements of the articular disc of the temporomandibular (TMJ) joint are feasible, with a good inter-and intraobserver agreement. The proposed T2 mapping technique enabled an ultrastructural analysis of the composition of the articular disc of the TMJ. The highest T2 relaxation times were found in the anterior part of the articular disc, lower T2 values in the central part and the lowest values in the posterior part of the disc. As apparent from comparison to the histological specimens, T2 values correspond to the collagen fibers organization and structure in TMJ disc.

 
3542.   86 Feasibility Study of High Resolution PDw Imaging of Cartilage of the Thumb at 7Tesla MRI -permission withheld
Mies A. Korteweg1, Fredy Visser2,3, Paul Cernohorsky4, Simon D. Strackee4, Peter R. Luijten2, Mario Maas1, and Dennis W.J. Klomp2
1Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 27Tesla, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands, 4Plastic Reconstructive Hand Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

 
Cartilage of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is commonly affected in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Routine imaging cannot depict CMC1 cartilage, causing interobserver variability for disease staging and treatment planning. This study shows that routine clinical PDw-TSE and WATS sequence is feasible at 7T for the depiction of the thin layer of cartilage of the CMC1 joint. Combining the high SNR at 7T and a 32 channel high density flexible receive array has the potential to make the next step toward cartilage imaging in CMC1 OA patients, possibly providing an important staging tool for the disease extent and treatment planning.

 
3543.   87 Rapid Magnetization Prepared Diffusion Weighted Imaging of Articular Cartilage in-vivo
Aditi Guha1, Cory Wyatt1, and Sharmila Majumdar1
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Diffusion imaging has been primarily focused on brain application with limited application in knee. One limitation of DWI in knee is the long TE (40-60ms) in most sequences used. This can be a problem in knee where several tissues have short T2 relaxation times including cartilage (32ms) and meniscus (11ms). A new sequence for DWI of knee at 3T has been proposed and evaluated. The proposed stimulated echo sequence with MAPSS acquistion is more signal efficient and can image the whole volume of knee. The sequence was tested in phantoms,ex-vivo and in-vivo with encouraging results.

 
3544.   88 Sodium Concentration Reduction in Human Knee Cartilage with Healthy Aging
Rebecca Emily Feldman1 and Christian Beaulieu1
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

 
Changes in sodium concentration may signify biochemical changes in cartilage that occur asymptomatically, and without loss of cartilage volume. Knee cartilage was investigated in 10 asymptomatic male volunteers, aged 19-58, using proton imaging to analyze cartilage thickness and both steady state and inversion recovery sodium sequences to assess sodium concentration. Sodium concentration was found to be unrelated to cartilage thickness, and negatively correlated to age in both patellar and lateral femoral cartilage for both sodium imaging techniques. Therefore, age should be considered in all sodium MRI measurements of cartilage.

 
3545.   89 Rapid Isotropic Resolution Imaging of the Articular Cartilage of the Knee Joint at 3.0T Using VIPR-IDEAL
Larry Hernandez1, Leah C. Henze Bancroft2, Walter F. Block3,4, and Richard Kijowski5
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 4Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 5Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

 
VIPR-IDEAL can produce fat-suppressed, high isotropic resolution images of the knee joint in 5 minutes at 3.0T. VIPR-IDEAL, VIPR-ATR, FSE-Cube, IDEAL-GRASS, and IDEAL-SPGR sequences were performed on both knees of four volunteers and SNR/CNR was measured using a double acquisition addition/subtraction method. VIPR-IDEAL had similar cartilage and fluid SNR as VIPR-ATR and significantly higher (p<0.01) cartilage and fluid SNR than FSE-Cube, IDEAL-GRASS, and IDEAL-SPGR. VIPR-IDEAL had significantly greater (p<0.01) suppression of bone marrow fat signal than VIPR-ATR. Our study shows that VIPR-IDEAL has the same high SNR efficiency for evaluating articular cartilage as VIPR-ATR but provides superior fat suppression.

 
3546.   90 Alternative Methods for Transforming T2 Anisotropy of MRI Into Collagen Architecture of Articular Cartilage – the Effect on Knee Joint Mechanics – Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI)
Lasse P. Räsänen1,2, Mika E. Mononen1, Miika T. Nieminen3,4, Eveliina Lammentausta3, Jukka S. Jurvelin1, and Rami K. Korhonen1
1Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 4Department of Radiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

 
The collagen architecture modulates the stresses and strains in a knee joint. Here, two alternative methods for determining the depth-dependent collagen architecture from T2 profiles of clinical MRI were compared. Collagen architectures were implemented into a computational model of a knee joint and the differences in the mechanical response of cartilage were evaluated. The stresses varied up to 49% between the two models. These results emphasize the importance of the collagen architecture, and the role of the the depth-wise T2 analysis method, for evaluation of cartilage stresses and strains in a knee joint.

 
3547.   91 Influence of Loading on Cartilage T1rho and T2 Value in the Porcine Knee Joint
Hidetoshi Hamada1, Takashi Nishii2, Satoru Tamura2, Tetsuya Wakayama3, Hisashi Tanaka4, Kenya Murase5, Hideki Yoshikawa1, and Nobuhiko Sugano2
1Department of Orthopedic surgery, Osaka university graduate school of medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 2Departments of Orthopedic Medical Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 3GE Healthcare Applied Science Laboratory, Asia Pacific, Hino, Tokyo, Japan,4Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 5Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka, Japan

 
Influence of loading on cartilage T1rho and T2 were investigated in the porcine knee joint using a custom pressure device. In general, both T1 rho and T2 values showed similar magnitudes of decrease dependent on loading force. However, they showed different load-response in the deep layers of the lateral condyles, with less sensitive changes in T2 values. This may partly reflect different mechanisms of microstructure compositional change to loading, and biochemical cartilage assessment using T1rho and T2 mapping under static loading may become potent indexes to allow non-invasive biomechanical assessment of site-specific stress distribution related with cartilage degeneration.

 
3548.   92 Standard Deviation of T1? and T2 Relaxation Times Show Regional Changes in Hip Articular Cartilage of Patients with FAI
Stephen J. Matzat1, Emily J. McWalter2, Weitian Chen3, Marc R. Safran4, and Garry E. Gold2,5
1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3MR Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States,5Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

 
Patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) commonly experience chondral damage in the anterior acetabulum and may be at risk for early development of osteoarthritis. Conventional MR techniques are not sensitive to detecting these early changes in the hip. This study tests if quantitative MR methods using T1ρ and T2 relaxation times can detect regional changes in patients with FAI. Results show that standard deviation of T1ρ and T2 relaxation times (as measures of cartilage heterogeneity) are elevated in cartilage of the anterior acetabulum, indicating that patients with FAI exhibit sings of early osteoarthritis.

 
3549.   93 Quantitative Sodium MRI in an Osteoarthritis Goat Animal Model: Preliminary Results
Gunthard Lykowsky1, Flavio Carinci1, Kathrin Hemberger1, Eberhard Munz2, Peter M. Jakob1,2, and Daniel Haddad1
1MRB Research Center, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany, 2Department of Experimental Physics 5, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany

 
Sodium is known to be a sensitive MR imaging biomarker for early diagnosis of knee articular cartilage osteoarthritis (OA). The goat animal model closely matches the human knee anatomy and can be used to mimic the progressive development of OA and monitor the loss of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. In this study we used quantitative sodium MRI to track the cartilage degradation following an OA inducing surgery.

 
3550.   94 Prolonged Subregional Femorotibial Cartilage Increase After Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear - Five Year Follow Up Data After Injury
Felix Eckstein1,2, Wolfgang Wirth1,2, Martin Hudelmaier1,2, Stefan Lohmander3, and Richard B. Frobell4
1Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria, 2Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring, Bavaria, Germany, 3Dept Orthopaedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, SE, Sweden, 4Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, SE, Sweden

 
An increase (rather than a decrease) in medial femorotibial cartilage thickness is seen not only in the early phase after ACL injury, but continues during a later period (2 and 5 years) after ACL injury.

 
3551.   95 Multi-Parametric MRI Assessment of Degeneration of Human Articular Cartilage – Association to Histopathological Grade
Elli-Noora Salo1, Jari Rautiainen2,3, Virpi Tiitu4, Mikko A.J. Finnilä5, Olli-Matti Aho6, Petri Lehenkari6, Jutta Maria Ellermann7, Simo Saarakkala5, Mikko J. Nissi7,8, and Miika T. Nieminen1,3
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 2Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 3Department of Radiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 4Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland,5Department of Medical Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 6Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 7Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 8Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

 
Various quantitative MRI markers have been proposed for the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage degeneration. In this study, the sensitivity of T1, T1Gd, T2, magnetization transfer ratio MTR, continuous-wave (CW) T1lower case Greek rho, adiabatic T1lower case Greek rho and T2lower case Greek rho, TRAFF and T1 in the presence of saturation (T1sat) to cartilage degeneration was investigated by correlating the MRI parameters with histopathological OARSI grade. ROC analysis revealed high AUCs (0.86-1.00) for all parameters except for MTR. Similarly, good correlation with OARSI grade and MRI parameters were established apart form MTR. Cartilage degeneration was most sensitively detected with TRAFF and T1Gd.

 
3552.   96 Orientation Anisotropy of Rotating Frame and T2 Relaxation Parameters in Articular Cartilage -permission withheld
Mikko J. Nissi1,2, Silvia Mangia1, Shalom Michaeli1, and Miika T. Nieminen3,4
1CMRR and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 4Department of Radiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

 
Several rotating frame relaxation (RFR) parameters have been recently introduced and applied for quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. Orientation dependence of adiabatic T1lower case Greek rho and T2lower case Greek rho, RAFF as well as CW-T1lower case Greek rho and T2 relaxation times was investigated by imaging at 9.4T at seven different orientations of articular cartilage relative to B0 field. Adiabatic T2lower case Greek rho and RAFF showed significant orientation dependence, whereas adiabatic T1lower case Greek rho was relatively insensitive to orientation. Continuous-wave T1lower case Greek rho at low spin-lock power and T2 were orientation dependent as previously reported. The present findings promote the use of adiabatic T1lower case Greek rho as an orientation-independent biomarker to assess articular cartilage.