ISMRM 21st Annual Meeting & Exhibition 20-26 April 2013 Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
3553 -3576 fMRI of Brain Disorders
3577 -3600 Imaging of Psychiatric Disorders
3601 -3624 Multiple Sclerosis
3625 -3648 Human Brain Tumors: Diagnosis & Responses
3649 -3672 Brain Diffusion Imaging & Neuroeducation
3673 -3695 Animal Models Other Than Stroke

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (13:30-14:30) Exhibition Hall
fMRI of Brain Disorders

  Computer #  
3553.   1 Abnormalities of the Brain Connectome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Massimo Filippi1, Paola Valsasina1, Sara Sala1,2, Alessandro Meani1, Andrea Falini3, Giancarlo Comi4, and Maria A. Rocca1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Department of Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, MI, Italy, 3Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 4Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

 
Aim of this study was to analyze graph theoretical properties of functional networks in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Resting state fMRI data were acquired from 246 MS patients (121 relapsing-remitting [RR] MS, 80 secondary progressive [SP] MS, and 45 benign [B] MS) and 55 matched healthy controls. Graph analysis showed a disrupted organization of the brain connectome in MS patients compared with controls. Loss of efficiency and failure of the frontal lobe seem to be associated with a more severe clinical disability.

 
3554.   2 Cerebrovascular Reactivity-Based Calibration of Presurgical Motor Activation Maps to Improve Detectability of the BOLD Signal in Patients with Perirolandic Brain Tumors
Domenico Zacà1,2, Sreenivasan R. Nadar1, Jorge Jovicich2, and Jay J. Pillai1
1Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Center for Mind Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Mattarello, TN, Italy

 
The detectability of BOLD signal in brain tumor patients can be impaired by reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). In this study we propose to address this issue by introducing an algorithm that provides CVR based calibration of motor activation maps. This technique was applied in 5 patients with perirolandic brain tumors and demonstrated in each patient a statistically significant increase of activation in eloquent motor cortex surrounding the lesion.

 
3555.   3 Altered Spontaneous Neural Activity in Large-Scale Brain Systems Associated with Executive Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Fei Li1, Ning He2, Yuanyuan Li2, Xiaoqi Huang1, Su Lui1, Lanting Guo2, and Qiyong Gong1
1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

 
Present study evaluates the relationship between altered spontaneous brain activity and functional connectivity and executive dysfunction in ADHD. In accord with the revised model of ADHD pathopsysiology, the present findings indicate intrinsic brain activity altered not only in fronto-striatal circuit dominantly with regional deficit and excess, but also accompany with increased fronto-striatal FC and decreased fronto-parieto-temporal and fronto-cerebellar FC within different large-scale resting-state networks in ADHD. Furthermore, the altered FC associated with performance in WCST and Stroop test show the linkage between executive dysfunction and ADHD tentatively established by not only fronto-striatal hypothesis also dysfunction in fronto-parietal networks.

 
3556.   4 Altered Thalamic Connectivity in Schizophrenia
Ali-Mohammad Golestani1, Dolores Malaspina2, Laura Miles1, and Mariana Lazar1
1Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
Previous research has reported alterations in the size, function, and connectivity of thalamus in schizophrenia. Most of the studies considered the thalamus as a homogenous region. Here, we used Resting-State fMRI connectivity to parcellate the thalamus into functionally distinct sub-regions. The connectivity maps of the identified sub-regions were compared between patients and controls . Thalamus was divided into two regions, dorsal and ventral, in both groups. In the control group, the dorsal region was negatively correlated to the cortical areas, whereas the ventral region was positively connected to them. Connectivity of both sub-regions appeared to be limited in patients. These differences in the thalamo-cortical connectivity were not detected when employing the whole thalamus as a seed.

 
3557.   5 The Dynamically Changing Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity After Concussion in Sports
David C. Zhu1, Randy Pearson1, Jeffrey Monroe1, Sally Nogle1, Scarlett Doyle1, Doozie Russell1, Christine Liszewski1, Albert Aniskiewicz1, Michael Shingles1, Douglas Dietzel1, Michael Andary1, J. Kevin DeMarco1, and David Kaufman1
1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States

 
Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was applied to understand the dynamics of functional connectivity of the default-mode network and other networks after concussion. It is still unclear if a dynamic recovery process as shown by rs-fMRI is still occurring even after neuropsychological tests return to normal. However, our pilot data clearly demonstrate that rs-fMRI can potentially serve as an important and sensitive tool to monitor the dynamically changing brain function after sports related concussion, and to further our understanding of brain alteration not revealed by neuropsychological and conventional clinical imaging techniques.

 
3558.   6 A Framework for Causal Connectivity Analysis of fMRI in Patient Populations: An Application to Major Depression and Early Life Stress
Karthik Ramakrishnan Sreenivasan1, Merida M. Grant2, and Gopikrishna Deshpande1,3
1AU MRI Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, United States, 3Department of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States

 
The current study investigated effective connectivity in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). fMRI time series were deconvolved using a cubature Kalman filter to obtain underlying neural response which were input into a dynamic multivariate autoregressive model (dMVAR) to obtain effective connectivity metrics. The results showed that differential amygdala reactivity within MDD based on early life stress history was associated with failure of inhibition from medial or lateral PFC.

 
3559.   7 Motor Impairment in Schizophrenics: A Combined fMRI and VBM Study
Sadhana Singh1, Satnam Goyal2, Shilpi Modi1, Pawan Kumar1, Namita Singh1, Tripish Bhatia2, Smita N. Deshpande2, and Subash Khushu1
1NMR Research Centre, INMAS, Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Department of Psychiatry, PGIMER, New Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Schizophrenia is a psychotic mental disorder, characterized by disturbances of thought, behaviour and social interactions. Various studies have shown structural and functional changes in schizophrenics separately using VBM and fMRI techniques. But the relation between structural and functional alterations in schizophrenia remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate whether functional alterations in schizophrenia are associated with structural brain aberrations, directly in brain regions or in anatomically closely connected areas, using simple motor task. The study suggests motor impairment in schizophrenic subjects as compared to healthy controls using simple motor task which was well supported by VBM results.

 
3560.   8 Neural Activation Associated with Inhibition Control in Working Memory Maintenance and Its Correlation with Brain Volume Changes in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Gwang-Won Kim1, Moo-Suk Lee2, Heoung-Keun Kang3, Tae-Jin Park4, Jong-Chul Yang5, Gyung-Ho Chung6, and Gwang-Woo Jeong1,3
1Research Institute of Medical Imaging, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea, 2Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea, 3Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea, 4Psychology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea,5Psychiatry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, jeonju, Korea, 6Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, jeonju, Korea

 
Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with abnormalities in the processing and regulation of cognition, and neuropsychological impairment as well. Despite recent studies for identifying the neural circuitry contributing to cognitive control, the differential neural mechanisms for a delayed-response working memory (WM) and cognitive inhibition components in GAD patients have not yet been specified. The purpose of this study was to discriminate the brain activation patterns associated with the effect of distraction during the WM maintenance for the human faces in the healthy controls and patients with GAD by using a function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and further to assess the relationship between changes of the activation patterns due to impairment of the inhibition control and reduction of the volumes of the corresponding brain areas in patients with GAD.

 
3561.   9 Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Its Recovery: A Preliminary Study in Acute Setting
Jie Yang1, Zhifeng Kou2, Robert Dean Welch3, Randall Benson4,5, Ramtilak Gattu2, Valerie Mika3, and Ewart Mark Haacke1
1Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 5Center for Neurologic Studies, Novi, MI, United States

 
Using SWI and resting-state fcMRI methods, this study aims to provide neuroimaging biomarkers that may reveal neurovascular deficits and changes in function connectivity of patients post traumatic brain injury at the acute stage. Subtle medullary vein damage seen by SWI and disrupted resting-state networks indicated by fcMRI, together with the changes in these MRI indices over time will be imaging biomarkers complimentary to routine clinical evaluation of mTBI patients.

 
3562.   10 Language Lateralization and Corpus Callosum Fractional Anisotropy in Patients with Brain Tumor: Combined Functional MRI with Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Kyung K. Peck1, Gabriella Tantillo2, John Jyo2, Rob Young2, Nicole Brennan2, Joanne Chou3, and Andrei Holodny2
1Medical Physics and Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States, 2Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States, 3Statistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

 
we sought to assess how brain pathology might impact the relationship between the CC microstructure and the degree of language lateralization by examining patients with brain tumors in the left hemisphere. We combined data for the FA values in the anterior and posterior part of the corpus callosum in patients with left dominant, right dominant, or co-dominant language lateralization for patients with brain tumors in the left hemisphere.

 
3563.   11 Motor Functional Plasticity in Patients with Brain Tumor: The fMRI Study
Chen Niu1, Pan Lin2, Ming Zhang1, Zhigang Min1, and Netra Rana1
1The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Xi'an Jiaotong Universit, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

 
Brain plasticity may take place during oncogenesis,Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fc-MRI) is an effective method to study impaired brain plasticity. However, tumors in or adjacent to primary motor cortex without motor symptoms may disrupt the functional connectivity of the brain. The reason behind this is still unclear. To observe the changes in motor functional plasticity of patients with brain tumor, we compared the functional connectivity between bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) of healthy controls and patients with brain tumor. A significant linear correlation between LPMC-SMA and RPMC-SMA was presented in the normal control group. However, no significant correlation was observed between LPMC-SMA and PRMC-SMA in the patient group.

 
3564.   12 Evaluation of Resting State Networks Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Leanne Y. Lin1, Christine L. MacDonald1, Megan H. Lee1, Abraham Z. Snyder1, David L. Brody2, and Joshua S. Shimony1
1Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States

 
The goal of this study was to investigate changes in several resting state networks in 5 severe and 11 moderate TBI patients using a fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm.

 
3565.   13 Language Processing in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Extra Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Using Functional MRI
Kapil Chaudhary1, S. Senthil Kumaran2, Manjari Tripathi1, and Sarat P. Chandra3
1Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Department of NMR, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 3Department of Neuro-Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Language is assumed to be lateralized to the left brain hemisphere. Most of the patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy usually have language deficits, associated with the disease. In extra temporal lobe epilepsy, frontal lobe lesion affects some of the language components as well memory. Effectiveness of language reorganisation in LTLE and ETLE patients in surgery planning is studied.

 
3566.   14 Language Reorganization Following Anterior Temporal Lobectomy in Patients with Chronic Intractable Epilepsy
S. Senthil Kumaran1, Kapil Chaudhary2, Manjari Tripathi2, and Sarat P. Chandra3
1Department of NMR, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 3Department of Neuro-Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Functional MRI was used to study the impact of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) on language functions in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). FMRI Paradigm included multiple components of language for observing bold activation in cortical language networks. The results suggest that language areas specially involved in complex syntactic-semantic tasks to be preserved during ATLR for maximum conservation of functionality, and post-durgincal plasticity in language functions were observed.

 
3567.   15 Semantic Memory Processing in Left Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Kapil Chaudhary1, S. Senthil Kumaran2, Manjari Tripathi1, and Sarat P. Chandra3
1Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Department of NMR, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 3Department of Neuro-Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

 
Language deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy patients may be associated with semantic memory deficit after the left anterior temporal lobe resection. Pre-surgical evaluation of semantic memory with the help of fMRI may be useful to preserve memory areas during surgery. Auditory semantic memory was evaluated for mapping memory areas in left temporal lobe epilepsy patients with respect to controls.

 
3568.   16 Alteration of Regional Low-Frequency Fluctuation in Very Young Autistic Children: A Sedated-State fMRI Study
Hua Cheng1, Jishui Zhang1, Hao Huang2, Jun Wang3, Gaolang Gong3, and Yun Peng1
1Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 3State key laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

 
While fMRI technique has revealed functional abnormalities of multiple brain regions in high-functioning autistic adolescents and adults, how the regional functional patterns are altered in very young autistic children remained unknown. In this study, we utilized sedated-state fMRI to examine 33 treatment-naïve young autistic children and 27 controls. The analysis of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fALFF revealed significant changes of functional activity of autistic children in multiple regions, which possibly underlies the core symptoms of autism. Our findings suggest that the sedated-state fMRI can be a potential method to evaluate brain functional development in young children.

 
3569.   17 Changes in Upper Alpha EEG Power Predict Performance in Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training of Amygdala  -permission withheld
Vadim Zotev1, Han Yuan1, Masaya Misaki1, Raquel Phillips1, Kymberly D. Young1, and Jerzy Bodurka1,2
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States

 
We have conducted the first study in which EEG recordings were performed simultaneously with real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) to explore electrophysiological correlates of rtfMRI-nf training. Eleven MDD patients learned to self-regulate their left amygdala activation using rtfMRI-nf during a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. We observed significant task-dependent increases in relative upper alpha EEG power that inversely correlated with fMRI activation levels of the amygdala. Our results suggest that increased cognitive effort, reflected by the changes in upper alpha EEG power, is associated with reduced efficiency of emotional self-regulation during rtfMRI-nf training.

 
3570.   18 Amplitude Spectrum of Spontaneous Fluctuations in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy
Zhengge Wang1,2, Zhiqiang Zhang2, Qiang Xu2, and Guangming Lu2
1Dept. of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 2Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

 
The amplitude information of low-frequency oscillations was found meaningful in investigating the regional spontaneous neuronal activity. The amplitude of spectral component in different frequency bands exhibited distinct spatial features. We used fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) to investigate the oscillation abnormality in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, and further extended the analysis to the fALFF across different frequency bands.

 
3571.   19 Regionally Specific Association Between Reduced CVR and Cortical Thinning in the Pediatric Population with Sickle Cell Disease
Junseok Kim1,2, Jackie Leung2, Jason P. Lerch2, Gabrielle deVeber2, and Andrea Kassner1,2
1University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada

 
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that can not only jeopardize health, but also affect normal physiological and neurological development

 
3572.   20 Resting State Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Abnormally Increased Contributions from Orbitofrontal Cortex and Thalamus
Jadwiga Rogowska1, Piotr Bogorodzki2, Elliott Bueler1, and Deborah Yurgelun-Todd1
1Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 2Technical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

 
Resting state connectivity analysis has been applied to several neuropsychiatric diseases to help characterize functional connectivity disturbances. The purpose of this study was to analyze functional connectivity (FC) changes of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and thalamus in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using resting state fMRI. In healthy volunteers, our results demonstrated a normal pattern of OFC and thalamic functional resting state networks. Compared with control subjects, patients with mTBI demonstrated stronger and more widely distributed functional connectivity for both the OFC and the thalamus. This may be caused by the aberrant frequency distribution of low-frequency fluctuations in these regions. We are currently correlating functional resting state networks for other seeds with clinical and neurological traumatic brain injury symptoms.

 
3573.   21 Task Based and Resting State fMRI for Pre-Surgical Mapping of Language Function
Madalina E. Tivarus1,2, Bradford Z. Mahon3,4, Ali Hussain1, Webster Pilcher4, and Sven Ekholm1
1Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 2Rochester Center for Brain Imaging, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 3Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States

 
Task fMRI has become a commonly used tool for assesing eloquent brain regions for pre-surgical planning. Resting state functional MRI, a method that examines spontaneous brain fluctuations, may be used as an alterantive when the patients have difficulty to comply with the instructions of task based fMRI. To determine if rsfMRI can be used to map language areas in individual patients, we compared the functional connectivity between classical language areas in rsFMRI and task based fMRI data.

 
3574.   22 Alterations of Resting State Networks in Dementia: Reduction of Functional Integrity and Compensatory Mechanisms
Gloria Castellazzi1,2, Fulvia Palesi2,3, Stefano Casali2,4, Egidio Ugo D'Angelo2,5, and Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott6
1Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, 2Brain Connectivity Center, IRCCS C. Mondino, Pavia, PV, Italy,3Department of Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, 4Department of Psychology, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, 5Public Health, Neuroscience, Experimental Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, 6NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, England, United Kingdom

 
In this study we assess, by means of resting state fMRI, which resting state networks (RSN) are interested by the Alzheimer's disease (AD) at different stages. In particular we investigated the possible dynamics of corruption of the RSNs when comparing AD subjects with patients affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. We confirmed changes in specific RSNs that are indicative of neurodegeneration. Moreover we found RSNs alterations involving the cerebellum, which could have a compensatory meaning (abnormal recruitments of neurons) leading to increase activity in specific cerebro-cortical areas, along with the worsening of the pathology.

 
3575.   23 Changes in Low Frequency Fluctuations in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting State fMRI Study
Jadwiga Rogowska1, Piotr Bogorodzki2, Melissa Lopez-Larson1, Jace B. King1, and Deborah Yurgelun-Todd1
1Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 2Technical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

 
The purpose of this study was to utilize rfMRI to investigate changes in low-frequency fluctuations related to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Traumatic brain injury is a serious public health problem, and the neurobiological correlates of mTBI have been difficult to study. While there are several ways to examine regional spontaneous activity in resting state fMRI, in this study we used fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations ALFF (fALFF), which is a fraction of ALFF in a given frequency band to the ALFF over the entire frequency range detectable in a given signal. We found that there are differences in fALFF between the two bands in many brain regions, specifically in regions associated with motor functions.The significant differences between HC and mTBI patients show that spontaneous activity in frequency bands located in frontal regions, particularly in medial frontal and anterior cingulate areas, are reduced in mTBI. These differences are important, as they demonstrate focal functional differences in the absence of task demands.

 
3576.   24 Inhibition Network Differences Between ADHD and Healthy Adults Are Unbiased by Drug Use History
Jerod Rasmussen1, B.J. Casey2, Theodorus GM Van Erp1, Leanne Tamm3, Jeff Epstein3, Claudia Buss1, James Bjork4, James Swanson5, Tim Wigal1, and Steven Potkin1
1UC Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Cornell University, New York, NY, United States, 3Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 4NIH, Rockville, MD, United States, 5UC Irvine, Irvine, Ca, United States

 
Persons diagnosed with ADHD in childhood have a higher likelihood of substance abuse at a later age, adding a comorbid factor to attention network deficits brought on by the diagnosis. This work uses the largest sample to date to show that drug use frequency does not bias behavioral and/or cognitive differences when performing a Go/NoGo task. The sample size and multi-site nature of the study make these results especially generalizable.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (14:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Imaging of Psychiatric Disorders

  Computer #  
3577.   1 Integration of Functional and Structural Connectivity from rs-fMRI and DTI to Study Healthy Maltreated Adolescents
Minhui Ouyang1, Uma Rao2, Tejasvi Gundapuneedi1, and Hao Huang1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, United States

 
The underlying mechanisms of long-lasting impairments in behavioral, cognitive and social functioning caused by childhood maltreatment (MALTX) are not well-understood. Integrating functional and structural connectivity from resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and DTI provides insight of the affected brain circuits including both cortical region and white matter tracts in the maltreated subjects. In this study, rs-fMRI and DTI scanning were acquired from 19 MALTX adolescent volunteers and 13 age-matched control volunteers. We have identified disrupted structural and functional connectivity and revealed the relationship of the abnormal connectivity of both types in the maltreated healthy subjects.

 
3578.   2 A Meta-Analytic Framework for Investigating Differential Bio-Markers of Functional and Structural Connectivity: Application to Sex Differences Underlying Suicide and Depression.
Nikhil Garrepalli1, Jennifer Robinson2, Tracy K. Witte2, and Gopikrishna Deshpande1,2
1AU MRI Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States, 2Department of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States

 
Men die by suicide more than women in United States, but women are much more likely than men are to make non-fatal suicide attempts. This gender difference in suicide can be explained by interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide. we also delineate the neural mechanisms that are differentially activated in individuals with SB as compared to depression.

 
3579.   3 White Matter Abnormalities in Male Violent Offenders with Schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics
Yi Liao1, Lizhou Chen1, Xinyu Hu1, Junmei Hu2, Xuanli Chen3, Jianmei Liu2, Danlin Shen2, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1
1Huaxi MR Research Center, Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2School of Basic Science and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 3Computer Aided Medical Procedures & Augmented Reality, Technische Universität München, Garching bei München, Bayern, Germany

 
The purpose of this study is to perform a tentative study on schizophrenia patients with severely violence behavior to explore the microstructure abnormalities in the brain. Voxelwise statistical analysis of the FA data was carried out using Tract Based Spatial Statistics. The correlation between extracted FA value in specific regions and WCST, PANSS scores were evaluated for clinical explanations.

 
3580.   4 White Matter Microstructure Correlates of Visual Working Memory in Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls
Ali-Mohammad Golestani1, Dolores Malaspina2, Laura Miles1, Nicole Peccerelli1, and Mariana Lazar1
1Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
Visual working memory (VWM) is one of the executive function domains that have been found to be consistently impaired in schizophrenia. Since schizophrenia is modeled as a brain connectivity disorder, we investigated the association between VWM performance and brain anatomical connectivity using Gaussian (fractional anisotropy (FA)) as well as non-Gaussian (mean kurtosis (MK), axonal water fraction (AWF), and tortuosity (Tort)) diffusion parameters in both schizophrenia patients and control subjects. MK and AWF were found to be correlated with VWM in controls, but not in patients. These findings support white matter involvement in VWM poor performance in schizophrenia.

 
3581.   5 Atypically Increased Functional Connectivity in Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder  -permission withheld
Jeong-Won Jeong1,2, Jeffrey Kuentzel3, Carla D. Chugani4, Harry T. Chugani2,5, and Diane C. Chugani2,6
1Pediatrics and Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2PET center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 3Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 4Counseling and Psychological Services, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, Florida, United States, 5Pediatrics, Neurology, and Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 6Pediatrics and Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States

 
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in emotion, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior. Our previous functional MRI study reported atypically modulated Blood Oxygen Level Dependent signals in young adults with BPD, responding to emotionally congruent and incongruent music-face images. This study utilized topologic network analysis for resting state fMRI in order to investigate which brain networks are mostly affected (or functionally impaired) in young adults with BPD, which might provide an objective tool to quantitatively access atypically organized neural mechanism related to BPD phenotypes.

 
3582.   6 in vivo Imaging of Dentate Granule Cell Layer Abnormalities in Schizophrenia
Ivan I. Kirov1, Caitlin Hardy1,2, Kant Matsuda3, Graham Wiggins1, Ajax George1, Dolores Malaspina2, and Oded Gonen1
1Radiology, New York University, New York, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, New York University, New York, NY, United States, 3Pathology, New York University, New York, NY, United States

 
We used 7 T MRI to compare dentate granule cell layer (DGCL) morphology in schizophrenic patients to matched controls’. Three blinded neuroradiologists rated each DGCL on a qualitative scale of 1 to 6 (from “not discernable” to “easily visible, appearing dark gray or black”). MRI identification of the DGCL was validated with histopathology. Mean right and left DGCL ratings were 3.2±1.0 and 3.5±1.2 in patients versus 3.9±1.1 and 3.8±0.8 in controls. The right DGCL was less discernible in schizophrenia patients compared to controls (p‹0.05), presumably reflecting morphological abnormalities due to cellular organization.

 
3583.   7 White Matter Development Differences in Children and Adolescents with Autism
Sean C. L. Deoni1, Asal Shahidiani2, Vera D’Almeida2, Steven Williams3, and Declan Murphy2
1Advanced Baby Imaging Lab, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 2Department of Forensic and Developmental Sciences, King’s College London, London, England, United Kingdom, 3Department of NeuroImaging, King’s College London, London, England, United Kingdom

 
A recurrent finding in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is abnormal brain growth, though the neurobiological basis remains unknown. Prior studies have shown slowed micro-structural development in infants with ASD, which may be indicative of myelination differences in children with ASD. Here we cross-sectionally compare myelin development in children and adolescents (6-19 years of age) with ASD and typically developing controls. We show that in brain regions previously implicated in the disorder, children with ASD have increased myelin development (faster growth) in adolescence than typically developing children.

 
3584.   8 Brain Volume Variation in Female-To-Male Transsexuals -permission withheld
Tae-Hoon Kim1, Seok-Kwun Kim2, Heoung-Keun Kang3, and Gwang-Woo Jeong1,3
1Research Institute of Medical Imaging, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea, 2Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Donga-A University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea, 3Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea

 
Since sex differentiation of the brain occurs later in development than sex differentiation of genitals, the morphogenesis of the brain plays a critical role in determining gender identity or transsexualism. A few studies investigated the variation of brain structures of male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals. However, no study on the gray matter (GM)-based volume variation of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals has not yet been studied. This study used a 3 Tesla MRI to compare the volumes of gray matters between FtM transsexuals and female controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis.

 
3585.   9 Whole Brain Parcellation Based on Group-ICA of Tractography Connectivity Maps Shows Differences in Schizophrenia Subjects and Healthy Controls
Lei Wu1, Vince D. Calhoun1, Rex Jung2, and Arvind Caprihan1
1The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 2Neurosurgery, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

 
Whole brain structural connectivity maps based on diffusion imaging data were calculated for a large group of healthy controls and schizophrenia subjects. Connectivity maps were obtained based on probtrackx/FSL algorithm. We develop methods based on group-ICA to parcellate the whole brain into regions characterized by strong connectivity within each region. These regions automatically split the white matter into established white matter tracts and the gray matter into functional modules. This brain parcellation is then used to look for connectivity and the fractional anisotropy differences between HC and SZ groups.

 
3586.   10 Major Depression Impairs Biophysical Integrity of Brain Beyond Normal Aging Revealed by Magnetization Transfer Imaging
Shaolin Yang1,2, Olusola Ajilore1, Minjie Wu1, Rebecca A. Charlton1, Melissa Lamar1, and Anand Kumar1
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

 
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and normal aging both can be accompanied by various changes in the brain. In this report, we examined biophysical integrity of the brain using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging on 28 patients with MDD and 31 nondepressed controls, aged 30-88 years. While MTR declines with age in the brain regions shared by both groups, such as putamen, the MDD group has additional brain regions showing decline of MTR with age, such as the caudate nucleus. These findings suggest MDD and increasing age in combination are associated with more extensive brain biophysical changes than normal aging alone.

 
3587.   11 Supertoroidal Analysis of Diffusion Tensor MRI of Patients with First-Episode Psychosis
Fabricio R. S. Pereira1, Marcus V. Zanetti1, Maurício H. Serpa1, Tiffany Moukbel Chaim1, Geraldo Busatto1, Choukri Mekkaoui2, and Marcel Parolin Jackowski3
1School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 3Computer Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

 
Diffusion Tensor MRI provides the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) indices to characterize the axonal integrity and structure of white matter. Although abnormal levels of FA and MD have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, these indices showed to be insufficient to link brain abnormalities to their corresponding clinical symptoms. In this work, we assess the supertoroidal representation of the diffusion tensor by comparing the toroidal volume and toroidal curvature indices to MD and FA in treatment-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis versus healthy controls. TV and TC showed similar findings to MD and FA, but circumscribed to specific areas.

 
3588.   12 Reduced Lateralization in Early Onset Schizophrenia: A DTI Study Using TBSS
Martin T. Freitag1, Thomas van Bruggen2, Klaus Hermann Fritzsche2, Romy Henze3, Romuald Brunner3, Peter Parzer3, Franz Resch3, and Bram Stieltjes1
1Quantitative Imaging-based Disease Characterization, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, 2Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Section Disorders of Personality Development, University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany

 
Schizophrenia could result from failure of correct lateralization and lead to white matter misconnectivity. Previously, white matter alterations were described in the cerebellum, the visual system and in the corpus callosum. We investigated these regions using TBSS and evaluated potential changes in lateralization of the optic radiation and the superior cerebellar peduncle. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in the whole corpus callosum and the optic radiation and a decreased lateralization of the optic radiation and the superior cerebellar peduncles were observed. Our findings substantiate the concept that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder which affects fiber connectivity and white matter lateralization.

 
3589.   13 Relationships Between Metabolite Concentrations and Working Memory Performance in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia
Wen-Jang Chu1,2, Mathew Norris2,3, Tracie Northern3, Judd Storrs2, David E. Fleck2,3, Elizabeth M. Fugate1,2, Jing-Huei Lee2,3, Caleb M. Adler2,3, Melissa P. DelBello3, Henry Nasrallah3, and Stephen M. Strakowski2,3
1Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 2Center for Imaging Research, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

 
This 4-Tesal study investigated the relationships between regional metabolite concentrations and the accuracy of N-back working memory test in healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

 
3590.   14 Altered White Matter Myelination in Chronic Schizophrenia
Mariana Lazar1, Dolores Malaspina2, Laura Miles1, Ali-mohammad Golestani1, and Nicole Peccerelli1
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
DTI literature widely reports reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in schizophrenia. However, the underlying white matter pathophysiology remains unclear as differences in FA can stem from a variety of causes including differences in myelination and fiber density and geometry. In this study we employed Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging in conjunction with a newly proposed two-compartment white matter diffusion model to evaluate differences in axonal density and myelination in chronic schizophrenia. Our results suggest atypical myelination as a pervasive pathophysiological feature of the disorder. Fiber density does not appear to be significantly affected in this population.

 
3591.   15 Correlations Among fMRI, MRS and Working Memory in Healthy, Bipolar and Schizophrenic Subjects
Wen-Jang Chu1,2, Mathew Norris2,3, Tracie Northern3, Judd Storrs2, David E. Fleck2,3, Elizabeth M. Fugate1,2, Jing-Huei Lee2,3, Caleb M. Adler2,3, Melissa P. DelBello3, Henry Nasrallah3, and Stephen M. Strakowski2,3
1Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 2Center for Imaging Research, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

 
This work investigated the correlations among fMRI, MRS and cognitive task in bipolar, schizophrenic and healthy brains

 
3592.   16 Short Echo MRSI at 7 Tesla in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Yan Li1, Angela Jakary1, Erin Gillung2, Natalie M. Holbrook2, Stuart Eisendrath2,3, Sarah J. Nelson1,4, Pratik Mukherjee1, and Tracy L. Luks1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States,4Department of Bioengineering and therapeutic sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States

 
The purpose of this study was to compare relative metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with MDD and healthy controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior/mediodorsal thalamus (Thal) using 3D short-echo MRSI at 7 Tesla. Compared to controls, patients had significantly decreased levels of GABA/tCr and NAA/tCr in a subregion of the left ACC, significantly elevated tCho/tCr and lower Glu/tCr in the right mediodorsal thalamus, and lower mI/tCr bilaterally in the anterior and mediodorsal thalamus.

 
3593.   17 1H MRS Reveals GABA and Glutamatergic Compound Elevations in Subjects at Ultra-High Risk for Schizophrenia
Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval1, Pablo L. Ortiz2, Xiangling Mao3, Patricia Alavarado-Alanis4, Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral5, Francisco Reyes-Madrigal4, Ariel Graff-Guerrero6, Rodolfo Solis-Vivanco7, Rafael Favila8, and Dikoma C. Shungu3
1Neuropsychiatry & Laboratory of Experimental Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN), Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico,2Education, INNN, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 3Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Laboratory of Experimental Psychiatry, INNN, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 5Early Psychosis Intervention, Hospital Fray Bernardino Alvarez, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico,6Multimodal Neuroimaging Schizophrenia Group, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada, 7Laboratory of Neuropsychology, INNN, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 8MR Advanced Applications, GE Healthcare, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico

 
In the present study, 1H MRS was used to investigate potential dysregulations of GABA and glutamatergic compounds in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls, and found higher levels of both neurotransmitters in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex of the UHR group.

 
3594.   18 Prominent Nodal Role of Amygdala and Nucleus Accumbens and Altered Prefrontal Strength in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder
Minjie Wu1, Alexander Kmicikewycz1, Shaolin Yang1, Lisa Lu1,2, Donatello Arienzo1, and Mani Pavuluri1
1Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Psychology, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL, United States

 
Applying graph theory analyses to resting state brain functional data, the present study aims to characterize the system-level changes in brain organization at rest in PBD. Significant increased betweenness centrality in PBD is observed in left amygdala, nucleus accumbens, precuneus, and right temporal pole. PBD also showed significant decreased connectivity degree in left medial OFC, and increased connectivity degree in right DLPFC. The pattern of increased thoroughfare via subcortical nodes of amygdala and nucleus accumbens and altered connectivity strength of DLPFC and OFC offer strong support of how affective and reward circuits are potentially interlinked and impaired in PBD.

 
3595.   19 Impaired Small-World Efficiency in Structural Networks in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder
Minjie Wu1, Alexander Kmicikewycz1, Shaolin Yang1, Lisa Lu1,2, Donatello Arienzo1, and Mani Pavuluri1
1Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Psychology, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL, United States

 
In the current study, graph theoretic analyses was applied to diffusion weighted data to explore the topological efficiency of structural networks in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Significantly decreased small-worldness in PBD was observed, which may reflect decreased efficiency in information transfer, and may contribute to the affective and cognitive dysfunction in PBD.

 
3596.   20 Increased Glutathione Levels in Chronic and Recent Onset Schizophrenic Patients
Susanne Bonekamp1, Richard Anthony Edward Edden1, Nicolaas A. J. Puts2, Jennifer M. Coughlin3, He Zhu2,4, Mark Varvaris5, Nicola Cascella6, Akira Sawa3, and Peter B. Barker1
1Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Radiology, JHU, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, JHU, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 5Neuro Cognitive Neurology, JHU, Baltimore, MD, United States, 6Neuropsychiatry, Sheppard Enoch Pratt Hospital, Towson, MD, United States

 
It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of Schizophrenia. This study provides support for the hypothesis that in vivo levels of gluthathione, the major antioxidant in the brain, are altered in the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with Schizophrenia. Further studies are still needed to determine underlying mechanisms, including the effects of treatment, and to investigate the relationship between GSH levels, other markers of oxidative stress, and severity of both positive and negative symptoms.

 
3597.   21 In Vivo 1H MRS Assessment of Cortico-Striatal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Dysregulations in Antipsychotic-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia
Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval1, Pablo L. Ortiz2, Xiangling Mao3, Patricia Alavarado-Alanis4, Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral5, Francisco Reyes-Madrigal4, Ariel Graff-Guerrero6, Rodolfo Solis-Vivanco7, Rafael Favila8, and Dikoma C. Shungu3
1Neuropsychiatry & Laboratory of Experimental Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN), Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico,2Education, INNN, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 3Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Laboratory of Experimental Psychiatry, INNN, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 5Early Psychosis Intervention, Hospital Fray Bernardino Alvarez, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico,6Multimodal Neuroimaging Schizophrenia Group, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada, 7Laboratory of Neuropsychology, INNN, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 8MR Advanced Applications, GE Healthcare, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico

 
This study used 1H MRS to measure and compare brain GABA and glutamatergic compound (Glx) levels in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients during first-episode psychosis (FEP) and age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and found regional elevations or strong trend-level elevations of both neurotransmitters in the FEP subjects.

 
3598.   22 Alterations in Cerebellar Functional Connectivity in Social Anxiety Disorder
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper1, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli2, Alice Sawyer3, John Gabrieli2, and Christina Triantafyllou4
1A.A. Martinos Imaging Center at McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 3Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States, 4A.A. MArtinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States

 
Cerebellar role in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) remains yet to be explored using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI). Here, we are investigating additional neuronal pathways in a patient population with SAD. Compared to healthy controls, we report hyper-connectivity in left amygdala in the medication naïve patient group. Furthermore, significantly stronger temporal correlations revealed between cerebellar seeds and amygdala in the patient group, underscore the involvement of cerebellum in SAD, which could subsequently serve as guidelines for treatment.

 
3599.   23 7-Tesla GRE Imaging of Hippocampal Subregion Thickness Is Associated with Symptom Severity and Neurocognitive Deficits in Major Depressive Disorder
Tracy L. Luks1, Yan Li1, Angela Jakary1, Erin Gillung2, Natalie M. Holbrook2, Stuart Eisendrath2, Pratik Mukherjee1, and Sarah J. Nelson3
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
We used 7T MRI gradient-echo imaging to examine the thickness of 2 regions within hippocampal CA1, the cell-body layer stratum pyramidale (SP) and the synaptic layer stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SRLM) in Major Depressive Disorder patients, and to test the hypothesis that decreases in these ultra-high field MRI measures of hippocampal thickness would be significantly associated with increases in clinical symptom severity and deficits in memory and attention neurocognitive measures known to involve hippocampal function.

 
3600.   24 The Neuroanatomic Difference in Grey Matter Among Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive¨Ccompulsive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder
Bochao Cheng1, Xiaoqi Huang1, Xun Yang2, Xinyu Hu1, Yajing Meng2, Shiguang Li1, Xiuli Wang2, and Qiyong Gong1
1HMRRC.Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan province, China, 2West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Psychiatric department, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

 
It is the first study to compare the whole-brain based GMV among three anxiety disorders and HC participants. Our results demonstrate that PTSD have siginificant microstructure discrepancy with other three groups. No statastical siginificant difference in GMV can be found between OCD, SAD and HC group. Our finding show that PTSD might have different psychopatholgy circuit with OCD and SAD, which may give new proposal for the upcoming DSM ¨CV and ICD-11.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (13:30-14:30) Exhibition Hall
Multiple Sclerosis

  Computer #  
3601.   25 Cerebrovascular Reactivity Defect in Multiple Sclerosis
Yulin Ge1, Yongxia Zhou2, Hanzhang Lu3, Feng Xu3, Ilya Kister4, Hina Jaggi2, Damon Kenul2, Joseph Herbert5, and Robert I. Grossman6
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States, 2Radiology, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York, United States, 32Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 4Neurology, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York, United States, 5Neurology, New York University, New York, New York, United States, 6Radiology, New York University, New York, New York, United States

 
The cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) may be impaired due to chronic and tonically higher level of nitric oxide (NO) secondary to the repetitive inflammatory activities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This may lead to defective instantaneous oxygen supply to active neurons leading to chronic hypoxia and neurodegeneration. Using mild hypercapnia (mixed 5%CO2, 21%O2, and 74%N2) perfusion MRI at 3T MR, we found significant decrease of average global CVR of gray matter and normal appearing white matter in MS patients using psudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) hypercapnia technique. This is the first study to measure CVR abnormalities in MS.

 
3602.   26 Using the Null Point Imaging to Improve Cortical Lesion Detection in MS
Olivier E. Mougin1, Rasha Abdel-Fahim2, Alain Pitiot3, Nikos Evangelou2, and Penelope A. Gowland4
1SPMMRC, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Select, United Kingdom, 2Clinical Neurology, School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 3School of Psychology, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 4SPMMRC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Select, United Kingdom

 
This study aims to detect pure intra-cortical lesions in MS patients. High resolution Null Point Images, part of the Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery protocol (0.6mm isotropic), have been acquired at 7T using a novel imaging sequence. The NPI and PSIR contrast has been compared between white matter, grey matter and cortical grey matter, showing a greater NAGM/cGM lesion contrast to noise ratio at 7T for the NPI, providing a better delineation of the WM and the cGM lesions at high resolution. The sequence is being used to study changes in the cortex of MS patients

 
3603.   27 Quantitative Volumetrics of Multiple Sclerosis Brain from 7T MRI
Yosef A. Berlow1, Manoj K. Sammi1, Audrey H. Selzer1, Dennis Bourdette1, and William D. Rooney1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States

 
High resolution tissue classification is achievable at high magnetic field strengths by a novel iterative bias field estimation and correction. An innovative approach is illustrated in a Multiple Sclerosis study for brain tissue volume measurements.

 
3604.   28 Multicomponent Relaxation in Clinically Isolated Syndrome
Hagen H. Kitzler1, Hannes Wahl1, Jason Su2, Nora Nilles1, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer3, Tjalf Ziemssen3, Sean C. L. Deoni4, and Brian K. Rutt2
1Neuroradiology Department, Technische Universitaet, Dresden, SN, Germany, 2Radiology Department, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States,3Neurology Department, Technische Universitaet, Dresden, SN, Germany, 4Engineering Department, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States

 
Multi-component Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) was applied on Clinically Isolated Syndrom (CIS) patients in a longitudinal trial to investigate the potential sensitivity of mcDESPOT-derived measures in detecting early and conventionally invisible disease-related myelin loss. The inter-subject variance of MWF was higher than the scanning intra-subject variance proofing the consistency of repeated measurements. Significantly reduced values of Myelin Water Fraction (MWF) were found in white matter lesions and a correlation between time since symptom onset and the decrease of the Parenchymal Volume Fraction (PVF) was revealed in preliminary baseline scans.

 
3605.   29 Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI as a Biomarker for Diffuse Pathology of Normal Appearing White Matter in the Brain and Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis
Adrienne N. Dula1,2, Richard D. Dortch1,2, David R. Pennell2, Francesca Bagnato2, Siddharama Pawate3, John C. Gore1,2, and Seth A. Smith1,2
1Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Neurology and Neuroimmunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
Diffuse abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are known to exist in both the brain and spinal cord (SC). The goal of this study was to use MRI contrast due to chemical exchange by saturation transfer (CEST) to measure protein content (APT) in NAWM of the brain and SC in MS subjects compared to healthy controls. The mean APT metrics were significantly different for healthy (2.03±1.14%) and MS subjects (2.91±2.42%), additionally, the MS data exhibits considerable positive skewness (2.49) relative to healthy subjects (0.79) potentially reflective of the diffuse pathophysiology of the NAWM.

 
3606.   30 Intra-Observer and Scan-Rescan Reproducibility of Quantitative Oxygen Extraction Fraction from MRI Phase at 7 Tesla
Audrey Peiwen Fan1, Sindhuja Tirumalai Govindarajan2, R. Philip Kinkel3, Bruce R. Rosen2,4, Elfar Adalsteinsson1,2, and Caterina Mainero2,4
1Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States, 3Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States, 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

 
This work evaluates the reproducibility of quantitative oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) measurements in adult volunteers and in patients with MS at 7 Tesla. Mean cortical OEF was evaluated from MRI gradient echo phase images in pial vessels parallel to the main field. We observed excellent intra-observer OEF agreement in a cohort of 5 patients and 5 controls, with coefficient of variation (COV) = 2.1%. Scan-rescan reproducibility a week apart in healthy subjects was also acceptable, with COV = 5.9%. This study supports use of quantitative phase-based OEF as a reliable MRI method to assess oxygenation in the brain.

 
3607.   31 Dynamic Patterns of Gray and White Matter Atrophy in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome Suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis After 1 Year from the First Clinical Episode
Elisabetta Pagani1, Maria A. Rocca1, Paolo Preziosa1, Sarlota Mesaros2, Dusan Damjanovic3, Tatjana Stosic-Opincal3, Jelena Drulovic2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, BG, Yugoslavia, 3Clinic of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, BG, Yugoslavia

 
Using Tensor Based Morphometry, we investigated the patterns of regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy and their changes over one year in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that WM loss followed a linear evolution from disease onset, while a transient increase of GM volume in a few regions was detectable early in the disease course followed by the development of GM atrophy, thus possibly reflecting structural plasticity to damage.

 
3608.   32 A Gradient in Cortical T2* Relaxation Decay Changes at 7 Tesla MRI in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Caterina Mainero1, Sindhuja T Govindarajan1, R. Philip Kinkel2, Allen S. Nielsen2, and Julien Cohen-Adad1,3
1A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

 
We combined T2* relaxation decay at 7 Tesla MRI with a surface-based laminar analysis, which allows for selective sampling of T2* at different depths from pial surface across the whole cortex, to investigate in vivo a gradient in the expression of cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS), until now reported at post-mortem only. Our data show that in early MS cortical T2* changes are focal and mainly confined to the iuxtameningeal cortical layers. As MS progresses cortical changes involve deeper cortical laminae, and extend across multiple cortical areas. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

 
3609.   33 Role of Magnetization Transfer in McDESPOT Results
Jing Zhang1 and Alex L. MacKay1,2
1Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2Department of Physics and Astonomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

 
2. Myelin water fractions (MWF) estimated by mcDESPOT method are significantly higher than MWF values derived from multi-spin echo T2-decay curve approachs. It has been suggested that magnetization transfer (MT) may influence the MWF maps. We performed the mcDESPOT method with both short and longer RF pulses in order to investigate effect of MT on the MWF maps. We conclude that the MT effects did play a role in the estimated MWF from mcDESPOT. This effect was more marked in grey matter but less marked in white matter.

 
3610.   34 Altered White Matter Connectivity in Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients with High Lesion Load
Wan Hazlin Zaini1, Zhang Chen1, Min Liu1, Fabrizio Giuliani2, Chris Hanstock1, and Christian Beaulieu1
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

 
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging has low ability to predict disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients. We used diffusion tensor brain network analysis to assess differences among early relapsing-remitting MS patients with low disability and various levels of lesion load. Relative to controls, the high lesion load group, but not the low lesion load group, had reduced global and local network efficiency and increased shortest path length that all correlated with lesion load within that group. Diffusion tensor brain network analysis identifies altered white matter network properties that may provide a potential biomarker of disease progression.

 
3611.   35 Influence of Depression and Fatigue on the Regional Distribution of Brain Damage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Paola Valsasina1, Maria A. Rocca1, Gianna Riccitelli1, Claudio Gobbi1,2, Elisabetta Pagani1, Paolo Preziosa1, Vittorio Martinelli3, Giancarlo Comi3, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Department of Neurology, Neurocentre of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, TI, Switzerland, 3Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

 
We investigated whether depression in 123 multiple sclerosis (MS) is related to specific pattern of lesion distribution and gray matter (GM) and white matter regional atrophy and their modulation by presence of fatigue. A positive interaction was detected between depression and fatigue at the level of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Depression had a selective effect on atrophy of the left precentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus. Depression in MS is linked to GM atrophy of regions located in the bilateral frontal lobes. The concomitant presence of depression and fatigue is associated to atrophy of the right SFG.

 
3612.   36 Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Multiple Sclerosis
Ying Wu1,2, Huan Tan1, Ryan Hutten1, Tian Liu3, Hongyan Du1,4, Hector Ferral1,2, Matthew Walker1,2, Joel Meyer1,2, Yi Wang3, and Robert R. Edelman1,5
1Department of Radiology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States, 4Center for Clinical and Research Informatics (CCRI), NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States

 
Pathohistological and MR studies indicate possible iron accumulation in MS brain. Compared to previous iron susceptibility quantification methods, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is potentially more robust and more intrinsic to iron induced susceptibility. In this study, we performed QSM in MS patients to characterize lesion burden, and demonstrate the potential of QSM as a new sensitive clinical strategy for MS lesion identification, as well as a quantitative imaging marker for monitoring disease progression and/or responses to treatments. Conclusions: Our results provide preliminary evidence that the QSM holds promise for assessing iron change in MS brain and may add to clinical lesion visualization.

 
3613.   37 Direct Comparison Between Macromolecular Proton Fraction, R1, Magnetization Transfer Ratio, and Lesion Volume as Predictors of Clinical Status in Multiple Sclerosis
Vasily L. Yarnykh1, James D. Bowen2, Alexey A. Samsonov3, Pavle Repovic2, Angeli Mayadev2, Bart P. Keogh2, Beena Gangadharan2, Hunter R. Underhill1, Kenneth R. Maravilla1, and Lily K. Jung Henson2
1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, United States, 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States

 
Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) is a key biophysical parameter determining magnetization transfer (MT) between water and macromolecules in tissues and a promising biomarker of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, MPF measured in white matter, gray mater, and MS lesions was directly compared to more traditional quantitative MRI parameters, such as MT ratio (MTR), R1, and lesion volume on a population of MS patients. The results demonstrate the superiority of MPF in both discrimination of pathologic brain tissue changes and correlations with disability compared to the above quantitative MRI parameters.

 
3614.   38 WITHDRAWN
 
3615.   39 Ultra-Fast T2 Mapping of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology in Early Disease
Guillaume Bonnier1, Tilman Johannes Sumpf2, David Romanasco1, Alexis Roche1, Myriam Schluep3, Renaud Du Pasquier3, Jens Frahm2, Gunnar Krueger4, and Cristina Granziera3
1ACIT, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2biophysikalische Chemie · Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max Planck Institute, Göttingen, Germany, 3Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare IM S AW, Lausanne, Switzerland

 
In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of ultrafast T2 relaxometry measurements (ca 3 min acquisition time for the whole brain) in early stages of multiple sclerosis. We extracted regions of interest (ROIs) using a software based on variational expectation-maximization tissue classification; we then performed a statistical analysis using permutation-based Hotelling tests, using age and gender as covariates and correction for family-wise error rate. Results show that white matter T2 values were significantly higher in patients than in controls, suggesting that ultrafast T2 sequence provides a valuable instrument to quantify the impact of MS in early stages of the disease.

 
3616.   40 White Matter Microstructural Alterations and Their Correlations to Neuropsychological Measures
Tejasvi Gundapuneedi1, Hao Huang1, Nicholas Hubbard2, Joanna Hutchison2, and Bart Rypma2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Center for Brain Health, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, United States

 
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is capable of quantifying white-matter (WM) microstructural changes of patients with neurological diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The WM can be generally categorized into four tract groups, commissural, limbic, association and projection tracts, based on their functions. Whereas extensive previous work has documented MS-related WM changes, there has been minimal work investigating the functional consequences of these changes. In this study we assessed the sensitivity of the multiple DTI-derived metrics in these four tract groups to MS WM pathology and performance changes, assessed by neuropsychological measures.

 
3617.   41 Multi-Compartment T2 Relaxometry Using a Spatially Constrained Multi-Gaussian Model
Ashish Raj1, XIaobo Shen2, Thanh D. Nguyen, PhD3, and Susan A. Gauthier4
1Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Collge, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

 
To introduce a new post-processing technique for quantifying myelin in the brain, with specific application to the examination of demyelinating disesaes like Multiple Sclerosis. T2 Relaxometry is a popular MRI technique which can separate the contribution of various tissue components in the brain, thereby quantifying the myelin content of brain regions. It works by capturing several MRI scans at different echo times, followed by a numerical fitting procedure to fit multiple components exponentially relaxing at different T2 time constants. Unfortunately, the post-processing required to obtain myelin maps from T2 data is a hard numerical problem due to ill-posedness of the problem. Consequently, the T2 distributions and the resulting myelin water fraction (MWF) maps become very sensitive to noise and are frequently difficult to interpret diagnostically. Hence T2 relaxometry typically necessitates very high SNR T2 scans which can take several hours for whole brain coverage – clearly a clinically unfeasible proposition. Here, we propose a new way of solving the inverse problem in T2 relaxometry by imposing spatial smoothness constraints and by restricting the relaxing T2 distribution to 2 Gaussian-shaped peaks corresponding to myelin water and intra/extra-cellular water. The method greatly improves robustness to noise, reduces spatial variations and definition of white matter fiber bundles in the brain. This allows it to be used on fast but low-SNR spiral acquisitions which take only 10 minutes for whole brain coverage.

 
3618.   42 Magnetization Transfer Ratio of Normal Appearing Subcortical Brain Structures in MS Patients Measured with Balanced Steady State Free Precession Imaging  -permission withheld
Michael Amann1, Michaela Andelova2, Athina Papadopoulou2,3, Yvonne Naegelin2, Julia Reinhardt4, Katrin Weier2, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue3, Ludwig Kappos2, Oliver Bieri5, Christoph Stippich4, and Till Sprenger1
1Neurology/Neuroradiology, Universitätsspital Basel, Basel, BS, Switzerland, 2Neurology, Universitätsspital Basel, Basel, BS, Switzerland, 3Medical Image Analysis Centre, Basel, BS, Switzerland, 4Neuroradiology, Universitätsspital Basel, Basel, BS, Switzerland, 5Medical Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, BS, Switzerland

 
In this study, we measured the brain's magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in 75 multiple sclerosis patients with balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). The study protocol included a 3D DIR sequence, a volumetric 3D-T1w scan and the 3D bSSFP MTR sequence. The T1w volumes were segmented into grey matter, white matter and CSF, also subcortical segmentation was performed. Normal appearing white matter had highest and nucleus accumbens had lowest MTR, both differed significantly from all other structures. The MTR of the thalamus was also significant different from all other structures, and it was closer to white matter MTR than to the MTR of cortex.

 
3619.   43 Comparative Analysis of Neuronal Tracts DTI Metrics and Physical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis
Milos Ivkovic1 and Susan A. Gauthier1
1Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States

 
It has been noticed that DTI metrics on certain white matter tracts, such as optic radiation, correlate better with MS physical disability scores than other WM tracts, in particular corticospinal tract. We compared correlation between EDSS and DTI metrics obtained by two different methods: (1) Region-of-Interest based method and (2) recently developed tractography method where neuronal tracts are reconstructed directly on patient data. Further, we investigated age related differences in EDSS and DTI metrics and used 3 longitudinal EDSS scores on the same cohort of patients, which lead us to propose that observed differences in correlation with physical disability occur because changes in certain tracts are due to primary MS pathology, while observed differences in other tracts are mostly due to atrophic degeneration.

 
3620.   44 T2 Relaxometry
Eve LoCastro1, Sneha N. Pandya1, Xiobo Shen2, Thanh Nguyen, PhD1, Susan A. Gauthier3, and Ashish Raj1
1Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 3Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

 
To introduce a new software pipeline for performing clinically feasible and routine quantitative myelin imaging via T2 Relaxometry, with specific application to demyelinating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis. T2 Relaxometry uses multi-echo T2weighted images to separate the contribution of various tissue components in the brain, thereby quantifying the myelin content. We have developed a fully automated pipeline in MATLAB featuring 3 steps: a) fast 3D T2-prepared spiral MR sequence for rapid multi-echo T2 imaging, b) a new post-processing technique obtaining T2 distributions and myelin fractions, and c) fully automated atlas-based coregistration, segmentation and parcellation pipeline to enable cross-subject voxel-based analysis. The overall pipeline is depicted in Fig 1. This analysis pipeline will be made publically available to facilitate routine myelin imaging and statistical analysis in common space.

 
3621.   45 MRI-Based Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling Suggested Reduced Perfusion in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Yuxiang Zhou1,2, Lingyun Chen2, Xiaojun Sun1, Sushmita Datta3, Jerry S. Wolinsky4, and Ponnada A. Narayana1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, United States, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology & Molecular Imaging, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI, United States, 3Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States, 4Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, United States

 
MRI based pCASL was used to quantify cerebral blood flow (CBF) for determining the regional CBF deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients relative to controls in multiple brain regions. The results suggested significant regional perfusion reduction in MS patients. The lowest CBF value in WM mainly corresponds to central WM, the area where chronic MS lesions appear with high probability. The persistence of chronic lesions in poorly perfused WM strongly implicates hypoperfusion as an important factor that interferes with lesion repair.

 
3622.   46 Noninvasively Detection of the Pathological Changes of MS Lesions Responding to Treatment Using Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging
Yong Wang1, Peng Sun1, Anne H. Cross2,3, and Sheng-Kwei Song1,3
1Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 2Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 3Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States

 
Gaining a full understanding of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) requires longitudinal studies, which presents a special challenge because the acquisition of tissue samples has the potential of causing harm to patients. Recently developed diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) can simultaneously quantify axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation in the CNS disease, therefore holds promise of conducting longitudinal studies which noninvasively reveal the changing histopathology of MS lesions. In this study, we first examined the reproducibility of repeated clinical DBSI scans on selected image voxels from healthy volunteers. Following the reproducibility study, an MS patient was scanned 4 times following the initial diagnosis and during treatment. Preliminary data indicated that DBSI could follow the pathological substrate changes occurring with time and treatment, and potentially be used to eveluate the effectiveness of different treatment protocols.

 
3623.   47 Analysing McDESPOT Data with an Arbitrary Number of T2 Components
Jing Zhang1 and Alex L. MacKay1,2
1Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2Department of Physics and Astonomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

 
mcDESPOT derives two-component relaxation information from spoiled and fully balanced steady-state (SPGR and bSSFP) imaging data acquired over multiple flip angles. However, the two water-pool model may be inadequate to address the complex nature of water pools in brain. We analyzed mcDESPOT data using a T2 relaxation model with an arbitrary number of components. The results show that a two pool model may be unable to describe the complex water environments found in brain. MWF values obtained from the T2 distribution of mcDESPOT were smaller and closer to values obtained from the literature.

 
3624.   
48 Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging Accurately Reflects Underlying Pathologies in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Missed by Conventional MRI and DTI
Yong Wang1, Peng Sun2, Fang-Chang Yeh3, Robert Naismith4,5, Anne H. Cross4,5, and Sheng-Kwei Song1,6
1Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 2Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States,32Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States, 5Hope Center of Neurological disorders, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 6Hope Center of Neurological disorders, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States

 
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited capability to detect and quantify the severity and evolution of inflammation, axonal injury and demyelination, coexisting in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently developed diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) has demonstrated promise to address these limitations in animal studies. However, DBSI translation to MS patients has not been conducted. In this study, eight healthy volunteers and eight age gender matched MS patients underwent DBSI scans. We report that DBSI-biomarkers were able to reveal detailed pathological profiles within lesions that missed by conventional MRI and DTI.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (14:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Human Brain Tumors: Diagnosis & Responses

  Computer #  
3625.   25 Tissue Cell Fraction (TCF) from Quantitative Sodium MR Imaging Measures Real-Time Tumor Response to Fractionated Radiation Therapy
Keith R. Thulborn1, Ian C. Atkinson1, Aiming Lu1, Saad Jamil1, Wesley McClain1, Matthew Koshy1, Pauliah Mohan2, Kathryn Beal2, Antonio M. Omuro2, and Michelle Bradbury2
1Ctr Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY, United States

 
Quantitative sodium MR imaging and the two-compartment model of tissue sodium concentration have been used to measure weekly and accumulated changes in tissue cell fraction (TCF) of human high grade brain tumors during fractionated radiation therapy. Whereas some tumors show regionally distinct responses within weekly intervals, others show no response. This near real-time capability of early monitoring of tumor responsiveness to treatment could be used to guide adaptive therapy or to switch to more effective alternative therapy. The lack of responsiveness in many of these tumors explains why the prognosis remains so grime for these aggressive tumors.

 
3626.   
26 Systematic Brain Tumor Conductivity Study with Optimized EPT Sequence and Reconstruction Algorithm
Monika Huhndorf1, Christian Stehning2, Axel Rohr1, Michael Helle3, Ulrich Katscher2, and Olav Jansen1
1Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, 2Philips Research Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 3Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany

 
With Electric Properties Tomography (EPT), we are able to measure the electric conductivity of tissue as an additional parameter, which might improve the diagnostic of brain tumors and other diseases using standard MRI-sequences. Previous single case studies showed different conductivity for grey and white matter as well as for malignant and healthy brain tissue. In this study, we systematically examined 12 patients with intracerebral tumors in reference to the electrical conductivity of the tissue using a dedicated EPT sequence and reconstruction optimized for brain studies.

 
3627.   27 Long Term Effect of Radiotherapy on Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumor Patients: A Neuroimaging Study
Liya Wang1,2, Tricia King3, and Hui Mao1,2
1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Center for Systems Imaging, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States

 
Radiotherapy causes treatment-related white matter (WM) integrity changes and potential functional impairments. While predicting short-term outcomes (less 5 years) has been investigated, factors affecting predicting longer term (over 10 years) outcomes have not been understood. This study aimed for quantitative evaluation of WM microstructure damages using diffusion tensor imaging and determining correlation of such damage with long-term brain function restrictions in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors so that we can better understand the progression of microstructure damage underlying the brain functioning decline by recognizing complications of radiotherapy. It can lead to optimize radiotherapy techniques to minimize collateral brain damage.

 
3628.   28 Automatic Alignment for Tumor Assessment
Alexander Brost1, Neilesh Gupta1, Christoph Seeger1,2, Aaryani Tipirneni1, Zhaoying Han1, Sjoerd B. Vos1,3, Julian R. Maclaren1, Matus Straka1, Nancy J. Fischbein1, and Roland Bammer1
1Center for Quantitative Neuroimaging, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, 3Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

 
The assessment of brain tumor progression or regression is an important task in neuroradiology. To standardize review, baseline 3D MRI brain scans were first registered to an atlas and kept in a research PACS system (RAPID). When patients presented for follow-up studies, these were registered to the baseline data set and displayed next to each. Comparison of tumor behavior between the two scans was also more accurate and interpreted with higher confidence. Automatic registration of 3D data for image alignment on serial studies offers a faster and more accurate assessment of changes in tumor size than the standard clinical assessment.

 
3629.   29 "T1-Enhanced" Whole-Brain Black-Blood RARE Images Using 3D MSDE-TSE with Anti Driven Equilibrium
Masami Yoneyama1, Masanobu Nakamura1, Taro Takahara2, Thomas C. Kwee3, Atsushi Takemura4, Makoto Obara4, Takashi Tabuchi1, and Satoshi Tatsuno1
1Yaesu Clinic, Tokyo, Japan, 2Tokai University School of Engineering, Kanagawa, Japan, 3University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 4Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan

 
Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI, using a 3D T1W GRE sequence, is an established method for screening of brain metastasis. However, since contrast materials remain in both blood and the tumor parenchyma, differentiation of vessels and tumor may become difficult. For overcoming this problem, 3D MSDE-TSE has come into use recently. Although MSDE-TSE can produce excellent-quality black-blood images in CE studies, it may suffer from decreasing of T1 contrast. To improve the T1 contrast of 3D MSDE-TSE sequences, we focused on the anti driven equilibrium (ADE). In this study, we propose a T1-enhanced whole-brain black-blood RARE imaging, using MSDE-TSE with ADE, for CE brain tumor screening, and to compare with the conventional methods.

 
3630.   30 Quantification of 7 Tesla SWI Hypointensities in Gliomas Using the Local Image Variance
Günther Grabner1, Sabine Goed1, Adelheid Wöhrer2, Christine Marosi2, Aygül Mert3, Stefan Wolfsberger3, Georg Widhalm3, Siegfried Trattnig1, and Matthias Preusser2
1Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria,3Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

 
This study shows that the local image variance based on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) at 7 Tesla can facilitate the differentiation between glial tumors. It is also shown that the local image variance correlates with histopathological findings.

 
3631.   31 Tissue Expansion Maps (TEMs) Derived from Nonlinear Registration of Serial 3D MR Scans as an Imaging Biomarker for Detecting Brain Tumor Invasion and Quantifying Tumor Response to Therapy
Benjamin M. Ellingson1,2, Timothy F. Cloughesy3, Robert J. Harris1, Davis C. Woodworth1, Kevin Leu1, Albert Lai3, Phioanh (Leia) Nghiemphu3, and Whitney B. Pope1
1Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Biomedical Physics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Expert radiologists and neuro-oncologists can identify subtle growth in the tumor through visual examination of the mass effect on serial MR scans; however, these evaluations are subjective and are not quantitative. The current study involves the development of a new class of imaging biomarkers that quantify parameters associated tissue deformation fields derived from serial nonlinear (elastic) registration of high-resolution post-contrast T1-weighted images in patients with glioblastoma. “Tissue Expansion Maps” (TEMs) that quantify the local tissue displacement velocity and local distortion vector field maps were can be used to detect new tumor invasion and understand patterns in tumor growth and infiltration.

 
3632.   
32 Differentiating Pseudoprogression from True Progression Using DTI and DSC-MRI
Sumei Wang1, Sanjeev Chawla1, Sungheon Kim2, Arati Desai3, Michelle Alonso-Basanta4, Maria Martinez-Lage5, Steven Brem6, Elias R. Melhem1,7, and Harish Poptani1
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States,3Hematology-Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 5Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 6Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 7Radiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
The purpose of this study was to determine whether diffusion and perfusion MRI can help in differentiating pseudoprogression (PsP) from true progression (TP) in glioblastoma patients demonstrating enhancing lesions within six months post chemo-radiation therapy. Six patients with PsP and 7 patients with TP underwent DTI and DSC-MRI studies. Significantly elevated median mean diffusivity (MD) and decreased rCBV from the enhancing part of the tumor was observed in patients with PsP compared with TP, indicating that DTI and DSC may be helpful in differentiating PsP from TP.

 
3633.   33 Potential Utility of Early Post-Operative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Perfusion Weighted Imaging in Differentiating Between Pseudo-Progression and Progression in Patients with Glioblastoma Treated with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy  -permission withheld
Xiang Liu1, Wei Tian1, Henry Wang1, and Sven Ekholm1
1Imaging Science, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States

 
Standard chemo-radiation therapy with temozolomide may induce pseudo-progression in 20-50% patients with glioblastomas, which resembles true tumor progression on conventional MRI. We reviewed sequential MRI examinations in 41 patients with new diagnosed glioblastoma, our preliminary result showed that increased rCBV value in the early post-operative PWI examinations may be useful in differentiating pseudoprogression and tumor progression in such patients within 6 months after radiation/ temozolomide treatment. Early post-operative restricted diffusion has limited potential value in distinguishing pseudo-progression from tumor progression

 
3634.   34 Assessment of Tumor Blood Flow in Skull Base Meningiomas and Schwannomas Using Pulsed-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling Images and Its Correlation with Histopathologic Features
Tatsuya Yamamoto1, Hiroaki Takeuchi2, Yasuhiro Fujiwara3, and Hirohiko Kimura1
1Department of Radiology, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan, 2Department of neurosurgery, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan, 3Division of Radiography, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui, Japan

 
No reports have focused on the evaluation of tumor blood flow (TBF) at the skull base. However, we demonstrated a significant difference in TBF between a skull base meningioma and schwannoma. The significant correlation between %TBF and the tumor vessel luminal area (p < 0.01, rs = 0.83) suggests that precise evaluation of the tumor perfusion state could be accomplished using pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling. Thus, differential diagnosis of a skull base tumor may be possible to some extent even without the use of contrast material.

 
3635.   35 Repeatability of Independent Component Analysis Applied to Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI in Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumor Patients with Two Baseline Imaging Scans
Peter S. LaViolette1, Mitchell Daun2, Melissa A. Prah1, Kourosh Jafari-Khouzani3, Pavlina Polaskova3, Elizabeth R. Gerstner4, Steven M. Stufflebeam3, and Kathleen M. Schmainda1
1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 4Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

 
Independent component analysis applied to DSC perfusion data separates arterial and venous voxels based on the temporal dynamics of contrast agent perfusion. This study varies the number of ICA components modeled to determine which number generates the most repeatable arterial and venous maps in 31 patients who underwent two identical DSC imaging sessions days apart. We compare the repeatability of the resulting arterial and venous maps both across different numbers of components modeled, and between the simultaneously acquired spin-echo and gradient-echo acquisitions. We find that modeling 3 components results in highly repeatable arterial and venous maps, and that ICA maps generated from GE data are more repeatable than SE.

 
3636.   36 Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Undergoing Bevacizumab Treatment Are Seen in Both Tumor and Normal Brain.
Jalal B. Andre1, Seema Nagpal2, Daniel S. Hippe1, Heiko Schmiedeskamp3, Roland Bammer3, Reena Thomas2, Matus Straka3, Lawrence Recht2, and Greg Zaharchuk3
1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States, 2Neuro-oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States,3Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

 
The anti-tumoral effects of bevacizumab have been well documented in glioblastoma multiforme, and is attributable in part to it's anti-angiogenic properties. Little attention has been given to the potential alteration in global cerebral blood flow that might results from administration of this therapeutic agent, which is examined in this research.

 
3637.   37 Optimization of B-Values for Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging in Patients with Glioblastoma  -permission withheld
Masaki Katsura1, Masaaki Hori2, Issei Fukunaga3, Fumitaka Kumagai3, Hiroki Sasaki1, Harushi Mori1, Akira Kunimatsu1, Yoshitaka Masutani1, Keigo Shimoji2, Atsushi Nakanishi2, Shigeki Aoki2, and Kuni Ohtomo1
1Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan,3Graduate School of Health Promotion Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan

 
In the current study on clinical cases with glioblastoma, we performed diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) fitting analyses by applying different combination of b-values. It is crucial that an appropriate b-value combination be independently established for pathologic brain tissue before applying DKI to clinical practice.

 
3638.   38 Comparison of Monoexponential,Biexponential and Stretched-Exponential Models of DWI in Grading Gliomas
Yan Bai1, Meiyun Wang1, Dapeng Shi1, and Jinyuan Zhou2
1Radiology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China, 2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

 
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging as a noninvasive technology sensitive to microscopic water diffusion has been one of the hottest tools used in neurological diseases in recent years. Previous studies commonly used quantitative ADC obtained from monoexponential fit to grade gliomas. However, the ADC calculated by monoexponential model was influenced by microcirculation of blood in vivo. The separation of diffution and perfusion was obtained from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging of biexponential analysis with multiple b values. A stretched-exponential model of diffusion reflect the intravoxel heterogeneity in the distribution of diffusion coefficientsl.Our study investigated the comparison of monoexponential, biexponential and stretched-exponential models of DWI in grading gliomas.

 
3639.   39 Assessment of Structural Integrity of Normal Brain Tissues in Craniopharyngioma Patients After Proton Therapy
Jinsoo Uh1, Chia-ho Hua1, Michael Lam2, Daniel J. Indelicato3, and Thomas E. Merchant1
1Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States, 2Chemistry and Physics, Union University, Jackson, TN, United States, 3Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL, United States

 
Alteration of normal-appearing white matter tissues induced by proton therapy to craniopharyngioma has been assessed by DTI. We observed reduction of FA and increase of RD at 3 months after proton therapy in all regions of interest analyzed in this study. This result implied compromised structural integrity of white matter contributed by demyelination. However, it appeared that these changes are relatively mild compared to those previously reported based on photon therapy, and the data from 6 month follow-up suggested that the alteration has recovered. Longer follow-up with a larger number of patients will be helpful to confirm this observation.

 
3640.   40 Associations of Metabolite Concentration and Water Diffusivity in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue with Glioma Grade
Andrew A. Maudsley1, Bhaswati Roy2, Rakesh K. Gupta2, Sulaiman Sheriff1, Rishi Awasthi2, Meng Gu3, Nuzhat Hussain4, Sudipta Mohakud2, Sanjay Behari2, and Daniel Spielman3
1Radiology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States, 2Radiodiagnostics, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 3Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 4Pathology, Ram Manohar Lohia, Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

 
This study reports changes of tissue metabolism, determined using 1H 3D MRSI, and ADC in tissue regions that are remote from the lesion and appear normal on conventional MRI for subjects with glioma. The associations of these changes with tumor grade are reported.

 
3641.   41 Diagnostic Performance of DTI in Differentiating Glioblastomas from Brain Metastases
Sumei Wang1, Sang Joon Kim1,2, John H. Woo1, Suyash Mohan1, Ruyun Jin3, Matthew R. Voluck1, Ronald L. Wolf1, Donald M. O’Rourke4, Harish Poptani1, Elias R. Melhem1,5, and Sungheon Kim6
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Radiology, University of Ulsan Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, 3Medical Data Research Center, Providence Health & Services, Portland, Oregon, United States, 4Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 5Radiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States, 6Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

 
In this study, we investigated the potential of DTI metrics for differentiation tumor types with a substantially larger cohort (n = 222) and also its performance in comparison with two experienced neuroradiologists. 128 glioblastomas and 94 brain metastases were included in this study. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed the images. Diagnostic performance was evaluated using ROC curve for the two raters and logistic regression model (LRM). Our result indicates that our model is as good as experienced neuroradiologist. Furthermore, it was found that the accuracy of LRM model did not vary as much as those of the raters depending on the selection of the cases.

 
3642.   42 Improving SNR and Spatial Coverage for 7T DTI of Human Brain Tumor Using B1 Mapping and Multiband Acquisition
Douglas A.C. Kelley1, Suchandrima Banerjee2, Wei Bian3, Julia P. Owen4, Christopher P. Hess4, and Sarah J. Nelson4
1Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Corte Madera, CA, United States, 2Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States,3Radiology, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Radiology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
While 7T provides significant improvements in image quality for many techniques for characterizing human brain tumors, diffusion is generally of poorer quality due to the effects of B0 and B1 inhomogeneity, generally requiring a 3T study as well. Advances in parallel imaging, multiband excitation, and B1 mapping have allowed significant improvements leading to diffusion images of comparable quality to 3T without requiring specialized gradient systems. Data from a representative patient are presented and compared to 3T.

 
3643.   43 Association Between MR Imaging Measurements and Image-Guided Tissue Histopathology in Patients with Recurrent GBM
Qiuting Wen1,2, Adam Elkhaled2, Emma Essock-Burns1, Annette Molinaro3, Joanna Phillips3,4, Susan M. Chang5, Soonmee Cha6, and Sarah J. Nelson1,7
1Graduate Group in Bioengineering, UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States,4Department of Pathology, UC San Francisco, UCSF San Francisco, CA, United States, 5Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 6Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 7Bioengineering and Therapeutic Science, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Treatment with radiation and chemotherapy may result in gliosis, edema and necrosis, which can mimic tumor recurrence in standard MR images. Differentiating between these effects is a critical central challenge in neuro-oncology [1]. Acquisition of image guided tissue samples can enable the association of pathological properties of the tissue with pre-surgical MR parameters [2]. Ex vivo spectroscopy also offers direct association of pathology with a wide range of cellular metabolites [3]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which in vivo and ex vivo MR parameters were able to distinguish between tumor and treatment effect in for patients with GBM. Our results showed the ability of PH, in vivo NAA, ex vivo NAA and Cr in differentiating tumor recurrence from treatment effect, which is consistent with the clinical findings that tumor recurrence has elevated angiogenesis and causes more neuronal disruption..It should be noted that there is overlap between the two groups for these parameters (see Figure 2), which suggests that future studies should consider using a multi-variate index to map out regions of recurrent tumor.

 
3644.   
44 Regional Variation in White Matter Diffusion Index Changes Following Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics
Christopher H. Chapman1, Mohammad Nazem-Zadeh1, Oliver Lee2, Matthew Schipper1, Christina I. Tsien1, Theodore S. Lawrence1, and Yue Cao1,3
1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 2Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

 
We examined regional variation in DTI changes following chemoradiotherapy. The largest fractional anisotropy decreases were seen in the cingula, fornix, and corpus callosum. This pattern of selective white matter degradation may be related to specific neurocognitive impairments commonly seen following treatment. Radial and axial diffusivity changes were temporally and spatially separated, supporting their use as specific markers of distinct pathological processes.

 
3645.   45 Phospholipid Metabolism Before and During Bevacizumab Therapy in Recurrent Glioma
Ulrich Pilatus1, Oliver Bär2, Johannes Rieger2, Stefanie Pellikan1, Maurice Harth1, Joachim Steinbach2, and Elke Hattingen1
1Institute of Neuroradiology, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 2Dr. Senckenbergisches Institut für Neuroonkologie, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

 
31P and 1H MRSI was used to monitor changes in phospholipid and energy metabolism in recurrent gliomas during antiangiogenic therapy. Elevated PEth/GPE ratios were typical for all recurrent gliomas while high PCho/GPC ratios correlated with the survival time. Both anabolite/katabolite ratios decreased upon onset of therapy. Energy metabolism, mesures as PCr/Pi ratio, was deprived in tumor tissue.

 
3646.   46 Citrate Increases in Gliomas in Adult Patients, as Measured by 1H-MRS at 3T in vivo
Changho Choi1, Sandeep Ganji2, Akshay Madan1, Robert Bachoo1, Ralph DeBerardinis1, and Elizabeth A. Maher1
1University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

 
Citrate (Cit) is positioned at a crucial metabolic branch point, serving as an intermediate both for energy generation and for biosynthesis of lipids and related molecules. Noninvasive analysis of citrate levels in tumors would therefore provide information about these pathways. We are reporting abnormal Cit levels in gliomas in adult patients for the first time. For 89 adult patients with gliomas, Cit was detected in 62 patients, the incidence of Cit elevation in gliomas being 70%. The estimated concentrations ranged from 1 to 4.4 mM (mean¡¾SD = 2.2¡¾0.7 mM), with CRLBs between 6 and 19% (mean¡¾SD = 11¡¾3).

 
3647.   47 Multi-Compartment Diffusion Analysis for Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors in Pediatric Patients
Jie Deng1,2, Delilah Burrowes1, and Emma Boylan1
1Medical Imaging, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

 
This pilot study was to evaluated the anomalous diffusion model and bi-exponential two-compartment model using extended b-value (0-3500 s/mm2) DWI, in differentiation of malignant and benign tumors in pediatric patients. Multiple diffusion parameters including space constant lower case Greek mu, complex parameter lower case Greek beta, extracellular diffusion coefficient (Dfast) and volume (Vfast) and intracellular diffusion coefficient (Dslow) and volume (Vslow) were derived from these two models. This study shows a strong correlation in differentiating malignant and benign brain tumor types using simultaneous evaluation of multiple diffusion parameters. This method may prove to be useful in improving the accuracy and confidence in the diagnosis of various brain tumors,

 
3648.   48 Brain Tumor Clean-APT and NOE-CEST Imaging at 7T
Craig K. Jones1,2, Domenico Zacà3, Jun Hua1,2, Jinyuan Zhou1,2, Peter C.M. van Zijl1,2, and Jay J. Pillai4
1Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2FM Kirby Center, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Center for Mind Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Trento, Italy, Italy, 4Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Amide proton transfer (APT) CEST has been used to successfully detect tumors and the effect of radiation necrosis. However, the mechanism of contrast is still somewhat inconclusive. When using low power RF pulses that slowly saturate protons with minimal interference of conventional semi-solid based MT contrast (MTC), saturation-transfer signals are revealed upfield from water in addition to the usual downfield CEST/APT signals. These effects have been attributed to saturation relayed by nuclear overhauser enhancements (NOE) in mobile macromolecules. Here we mapped the amide proton and NOE transfer effects in an alternative effort to study protein-based signals in an infiltrating tumor.

 
 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (13:30-14:30) Exhibition Hall
Brain Diffusion Imaging & Neuroeducation

  Computer #  
3649.   49 Coupled Two Compartment Diffusion Model for Estimating Water Exchange Ratio in White Matter Fiber Tracts Using Diffusion MRI
Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd1,2, Michael Chopp3,4, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh2,5, Shiyang Wang1,6, Guangliang Ding1, and Quan Jiang1
1Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, detroit, MI, United States, 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, University Of Tehran, Tehran, Tehran, Iran,3Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, detroit, MI, United States, 4Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 5Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, detroit, MI, United States, 6Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

 
In this work, a new model is proposed to estimate Water Exchange Ratio (WXR) –the ratio of exchanged spins during diffusion time, Δ, between intra and extra axonal space using multi-shell DWMR imaging. Injury (such as MS, stroke, and TBI) to the axonal membrane or myelin sheath will likely change WXR. By measuring this parameter, the proposed model can discriminate between normal and injured fiber tracts induced by TBI or other diseases which affect the exchange parameters of the tissue. This model also may be used to estimate other micro-structural parameters like radius, density, and diffusion coefficients.

 
3650.   50 TBSS Result Variations: Is the Analysis Dependent on the Fitting Algorithm?
Ivan I. Maximov1, Heike Thoennessen1,2, Kerstin Konrad2,3, Laura Amort1,4, Irene Neuner1,4, and Nadim Jon Shah1,5
1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich, Germany, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 3, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich, Germany, 4Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 5Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

 
Voxelwise analysis is a powerful and useful technique that allows one to detect white/grey matter changes and to perform inter-subject group comparisons. However, conventional voxelwise approaches suffer from multiple artefacts originating from the absence of a “gold standard” in the data processing pipeline. TBSS is a promising framework that reduces the voxelwise comparison in “skeleton” space. However, this approach is still under debate: does a transition to the FA skeleton space decrease the result variability? We demonstrate that application of the developed robust post-processing framework allows one to reduce the variability of TBSS results. We also found that the TBSS analysis with the developed robust framework exhibits higher reproducibility compared to other DTI algorithms.

 
3651.   51 A Permutation Test Statistical Analysis of Learning Induced DTI Changes
Ido Tavor1, Shlomi Lifshits2, Shir Hofstetter1, and Yaniv Assaf1
1Department of Neurobiology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

 
Diffusion MRI is widely used in recent years to investigate the relation between brain structure and cognitive abilities, by scanning subjects before and after a learning task. Methodologies applied in such studies require spatial normalization procedure and a statistical comparison in the group level. We propose an approach to execute a permutation test for performing statistical comparison between 2 DTI scans in the single subject level. The main principle is to examine in which voxels the change in DTI parameters is bigger than the inherent noise. We demonstrate that structural brain changes are detectable using such a method.

 
3652.   52 White Matter Connectivity and Network Analysis in Polymicrogyria Using an Individual's Primary Gyral Pattern
Kiho Im1, Michael J. Paldino1, Olaf Sporns2, and Patricia Ellen Grant3
1Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States, 3Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

 
The major contribution of the current study is to provide the first detailed findings and interpretations on abnormal cortical network topology in malformations of cortical development, in particular polymicrogyria, related to extent of abnormal gyral folding. We propose a novel structural connectivity network analysis based on an individual¡¯s primary gyral pattern and topology, which is biologically more meaningful and able to better capture and describe individual brain network.

 
3653.   53 Left Hippocampal Volume Reduction Is Strongly Coupled with Structural and Functional Connectivity in Patients with Left Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Y.C. Shih1,2, H.H. Liu3, C.E. J. Tseng2, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng2
1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan Univerity College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan

 
The hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the general abnormality observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We have confirmed the altered structural connectivity related to HS or hippocampal atrophy in left MTLE, however, the functional connectivity between these two regions is still unclear. We hypothesized that there were relationships between structural and functional connectivity caused by HS. The present study reveals the relationships among the integrity of the inferior CB, the volume of hippocampal gray matter and the strength of functional connectivity in the lesion side of patients with HS.

 
3654.   54 Microstructural Characterization of Unidentified Bright Objects in Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Thibo Billiet1, Louise Emsell1, Felice D'Arco2, Sabine Deprez1, Judith Verhoeven1, Ellen Plasschaert3, Ronald Peeters1, Eric Legius3, and Stefan Sunaert1
1Radiology, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Radiology, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy, 3Human Genetics, UZLeuven, Leuven, Belgium

 
"unidentified bright objects" are brain lesions occurring in neurofibromatosis type 1. They are related to learning disabilities. Nevertheless knowledge about their exact nature is limited. Using relaxometry and diffusion measures a detailed description of microstructure can now be obtained.

 
3655.   55 Microstructural Visual Brain Reorganization in the Congenitally Blind and Acquired Blind
Vincent Lee1, Amy C. Nau2,3, and Kevin C. Chan4,5
1Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Sensory Substitution Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Departments of Ophthalmology and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 5Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

 
This study explored the effect of blindness on visual brain reorganization by analyzing the microstructural changes in fiber architecture in both congenitally blind and acquired blind individuals using diffusion tensor MR imaging. The fractional anisotropy maps from the experimental groups and normally sighted individuals were processed and registered using tract based spatial statistics and evaluated using both voxel-wise and region-of-interest (ROI) based non-parametric analyses. The voxel-wise non-parametric tests uncovered statistically significant FA differences in the bilateral optic radiation and in other major fiber tracts associated with visual processing. ROI based analysis showed that both congenitally blind and acquired blind subjects had lower FA than normal controls in the major fiber tracts connected to the visual cortex. Our results suggested that plastic changes may occur in both early blindness and late onset of blindness after completion of traditional critical period of visual brain development.

 
3656.   56 Altered Myelination and Axonal Integrity in Primary Restless Legs Syndrome Patients: Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
Jong-su Baeck1, Jeehye Seo1, Seong-Uk Jin1, Jang Woo Park1, Moon Han1, Yongmin Chang2,3, and Yong Won Cho4
1Department Medical & Biological Engineering, kyungpook national University, Daegu, Korea, 2Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 3Department of Molecular Medicine, kyungpook national University, Daegu, Korea, 4Department of Neurology, Kemyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea

 
In the present study, using voxel-based DTI, we aimed to explore the possible mechanism of altered integrity of brain white matter in RLS patients. RLS patients demonstrated decreased FA in the genu of corpus callosum and frontal white matter adjacent to inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) compared with healthycontrol subjects (P<0.001). For areas of decreased FA, both AD and RD were higher than that in control subjects. Decreased FA in RLS patients revealed the microstructural abnormalities in the genu of corpus callosum and the frontal white matter. Among these areas, increased RD in the frontal white matter suggested the demyelination of white matter consistent with findings from previous postmortem study. Increased AD seems to be associated with reduced axonal density. Taken together, our findings may suggest that both loss of axonal density and loss of myelin were responsible for the white matter abnormalitiesin RLS patients.

 
3657.   57 Axial and Radial Diffusion Changes in Recently-Diagnosed Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Rajesh Kumar1, Paul M. Macey2, Mary A. Woo2, Frisca L. Yan-Go3, and Ronald M. Harper1
1Neurobiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2UCLA School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients show gray matter and axonal injury in areas that control autonomic, cognitive, and mood functions, deficient in OSA; however, the nature of brain injury (axonal or myelin) in newly-diagnosed OSA subjects is unclear. We examined global and regional axial and radial diffusivity in newly-diagnosed OSA, which assess axonal and myelin changes, respectively, and found significantly reduced global diffusion values, reflected as localized changes in various brain areas, including the medullary, cerebellar, basal-ganglia, and limbic sites. Radial diffusion changes in OSA were more widespread than axial, indicating predominant myelin pathology over axons, possibly resulting from hypoxemia.

 
3658.   58 Increased Global and Regional Brain Mean Diffusivity in Patients with Heart Failure
Rajesh Kumar1, Mary A. Woo2, Paul M. Macey2, Gregg C. Fonarow3, and Ronald M. Harper1
1Neurobiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2UCLA School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Cardiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

 
Heart failure (HF) patients show gray matter and axonal deficits in multiple brain sites; however, it is unknown whether the structural changes are accompanied by acute or chronic tissue pathology. Those changes can be differentiated by mean diffusivity (MD) procedures. We assessed HF subjects with MD procedures, and found increased MD values in multiple brain sites, including limbic, basal ganglia, thalamic, hypothalamic, and cerebellar regions, compared to control subjects, indicating chronic tissue changes in these areas. The pathological mechanisms contributing to chronic injury in HF may include perfusion or hypoxic processes accompanying the condition.

 
3659.   59 Diffusion Tensor Markers of the Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction
Khader M. Hasan1, MA Liangsuo2, Larry A. Kramer1, Scott D. Lane2, Joel S. Steinberg2, Ponnada A. Narayana1, and Gerry F. Moeller2
1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States, 2Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at, Houston, Texas, United States

 
In this work we applied atlas-based methods to identify the macro and microstructural correlates of cocaine effects by incorporating white matter (WM) connections in addition to the limbic-thalamic-striatal-cortical regions as previously reported. Our study indicates that GM mean diffusivity of the cingulate cortex and thalamus may serve as early markers that could precede subsequent long term effects of cocaine on WM pathways.

 
3660.   60 Postoperative Cerebral White Matter Changes in Diffusion Anisotropy Associated with Alterations in Cognitive Function After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study  -permission withheld
Kenji Ito1, Kuniaki Ogasawara2, Masakazu Kobayashi2, Makoto Sasaki1, Kohsuke Kudo1, Fumio Yamashita1, Satomi Higuchi1, Jonathan Goodwin1, Ikuko Uwano1, and Suguru Yokosawa1
1Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan

 
This study investigated cerebral white matter (WM) changes in diffusion fractional anisotropy (FA), which are associated with altered cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy (CEA), by applying tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In 11 patients showing postoperative improvement in cognitive function, the mean FA values in the cerebral WM significantly increased after CEA, but no significant changes were found in 78 other patients. Furthermore, FA values in the bilateral frontal WM increased after CEA in patients with improved cognition. TBSS can detect bilateral increases in FA values in the frontal WM, and these increases are associated with cognitive improvement after CEA.

 
3661.   
61 Robust Detection of Progressive White Matter Abnormalities in MTBI Using DW-MRI
Il Yong Chun1, Allan Diaz1, Yun-Jang Jin1, Xiaodong Li1, Larry Leverenz2, Eric Nauman3, and Thomas Talavage1,4
1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 23Department of Health and Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 3School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States,4Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

 
Building on our study of repetitive blows in contact sports, we introduce a bootstrapped z-score analysis as a robust voxel-wise statistical analysis method to detect deviations from normal white matter fractional anisotropy. With this approach, we evaluate the progression of changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) over time, using DW-MRI scans from pre-season to post-season. These changes provide strong evidence that contact sports athletes, especially American football players, who receive many blows to the head during the season, exhibit likely chronic white matter injuries.

 
3662.   62 Evaluation of the Impact of White Matter Lesion on the Fractional Anisotropy Maps in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Controls
Keumsil Lee1, Daniel H.-E. Chang1, Huali Wang2, and Min-Ying Su1
1Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, China

 
The impact of white matter lesion (WML) on FA maps is studied. We selected a group of AD patients without WML based on the Age-Related White Matter Changes (ARWMC) rating scale of the European Task Force, and another group of AD patients with severe WML for comparison. The AD subjects with severe WML show smaller differences compared to normal control (NC), while the AD subjects without WML show a more extensive difference compared to the NC. The results suggest that the AD group containing white matter lesions have more heterogeneity white matter abnormality, thus less likely to show significant differences.

 
3663.   63 Improved White Matter Microstructure After a Novel Drumming Training in Huntington’s Disease
Claudia Metzler-Baddeley1, Roland John Baddeley2, Jaime Canteras3, Anne Rosser4, Elizabeth Coulthard5, and Derek K. Jones1
1CUBRIC, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, 2Experimental Psychology, Bristol University, Bristol, Avon, United Kingdom, 3Music Factory, Bristol, Avon, United Kingdom, 4Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, 5Dementia and Cognitive Neurosciences, Bristol University, Bristol, Avon, United Kingdom

 
Huntington’s disease is characterised by basal ganglia and white matter degeneration leading to motor and executive dysfunction. This pilot study investigated for the first time a novel drumming training paradigm that combines sequence learning, timing and multi-tasking with practise of hand movement coordination. Diffusion MRI indices of white matter microstructure in frontal motor pathways and working memory performance were compared pre- and post-training. The results show improvements in white matter microstructure and in working memory function and hence potential for an effective clinical intervention.

 
3664.   64 Using Atrophy as a Marker of Disease Severity to Understand the Evolution of DTI Changes in Alzheimerprime or minutes Disease
Julio Acosta-Cabronero1, Dina Kronhaus2, Robert J. Arnold1, Guy B. Williams3, and Peter J. Nestor4
1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 2Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 3Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 4Plasticity and Neurodegeneration, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

 
This study explored the hypothesis that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) should capture axonal damage or cell death. This was done by testing the linear dependence of DTI-derived metrics on hippocampal atrophy using whole-brain and region of interest approaches. The results revealed that in the same white matter areas where axial diffusivity (lower case Greek lambda1) is abnormal early, progressive change in radial diffusivity (RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) – but not in lower case Greek lambda1 – predict atrophy in the hippocampus. What is then lower case Greek lambda1 sensitive to in very early disease stages?prime or minute

 
3665.   65 Graph Diffusion
Ashish Raj1, Amy Kuceyeski, PhD1, Michael Weiner, MD2, and Bruce Miller, MD3
1Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
Recent studies on prion-like proteopathy of dementias suggest transmission along fiber pathways of the brain network. In a recent paper we modeled the macroscopic consequences of network-centric propagation as a diffusion process on the structural (tractography-derived) brain network. The model accurately recapitulated known patterns of atrophy seen in several dementias. To our knowledge network diffusion constitutes the first fully quantitative, testable model of macroscopic transmission of degenerative processes in the brain. Its neurologic impact arises from its implication that diverse proteopathic etiologies could produce shared spatial patterns whose explanation requires neither selective vulnerability nor focal points of origin, nor differential stressor loads. Here we highlight this new advance and put it in the wider context of graph theoretic modeling of dementias. We believe that researchers involved in neuroimaging of neurodegenerative diseases can benefit from a deeper understanding of this exciting new technology.

 
3666.   66 Correlation of Stromal Area and Nuclear-To-Cytoplasm Ratio with Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Juliette Driessen1,2, Joanna Caldas-Magalhaes3, Chris Terhaard3, Luuk M. Janssen1, Wilko Grolman1,2, and Marielle E.P. Philippens3
1Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

 
For head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, a correlation between local failure after (chemo)radiotherapy and diffusivity has been found . However, the pathohistological basis for this is not clear. Therefore, we performed imaging validation with whole-mount sections. We found a strong relationship between ADC and both cellularity and nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio. Stromal ratio was indistinguishable from cellularity due to strong interdependence. Besides the association with higher ADC, local failure after chemoradiotherapy has also been related to higher stromal fractions. This suggests that the relationship between local failure and ADC might be partly attributed to the tumor-stroma component.

 
3667.   67 MR Examination Times of Less Than 8 Minutes for 4 Common Indications
Tim Leiner1, Eveline Alberts2, Niels Blanken1, Mark Stoesz2, Martijn Hartjes2, and Jeroen Hendrikse1
1Department of Radiology, Utrecht University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Clinical Science Department, Philips Healthcare, Eindhoven, Netherlands

 
Decreased MR examination times are clinically of high interest in order to improve the cost-effectiveness of MR imaging. We demonstrate that application of recent advances in MR hardware and software enable faster imaging compared to standard vendor supplied protocols. For 4 very commonly per-formed MR studies (brain, cervical spine, knee and ankle) we were able to bring image acquisition down to less than 8 minutes, while still satisfying the criteria as set forth in the most recent version of the ACR Clinical Image Quality Guide.

 
3668.   68 Neuroimaging Capabilities of Low-Field Permanent Magnet MR Systems in Resource-Limited Settings
Christina Louise Sammet1, Adesola Ogunniyi2, Ann B. Ragin1, Robert L. Murphy1, Steffen Sammet3, and Godwin Inalegwu Ogbole2
1Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria, 3University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

 
This educational exhibit will explore the neuroimaging capabilities and challenges of low-field, permanent magnet MR imaging technologies increasingly utilized in developing countries. As the MR community dedicates itself to optimizing neuroimaging at ultra-high field, the challenges of low-field (<0.4T) imaging are infrequently discussed. This exhibit summarizes the state-of-the art in permanent magnet MRI with the intention to encourage interest in the improvement of existing systems and their utilization for collaborative neuroimaging research in the developing world.

 
3669.   69 Effect of Combination of B Values and Rician Noise Filter on Diffusional Kurtosis and Tensor Imaging Metrics in Spinal Cord in vivo
Masaaki Hori1, Koji Kamagata1, Mariko Yoshida1, Nozomi Hamasaki2, Keigo Shimoji1, Yuriko Suzuki3, Yoshitaka Masutani4, Issei Fukunaga5,6, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 2Juntendo University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 3Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 4Division of Radiology, and Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Radiology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 6Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

 
The purpose of this exhibit is to present the effects of the combinations of b-values and Rician noise filter for DTI and DKI metrics in the spinal cord, for clinical use in particular. The different combinations of b values result in the different diffusion metrics, such as mean kurtosis. Therefore, suitable selection of b values is important for the specific purpose of the study. Moreover, Rician denoising technique lead to appropriate DKI and DTI metrics estimation, mean kurtosis in particular because the diffusion MR images of spinal cord often suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio in vivo.

 
3670.   70 Selection of Coils, Sequences and Scan Parameters for Non-Human Primate Brain Imaging
Michael H. Buonocore1,2, David G. Amaral3, Gerald J. Sonico2, Jeff Bennett3, and Martin Styner4
1Radiology, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States, 2Imaging Research Center, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States, 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States, 4Psychiatry and Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapal Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

 
This abstract reviews the process of selecting RF coils, pulse sequences and scan parameters for structural and functional brain imaging of non-human primates (NHPs). Compared to these factors in human imaging, the smaller size of the NHP brain, desire for high spatial resolution, and ability to scan for longer durations without head motion, lead to selections that are uncommon in human imaging yet generate NHP images with high spatial resolution, tissue contrast, and SNR. The unique characteristics of NHP imaging provide opportunities for protocol optimization that are not practical, or not available, for human imaging protocols.

 
3671.   71 Inhance 3D Phase Contrast Angiographic Magnetic Resonance Venography of the Brain: Initial Clinical Experience in 23 Patients. -permission withheld
Norbert Campeau1 and Alice Patton1
1Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

 
3D Phase contrast angiographic imaging of the brain and neck: Initial clinical experience in 100 patients. Specific protocols for performing 3D-Phase contrast MRA and MRV of the brain, and MRA of the neck are presented, including optimal choice of VENC, acquisition volume orientation, matrix size, and use of SAT bands. Comparison with available 3D-TOF brain MRA, 2D-TOF and bolus gadolinium brain MRV, 2D-TOF neck MRA, and bolus gadolinium neck MRA is provided. 3D Phase contrast MRA/MRV does not require IV gadolinium, and is excellent choice for imaging in patients with gadolinium allergy or renal insufficiency. Bolus gadolinium MRA remains the "gold standard", however 3D phase contrast techniques can provide comparable and occasional superior results.

 
3672.   72 MR Imaging of Parkinson Disease: Review of Conventional and Advanced Techniques
Koji Kamagata1, Masaaki Hori1, Keigo Shimoji1, Michimasa Suzuki1, Atsushi Nakanishi1, Hiroyuki Tomiyama2, Yumiko Motoi2, Issei Fukunaga3, Humitaka Kumagai1, Nobutaka Hattori2, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Department of Radiology, Juntendo university, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Neurology, Juntendo university, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Radiology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan

 
Conventional MR imaging of Parkinson disease (PD) is frequently normal or nonspecific. However, advanced MR techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and arterial spin labeling (ASL) allow us to evaluate changes related to the pathophysiology of PD. The purpose of this exhibit is to review the conventional and advanced MR imaging of PD and to present some new data from ASL and DKI studies of PD.

 

ELECTRONIC POSTER SESSION • NEURO B
Tuesday, 23 April 2013 (14:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Animal Models Other Than Stroke

  Computer #  
3673.   
49 Diffusion Tensor Imaging Demonstrated Significant Axonal Damage in Fmr1 Knock Out Mice
Da Shi1,2, Jiachen Zhou2,3, Su Xu2,3, and Rao P. Gullapalli2,3
1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ University of Maryland, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Recent use of MRI to study Fragile X syndrome (FXS) has revealed changes in brain during development. However, there is still a gap in knowledge about developmental alterations in the FXS and Fmr1 knockout mouse model. We have found deceased diffusion parameters in many regions of the Fmr1 KO mouse brain compared to wild-type mice at postnatal day (PND) 30. A general decreasing trend of mean, axial and radial diffusivity were found in whole brain and specific brain regions of Fmr1 KO mice. Preliminary histological correlation found decrease staining of myelin in Fmr1 KO mice at PND 30.

 
3674.   50 Combined DTI and ASL with T2* Imaging Discriminates Between Angiogenic and Highly Diffuse Infiltrative Brain Tumor Models: A Study at 11.7 Tesla -permission withheld
Houshang Amiri1,2, Anna C. Navis3, Jolanda de Vries2, William P. Leenders3, and Arend Heerschap1
1Radiology Department, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 2Tumor Immunology Department, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 3Pathology Department, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

 
Combined DTI and ASL with T2* imaging Discriminates Between Angiogenic and Highly Diffuse Infiltrative Brain Tumor Models: A Study at 11.7 Tesla We combined diffusion tensor imaging with arterial spin-labeling and T2* imaging to differentiate between angiogenis and highly diffuse infiltrative xenograft glioma models. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient and cerebral blood flow (CBF) not only allowed us to detect the fibers abnormalities but also to discriminate between our models. Additionally, T2* of tumors correlated with CBF, interestingly. Our data suggests that employed techniques provides better tumor delineation and phenotypic characterization of angiogenic and diffuse infiltrative tumor tissue.

 
3675.   51 Multimodal MR Evaluation of Experimentally Induced Apoptotic Neuronal Death in the Rat Brain
Yohan van de Looij1,2, Volodomyr Petrenko3, Petra Susan Hüppi1, Rolf Gruetter4,5, Jozsef Kiss3, and Stéphane V. Sizonenko1
1Division of Child Growth & Development, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Fundamental Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland,4Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5Department of radiology, University of Geneva and Lausanne, Geneva and Lausanne, Switzerland

 
Despite the importance of apoptosis in the brain pathology, in vivo diagnostic of this process is still not developed. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using non-invasive MR techniques to detect apoptotic neuronal death in the rodent cerebral cortex. Neuronal ablation was induced by using a diphtheria toxin and diphtheria toxin receptor system. MRS and DTI detected metabolic and micro-structural alterations induced by apoptotically dying neurons within the cortex. Further experiments are in progress to assess precisely acute and long-term apoptosis-induced MRI changes.

 
3676.   52 Multi-Parameter MRI Assessment of Glioma Response to Radiotherapy
Xiaohua Hong1,2, Silun Wang1, and Jinyuan Zhou1
1Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Oncology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China

 
Several MRI modalities were applied to rat U87MG tumors that were treated with radiotherapy (40 Gy). It was found that the APT signal in the radiated tumor significantly decreased from day 3 post-treatment and the ADC signal significantly increased from day 6 post-treatment. Our results show that both APT and ADC were biomarkers that can early assess glioma response to radiotherapy.

 
3677.   53 Susceptibility Weighted Imaging of Iron-Labeled C6-Glioma in Rats at 7T
Monika Huhndorf1, Olga Will2, Rolf Mentlein3, Olav Jansen1, and Susann Boretius2
1Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, 2Biomedical Imaging, Diagnostic Radiology, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany, 3Institute of Anatomy, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany

 
High resolution susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was used in comparison with other MR-contrasts at 7T in order to visualize iron-labeled C6-glioma cells in a rat model. Although even very low iron concentrations were detectable by SWI, no significant iron accumulation was found at the margin of advanced tumors, suggesting persistence of the iron particles at the site of the primary cells in the tumor center.

 
3678.   54 Characterizing the Effect of Fetal Ethanol Exposure on Subsequent Morphological Development of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex by Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Lindsey A. Leigland1, Matthew D. Budde2, and Christopher D. Kroenke1,3
1Advanced Imaging Research Center and Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States,2Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States

 
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to ethanol on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements in the developing cerebral cortex, and directly compare histological evidence of disrupted neuronal morphology in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Data indicated disruptions in cortical developmental DTI patterns seen in response to prenatal exposure to ethanol, related via histology to abnormal neuronal morphology and differentiation. Given the sensitivity of DTI to detect abnormalities caused by ethanol exposure during gestation, DTI is introduced as a potential diagnostic methodology for FASD.

 
3679.   55 Tensor-Based Morphometry as a Sensitive Biomarker of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropathology in a Tau Transgenic Mouse
Holly Elizabeth Holmes1, Nick M. Powell*1,2, Jack A. Wells1, Niall Colgan1, James M. O'Callaghan1, Da Ma1,2, Marc Modat2, Manuel Jorge Cardoso2, Simon Richardson1, Bernard M. Siow1, Michael J. O'Neill3, E Catherine Collins4, Elizabeth Fisher5, Sebastien Ourselin2, and Mark F. Lythgoe1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, University College London, London, Greater London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London, Greater London, United Kingdom, 3Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd, Windlesham, Surrey, United Kingdom, 4Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 5Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, Greater London, United Kingdom

 
Preclinical MRI has become a promising technique to examine mouse brain morphology. In this study, we employed an optimised sequence for high resolution 3D in vivo imaging. We used a novel automatic image analysis toolbox to examine a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (rTg4510). Tensor-based morphometry analysis revealed significant changes in local brain volume between this model and age-matched wild-types. Our findings correspond to expected changes, including hippocampal and forebrain atrophy, as well as ventricular dilation.

 
3680.   56 Diffusion Kurtosis and Proton MRS Changes Following Mild TBI from Blast Overpressure Using a Novel Direct Cranial Blast Injury Model
Su Xu1,2, Kaspar M. Keledjian3, Jiachen Zhuo1,2, Xin Lu1,2, Vladimir V. Gerzanich3, J. Marc Simard3, and Rao P. Gullapalli1,2
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 3Departments of Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

 
In this study we investigated in vivo changes using advanced MRI to understand the effects of a blast overpressure traumatic brain injury on a direct cranial blast injury rat model. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and proton MRS was used before and up to 28 days following the blast injury. Results indicate that while no structure imaging and MRS changes were found until 14 days following injury, significant structural changes were found in the internal capsule, cerebellum and cortex after 14 days using DKI. These changes were also accompanied by changes in neurometabolites at 28 days in the cerebellum suggesting delayed effects following blast injury which is consistent with mild TBI.

 
3681.   57 MRI of Acute and Delayed Administration of Marrow Stromal Cells in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury
Lian Li1, Michael Chopp1,2, Guangliang Ding1, Changsheng Qu3, Qingjiang Li1, Siamak P. Nejad-Davarani1, and Quan Jiang1
1Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 3Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States

 
While cell transplantation has potential as an effective therapeutic strategy to attenuate secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI), several key issues regarding optimization of basic transplantation techniques, such as timing of transplantation, remain to be addressed. Using MRI, we tested the hypothesis that acute engraftment of human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) into the brain subjected to TBI provides an advanced therapeutic effect as compared to delayed transplantation. Our data demonstrate that acute cell intervention extends the time range of therapeutic benefit by initiating the therapeutic effects earlier, resulting in an enhanced protective and therapeutic effect.

 
3682.   58 MRI of Neuronal Recovery After Methamphetamine Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injure in Rats
Guangliang Ding1, Michael Chopp1,2, David J. Poulsen3, Lian Li1, Changsheng Qu4, Qingjiang Li1, Siamak P. Nejad-Davarani1, John Budaj1,5, Hongtao Wu4, Asim Mahmood4, and Quan Jiang1
1Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States, 3Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States, 4Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States,5Biomedical Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States

 
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health problem in Western countries. There is an urgent need to develop a novel approach for the treatment of TBI. With a CCI model of TBI in young Wistar rats, methamphetamine treatment of TBI significantly improved white matter reorganization at 5 to 6 weeks after TBI, compared with saline treatment, based on the MRI FA measurements. And significant correlation was detected between the FA and histological BLFB measurements. It suggested that the the improved white matter may contribute to the functional recovery after TBI in rat.

 
3683.   59 Longitudinal Anatomical and Diffusion MRI Evaluation in Rabbit External Capsules and Hippocampi After Cerebral Hemisphere Radiation Exposure
Chao-Yu Shen1,2, Zhen-Hui Li1, Tao-Tao Chen1, Yeu-Sheng Tyan1,2, and Jun-Cheng Weng1,2
1School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

 
In the study, we used a linear accelerator as the source of radiation to establish an adult rabbit model for single-dose cerebral hemisphere exposure radiation-induced brain injury, and afterward, it longitudinally evaluated the changes in various brain compartments on a 1.5T clinical MR scanner by using T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) mapping. It is hoped that this experimental model can be used to evaluate the neuro-toxic adverse effects of irradiation treatment.

 
3684.   60 DWI Detected Differential Response of Hypothalamic Nuclei Between Leptin Deficient and Wild Type Mice
Blanca Lizarbe1, Pilar Lopez-Larrubia1, and Sebastián Cerdán2
1Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas "Alberto Sols" CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, 2Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas - CSIC, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

 
Obesity is a pandemic syndrome associated with the most prevalent and morbid pathologies. Body adiposity is thought to be regulated systemically through an endocrine ‘adiposity’-negative feedback loop, including mainly leptin2. Disruptions in the leptin signalling systems are associated with obesity in humans and mice, and the leptin-null ob/ob mouse model exhibits decrease energy expenditure, hyperphagia and obesity. Here, we prpose the fDWI approach to the evaluation of ob/ob mice in fed and fasted conditions, to validate the use of fDWI in animal models with hypothalamic disfunctionality and characterize the individual responses to fasting of relevant hypothalamic nuclei from leptin-null mice.

 
3685.   61 DTI Study of Corpus Callosum Integrity in Adult Macaques with Neonatal Hippocampal Lesion
Yuguang Meng1, Longchuan Li2, Xiaoping P. Hu2, Jocelyne Bachevalier3, Christa Payne3, and Xiaodong Zhang1,4
1Yerkes Imaging Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 4Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

 
An earlier study on the impact of hippocampal lesions on the integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) and its inter-hemispheric connectivity indicated a reduction in the surface area of the posterior CC. To assess whether the same CC changes will follow the hippocampal lesions occurred in early life, the present study measured CC integrity in adult monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. Mean diffusivity data showed alterations of posterior CC segment and transcallosal fibers from the posterior parietal and retrosplenial cortex, the damage of which would impair visuospatial processing functions due to Neo-H lesions.

 
3686.   62 Resting State Network in ADHD Rat Model Using Group ICA
Yi-Ling Wu1, Sheng-Min Huang1, Shin-Lei Peng1, Yi-Chun Wu2, Tao-Chieh Yang3, Jee-Ching Hsu4, Ming-Long Wu5, and Fu-Nien Wang1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering & Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 2Animal Molecular Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 3Department of Neurosurgy, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 4Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 5Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

 
In this study we investigated the resting state (RS) networks of attention deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). RS network of SHR was found to be more active than normal rat in primary somatosensory (S1) and insular cortex region. The hyperactivity in S1 is speculated to be the possible reason of attention deficit since rats are sensitive to external changes. Though the detail connections of RS network and physiological functions should be further examined, our works suggest the feasibility to evaluate RS network differences by rat model. More case studies of ADHD could be conducted via rat model.

 
3687.   63 Effects of a Nutrient-Combination Diet on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolites Levels and Brain Diffusion in ApoE4 and ApoE Knockout Mice
Valerio Zerbi1,2, Diane Jansen1, Maarten Van Beek1, Roy Haast1, Andor Veltien3, Laus M. Broersen4, Jack JA Van Asten3, Arend Heerschap3, and Amanda J. Kiliaan1
1Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Netherlands, 3Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Netherlands, 4Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition, Centre for Specialised Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands, Netherlands

 
Research into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) suggests that dietary behavior may affect the course of AD. A specific combination of omega-3 fatty acids with precursors and cofactors in membrane synthesis was developed for the dietary management of AD. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a specific nutrient-combination diet is able to positively influence cerebral hemodynamics, metabolite levels and white- and gray matter diffusion in mouse models resembling vascular risk factors for AD (apoE4 and apoE-ko). Results showed improved brain capillary vasoactivity, metabolism and neurodegeneration our specific multi-nutrient diet, and thus may contribute to slow AD pathology development.

 
3688.   64 MR Spectroscopy of Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Changes in Rat Brain Hippocampus Using 7Tesla
Sunil Koundal1, Sonia Gandhi1, Tanzeer Kaur2, Subash Khushu1, and Rajendra P. Tripathi1
1NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Panjab, India

 
High altitude related exposure results in decreased oxygen supply to brain. Brain being most sensitive to hypobaric hypoxia, gets adversely affected. Our study investigates the changes in metabolic profiles of rat brain’s hippocampus region due to acute hypobaric hypoxia stress and recovery using invivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results showed significant decrease in levels of glutamate,myoinositol,NAA,creatine but increase in choline indicating hypobaric hypoxia induced damage in hippocampus of rat brain. These studies can be helpful in detecting early biomarkers for high altitude stress injuries in humans which can further be used for risk assessment & early diagnosis.

 
3689.   65 Longitudinal Imaging of the Influence of ApoE Isoforms on Brain Structure and Function
Xuan Vinh To1,2, Chun-Yu Yip1, Ho Ngoc Na1, Boon Seng Wong2, and Kai-Hsiang Chuang1,2
1Magnetic Resonance Imaging Group, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, 2Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

 
To understand the genetic influence of apolipoprotein (Apo) isoforms on the brain in the ageing process, we conducted longitudinal MRI on transgenic mice with human Apo E3 (hApoE3) or hApoE4 genes at 6 and 9 months old. Structural MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and identified several regions with increased gray matter volume in E4 mice at both time points. CBF were imaged using pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with spin-echo EPI acquisition. Higher CBF was found in E3 mice at 6 mo but the difference reduced at 9 mo. The different trends in brain volume and CBF indicate genetic influence of Apo and suggest a compensatory mechanism.

 
3690.   66 ASL-Based Cerebral Perfusion with or Without Permanent Unilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: Towards an Optimized Mouse Stroke Model.  -permission withheld
Tom Dresselaers1, Wouter Oosterlinck2, Tom Struys1,3, Kristof Govaerts1, Ivo Lambrichts3, Paul Herijgers2, and Uwe Himmelreich1
1Department of Imaging & Pathology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Vl.Brabant, Belgium, 2Department of Experimental Cardiac Surgery, KU Leuven, Leuven, Vl.Brabant, Belgium, 3Department of Functional Morphology, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Limburg, Belgium

 
Unilateral Ligation of the common carotid artery (CCA) is usually performed for mouse stroke models. This study shows the impact of such a ligation on the cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labeling in sham operated animals under isoflurane anesthesia. Such ligation of the CCA may impact stroke development at early and later stages in the tMCAO mouse model. We demonstrate that a suture of the CCA avoids interhemispheric differences in CBF. We therefore speculate that this sutured tMCAO model may result in more consistent lesions, less mortality and a more realistic stroke model.

 
3691.   67 Alterations of Temporal and Prefrontal White Matter in Adult Macaques with Neonatal Hippocampal Lesion
Yuguang Meng1, Longchuan Li2, Xiaoping P. Hu2, Jocelyne Bachevalier3, Christa Payne3, and Xiaodong Zhang1,4
1Yerkes Imaging Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 4Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

 
A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study demonstrated that excitotoxic hippocampal lesions in adult macaques alter white matter tracts of the temporal and frontal lobes. In the present study, DTI was used to examine whether similar changes will also be found in adult macaque monkeys with similar selective hippocampal lesions done in infancy. Significant diffusivity alterations were found in the white matter of the temporal stem and ventromedial prefrontal cortex which is involved in memory consolidation and working memory retrieval.

 
3692.   69 Longitudinal Effects on Rat Brain of Different Degrees Infection by Angiostrongylus Cantonensis
Ling-Yuh Shyu1, Hao-Hung Tsai2,3, Yi-Hsin Wang2, Shin-Tai Chong2,4, and Jun-Cheng Weng2,3
1Department of Parasitology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 3Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 4Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

 
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a zoonotic nematode parasite residing in the pulmonary arteries and brain of rats. It was first identified and described by Chen in Canton, China, and was reported to cause human diseases in 1945 in Taiwan. Now A. cantonensis is the major cause human eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan. However, the features of the pathological changes in the brain were limited to diagnostic techniques. Previously the diagnosis was established by immunodiagnosis, lumbar puncture and eosinophilia examination. Fourth- or fifth-stage larvae could be found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with lumbar puncture. Improper puncture and false immune response resulted in an erroneous diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to longitudinally monitor the lesion localization, pathological changes and angiostrongyliasis characterization of rat brain infected with different numbers of A. cantonensis larvae by MRI techniques. The results were also verified with histopathological study. The association between the clinical features of the rats and MRI findings was also addressed.

 
3693.   70 Volumetric Changes in the Monkey Cerebral Cortex Following Prolonged Voluntary Ethanol Drinking
Christopher D. Kroenke1,2, Torsten Rohlfing3, Edith V. Sullivan4, Adolf Pfefferbaum3,4, and Kathleen A. Grant2,5
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 3Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 5Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States

 
A known consequence of prolonged heavy alcohol drinking is reduction of brain tissue volume, including cerebral cortical gray matter. To facilitate systematic characterization of the biological processes underlying this volumetric change, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based brain volumetric measurements are reported for 18 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys in the ethanol-naive state, and following 6 and 12 months of voluntary drinking (three time points total). Reductions in cerebral cortical gray matter volume are found following both drinking intervals, and the extent of volumetric reduction is proportional to the average daily intake of ethanol, which ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 g/kg/day.

 
3694.   71 Vascular Response to Different Hypercapnic Challenges in Free Breathing or Ventilated C57Bl/6 Mice. -permission withheld
Tom Dresselaers1, Tom Struys1, Wouter Oosterlinck2, Sarah Caers1, Ann Van Santvoort1, Paul Herijgers2, Ivo Lambrichts3, and Uwe Himmelreich1
1Department of Imaging & Pathology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Vl.Brabant, Belgium, 2Department of Experimental Cardiac Surgery, KU Leuven, Leuven, Vl.Brabant, Belgium, 3Department of Functional Morphology, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Limburg, Belgium

 
Cerebral perfusion deficits are a hallmark of several neurovascular diseases but are recently also coupled to the development and/or progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Besides monitoring basal cerebral blood flow, the cerebral vascular response (CVR) induced by hypercapnic challenges might be a more sensitive and early detectable marker of vascular defects. This study describes the influence of different anaesthetics on the feasibility of non-invasive monitoring CVR in mice. Data show optimal results under ketamine/xylazine anaesthesia in combination with a muscle relaxant to allow proper ventilation to exclude any adverse effects of endogenous breathing patterns.

 
3695.   72 Effects of Ascent to High Altitude: A T2 Relaxometry Study on Rat Brain
Sunil Koundal1, Sonia Gandhi1, Tanzeer Kaur2, Subash Khushu1, and Rajendra P. Tripathi1
1NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Panjab, India

 
Ascent to high altitude results in air at low pressure, this condition of hypobaric hypoxia affects brain adversely. We used T2 relaxometry to trace any changes in brain parenchyma due to exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in rat brain. Result showed significant decrease in T2rt in grey matter areas and increase in white matter areas which indicates inhomogeniety and edema in brain tissue respectively indicating changes in tissue architecture at micro level , possibly an neuronal dysfunction and neurotransmitter metabolism.