ISMRM 21st Annual Meeting & Exhibition 20-26 April 2013 Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

1078 -1110 Multiple Sclerosis & Deteriorating Diseases
1111 -1126 Spinal Cord
1127 -1151 Neurovascular Disease - Clinical
1152 -1181 fMRI of Brain Disorders
1182 -1207 Imaging of Psychiatric Disorders
1208 -1235 Head & Neck
1236 -1254 Novel Neuroimaging Methods
1255 -1270 Manganese Enhanced MRI

Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Multiple Sclerosis & Deteriorating Diseases

1078.   Immune Cells in the Diffusely Abnormal White Matter of Multiple Sclerosis
Cornelia Laule1, Vlady Pavlova1, Esther Leung1, Guojun Zhao2, Piotr Kozlowski2, Anthony L. Traboulsee3, David K.B. Li2,3, and Wayne Moore1,3
1Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Medicine (Neurology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

T-cells, B-cells and activated microglia in MS post-mortem brain tissue were examined. In general, similar levels of microglial activation, B-cells and T-cells were observed in diffusely abnormal white matter (DAWM) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM). While previous studies have reported myelin and axonal abnormalities in DAWM relative to NAWM, these abnormalities appear not to correlate with the degree of microglia activation or the presence of B or T-cells.

1079.   Diffusion Weighted Spectroscopy of NAA in Multiple Sclerosis: Studying the Microstructure, Macrostructure and Organization of Axonal Tracts in the Corpus Callosum
Emily T. Wood1,2, Itamar Ronen3, Aranee Techawiboonwong4, Pascal Sati1, and Daniel Reich1,5
1National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Dept of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 4Dept of Electrical Engineering, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, 5Depts of Neurology & Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Previous work comparing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to healthy controls demonstrated lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA) diffusion parallel to axon tracts in the corpus callosum (CC). In order to better characterize axonal damage in the CC in MS and improve the reliability of diffusion weighted spectroscopy (DWS) for longitudinal follow-up, we applied a modeled analysis of NAA diffusion in the CC. By modeling the CC as a cluster of cylinders with macroscopic curvature and microscopic angular dispersion distribution, DWS measurements made parallel and perpendicular to axon tracts can yield NAA diffusion values that more accurately reflect the fiber organization and integrity.

1080.   Therapy Effects in Cerebral Folate Transport Deficiency with Hypomyelination Monitored by Multimodal Quantitative MR-Imaging
Steffi Dreha-Kulaczewski1,2, Robert Steinfeld1, Knut Brockmann1, Peter Dechent2, Jutta Gärtner1, and Gunther Helms2
1Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany, 2Department of Cognitive Neurology, MR-Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany

Myelin-sensitive quantitative (q) MRI techniques including MT (3D FLASH) and DTI (single-shot STEAM) are of growing importance to study white matter (WM) disorders in childhood. Cerebral folate transport deficiency is an inherited, treatable WM disorder with hypomyelination, developmental regression, movement disturbances, and epilepsy. One patient with this diagnosis and severe phenotype was treated with folinic acid. Concomitant serial qMRI study over 4.2 yrs indicated an advancement of myelination which was paralleled by clinical improvement. In contrast to structural MRI, MT saturation maps demonstrated striking contrast changes and detailed spatial resolution. It may provide a valuable parameter to monitor therapy effects.

1081.   Validation of Susceptibility Mapping for Quantification of Iron in Subcortical Grey Matter in Multiple Sclerosis
Hongfu Sun1, Andrew Walsh1, R. Marc Lebel1, Gregg Blevins2, Ingrid Catz2, Jian-Qiang Lu3, Edward Johnson3, Derek Emery4, Kenneth Warren2, and Alan H. Wilman1
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 3Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 4Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Brain iron accumulation occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). Validating MRI measurements of brain iron requires postmortem study. We compare in situ postmortem quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to Perls’ iron staining in MS subjects. High correlations were found between QSM and Perls' iron stain optical density.

1082.   Identification of Cortical Pathology in Multiple Sclerosis with 7T MRI
Bing Yao1, Simon Hametner2, Peter van Gelderen1, Hellmut Merkle1, Hans Lassmann2, Jeff H. Duyn1, and Bagnato Francesca3
1Advanced MRI Section, LFMI, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

Neocortical lesions (NLs) are an important component of disease pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the limited resolution and contrast of conventional MRI techniques compromise their ability to detect the subtle pathological changes occurring at the inception of NLs and successive tissue loss. To address this, we investigated the detectability of NLs with T2* contrast at 7T. Comparing R2* images from post mortem tissue from two donor brains with histological iron and myelin stains, we found that two thirds of histological lesions were detectable with MRI.

1083.   Regional Gray Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis Using Tensor Based Morphometry: A Multi-Center Study
Sushmita Datta1, Terrell D. Staewen1, Priya Goel1, Stacy S. Cofield2, Gary R. Cutter2, Fred D. Lublin3, Jerry S. Wolinsky4, and Ponnada A. Narayana1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States, 2Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States, 3The Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 4Neurology, Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States

Gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis represents neurodegeneration and appears to correlate with clinical measures. In this study, we implemented Tensor based morphometry (TBM) to assess regional gray matter atrophy in 250 MS subjects that were randomly chosen from a total of 1008 subjects who participated in a multi-center clinical trial. Significant atrophy was observed in various GM regions including major deep GM structures.

1084.   Distinguishing Neuromyelitis Optica from Multiple Sclerosis with Myelin Water Imaging
Margarita Gorodezky1, Lucy A.E. Matthews2, Anthony L. Traboulsee3, Jacqueline Palace2, and Shannon H. Kolind3
1Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2Oxford University and Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) but has distinct pathological features and is likely a separate disorder. The goal of this work was to use myelin water imaging to further understanding of pathological differences between these diseases, and aid in differentiating between them clinically. MS patients had a significantly greater volume of normal-appearing tissue with significantly reduced myelin water. The volume of significantly reduced myelin water correlated significantly with disability in MS but not NMO. Thus myelin water imaging could be a valuable tool for this difficult differential diagnosis.

1085.   Inflammation, Axonal Loss and Trans-Synaptic Degeneration Affect the Visual System in Multiple Sclerosis – a Preliminary 7 Tesla MRI and Optical Coherence Tomography Study.
Tim Sinnecker1, Timm Oberwahrenbrock1, Hanna Zimmermann1, Jan Dörr1,2, Caspar Pfueller1,2, Lutz Harms2,3, Thoralf Niendorf4,5, Alexander U. Brandt1,2, Friedemann Paul1,2, and Jens Wuerfel1,6
1NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 5Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.UF.F.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 6Institute of Neuroradiology, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Niedersachsen, Germany

Visual disturbances are common in MS. Nevertheless, the visualization of the damaged optic radiation has remained challenging using conventional MRI techniques. Today, 7T MRI provides brilliant visibility of the optic radiation. In our study comprising 31 MS and CIS patients, we discovered a close association between focal damage to the optic radiation, optic radiation thinning, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and impaired visual perception. Our data i) indicate that retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration occurs in MS, and ii) suggest that the damage of the optic radiation should be considered as a differential diagnosis of bilateral optic neuritis in MS.

1086.   Laminar-Specific Variations of T2* Relaxation Decay in the Cortex at 7 Tesla MRI
Sindhuja Tirumalai Govindarajan1, Julien Cohen-Adad1, Audrey Fan2, Maria Pia Sormani3, and Caterina Mainero1
1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States, 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, 3Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genova, Liguria, Italy

Gradient Echo T2* data acquired at ultra-high field magnetic resonance (≥7 T) have shown great sensitivity to detect patterns of tissue microarchitecture in the cortex. We recently demonstrated a surface-based technique to map quantitative measures of T2* relaxation decay to study the spatial distribution of cortical myelination. In this study, we report layer-specific variations and reproducibility of T2* observed at different cortical depths shedding light into the potential use of quantitative T2* mapping to characterize the laminar architecture of the cortical ribbon in vivo.

1087.   Assessment of Normal-Appearing Brain Tissue Changes in Multiple Sclerosis Using Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging
Wenshu Qian1, Koon-Ho Chan2, Queenie Chan3, and Henry Ka Fung Mak1
1Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 2Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 3Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, China

Pathological and MRI studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) have shown that lesions are often located in both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM), though the ones in GM are often underestimated. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has been applied to probe the non-Gaussian diffusion property of brain tissues in vivo and proved to be less sensitive to the partial volume effects from the CSF. In this study, we demonstrate microstructural changes in normal-appearing WM and GM in MS using DKI-derived metrics, which might serve as imaging markers for early diagnosis and prognostication of the disease.

1088.   The Venous Volume Portion Within Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Compared to Healthy Tissue - An Atlas Based Approach
Günther Grabner1, Assunta Dal-Bianco2, Simon Hametner3, Hans Lassmann3, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

This work is about the development of a group specific vein-atlas which is used in order to compare the venous volume portion within Multiple Sclerosis lesions to normal-appearing white matter in a group of healthy subjects represented by the atlas.

1089.   T1rho MR Is Sensitive to Changes in Normal Appearing White Matter and Gray Matter in Multiple Sclerosis
Jay Gonyea1, Christopher G. Filippi2,3, Angela Applebee2, Trevor Andrews1,4, Lindsay Karr5, Scott Hipko1, and Richard Watts1
1Department of Radiology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 4Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States,5University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, United States

Quantitative T1lower case Greek rho maps were calculated for 13 MS patients and 17 age-matched control subjects using a novel 3D fluid attenuated variable flip angle turbo-spin echo acquisition. The resulting high SNR whole-brain T1lower case Greek rho maps were then segmented into white and gray matter, and spatially normalized. Significant differences between MS patients and controls were found in cortical gray matter (p=0.007), juxtacortical white matter (p=0.003) and major white matter tracts (p=0.002). The sensitivity of quantitative T1lower case Greek rho imaging to the macromolecular content of tissue may provide an important biomarker of changes in normal-appearing white- and gray-matter in MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

1090.   Grey Matter Perfusion Abnormalities Are More Extensive Than Grey Matter Atrophy in Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Laetitia Debernard1, Tracy R. Melzer1, Saskia Van Stockum1, Jane Eagle1, Charlotte Graham1, Daniel Myall1, Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott2, John C. Dalrymple-Alford1, David H. Miller1,2, and Deborah F. Mason1
1New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand, 2NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the clinical gold standard to diagnose Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Robust early prognostic markers are needed to accurately follow MS disease. The objective of this study is 1) to investigate grey matter (GM) atrophy and perfusion abnormalities in early relapsing-remitting MS patients, and 2) to correlate these findings with clinical and cognitive impairments. The coupling of both imaging modalities in the same patient sample will enable a more complete description of early pathological mechanisms in MS disease.

1091.   Normally Appearing White Matter of Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Probed by Magnetization Transfer and Rotating Frame Relaxation Methods
Silvia Mangia1, Adam Carpenter2, Andy Tyan1, Timo Liimatainen3, Michael Garwood1, and Shalom Michaeli1
1CMRR - Dept. of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Dept. of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 3A.I.Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, PL, Finland

In this study we implemented the inversion-prepared Magnetization Transfer (MT) protocol and rotating frame relaxation methods, including adiabatic T1rho and T2rho, to characterize the normally appearing white matter (NAWM) of the brain of nine patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and seven healthy controls of similar age. Statistically significant differences of NMR parameters between patients and controls were observed for T1sat in the MT protocol, but not for the MT ratio or adiabatic T1rho and T2rho. We conclude that the inversion-prepared MT protocol is a robust and sensitive approach to detect abnormalities in the NAWM of MS patients.

1092.   Can Whole Brain DKI Detect Regional Changes in Multiple Sclerosis Patients?
Paulo Dellani1, Paul Bronzlik1, Refik Pul2, Martin Stangel2, Heinrich Lanfermann1, and Peter Raab1
1Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, 2Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany

Whole brain Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging evaluation can show regional dependance of Multiple Sclerosis related changes of brain microstructure in normal appearing tissue. Sex related differences can influence data analysis and have to be accounted for.

1093.   Relating Clinical Disability to Brain Volume and Myelin Water Measurements in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Anna Combes1, Gareth John Barker1, Arshia Seddigh2, Naomi Sibtain2, Anthony L. Traboulsee3, Steven C.R. Williams1, Peter A. Brex2, and Shannon H. Kolind3
1Department of Neuroimaging, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 3Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Cerebral atrophy and demyelination are features of primary progressive multiple sclerosis thought to be linked to disability. We aimed to relate regional atrophy and myelin damage with clinical scores in a patient group. Whole-brain and grey matter volumes obtained with FSL-SIENAX, and myelin water fraction measured using mcDESPOT, were significantly decreased, and ventricular volume increased, compared to matched controls. Manual dexterity and cognitive processing scores were negatively associated with ventricular enlargement, while manual dexterity was associated with myelin water fraction in the corpus callosum. These results attest to the suitability of both techniques to demonstrate clinicoradiological correlations in this population.

1094.   Impaired Cerebrovascular Reactivity (CVR) in MS Measured with Hypercapnia Perfusion MRI
Yongxia Zhou1, Hanzhang Lu2, Feng Xu2, Damon Kenul1, Hina Jaggi1, Joseph Herbert3, Ilya Kister4, Robert I. Grossman5, and Yulin Ge1
1Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, New York University, New York, NY, United States, 4Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 5Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University, New York, NY, United States

The objective of this study was to examine whether there is cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting MS using hypercapnia (mixed 5%CO2, 21%O2, and 74%N2) perfusion (i.e. pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling, pCASL) MRI. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using pCASL at baseline and with 5% CO2 hypercapnia at 3T MR in twenty-one patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. There was a significant decrease of whole brain parenchymal CVR in MS compared to controls (P=0.01), indicating an impaired vascular response to hypercapnia in MS patients. The global CVR changes correlate with lesion load in these patients.

1095.   Evaluating a Multi-Channel Registration Approach of FA and T1w on MS Patients with Simulated Atrophy
Eloy Roura1, Torben Schneider2, Marc Modat3, Pankaj Daga3, Nils Muhlert2, Declan T. Chard2, Sebastien Ourselin3, Xavier Lladó1, and Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott2
1Dept. of Computer Architecture and Technology, VICOROB, University of Girona, Girona, Girona, Spain, 2NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Dept. of Neuroinflammation UCL Institute of Neurology, London, London, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Medical Image Computing, Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, UCL, London, London, United Kingdom

In this work, we tested the performance of a registration framework to simultaneously register T1-weighted (T1w) and diffusion weighted (DW) images to a target space, comparing the results of this multi-channel (MC) approach against two different strategies: i) single channel (SC) (the T1w and FA separately); ii) T1w-based (using only the T1w SC registration results applied to both T1w and FA volumes). We generated 100 simulated MS patients by deforming 10 healthy subjects into 10 MS patients. Experimental results were assessed with both qualitatively using difference image and checkerboards and quantitatively computing the mean intensity of the difference image. MC approach yielded better results rather than SC or using the T1w-based transformations.

1096.   Optimization of GSH Measurement in Multiple Sclerosis
Huijun Liao1, Sai K. Merugumala1, Shahamat Tauhid2, Rohit Bakshi2, and Alexander Lin1
1Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

Glutathione (GSH) is as a marker for oxidative stress that may be reflective of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). The goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of GSH measurement in MS patient and controls using widely available 3T single voxel 1H MRS and LCModel analysis. We also determined the optimal voxel placement for GSH measurements. Our results show GSH can be quantitatively and accurately measured using single voxel 1H MRS and LCModel analysis and anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal white matter are the ideal voxel locations for GSH measurements.

1097.   Technique Development for Accurate Whole Brain White Matter and Lesion Myelin Water Fraction Analysis for Multiple Sclerosis Using Multi-Component T2 Relaxometry
Kyoko Fujimoto1, Eve LoCastro2, Sneha N. Pandya2, Elizabeth Monohan1, Ashish Raj2, Xiaobo Shen3, Thanh Nguyen2, and Susan A. Gauthier1
1Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States,3Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States

A major hurdle to conducting clinical trials for remyelinating agents in multiple sclerosis is the lack of a clinically feasible imaging method to assess myelin content. T2 relaxometry is a magnetic resonance imaging technique in which the contribution of water associated with myelin can be represented as myelin water fraction (MWF). Here we introduce the technique to combine and analyze our whole brain MWF T2prep spiral gradient-echo sequence and our post-processing algorithm with FreeSufer WM segmentation and a semi-automated lesion mapping method. We were able to integrate lesion and MWF maps for the efficient comparison of WM and lesion MWF.

1098.   Automated Detection, Segmentation, and Longitudinal Tracking of Active MS Lesions Via Subtraction MRI
Colin D. Shea1, Navid Shiee2, Emily Wood1, Dzung Pham2, Govind Bhagavatheeshwaran1, and Daniel S. Reich1
1NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States

We present an automated method based on subtraction MRI to detect, delineate, and track new and changing MS lesions in order to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of lesions in large datasets.

1099.   The Contribution of Cerebellar White Matter Damage to Cortical Grey Matter: Evidence from Voxel Based Morphometry and Diffusion Imaging
Giusy Olivito1,2, Michael Dayan3, Marco Molinari1, Maria Leggio1,2, and Marco Bozzali3
1Ataxia Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Lazio, Italy, 2Department of Psychology, "Sapienza" University, Rome, Italy, 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Lazio, Italy

Conventional and diffusion MRI (dMRI) were used to investigate the impact of cerebellar white matter (WM) damage on cerebral grey matter (GM) on a cohort of normal controls (NC) and patients with unilateral cerebellar lesion, in left (LES-L) and right (LES-R) hemisphere. GM voxel based morphometry (VBM) was performed both for LES-L and LES-R groups compared to NC, and for single case study. Both groups and single case analyses demonstrated significant reduction in cerebral GM volume in contralateral and ipsilateral sides, especially in the caudate nucleus. WM VBM was performed for single case analysis and showed dMRI metric changes in both lesioned and contralateral tracts. Our findings support the use of single case analysis for patients with cerebellar lesions and suggest that cortical GM atrophy ispilateral to the lesion is related to dMRI metric changes in contralateral tracts.

1100.   Deep Gray Matter R2* in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Their Healthy Siblings and Unrelated Healthy Controls
Enedino Hernandez-Torres1, Vanessa Wiggermann1, David Li2, Lindsay Machan2, Dessa Sadovnick3, Katherine Knox4, Anthony L. Traboulsee5, and Alexander Rauscher1
1Radiology, UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3MS Clinic, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4MS Clinic, Saskatoon City Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 5Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased iron content in deep gray matter regions. However, it is not known if this increase is a cause or a consequence of MS. In this study we used R2* as a surrogate marker for iron and investigated a group of people with MS, their siblings, and healthy controls. This preliminary analysis (13 subjects from each cohort) found no significant differences in deep gray matter R2*. A trend to increased R2* in MS compared to the other two groups was found, this was strongest in the globus pallidus (p=0.09). Our findings suggest that there is no increased iron content in deep gray matter in siblings who have an increased risk of developing MS.

1101.   Evolution of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions: Preliminary Results from Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging
Meritxell Garcia1, Monika Gloor2, Michaela Andelova3, Till Sprenger3, Julia Reinhardt1, Christoph Stippich1, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue4, Ludwig Kappos3, and Oliver Bieri2
1Division of Diagnostic & Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Clinic of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 2Division of Radiological Physics, Department of Medical Radiology, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 3Department of Neurology, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 4Medical Imaging Analysis Center, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has been reported to show increased sensitivity for MS lesions compared to conventional MRI. In contrast to MT ratio (MTR) reflecting a combination of various parameters, quantitative MT (qMT) provides information about single values quantitatively. The evolution of MS lesions is analysed with fast high-resolution qMT in 3D using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). Preliminary results show that compared to MTR and conventional MRI, qMT-bSSFP provides more detailed information about myelination and water properties of the whole lesion`s volume within 10 minutes. QMT might be of major significance for diagnostic assessment and therapeutical monitoring in MS.

1102.   Quantitative Analysis and Mapping of Myelin Water Frequency-Shift Using T2* Relaxation Signals at 3T
Zhe Wu1, Dosik Hwang2, and Yiping P. Du1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 2School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

Three-pool model fitting of data acquired from multi-echo gradient echo (MGRE) MRI have already shown as an effective assessment of quantitative myelin water fraction (MWF) analysis, but the possible frequency shift of myelin water was not considered. This study demonstrated the preliminary results of frequency shift mapping from postmortem human brain in 3T. A modified three-pool model was used by adding a frequency shift item to original three-pool model. A two-step fitting procedure for the quantitation MWF was also proposed using this modified model. The range of resulted frequency shift map agreed well with previous literature. A reduction of fitting error compared with original three-pool model was also obtained.

1103.   Comparison of Myelin Water Fraction Brain Images Using Multi-Echo T2-Weighted GRASE Relaxation and Steady-State Methods
Jing Zhang1, Shannon H. Kolind2, and Alex L. MacKay1,3
1Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 3Department of Physics and Astonomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

While both spin echo and mcDESPOT techniques have been applied for detection of demyelination in MS lesions and NAWM, the two approaches have not yet been compared on the same subjects. In this work, both GRASE and mcDESPOT methods were performed together on the same scanner for ten healthy subjects. Myelin water fraction maps created by the two methods for the same volunteer are very different. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms leading to the differences between results from these two methods.

1104.   Robust Segmentation of Clinical Optic Nerve MRI
Swetasudha Panda1, Andrew J. Asman1, Bennett A. Landman1,2, Seth A. Smith2, and Louise A. Mawn3
1Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States,3Ophthalmology and Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

We aim to develop tools to automatically quantify the location and volumetrics of the optic nerve for integration of multimodal imaging data. We hypothesize that this will increase sensitivity and specificity of pathology assessments relative to coarse, manual region of interest approaches. Manual segmentation struggles significantly in the optic nerve when pathology is present or in the later stages of optic nerve damage. While multi-atlas segmentation promises a robust and model-free approach to segment medical images from exemplar images for brain structures, extrapolation to smaller structures of the human anatomy have largely been unexplored. Our purpose is to extend and evaluate multi-atlas labeling for the segmentation of the optic nerve based on high-resolution T2-weighted MRI of the optic nerve.

1105.   Within Lesion Differences in Quantitative MRI Parameters Predict Contrast Enhancement in Multiple Sclerosis
Elke Hattingen1, Marlies Wagner1, Ralf Deichmann2, and Alina Jurcoane1
1Neuroradiology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2Brain Imaging Center, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany

quantitative MRI is able to objectively measure damage of brain tissue and blood brain barrier in MS lesions with and without application of contrast agent

1106.   Normalized Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Multiple Sclerosis
JBM Warntjes1, Mathias Engström1,2, A Tisell1,3, I. Blystad1,2, A-M Landtblom1,4, and P. Lundberg1,3
1Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization, Linköping, Sweden, 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology, Linköping, Sweden, 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, radiation Physics, Linköping, Sweden, 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology, Linköping, Sweden

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging maps of the R1 and R2 relaxation and Proton Density were normalized to a standard brain template and averaged to generate a reference brain for a complete group. The method allows the quantification of common, diffuse differences in the brain, whereas individual, focal lesions are suppressed. The method was applied to 20 patients diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis and 20 age- and gender matched healthy subjects. Significantly lower R1 and R2 and higher PD values were observed throughout the periventricular white matter and centrum semi-ovale.

1107.   Hippocampal Volume Relates to White Matter Integrity and Episodic Memory in Multiple Sclerosis
Katherine A. Koenig1, Ken E. Sakaie1, Mark J. Lowe1, Jian Lin1, Lael Stone2, Robert A. Bermel3, Erik B. Beall1, Stephen M. Rao2, Bruce D. Trapp4, and Micheal D. Phillips1
1Imaging Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 3Neurological Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 4Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

The current study compares hippocampal atrophy to episodic memory measures and to diffusion measures of the fornix in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Though we find no differences in overall hippocampal volume between patients and controls, measures of white matter integrity in the fornix and a measure of episodic memory were related to hippocampal volume only in patients. This bolsters the argument that hippocampal pathology contributes to memory loss in MS.

1108.   Quantitative High-Field MRI of Multiple Sclerosis
David A. Rudko1, Joseph S. Gati1, Marcelo Kremenchutzky2, and Ravi Menon1
1Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

This study employed high-resolution magnetic susceptibility-based MRI at 7 T to identify regions of increased iron deposition and decreased myelination in MS patients compared to healthy, age-matched control subjects. Consistent differences in R2* and QS maps were observed in the basal ganglia structures and the optic radiations of MS patients compared to controls. Group-averaged R2* and QS and LFS maps were used to delineate regions in normal-appearing white and gray matter showing increased iron deposition and demyelination. Additionally, lesion visibility on 7 T MP-FLAIR, T1w and susceptibility contrasts were used to assess lesion activity and iron deposition in white matter lesions.

1109.   Magnetization Transfer Ratio Tractometry in Multiple Sclerosis
Nikola Stikov1, Antonio Giorgio2, Jennifer S.W. Campbell1, Erin L. Mazerolle1, Nicola De Stefano2, and G Bruce Pike1
1Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Department of Neurobiological and Behavioral Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

MR tractometry is a promising new application of diffusion tractography that associates quantitative MRI biomarkers to specific white matter pathways. One such biomarker is the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which is sensitive to the myelin content in brain white matter and is used to evaluate the level of demyelination in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Computing the MTR along fiber tracts can help us identify the level of myelination of different fibers in the brain, as well as understand the patterns of (de)myelination in normal-appearing white matter in MS patients and healthy controls. We performed MTR tractometry on three healthy controls and six relapsing-remitting MS patients, three of which had lesions in the cortico-spinal tract. Whole brain tractometry demonstrated fiber MTR differences between controls and patients, whereas ROI-based analyses distinguished between the two patient subgroups. We conclude that scoring and grouping fibers by their average MTR score gives insight in the tract-specific pattern of demyelination in MS.

1110.   Extensive and Strong Increase of Radial Diffusivity in Human Hypomyelinating Disorders
Marjan Steenweg1, Nicole Wolf1, Frederik Barkhof2, Marjo van der Knaap1, and Petra Pouwels3
1Child Neurology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Radiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Physics & Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

DTI-TBSS analysis of 25 patients with hypomyelinating disorders showed significantly reduced FA compared to 44 controls in almost the whole WM skeleton. This was co-localized with the extensive and large increase of radial diffusivity RD, while axial diffusivity AD was increased to a much smaller extent. In areas without change in AD the observed decrease in FA and increase in MD were only due to the increase in RD. These results strongly support the relationship between RD and myelin density also in humans, since histopathology in hypomyelinating disorders have shown severely impaired myelination, while axons are relatively well preserved.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Spinal Cord

1111.   Age-Related Metabolite Changes in Healthy Spinal Cord: A 1H MRS Study at 3T
Khaled Abdel-Aziz1, Bhavana Solanky1, Marios C. Yiannakas1, Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott2, Alan Thompson1, and Olga Ciccarelli3
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL, London, London, United Kingdom, 2NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL, London, London, United Kingdom, 3NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, London, United Kingdom

Several studies have examined the changes in brain metabolites quantified with MRS as a consequence of normal aging but no such studies have yet been performed in the spinal cord. This study has examined the effect of age on commonly quantified spinal cord metabolites.

1112.   Mouse Lumbar Spinal Cord Blood Flow Imaging Using Pseudo-Continuous ASL (PCASL) at Very High Field
Guillaume Duhamel1, Olivier M. Girard1, Valentin Prevost1, Patrick J. Cozzone1, and Virginie Callot1
1CRMBM / CNRS 7339, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France

Spinal cord ASL FAIR-EPI perfusion imaging has shown to provide valuable information relative to tissue alteration and recovery in mouse model of cervical spinal cord injury. Numerous rodent models of SCI are developed at the thoracic or lumbar levels and, although FAIR EPI also appeared to be feasible at these levels, the technique suffered from several drawbacks, including low sensitivity and low robustness to motion. We investigated the feasibility of pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) combined with single-shot RARE imaging as an alternative to FAIR-EPI, with the objective of benefiting from higher sensitivity, more flexibility and more robustness to motion.

1113.   Extended Metabolite Profile of the Human Spinal Cord
Andreas Hock1, Bertram J. Wilm1, Erin L. MacMillan2, Roland Kreis2, Spyros S. Kollias3, Peter Boesiger1, and Anke Henning1,4
1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Dept. of Clinical Research and Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 3Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany

Clinical magnetic resonance spectroscopy is rarely applied in the spinal cord due to technical challenges leading to a low spectral quality and thus to a limited number of reliable detectable metabolites. In order to extend the metabolite profile an increase of the spectral quality is necessary, which could be achieved by both: averaging a high number of FIDs and by using a dedicated neck coil. Besides N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline and myo-inositol a reliable detection of scyllo-inositol and glutamine/glutamate was possible. Increased myo-inositol/creatine and scyllo-inositol/creatine ratios compared to brain estimates can be observed in the spinal cord.

1114.   Effect of Osmolarity on Myelin Water Fraction Measurement in Aldehyde Fixed Spinal Cord Tissue
Henry Szu-Meng Chen1,2, Nathan Holmes3, Wolfram Tetzlaff3,4, and Piotr Kozlowski3,5
1Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3ICORD, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

In this study we looked at the impact of osmolarity on MR measurements of myelin water fraction (MWF) by varying the concentration of the phosphate buffer used in aldehyde fixation of ex vivo rat spinal cord sample and correlating it to the changes in water environment measured by the tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). The results show decreasing MWF measurement with increasing concentration of phosphate buffer due to the effect of osmolarity gradient on the sealed myelin water compartment. The MR MWF and TEM MWF comparison suggests strong correlation between the methods.

1115.   High Resolution Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging of Squirrel Monkey Spinal Cord at 9.4T
Feng Wang1,2, Ke Li1,2, Daniel F. Gochberg1,2, Li Min Chen1,2, and John C. Gore1,2
1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

Quantitative Magnetization Transfer (qMT) imaging yields relaxation rates and pool size ratios of macromolecular and free water proton pools. However, qMT studies of spinal cord have been limited because of its small size ( ~0.5 cm diameter in squirrel monkeys), field inhomogeneity effects, and motion artifacts. Here we present a pulsed-MT protocol based on Ramani’s model for in vivo studies of the spinal cord of squirrel monkeys at 9.4T. The values of qMT parameters for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are in agreement with those of human studies.

1116.   Diagnostic Accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Pediatric Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
Nadia Barakat1, MJ Mulcahey2, John Gaughan1, Pallav Shah1, Scott Faro1, Amer Samdani2, Randal Betz2, Jürgen Finsterbusch3, and Feroze Mohamed1
1Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Shriners Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Few studies have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) for spinal cord injury (SCI) but none have involved children. In this study the predictive validity of DTI was evaluated by examining its diagnostic accuracy for pediatric cervical SCI in 35 children. The specificity, sensitivity, receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC AUC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of DTI for the ISNCSCI clinical endpoints and MRI level of injury were calculated. Resampling methods were used to validate the estimates from the final models.

1117.   Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Spinal Cord Volume Predicts Clinical Motor Scores
Bretta Russell-Schulz1, Anna Bley2, Arshia Seddigh3, William Regan1, Gareth John Barker4, Naomi Sibtain3, Roger Tam1, Anthony L. Traboulsee1, Steven C.R. Williams4, Peter A. Brex3, and Shannon H. Kolind1
1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Neuroimaging, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

The goal of this study was to determine whether primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) cervical cord volume (CCV) is related to the MS functional composite score, or its component tests of upper limb motor function (nine-hole peg test), lower limb motor function (timed 25-foot walk) or cognitive function (paced auditory serial addition test). CCV in the PPMS group was significantly lower than for controls, and smaller CCV correlated with longer timed 25-foot walks. CCV was negatively correlated with age in PPMS but not controls.

1118.   A Longitudinal Quantitative MRI Study of BSCB Permeability After Peripheral Nerve Injury in Mice
Christine Laliberté1, Lindsay S. Cahill1, Jonathan Bishop1, Xue Jun Liu2, Michael W. Salter2, and R. Mark Henkelman1
1Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Neuroscience and Mental Health Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

A longitudinal quantitative MRI study of the BSCB permeability after peripheral nerve injury in mice

1119.   Spinal Cord Template and a Semi-Automatic Image Processing Pipeline
Vladimir S. Fonov1, Julien Cohen-Adad2, and D. Louis Collins1
1Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

We present a method to build a spinal cord template based on an unbiased average of T2-weighted data from 9 subjects using publicly-available software tools. We propose to use the template to define a standard analysis space for the spinal cord, similar to the Talairach space for brain. We then present an image processing pipeline to demonstrate the usefulness of the template in the evaluation of local volume differences between the spinal cord of one subject and the spinal cord template. Other uses include regional segmentation and VBM analysis.

1120.   High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging on Human Spinal Cord in Vivo: Investigation of Signal Dependence on Diffusion Time
Novena Rangwala1, David Hackney1, and David C. Alsop1
1Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

STEAM EPI was used to acquire high b-value diffusion-weighted (DW) images on cervical spinal cord in vivo with diffusion times (Δ) of up to 1000 ms. Mono-exponential and diffusional kurtosis fitting were used to calculate parameters such as ADC and kurtosis. b~14750 s/mm2 images show clear distinctions between regions within the cord, and fitted model parameters show increasing consistency (lower standard deviations) with b-range, indicating the advantage of high b-range acquisitions. Tests of statistical significance did not indicate any dependence on Δ, however a dependence of parameters on b-range was observed, suggesting the need for models that better fit the data over extended b-value range.

1121.   Structural Correlates of Abnormalities of Cervical Cord Functional MRI Activity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Paola Valsasina1, Maria A. Rocca1, Massimiliano Copetti2, Domenico Caputo3, Martina Absinta1, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 2Department of Biostatistics, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, Italy, 3Department of Neurology, Scientific Institute Fondazione Don Gnocchi, Milan, Mi, Italy

Aim of this study was to investigate, in 87 patients with multiple sclerosis, the association between cervical cord functional MRI activity during a tactile stimulation and brain and cord structural damage. Patients had an higher cervical cord recruitment than that of 22 matched healthy controls. Cord activity was correlated with brain grey matter atrophy, whereas no correlation was found with cervical cord structural damage. This finding suggests that a loss of supraspinal inhibition secondary to brain injury might contribute to explain the observed functional cord abnormalities in MS.

1122.   Single Subject Spinal fMRI Using SE-ZOOM-EPI
Moreno Pasin1, Marios C. Yiannakas1, Ahmed Toosy2, and Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott1
1NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, England, United Kingdom, 2Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom

The purpose of this study was to present a protocol to assess stimulus-related activation in the spine using SE-ZOOM-EPI sequence. Four healthy subjects were stimulated at the C6 dermatome on both hands, using an electric rotating brush. The most consistent activity, in ipsilateral grey matter and mostly localized to the posterior horn, was found at C5/C6 vertebral level in each volunteer for right hand stimulation and in three volunteers for left hand stimulation. Significant activity is reported at p<0.01 (uncorrected. Average signal change was calculated. The results support the detection of stimulus-related activation in the spine using our research protocol.

1123.   In Vivo Spinal Cord Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Rodent at 9.4T
M. Waleed Gaber1,2, Khushali Kotedia1, Stephen T.C. Wong3,4, and Kelvin K. Wong3,4
1Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States, 3Department of Systems Medicine & Bioengineering, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

In vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of spinal cord is a unique tool to probe the neuronal integrity of the spinal cord in rodent models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and traumatic spinal cord injury. Due to the small size of spinal cord and respiratory artifact, it is very challenging to reliably study the spinal cord with DTI in rodents. Current techniques exploit the high fiber coherence along the spinal cord and focus mainly on slice selective acquisition technique. To study the subtle neuronal integrity locally, a 3D DTI technique is desirable. In this paper, we present a respiratory-gated segmented 3D echo planar diffusion tensor imaging technique to study the mouse and rat spinal cord in vivo. Preliminary studies showed high quality DTI maps and the data are consistent with literature values.

1124.   A Preliminary Study of 3D Rat Spine Imaging by Using Wideband MRI Technique
Yun-An Huang1, Edzer L. Wu1,2, Tzi-Dar Chiueh1, Jyh-Horng Chen1,2, and Jason Liu3
1Dept. Electrical engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Institue of biomedical engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, 3University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

Wideband MRI is a technique that can either speed up the scan time or increase image resolution by acquiring images of multiple locations simultaneously. Our preliminary result demonstrate the 3D scanning of rat spine by using 4x acceleration (W=4) Wideband MRI technique, which can reduced the scanning from 40 minutes to 10 minutes. We have showed the possibility to complete the 3D spine imaging within 10 minutes which is valuable in clinical study.

1125.   Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Injury to Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
Ken E. Sakaie1, Masaya Takahashi2, Koji Sagiyama2, Bharath Atthe1, Osamu Togao2, Ivan E. Dimitrov3, Gina Remington4, Teresa Frohman4, Elliot Frohman4, and Robert Fox5
1Imaging Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Philips Medical Systems, Highland Heights, OH, United States, 4Neurology and Neuro-therapeutics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 5Mellen Center, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

This work tests the hypothesis that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) detects injury to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) in MS patients with internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). DTI provides quantitative measures of tissue injury while injury to the MLF in MS provokes well-characterized ocular motor disorder, INO. The tight relationship between the MLF and ocular motor function provides a unique opportunity to refine our capabilities to couple a disease-related pathophysiologic signature with advanced imaging metrics of CNS tissue injury. However, as the MLF is a small pathway, it is unclear if DTI has sufficient sensitivity to detect injury associated with INO.

1126.   Conventional DTI and Q-Space Imaging in Brachial Plexus Root Re-Implantation
Torben Schneider1, Xun Choong2, Carolina Kachramanoglou3, David L. Thomas2, David Choi4, Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott1, and Olga Ciccarelli2
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 3Spinal Repair Unit, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom

Brachial plexus avulsion leads to a completely paralysed and anaesthetic limb. Re-implantation of avulsed ventral roots is an effective treatment that improves motor recovery. Diffusion imaging promises non-invasive markers of disease progression as it is very sensitive to microscopic changes of tissue. We here assess both conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion q-space-imaging (QSI), which both show good discrimination of pathological changes in the patients’ cord. We further find strong correlation between QSI and DTI parameters and clinical scores of disability, suggesting great potential of diffusion imaging as biomarkers for future management of brachial plexus avulsion treatment strategies.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Neurovascular Disease - Clinical

1127.   Cortical GABA Levels Are Impaired After Stroke, But May Be Normalized with Rehabilitation
Yi-Ching Lynn Ho1, Erhard Næss-Schmidt1, Jamie Near2, and Jakob Udby Blicher1,3
1Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, 2Dept. of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Hammel Neurorehabilitation & Research, Aarhus University Hospital, Hammel, Denmark

There has yet to be characterization of GABA levels post stroke, even though decreases in cortical inhibition have been found. It is unclear if these results are due to decreased GABA concentrations or receptor activity. Using GABA-edited MRS, we compared post stroke GABA levels in the motor cortex to those in healthy subjects and investigated the possibility that GABA levels can be modulated after two weeks of intensive hand training. We found that GABA levels after stroke were diminished compared to healthy subjects, but it appears possible to normalize these GABA levels, as well as hand function with therapy.

1128.   Assessment of Arterial Supply to Arteriovenous Malformations with Vessel-Encoded Arterial Spin Labeling Dynamic Angiography
Thomas W. Okell1, Meritxell Garcia2, Michael A. Chappell1,3, James V. Byrne4, and Peter Jezzard1
1FMRIB Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Division of Diagnostic & Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 3IBME, Department of Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 4Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can be treated by endovascular embolization, but it is crucial to have knowledge of the arterial supply to the lesion prior to treatment. In this study we applied a 2D dynamic angiographic technique based on vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (VEPCASL) to non-invasively visualize the flow patterns arising from the main feeding arteries to AVMs. Each transverse, coronal and sagittal time-resolved data set took about four minutes to acquire. Good image quality and vessel-selectivity was observed in all five patients. We hope this will become a useful tool for treatment planning in AVM patients.

1129.   High-Risk Mid-Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Disease Detection Using Simultaneous Non-Contrast Angiography and IntraPlaque Hemorrhage (SNAP) Imaging
Jinnan Wang1, Xihai Zhao2, Kiyofumi Yamada3, Le He2, Xiping Gong4, Peter Börnert5, and Chun Yuan6
1Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY, United States, 2Tsinghua University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 3University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 4Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 5Philips Research Laboratory, Hamburg, N.A., Germany, 6Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Intracranial artery disease (IAD) is an important but often overlooked contributor to the onset of stroke. Besides the commonly inspected luminal stenosis, intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), as indicated by studies based on carotid artery lesions, has also been associated with increased lesion progression rate and the incidence rate of clinical events. In this study, we will validate a newly optimized Simultaneous Non-contrast Angiography and intraPlaque hemorrhage (SNAP) technique suitable for joint stenosis and IPH lesion detection for IAD patients.

1130.   Intracranial Arterial Wall Imaging Using 3D Isotropic High Resolution Black Blood MRI at 3.0 T
Ye Qiao1, Steve R. Zeiler2, Saeedeh Mirbagheri1, Richard Leigh2, Victor Urrutia2, Robert Wityk2, and Bruce A. Wasserman1
1Radiology, Johns Hopkins Univeristy, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Neurology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

The presence of intracranial vascular disease is highly predictive of stroke. We sought to characterize intracranial plaque inflammation in vivo using 3D high-resolution contrast-enhanced black blood MRI imaging and investigate its relation to cerebrovascular ischemic events.

1131.   Non-Contrast-Enhanced MRA of the Carotids :Feasibility of a Non-ECG-Gated Sequence Over an Extended Field of View
Hélène Raoult1,2, Jean-Yves Gauvrit1,2, Vincent Le Couls3, Peter Schmitt4, and Elise Bannier2
1Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Rennes, France, 2Unité VISAGES U746 INSERM-INRIA, IRISA UMR CNRS 6074, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 3Siemens Healthcare, Imaging and Therapy, Saint Denis, France, 4Siemens AG, MR Application & Workflow Development, Erlangen, Germany

Our study assesses the feasibility and quality of non-gated non-contrast-enhanced MRA (NCE MRA) carotid imaging using inversion-prepared bSSFP in 16 volunteers. The sequence offers high-quality images with bright intravascular signal, and results were equivalent or superior to those of standard TOF MRA. Non-gated NCE MRA allows high-quality carotid imaging over a larger field of view with a shorter acquisition time than TOF.

1132.   A Simple and Effective Approach for Carotid Plaque Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice
XIN PU1,2, Chun Yuan1, Hunter R. Underhill1, and Zhan Ming Fan2
1Vascular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing, China

It has been well known that intraplaque hemorrhage and fibrous cap rupture are the most critical features of carotid plaque instability. Carotid atherosclerotic score(CAS) was built to stratify the plaque severity.However,CAS assessment requires a relatively long time for the review process,which is limit the application in clinical practice. This study sought to find a simple, fast approach to evaluate the CAS and stratify the severity of carotid plaque in clinic.

1133.   Validation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition and Structure at 7T and 3T MRI
Maria del Rosario Lopez Gonzalez1, Sin Yee Foo2, William M. Holmes3, Willie Stewart4, George Welch5, Barrie Condon6, Keith W. Muir1, and Kirsten Forbes7
1Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2School of Medicine, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 3GEMRIC, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 4Department of Neuropathology, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 5Vascular Surgery, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 6MRI, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 7Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

Carotid plaque MR imaging was used to assess composition and structure of atherosclerotic plaque. The method involved the validation of in-vivo (3T) and ultra-high resolution ex-vivo (7T) MRI and histopathological examination in a series of patients. Patients all presented with acute cerebral ischaemic, within four weeks before MRI scanning. Patients underwent endarterectomy and specimens were scanned at 7T. Atherorosclerotic plaque segmentation was carried out using a combination of four/three (3T/7T) MR contrast weighting images.

1134.   The Usefulness of the Inflow Enhanced Inversion Recovery Fast Spin Echo (IFIR-FSE) for Supraaortic Artery Imaging
Kei Tsukamoto1, Takayuki Masui1, Motoyuki Katayama1, Kimihiko Sato1, Kazuma Terauchi1, Kenichi Mizuki1, Masayoshi Sugimura1, Harumi Sakahara2, Naoyuki Takei3, and Hiroyuki Kabasawa3
1Radiology, Seirei Hamamatsu general hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan, 2radiology, Hamamatsu university school of medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan, 3GE Healthcare Japan, hino, Tokyu, Japan

An investigational version of inflow inversion recovery fast spin echo (IFIR-FSE) is the technique of non-contrast enhanced MR angiography (NC MRA) based on inflow effect during inversion time of inversion recovery. We investigated usefulness in assessment of supraaortic arteries of NC MRA with IFIR-FSE in comparison of NC MRA with 3D time of flight and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA in twenty patients. NC MRA with IFIR-FSE could visualize large areas of the supraaortic arteries with good image quality and showed high negative predict value for detection of vascular stenoses. This technique can be used as a screening method in this area.

1135.   Time-Of-Flight Angiography in Humans at 9.4T
Gisela E. Hagberg1, Petros Martirosian2, Jonas Bause3, Gunamony Shajan3, Uwe Klose4, and Klaus Scheffler1,3
1Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany, 2Section of Experimental Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany,3High-field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen, Germany, 4Diagnostic and interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

At ultra-high magnetic field strengths ToF benefits from long tissue T1 times that leads to a suppressed background. On the other hand, SAR restrictions impose an upper limit on the actual flip angle that can be used. By increasing the pulse duration the SAR is reduced, enabling the use of optimal flip angles. The venous signal can be removed without need for additional suppression pulses, with only minor loss in image contrast, by prolonging TE. In conclusion, ToF can be performed at 9.4T using state-of-the-art methodology.

1136.   MR Selective Flow-Tracking Cartography of Brain Vascular Malformations
Pauline Roca1, Myriam Edjlali1, Cécile Rabrait2, Kevin M. Johnson3, Yijing Wu3, Oliver Wieben3,4, Olivier Naggara1, Jean-François Meder1, Patrick Turski4, and Catherine Oppenheim1
1Department of Neuroradiology, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, 2GE Healthcare, Vélizy, France, 3Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

We present a virtual catheter-based like post-processing procedure applied to 4D Flow MR Imaging to obtain a non-invasive MR complete characterization of brain vascular malformations. We compared this MR selective flow-tracking cartography procedure to catheter-based cerebral intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This technique was successfully performed in 10 patients with brain arteriovenous malformations or dural arteriovenous fistulas. There was a high agreement between DSA and MR cartography in the definition of the main feeding arteries and draining veins. MR selective flow-tracking cartography of fistulas allowed to obtain a Cognard MR classification consistent with DSA. These results suggest that MR selective cartography is a promising alternative to DSA in the diagnosis and follow-up of brain vascular malformations.

1137.   Utility of Flat Panel Detector CT (FPD-CT) in Perfusion Assessment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations
Meritxell Garcia1,2, Thomas W. Okell3, Monika Gloor4, Michael A. Chappell3,5, Peter Jezzard3, Oliver Bieri4, and James V. Byrne2
1Division of Diagnostic & Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Clinic of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 2Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences and Department of Neuroradiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 4Division of Radiological Physics, Department of Medical Radiology, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

The role of Flat Panel Detector-CT (FPD-CT), a novel and fast technique able to provide parenchymal blood volume data, was analysed in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). FPD-CT perfusion was compared to Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) and Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL). Contrary to previous ischaemia studies, FPD-CT values correlated better with CBF than with CBV. This can be explained by the early appearance of contrast agent in the superior sagittal sinus, generally used as the trigger time point for data acquisition, due to the high-flow shunting effect in AVMs. This challenges the utility of FPD-CT for reliable perfusion analysis in AVMs.

1138.   Retrograde Venous Flow in Dural Sinus and Internal Jugular Vein on 3D TOF MRA
Bum-soo Kim1, Jinhee Jang1, Hyun Seok Choi1, So-Lyung Jung1, and Kook-Jin Ahn1
1Department of Radiology, Seoul St.Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Seoul, Korea

Venous reflux flow in internal jugular vein (IJV), sigmoid/transverse sinuses (SS/TS), and inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) on the brain and neck 3D TOF MRA were evaluated from 3475 patients. Fifty-five patients (1.6%) showed reflux flow, all in the left side, and more frequent in female than in male. Mean age of patients with reflux flow was older than those without reflux flow. It was more frequent on SS/TS than on IPS. Venous reflux flows in IJV, SS/TS and IPS on TOF MRA could be an alarm for undesirable candidate for contrast injection on left side for contrast enhanced imaging study.

1139.   Application of MOBILE (Mapping of Oxygen by Imaging Lipids Relaxation Enhancement) in Stroke : Preclinical and Clinical Studies.
Florence Colliez1, Caroline Vandeputte2, Uwe Himmelreich3, Thierry Duprez4, Benedicte Jordan5, Bernard Gallez1, and Julie Magat5
1Louvain Drug Research Institute, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, 2Biomedical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Unit, KUL, Leuven, Belgium, 3Biomedical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 4Radiology and Medical Imaging, St. Luc hospital, Institute of Neuroscience, UCL, Brussels, Belgium, 5Louvain Drug Research Institute, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, UCL, Brussels, Belgium

There is a critical need for methods able to monitor dynamically and noninvasively brain oxygenation in clinical practice. Variations in T1 and T2* are potentially valuable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tools to quantify changes in tissue oxygenation. T1 is sensitive to dissolved oxygen which acts as a T1-shortening paramagnetic contrast agent. However, this technique lacks of sensitivity. The aim of the current work was to apply the MOBILE technique (for Mapping of Oxygen By Imaging Lipids relaxation Enhancement) to map variations in oxygenation based on the changes in the relaxation properties of the tissue lipids, by exploiting the higher solubility of oxygen in lipids than in water on a photothrombic stroke model and clinical strokes.

1140.   Hyperoxic BOLD Contrast in Patients with Unilateral Arterial Steno-Occlusive Disease—comparison with 15O Positron Emission Tomography
Hajime Tamura1, Masanobu Ibaraki2, Kazuhiro Nakamura2, Hideto Toyoshima2, Keisuke Matsubara2, and Toshibumi Kinoshita2
1Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan, 2Radiology, Akita Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita, Akita, Japan

We aimed to validate the ability of BOLD contrast imaging with mild oxygen challenge to estimate severity of ischemia in patient with unilateral chronic steno-occlusive disease of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. For the validation, the BOLD contrast with hyperoxia was compared with the product of deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([dHb]) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) obtained by 15O PET study. A significant correlation between the lesional-contralateral (LC) difference in BOLD contrast and LC difference in the quantity [dHb]1.5CBV obtained from PET data was observed. Hyperoxic BOLD contrast imaging may be usefl to estimate the severity of ischemia in chronic arterial steno-occlusive disease.

1141.   Susceptibility Weighted Imaging Based Approach to ?OEF Quantification Using Propofol and Midazolam as Potential OEF Modulators
Jonathan Goodwin1, Kohsuke Kudo1, Yutaka Shinohe2, Ikuko Uwano1, Fumio Yamashita1, Yutaka Matsumura1, Tsuyoshi Metoki1, Kuniaki Ogasawara3, Akira Ogawa3, and Makoto Sasaki1
1Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate, Japan, 2Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan, 3Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan

Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is considered to be an important indicator of cerebrovascular health. Accurate, non-invasive measurement of OEF has potential benefit for a number of clinical conditions, however currently positron emission tomography (PET) remains the gold standard. In this work we demonstrate the viability of a recently developed, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) technique for mapping OEF change in the brain. Through repeated phase imaging during both Propofol and Midazolam sedation and sedation recovery, a significant global reduction was measured during Midazolam sedation (p<0.018), demonstrating the sensitivity of the technique to moderate perturbation of OEF in the brain.

1142.   Cerebrovascular Mechanisms of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; an Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion MRI Study of Cerebrovascular Dysfunction
Sarah Al-Bachari1, Laura Parkes2, Rishma Vidyasagar2, Martha Hanby3, Ira Leroi4, and Hedley Emsley3
1School of Cancer and Imaging Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2University of Manchester, Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 3Neurology, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom, 4Psychiatry, University of Manchester, Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, yet treatment remains purely symptomatic. Recent research has implicated cerebrovascular mechanisms in the neurodegenerative process, yet the role in IPD is poorly understood. To investigate cerebrovascular dysfunction ASL MRI techniques were used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arrival time (aT), alongside structural markers of cerebrovascular disease, using 3Tesla MRI. Results have revealed focal regions of CBF increase in thalamus and areas of hypoperfusion in the posterior cortical regions, in addition there is a widespread increase in aT in patients compared to controls, implicating CV dysfunction in IPD.

1143.   Impaired Cerebro-Vascular Reserve in Carotid Artery Disease Correlates with Deficits in Cognitive Functions
Kay Jann1, Manuela Wapp2, Frauke Kellner-Weldon2, Martinus Hauf2, Yuliya Burren2, Regula Everts2,3, Marwan El-Koussy2, Patrik Michel4, Gerhard Schroth2, and Andrea Federspiel1
1Dept. of Psychiatric Neurophysiology, University Hospital of Psychiatry / University of Bern, Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 2Institut of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University of Bern / Inselspital, Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 3Division of Neuropediatrics, Children's University Hospital / Inselspital, Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 4Department of Neurology, University Hospital Lausanne, Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

In carotid artery disease (CAD) information about cerebral blood flow identifies areas with reduced perfusion due to the flow restriction of a feeding vessel. Moreover the cerebro vascular reactivity (CVR) is often reduced and is suggested to be the physiological basis for observed cognitive deficits in CAD. In this study we found significant reduction of CVR in the anterior watershed area on the stenotic side. In addition, significant negative correlations between AW-CVR on the stenotic side and the neuropsychological performance were found in the domain of verbal working memoryas well as for executive functions confounding the above hypothesis.

1144.   Hypoperfusion, Ischemia and Blood Pressure Reduction in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Didem Aksoy1,2, Ryan W. Snider1,2, Jonathan Kleinman1,2, Michael Mlynash1,2, Nancy J. Fischbein3, Roland Bammer3, Matus Straka3, Irina Eyngorn1,2, Alisa Gean4, Chitra Venkat1,2, Anna K. Finley Caulfield1,2, and Christine Wijman1,2
1Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 2Stanford Neurocritical Care Program, Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

In this study, we examined whether large blood pressure reductions are associated with hypoperfusion and ischemia in the perihematomal region in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. Perfusion and diffusion weighted imaging were performed within 24 hours of ICH onset. Hourly blood pressures were recorded from hospital admission to MRI. Hypoperfusion and presence of diffusion lesions in the perihematomal region were found to be associated with the absolute and percent degree of reduction from admission systolic blood pressure to mean treated systolic blood pressure.

1145.   Utility of DSC-MRI Indices as Predictors of Cerebral Perfusion Changes After Carotid Angioplasty with Stenting
Pin-Hsun Huang1, Tsong-Hai Lee2, Feng-Xian Yan1, Ho-Fai Wong3, and Ho-Ling Liu1,3
1Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 2Neurology and Stroke Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 3Medical Image and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

This study aimed to investigate the cerebral hemodynamic changes in patients with carotid stenosis and the utility of DSC-MRI indices for predicting hyper-perfusion phenomenon after carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS).Fifty-four patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis received DSC-MRI before and one-week after CAS. The CBF, TTP, MTT and Tmax were assessed and correlated with perfusion change after CAS. This study found that perfusion change was negatively correlated with ipsilateral CBF, and positively correlated with ipsilateral Tmax and MTT. Patients with hyper-perfusion after CAS had significantly longer pre-CAS ipsilateral Tmax and MTT as comparing to the other patients.

1146.   Fully Automatic Maximum Intensity Projections of Regions of Interest in Magnetic Resonance Angiograms
Christoph Seeger1,2, Alexander Brost1, Mircea C. Dobre1, Nancy J. Fischbein1, Zhaoying Han1, Julian R. Maclaren1, Sjoerd B. Vos1,3, Joachim Hornegger2, and Roland Bammer1
1Center for Quantitative Neuroimaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Pattern Recognition Lab, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, 3Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

We present a fully automatic post-processing method for 3D time-of-flight MR Angiograms. The method produces maximum intensity projections of pre-specified regions of interest that are warped to a patient using the non-rigid deformation field obtained from registration. We evaluated the method using a three-point Likert scale to proof that it performs at least as good as the current manual clinical method.

1147.   Evaluation of Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in Children with Sickle Cell Disease
Adam M. Winchell1,2, Brian Taylor1, Paul Grundlehner1, Ralf B. Loeffler1, Jane Hankins3, Winfred Wang3, Kathleen Helton1, and Claudia M. Hillenbrand1
1Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, United States,3Hematology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States

One of the most devastating complications in children with sickle cell disease is stroke. A hessian-based vessel segmentation algorithm was used on SWI to quantify the venous contrast in patients and normal controls. The conspicuity of venous contrast in sickle cell disease is qualitatively less than in controls and shows a significant quantitative decrease. Quantitative measures of venous contrast inversely correlated with basilar tortuosity.

1148.   Cerebral Arterial Blood Volume and Blood Flow in Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats
Tae Kim1 and Seong-Gi Kim1
1University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

We quantified cerebral arterial blood volume (CBVa) and blood flow (CBF) in eight hypertensive (SHR) and nine normotensive (WKY) rats using magnetization transfer-varied arterial spin labeling technique. Regional CBVa values from SHR were generally smaller than those from WKY, while CBF values were no difference, indicating CBVa is a sensitive biomarker for hypertension. Especially, hippocampus has significantly lower CBVa values for SHR than WKY, indicating that its vascular remodeling and adaption may lead to dementia.

1149.   Phase Singularities at Fringelines Result in Artifactual Mirohemorrhages in SWI
John Anthony Butman1,2, Ningzhi Li2, Wen-Tung Wang2, David Joy2, and Dzung Pham2,3
1Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States

An artifact which mimics the appearance of intracranial microhemorrhage arising from 2D homodyne SWI processing of gradient echo images is described.

1150.   Assessment of a Continuous Multi-Compartmental Intra-Voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) Model for the Human Brain
Burkhard Mädler1, Dariusch Reza Hadizadeh2,3, and Jürgen Gieseke2,4
1Neurosurgery, University Bonn - Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany, 2Radiology, University Bonn - Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany, 3Neuroradiology, University Bonn - Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany, 4Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands

Several studies have utilized IVIM for various clinical applications in the abdomen as well as for animal experiments. However, studies in the human brain are rare and without further consensus about its clinical value, application and comparison to conventional perfusion techniques possibly due to the complex diffusion properties in the nervous system and the inherent low SNR. We tested performance and validity of a novel semi-continuous multi-exponential (PFG-diffusion signal analysis for the detection and quantification of vascular perfusion in the brain. Classical chi-squared multi-exponential fitting algorithms are susceptible to fail without sufficient SNR. We show that regularized NNLS-techniques have better performance on the estimates of IVIM parameters from noisy data and might encourage new attempts of IVIM-based methods for the brain.

1151.   Relationship Analysis of Axial and Radial Diffusivities May Be Helpful in Discriminating Tumor-Infiltrating Edema from Pure Vasogenic Edema
Zhigang Min1,2, Chen Niu1, and Ming Zhang1
1Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Radiology, Yi'xing Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Yi'xing, Jiangsu, China

Due to the infiltration of tumor cells, the axons and myelin were destroyed. tumor-infiltrating edema has greater radial diffusivities than pure vasogenic edema. But the direct comparisons of ¦Ë¡Í will be influenced by the degree of edema and can not reveal the diffusion characteristics induced by damaged axons and myelin. We compared the relationships of ¦Ë¡Î and ¦Ë¡Í in pure vasogenic edema and tumor-infiltrating edema and found the significant different between the two types of edema. RC¦Ë¡Î-¦Ë¡Í showed more effective than other metrics in discriminating tumor-infiltrated edema from pure vasogenic edema.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
fMRI of Brain Disorders

Default Mode Interference in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Alterations in Functional Connectivity and Cerebral Blood Flow at Rest
Chandler Sours1,2, Jiachen Zhuo1, Steven Roys1, and Rao P. Gullapalli1,2
1Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Program In Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, United States


1153.   Primary Olfactory Cortex Involvement in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Functional and Morphological MRI Investigation
Megha Vasavada1, Jian-Li Wang1, Xiaoyu Sun1, Sarah Ryan1, Christopher Weitekamp1, Prasanna Karunanayaka1, and Qing Yang1
1Penn State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States

Olfactory deficits are known to occur in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and early AD. In this work, we performed concurrent measurements of the volumes and olfactory activations of the primary olfactory cortex (POC) and hippocampus, and demonstrated that the POC is clearly involved in early AD functionally and pathologically.

1154.   Repeatability of Standardized and Normalized RCBV in Patients with Newly Diagnosed GBM
Melissa A. Prah1, Eric S. Paulson2, Dominique L. Jennings3, Elizabeth R. Gerstner4, Tracy T. Batchelor4, Steven M. Stufflebeam3, and Kathleen M. Schmainda1,5
1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 4Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 5Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

This study compares the repeatability of standardized and normalized rCBV estimates, across five separate post-processing methods. Overall, results showed that standardized rCBV estimates offer less variablity than normalized rCBV estimates.

1155.   Connectivity Matrix Analysis of Depression-Related Network in Patients with Post Stroke Depression
Ji-Young Kim1, Seong-Uk Jin2, Jee-Hye Seo2, Jang Woo Park2, Jongsu Baek2, Moon Han2, Kyung-Eun Jang2, Young-Hwan Lee*3, and Yongmin Chang4,5
1Medical Science, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea, 2Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 3Radiology, Catholic University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea, 4Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 5Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Molecular Medicine, Daegu, Korea

Poststroke depression (PSD) is not only an important clinical issue as it will potentially affect the 20% to 70% of stroke survivors but also may provide a unique window into the pathophysiology of depression. While previous neuroimaging studies have mostly focused to identify a possible relationship between location of the brain damage and a risk for PSD, no studies have directly examined the intrinsic functional connectivity within depression-related neural network in PSD patients. In the present study, we investigate the possible alteration in functional connectivity (FC) within salient network (SN) associated with PSD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Our FC matrix analysis of SN has revealed that functional connectivity patterns of brain regions within SN in PSD patients were extensively altered compared to healthy controls. Specifically, the negative correlations between limbic and dorsal frontal regions in healthy controls turned into positive correlations in PSD patients. The breakdown of negative correlation between limbic and dorsal frontal regions in PSD patients therefore suggests that the inhibitory process to prevent prolonged negative emotion seems to be impaired in PSD patients.

1156.   Graph Analysis of rs-fcMRI Reveals Modular Changes Associated with HIV and Aging
Jewell B. Thomas1, Matthew R. Brier1,2, and Beau M. Ances1
1Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 2Medical Scientist Training Program, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States

This abstract demonstrates a useful application of graph theory analysis techniques for characterizing the independent effects of HIV and aging on brain function.

1157.   Effect of Injury Severity on Brain Activations and Functional Connectivity Density Mapping in Survivors of Traumatic Brain Injury
Abigail Livny-Ezer1,2, Mark Weiser3,4, Tammar Kushnir2,4, Sagi Harnof5, Dardo Tomasi6,7, Chen Hoffman2, and Anat Biegon7,8
1J. Sagol Neuroscience Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel, 2Diagnostic Imaging Dept., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel, 3Dept. of Psychiatry, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel, 4Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 5Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel, 6National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 7Medical Dept., Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, United States, 8Dept. of Neurology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States

Survivors of Traumatic brain injury (TBI) suffer from cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of injury severity on patterns of brain activation during a working memory task with fMRI. Twelve mild, 10 moderate-severe patients and 19 controls performed an N-back task for letters. Activations in the low memory load did not appear to be related to injury severity. High memory load activated additional areas in the TBI groups compared to controls and was dependent on injury severity. In addition, TBI patients presented a different pattern of functional connectivity mapping in resting-state compared to controls.

1158.   The Altered Value-Based Intrinsic Network and Its Association with Impulsive Behavior in Abstinent Heroin Dependent Subjects
Tianye Zhai1,2, Tianye Zhai3, Chunming Xie1,2, Zheng Yang1, and Shi-Jiang Li2
1Center of Brain and Cognition, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Science, Beijing, China, 2Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States,3Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

Neurobiological and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a major node for decision making, is crucial in drug addiction. 1,2 However, little is known about the role of the vmPFC network and its relation to drug-seeking behaviors, such as impulsivity in addiction. In this study, we utilized resting-state functional connectivity fMRI (R-fMRI) to investigate the alteration of the vmPFC network and its relationship to impulsivity in abstinent heroin dependent subjects (HD) and control nondrug users (CN).

1159.   The Role of Neurovascular Coupling in Stroke Recovery
Evelyn Lake1, Rafal Janik1, Joydeep Chaudhuri1, Greg J. Stanisz1, and Bojana Stefanovic1
1Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Within a well established preclinical model of injury, we use functional MRI and behavioural testing to assess the effect of well-timed, low dose gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism on recovery in the chronic stage of ischemic stroke recovery. During the weeks following injury, we have observed significantly more behavioural recovery in GABA antagonist treated animals than that shown by controls. In addition, we have observed GABA antagonist treatment to result in the partial normalization of the ipsi-to-contra-lesional perfusion response ratio. Further studies will focus on how this novel treatment strategy may promote neurovascular remodelling over long therapeutic time windows.

1160.   Brain on Fire: Temporal Standard Deviation of Resting State BOLD Signal Increases in Major Depressive Disorders
Masaya Misaki1, Vadim Zotev1, Raquel Phillips1, Kymberly D. Young1, Han Yuan1, Jonathan Savitz1,2, Wayne C. Drevets1, and Jerzy Bodurka1,3
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2Tulsa School of Community Medicine, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, United States, 3College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States

To study abnormalities from major depressive disorder (MDD) in resting-state brain activity, we compared the temporal standard deviation (tSD) of resting-state BOLD time course signals. The tSD reflects both frequency and amplitude of an individual brain region’s activity. Comparing tSDs of MDD and HC subjects revealed higher temporal variability of resting-state BOLD signal in MDD versus HC in multiple brain regions including cerebellum, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula, while no brain regions showed lower tSD in MDD versus HC. The result suggests that in MDD subjects these brain regions had more frequent and larger activity change in resting-state.

1161.   Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training of Amygdala in MDD Patients
Raquel Phillips1, Kymberly Young1, Vadim Zotev1, Masaya Misaki1, Han Yuan1, Wayne C. Drevets1, and Jerzy Bodurka1,2
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2College of Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States

We aim to develop novel and non-invasive treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD), a disorder associated with the deregulation of brain emotional circuitry. Research has shown that the hemodynamic response of the amygdala is attenuated to positive stimuli in MDD and that this response normalizes with remission. We show that individuals with MDD are able to use real-time fMRI neurofeedback to enhance the hemodynamic response of the left amygdala (LA) to positive stimuli. We also found an association between the ability to regulate the LA and reductions in depression ratings, as well as improvements in happiness ratings.

1162.   Functional Connectivity in Posterior Cingulate Cortex Alters in Brain Concussion Patients at the Acute Stage
Armin Iraji1, Valerie Mika2, Jie Yang2, Annalise Rahman2, Grace Ma2, Robert Welch2, Randall Benson2, Scott Millis2, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh3, Ewart Mark Haacke2, and Zhifeng Kou2
1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 3University of Tehran, Tehran, Tehran, Iran

mTBI affects over 1 million emergency visits in the United States each year. Most of them have negative findings in clinical imaging in emergency department. However, attention and memory deficits are wide-spread symptoms in mTBI patients. We hypothesize that mTBI is associated with alterations in the activities in PCC and functional connectivity at rest. Results demonstrate that a) mTBI patients have alterations in their resting-state functional connectivity in PCC and related areas at the acute stage, and b) this functional connectivity change may reflect their memory symptoms. This work could have potential applications in clinical diagnosis of mTBI.

1163.   Disruption of Natural Motion Perception in Dystonia Patients with DYT1 Mutation
Wataru Sako1, An Vo1, Aziz M. Ulug1, and David Eidelberg1
1Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, United States

Dystonia is characterized by the involuntary concomitant contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles resulting in repetitive movements and abnormal posture. Causative gene mutation in TOR1A gene is named as DYT1. In contrast to identification of gene mutations, no apparent structural abnormalities of primary dystonia were found in conventional magnetic resonance imaging or autopsy. Nonetheless, novel abnormalities were detected in various types of dystonia by functional imaging including positron emission tomography and diffusion tensor imaging. Speed-dependent motion perception task mainly consists of two types of movement: natural condition; unnatural condition. We applied functional MRI to dystonia patients during motion perception task in order to clarify the possible abnormality in sensory processing.

1164.   Alteration Pattern of Gray Matter and Small-World Networks in the Human Brain Revealed by Quantitative Water Diffusivity from MRI.
Bing Zhang1, Ming Li1, Xin Zhang1, Fei Chen1, Huiting Wang1, Fang Zhang2, Jiange Zhang2, Yun Xu3, and Bin Zhu1
1Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 2Department of biomedical engineering, Shanghai Jiao-tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, Shanghai, China, 3Neurology of Radiology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Alteration pattern of gray matter and small-world networks in the human brain revealed by quantitative water diffusivity from MRI.

1165.   Affective Flattening in Schizophrenia Patients: Differential Association with Amygdala Response to Threat-Related Facial Expression Under Automatic and Controlled Processing Conditions. an fMRI Study
Harald Kugel1, Christian Lindner2, Udo Dannlowski2,3, Kirsten Walhöfer2, Maike Roediger2, Birgit Maisch4, Jochen Bauer2, Patricia Ohrmann2, Rebekka Lencer2, Pienie Zwitserlood5, Anette Kersting6, Walter Heindel1, Volker Arolt2, and Thomas Suslow6
1Dept. of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 2Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 3Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Marburg, Marburg, HE, Germany, 4Klinik am Schlossgarten Duelmen, Duelmen, NRW, Germany, 5Dept. of Psychology, University of Muenster, Muenster, NRW, Germany, 6Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, SN, Germany

This fMRI study investigates the role of the amygdala in emotional processing in schizophrenia patients. Previous studies have demonstrated amygdala hypoactivation in patients, but also amygdala hyperactivation with paradigms eliciting automatic affect processing. Furthermore, hyperactivation was related to symptoms of affective flattening, i.e. lack of emotional reactivity. Here amygdala responsivity to threat-related facial expression was studied as function of automatic versus controlled emotion processing. Our findings suggest that amygdala hyperresponsivity to unmasked fearful faces might be a functional marker of schizophrenia, while amygdala hyperresponsivity to masked fearful faces might be a specific characteristic of patients with affective flattening.

1166.   Altered Functional Connectivity Consistent with Associated Language Impairment in Rolandic Epilepsy
René M.H. Besseling1, Jacobus Jansen2, Geke Overvliet3, Sylvie J. van der Kruijs4, Johannes Vles3, Saskia Ebus4, Paul A.M. Hofman2, Anton de Louw4, Albert P. Aldenkamp4, and Walter H. Backes2
1Radiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Limburg, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Limburg, Netherlands, 3Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Limburg, Netherlands, 4Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands

Rolandic epilepsy (RE) has been associated with language impairment, the cerebral mechanism of which is unknown. Independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI data was used to identify the functional network involving the pre- and postcentral gyri, i.e. the rolandic cortex (from which the seizures originate). Compared to controls, this network showed reduced connectivity with the left inferior frontal gyrus in a region of interest defined from word-generation task fMRI (p=0.011). This represents an abnormality in a functional network involving the rolandic cortex which provides a substrate for language impairment in RE.

1167.   Reduced Functional Connectivity of the Executive Network Predicts Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease
Maryam Abaei1, Stefan T. Schwarz1, Nara Dashdorj1, Nin Bajaj2, and Dorothee P. Auer1
1Radiological & Imaging Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2Neurology, University Hospitals of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

Parkinson's Disease, Resting State, fMRI, Functional Connectivity, Dorsal Attention Network,

1168.   Investigation of Visual Perception Functions in Children with Down Syndrome : A Functional MRI Study
Hsin-Yun Lee1, Cing-Sui Chiang1, Yi-ting Wan1, Yee-Pay Wuang1, Yen-Yu Chiu2, and Sharon Chia-Ju Chen Chen1
1Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2KaohsiungMedical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Taiwan

In this study, we used behavioral task to assess the differences of visual perception function between Down Syndrome (DS) children and normal children. Results showed that DS children increased activation in the visual-perceptual network and also induced more diffused brain activation.

1169.   Understanding Socio-Behavioral Changes in Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury Using FMRI
Blessy Mathew1, Evan Goldstein2, Mark J. Lowe1, and Angela Ciccia3
1Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 3Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

In this study we focus on the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social cognition, attention, memory, and executive functioning in adolescents. We used fMRI to identify patterns of activation in adolescents with and without TBI during a social cognitive task, and to correlate specific brain regions with performance on memory measures. We observed significant differences in whole brain activated voxels in questions requiring least social inference in controls with patients (requiring least social inference state (p=0.032), and most difficult (p=0.017)). In a whole brain correlation map with memory index (p<0.025), TBI patients recruited different regions than controls.

1170.   Cerebral Hemodynamic Impairment Assessed with Resting State FMRI
Shiori Amemiya1, Akira Kunimatsu1, and Kuni Ohtomo1
1Radiology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

To test the feasibility of hemodynamic impairment assessment using resting-fMRI (rfMRI), temporal dynamics of low-frequency-oscillation in ischemic patients were evaluated. Correlation coefficients between each voxelfs and time-shifted (}20s) global-mean-signal was calculated and the best-fit-shift was determined. Regions showing delayed time-to-peak in DSC-perfusion showed delay in rfMRI. rfMRI maps were highly reproducible and can be used to indicate abnormal perfusion in acute or chronic ischemic patients. Although the approach has the same limitations to other measurements (head motion and hemorrhage), non-invasiveness, simplicity and high reproducibility would be of clinical value as an alternative to current techniques in patient selection.

1171.   Resting-State fMRI in a High-Field Intraoperative MR-Setting: Feasibility and Preliminary Results
Sotirios Bisdas1, Constantin Roder2, Edyta Charyasc1, Michael Erb1, Marcos Soares Tatagiba2, Ulrike Ernemann1, and Uwe Klose1
1Neuroradiology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany, 2Neurosurgery, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany

Preliminary results in this study demonstrate that resting-state fMRI measurements can be performed in anesthetized patients before and during surgery for intracranial masses by using an intraoperative high-field MRI system. In each examined patient, up to 12 from the 28 published resting state network (RSN) components could be identified in the intraoperative MR setting without any reduction of the RSN activity, compared to awake patients. These findings shed light on the RSN connectivity in anesthetized patients and enable functional navigation by identifying the localization and connectivity of eloquent brain areas in an intraoperative setting.

1172.   Disrupted Functional Brain Connectivity in the Salience Network of Post Stroke Depression Patients
Ji-Young Kim1, Seong-Uk Jin2, Jee-Hye Seo2, Jang Woo Park2, Jongsu Baek2, Moon Han2, Kyung-Eun Jang2, Young-Hwan Lee*3, and Yongmin Chang4,5
1Medical Science, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea, 2Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 3Radiology, Catholic University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea, 4Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 5Molecular Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegy, Korea

Poststroke depression (PSD), a common and important neuropsychiatric sequela of stroke, is known to be a multifactorial process. In this study, using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), we investigate possible alteration in functional connectivity (FC) in association with PSD in the salience network (SN), which was most functionally relevant to depression.

1173.   Resting State Functional Connectivity Alterations of the Sensorimotor and Extra-Motor Networks in Primary Lateral Sclerosis
Massimo Filippi1, Federica Agosta1, Elisa Canu1, Nilo Riva2, Alberto Inuggi1, Adriano Chiò3, Stefano Messina4, Sandro Iannaccone5, Andrea Calvo3, Vincenzo Silani4, Paola Valsasina1, Andrea Falini6, and Giancarlo Comi2
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 2Department of Neurology, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of Torino, Turin, TO, Italy, 4Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroscience, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, MI, Italy,5Departement of Clinical Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 6Department of Neuroradiology and CERMAC, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

We assessed the functional connectivity within motor and extra-motor brain networks in patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) compared with healthy controls. We observed that functional abnormalities within large-scale neuronal networks occur in patients with PLS, involving not only the sensorimotor network but also the fronto-parietal and the executive networks. The pattern of increased functional connectivity in PLS patients correlated with the damage to the long white matter tracts and with cognitive deficits. This pattern of functional alterations in PLS supports a pathogenic loss of local inhibitory circuitry, rather than only compensatory recruitment.

1174.   Regional Homogeneity Abnormalities Affected by Depressive Symptoms in Migraine Patients Without Aura
Dahua Yu1, Kai Yuan1, Wei Qin1, and Jie Tian1,2
1School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, China, xi'an, Shaan xi, China, 2Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Beijing, China

Our study investigated the effect of depressive on the regional homogeneity properties in subjects with migraine without aura

1175.   Motor Cortex Functional Connectivity Signatures of Autism
Mary Beth Nebel1,2, Ani Eloyan3, Anita Barber1,2, Brian S. Caffo4, James J. Pekar1,2, and Stewart H. Mostofsky1,2
1Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with a host of motor behaviors, which may reflect abnormal connectivity within motor control and learning networks. Our objective was to estimate how well functional connectivity (FC) among subregions of the motor cortex (M1) discriminate individuals with ASD from neurotypical (NT) participants using a large, heterogeneous resting state fMRI dataset (368 ASD and 412 NT). Using a multinomial logistic regression model with demographic factors and M1 correlations as predictors and disease status as the outcome, we identified FC signatures of ASD that are consistent with deficits in complex multi-joint coordination associated with ASD.

1176.   Regional-Dependent Response Functions in Motor Areas Estimated from Multiple Clinical fMRI Measurements
Uwe Klose1, Marion Batra1, Benjamin Bender1, and Thomas Nägele1
1Dep. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

93 clinical fMRI experiments with a simple motor task were used to evaluate the average signal time course in the left and right primary motor cortex(pmc), the SMA and the left and right anterior cerebellum(ac). The averaging process showed a constant signal enhancement level in the pmc and the ac and a decreasing signal enhancement in the SMA. The mean signal enhancement level in the SMA and the ac was only 70 % of the pmc level. A post-stimulus undershoot could only be observed in the pmc.

1177.   Resting-State Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation Study
Chenwang Jin1, Kai Yuan2, Netra Rana1, Zhigang Min1, Chen Niu1, Yuan Wang1, Ming Zhang1, Wei Qin2, and Jie Tian3
1Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Life Sciences Research Center, Xidian University, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 3China Institute of Automation,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Beijing, China

Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is defined as maladaptive use of internet and inability of an individual to control his/her use of internet. IAD has been classified as a type of impulse control disorder. Here, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in patients with IAD and healthy controls during resting-state.

1178.   Differentiation of Radiation-Injuries and Tumor Recurrence Using ADC Value
Yu Lin Wang1
1radiology, PLA general hospital, beijing, beijing, China

Differentiation of Radiation-Injuries and Tumor Recurrence Using ADC value DWI has been considered a means to characterize and differentiate morphologic features such as edema,necrosis,and tumor tissue by measuring differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC). This technique has been applied to determining glioma grade and evaluating necrotic brain tissue after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Thus, tumor recurrence within irradiated lesions may be differentiated from regions of radiation necrosis with DWI. 23 patients were prospectively entered into the study on the basis of the following criteria: previous treatment with radiation therapy after surgical resection for intraaxial tumors; new development of enhancing lesions within the radiation field. The final determination of the new development of enhancing lesions was decided either histologically or clinicoradiologically.

1179.   Altered Functional Brain Connectome in the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia
Massimo Filippi1,2, Federica Agosta1, Sara Sala1,3, Paola Valsasina1, Alessandro Meani1, Elisa Canu1, Giuseppe Magnani2, Stefano Francesco Cappa4, Elisa Scola5, Piero Quatto3, Mark A. Horsfield6, Andrea Falini5, and Giancarlo Comi2
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 2Department of Neurology, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 3Department of Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, MI, Italy, 4Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 5Department of Neuroradiology and CERMAC, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 6Medical Physics Group, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

In this study, we used resting state fMRI data to construct functional networks in patients with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and healthy elderly subjects, and demonstrated that bvFTD is characterized by a topological functional disorganization of brain networks. Frontal and subcortical hubs of bvFTD patients showed a significant reduction of nodal centrality, suggesting a less central hub role for these regions in the overall network function. The conversion from small-world network architecture to less optimal functional topologies contributed to the cognitive changes in these patients, giving support to a “network perspective” in dementia.

1180.   Altered Interoception and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Insular System of Cocaine Dependents
Yuzheng Hu1, Hong Gu1, Betty Jo Salmeron1, Lia Liang1, Elliot Stein1, and Yihong Yang1
1Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States

Accumulative evidence has indicated the involvement of the insular system in drug addiction by its fundamental role in interoception. However, relationship between the interoception, neurobiological measures of insula and addiction behaviors remains unclear. To address this question, the current study employed Toronto Alethymia Scale and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) method to cocaine dependents and well-matched controls. Elevated TAS score and decreased FC of insula-ACC circuitry as well as their disrupted relationship were found in cocaine group, suggesting disturbance of the interoceptive function and underlying neurobiological bases in drug addiction.

1181.   Probing Distraction to Cognitive Control Using Real-Time fMRI
Jeremy F. Magland1 and Anna Rose Childress2
1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) feedback can potentially provide therapeutic cognitive training for various disorders. In the case of addiction therapy, the feedback paradigm design is especially challenging because asking patients to alternate between craving and non-craving states is not ideal. Here we introduce a new indirect rtfMRI feedback paradigm for probing cognitive control in real time and measuring disruption in the face of various distractions cues. Preliminary results suggest that distraction effects can be detected in real time for both patients and controls, and that participants may be able to use neurofeedback to learn to stay focused despite distraction.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Imaging of Psychiatric Disorders

1182.   Structural and Functional Underconnectivity as a Negative Prognostic Marker for Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Marjolein Verly1, Judith Verhoeven2, Inge Zink1, Lieven Lagae3, Nathalie Rommel1, and Stefan Sunaert4
1ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, Netherlands, 3Child Neurology, University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 4Radiology, University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

In a sub-group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) the failure in spoken language is not only restricted to the domain of pragmatics but encompasses semantic, syntactic and phonological domains. Functional and structural neuroimaging are promising techniques for unraveling the neural correlates underlying the linguistic deficits of autism. However, the interplay between structural and functional connectivity and language performance in autism is largely unstudied. In this study, we examined the neurostructural and neurofunctional basis of language impairment in ASD using diffusion tensor imaging and resting state magnetic resonance imaging. DTI tractography and rsfMRI have revealed a pattern of structural and functional underconnectivity in a subgroup of children with ASD. In this subgroup underconnectivity of the language network was associated with co-occurring language impairment.

Optimizing Subcallosal Cingulate DBS for Treatment Resistant Depression Based on Structural Connectivity
Ki Sueng Choi1, Patricio Riva Posse2, Paul E. Holtzheimer3, Cameron C. McIntyre4, Xiaoping P. Hu1, and Helen S. Mayberg2
1BME, Georgia Institute of Technology / Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Psychiatry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Psychiatry and Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States, 4BME, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

Bilateral DBS of the subcallosal cingulate cortex results in sustained long-term antidepressant effects for treatment-resistant depression. Clinical response may be improved by more precise targeting along specific white matter tracts based on structural connectivity. The 6 and 24 months responder show connections to bilateral mF and limbic regions. The non-responder shows connections to unilateral mF but insufficient connections to limbic regions. For quantitative SC analysis, responder shows strong probability of connection to mF, bilateral inferior BA10, nucleus accumbens, putamen, and caudate. These results demonstrate that a successful clinical outcome is dependent on both bilateral mF and limbic/subcortical connections.

1184.   Brain Bioenergics in Bipolar Depression: A Preliminary Phosphorus-31 Magnetization Transfer MR Spectroscopy Study
Xian-Feng Shi1,2, Paul Carlson1,2, Douglas G. Kondo1,2, Young-Hoon Sung1,2, Tracy L. Hellem2, Lauren Forrest2, Seong-Eun Kim3, Chun Zuo4, Eun-Kee Jeong3, and Perry F. Renshaw1,2
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 2The Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 3Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 4Brain Imaging Center, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts, United States

Synthesis and regeneration of high energy phosphates such as phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) play an important role in supporting neuronal activity. PCr serves as an energy reservoir in skeletal muscle and brain, while NTP (which is primarily adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) is a direct energy source for metabolic processes. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion between PCr and ATP. By employing a recently updated phosphorus magnetization transfer, image selected in-vivo spectroscopy (31P MT-ISIS) technique, evaluation of all 31P-containing metabolites and CK reaction rates in human brain for bipolar disorder patients with depression were assessed.

1185.   Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training of Amygdala Alters Resting-State Default Mode Network Connectivity in Major Depressive Disorder
Han Yuan1, Raquel Phillips1, Kymberly D. Young1, Vadim Zotev1, Masaya Misaki1, and Jerzy Bodurka1,2
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, United States

We investigated possibility of brain plasticity effects in depressed subjects subjected to the real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training of amygdala activity during happy autobiographic memory recall. We compared the resting-state default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity before and after rtfMRI-nf. Significant difference of DMN connectivity was found in the subjects after neurofeedback: increased in the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex, but decreased in the right medial temporal gyrus. The within-group, correlation analysis found positive correlation between the difference of DMN connectivity and the happiness/memory scores during the neurofeedback. Our results demonstrate sustainable changes within DMN induced by rtfMRI-nf.

1186.   Disrupted Topological Organization of White Matter Structural Networks in Bipolar Disorder
Fuchun Lin1, Shenhong Weng2, Baojun Xie3, Yunfei Zha3, and Hao Lei1
1State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 3Department of Radiology, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China

Network analysis method was used to investigate the architecture of the white matter structural networks bipolar disorder. Although bipolar patients showed a small-world organization of white matter networks, they had significantly decreased network strength, decreased global efficiency and increased shortest path length. Moreover, bipolar patients had reduced efficiencies in several parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital and limbic regions. These findings may improve our understanding of the potential mechanisms of the underlying neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder.

1187.   Resting-State Networks and Dissociation in Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures Studied Using ICA
Sylvie J. van der Kruijs1, Shridhar Rajan Jagannathan2, Nynke M. Bodde3, René M.H. Besseling1, Richard H. Lazeron3, Kristl E. Vonck4, Paul A. Boon4, Pierre J. Cluitmans2, Geert R. Langereis5, Paul A.M. Hofman1, Walter H. Backes1, Albert P. Aldenkamp3, and Jacobus F.A. Jansen1
1Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Limburg, Netherlands, 2Electrical Engineering, University of Technology, Eindhoven, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 3Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 4Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, 5Industrial Design, University of Technology, Eindhoven, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands

Resting-state fMRI networks of 21 patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and 27 healthy controls were investigated using principal independent component analyses. Patients with PNES demonstrated higher coactivation of the orbitofrontal, insular and subcallosal cortex in the resting-state network associated with fronto-parietal activation; the cingulate and insular cortex in the resting-state network associated with executive control; the cingulate gyrus, superior parietal lobe, pre- and postcentral gyri and supplemental motor cortex in the resting-state network associated with sensorimotor functioning; and the precuneus and (para-) cingulate gyri in the default-mode network. Since the network weights within these regions of interest were significantly and positively correlated with dissociation scores, these findings are suggested neurological correlates of the underlying dissociative mechanism of the symptoms.

1188.   GABA and Glutamate Abnormalities in the Superior Temporal Gyrus and Their Association with Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia
Alexander Peter Lin1, Sai K. Merugumala1, Huijun Liao1, Margaret Niznikiewicz2, Kevin Spencer2, Yoji Hirano2, and Robert McCarley2
1Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Laboratory of Neuroscience, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Brockton, MA, United States

Many studies have shown that the superior temporal gyrus (STG) undergoes volumetric reductions in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and in schizophrenia (SZ) that are associated with electrophysiological abnormalities however to our knowledge, this region of the brain has not been examined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), specifically focusing on neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA). We here report SZ and SPD subjects have reductions of left STG GABA concentrations there are inversely correlated with gamma band oscillations (GBO) and Glu increases that are directly correlated with GBO (higher Glu, worse GBO PLF).

Evidence of Pronounced Surface Deformation of the Subcortical Caudate Nucleus in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Boys with a Comorbid Reading Disability
Dhruman Goradia1, Sherry Vogel1, Brianne Mohl1, Caroline Zajac-Benitez1, Dalal Khatib1, Rachel Dick1, Usha Rajan1, Olivia McGarragle1, David R. Rosenberg1, and Jeffrey A. Stanley1
1Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) are frequently comorbid with RD coexisting in about 20-40% of cases with ADHD. However, the neuropathology differentiating ADHD with RD from ADHD without RD remains poorly understood. Reduction of caudate volume is a consistent observation in ADHD but not in RD. Because cortical projections to the striatum (caudate and putamen) are topographically organized, assessing morphological shape deformation of the striatum may implicate specific corticostriatal pathways. This study aims to assess alterations in surface deformation of the striatum that differentiate ADHD with RD from ADHD without RD and healthy control.

1190.   Neural Network Properties of Combat-Related PTSD
Leslie Yan1
1New York University, NEW YORK, New York, United States

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder developed after traumatic experience with typical symptoms such as re-experiencing, hyper-arousal and avoidance [1]. Previous neuroimaging studies of PTSD have focused on the abnormal structures and functionality of a few individual brain regions, but have not paid much attention on the connectivity between these structures. Overcoming the limitation of traditional seed-based functional connectivity analysis, the present study used graph theory based analysis approaches to provide an overview of the connectivity in the whole neural network, as well as the properties of the neural network, with resting state fMRI data from trauma-exposed subjects with and without PTSD. The present study used graph theory methods to investigate the network properties of the two groups. Results suggest that the PTSD+ group had decreased amount of connections with weaker connectivity compared to the network of the PTSD- group. Analysis about network properties revealed decreased local cluster coefficients and lower efficiency, with no difference in characteristic path length and small world properties. This approach is very helpful in overcoming the limitation of “missing the forest for the trees” with traditional approaches and is able to provide an overview about the properties of neural networks.

1191.   Quantitative Tract-Based ROI Analysis: Altered Thalamo-Frontal Circuitry Conferred by Schizophrenia-Risk Gene NRXN1 Variant
David Rotenberg1, James Kennedy2,3, Benoit Mulsant3,4, Aristotle N. Voineskos1,3, and Mallar Chakravarty1,5
1Research Imaging, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Neuroscience, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4Geriatric Mental Health, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,5Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Identification of compromised WM pathways, along with better understanding of underlying genetic risk factors, will help to further our knowledge of schizophrenia etiology and the development of new schizophrenia biomarkers. A novel tract-based ROI statistical analysis is presented, that uses probabilistic tractography to segment tracts of interest across individuals, defining spatially restricted alignment-invariant skeletons for TBSS analysis, and has the potential to enable unique and focused investigations of WM tracts that may not be available through standard TBSS. Our ROI-based analysis provides evidence of altered thalamo-frontal circuity conferred by schizophrenia-risk gene NRXN1 variants, The right and left frontal-thalamic tracts were found to have statistically significant FA deficits in C/C homozygotes compared to C/T heterozygotets when corrected for multiple comparisons, whereas this effect was not distinguishable using standard TBSS.

1192.   High Resolution Mapping of Modafinil Induced Changes in Glutamate Level in Rat Brain
Mohammad Haris1, Anup Singh1, Kejia Cai1, Kavindra Nath2, Feliks Kogan1, Hari Hariharan1, John A. Detre1, C Neill Epperson3, and Ravinder Reddy1
1CMROI, Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Molecular Imaging, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 3Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Modafinilis used for the treatment of narcolepsy and somnolence and is known to increase cerebral glutamate (Glu) levels. We used the GluCEST technique to measure modafinil induced Glu changes in rat brain and compared the results with Glu concentration by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). No immediate increases in either GluCEST or Glu concentration were observed after modafinil injection, but a significant increase in both GluCEST (19±4.4%) and MRS Glu concentration (22±4.9%) was observed 24 hours after modafinil administration.

1193.   fMRI Evidence of Increasing Disengagement of Sustained Attention-Related Activation with Increasing Age in ADHD Children
Brianne Mohl1, Dhruman Goradia1, Dalal Khatib1, Rachel Dick1, Caroline Zajac-Benitez1, Usha Rajan1, Olivia McGarragle1, Arthur L. Robin1, David R. Rosenberg1, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar1, and Jeffrey A. Stanley1
1Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States

ADHD is a serious public health problem. We recently reported age-related biochemical deficits in the prefrontal cortex of ADHD children using in vivo 31P MRS suggesting a lack of a progressive neurodevelopment in ADHD children. However, the functional basis of this effect has not been investigated using fMRI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ADHD children would show a similar lack of age-related changes in sustained attention performance. We hypothesized that healthy children will show an age-related increase in the fMRI BOLD response to attention performance, which will be absent in ADHD children.

1194.   Neural Basis of the Association Between Remitted Geriatric Depression and APOE lower case Greek epsilon4 Allele in the Nondemented Elderly
Hao Shu1,2, Yonggui Yuan1,3, Chunming Xie1,3, Feng Bai1,3, Jiayong You4, Lingjiang Li5, Shi-Jiang Li2, and Zhijun Zhang1,3
1Medical College of Southeast University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Biophysics, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 3Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 4Nanjing Brain Hospital Affliated to Nanjing Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 5Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Mental Health Institute, Changsha, Hunan, China

In this study, we employed hippocampal seed-based network analysis approach and found distinct neural circuits were separately implicated in the effects of remitted geriatric depression (RGD) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ¦Å4 allele, more importantly, the interactive effects of RGD and APOE¦Å4 allele were identified in prefrontal-temporal-occipital system, which are early targeted by Alzheimer¡¯s disease progression. These findings indicated both previous depressive episode and APOE ¦Å4 allele as well as their combination could alter functional coupling of hippocampal network, which may play a critical role in the persistent cognitive impairment and the development of Alzheimer¡¯s disease.

1195.   Quantitative High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) Assessment of the Auditory Radiation in Autism
Jeffrey I. Berman1,2, Matthew R. Lanza1, Lisa Blaskey1, and Timothy P. Roberts1,2
1Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Quantitative assessment of the auditory radiation with diffusion MRI may improve our understanding of the neurobiological basis of ASD. This study applies quantitative HARDI fiber tracking of the auditory radiation to determine microstructural changes in ASD. This study included 10 typically developing (TD) children (mean age 11.8 ± 2.2 years) and 13 children (mean age 11.9 ± 2.7 yrs) diagnosed with ASD. Probabilistic HARDI fiber tracking using the solid-angle q-ball reconstruction was used to delineate auditory radiations. Significant changes in the hemispheric asymmetry of GFA, FA, and transverse diffusivity were detected between the typically developing and ASD subjects.

1196.   Different Deficits of Cerebral Function Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study
Li Yao1, Su Lui1, Fei Li1, Xun Yang1, Godfrey Pearlson2, Matcheri Keshavan3, Carol Tamminga4, Qiyong Gong1, and John Sweeney4
1Department of Radiology, Huaxi MR Research Center, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford, Connecticut, United States, 3Beth Israel Deaconness Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

Although the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share a number of overlap in clinical features, they are conceptualized as separate disease, and it is still uncertainty about the common and distinct neural substrates of each. Fifty-three schizophrenia patients, sixy-seven bipolar disorder patients and fifty-nine normal controls were scanned with resting-state functional MRI on a 3T. Regional low-frequency BOLD signal oscillations were used to identified regional functional deficits in these patients. Our findings revealed that the regional functional deficits of the two disease are quite different and involving two different neural network.

1197.   Cortical Thinning in Young Psychosis and Bipolar Patients Correlate with Common Neurocognitive Deficits
Sean Nicholas Hatton1, Jim Lagopoulos1, Daniel F. Hermens1, Elizabeth Nicholas Scott1, Ian B. Hickie1, and Maxwell R. Bennett1
1Clinical Research Unit, Brain & Mind Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

We investigated cortical changes in young people with psychosis or bipolar disorder and the relationship between cortical thinning and neurocognitive performance. Although the groups exhibited some differences in regional cortical thinning, the shared regions of cortical thinning were correlated with neurocognitive deficits in visual sustained attention, semantic verbal fluency, and verbal learning and memory that are commonly reported in young people with either psychosis or bipolar disorder. While these disorders may have differing neuropathological origins, it is these shared regions of cortical thinning that most significantly impact the lives of young people with psychosis or bipolar disorder.

1198.   Functional Connectivity with the Fear Circuitry in Combat-Related PTSD
Leslie Yan1, Mariana Lazar1, Clare Henn-Haase1, and Charles Marmar1
1New York University, New York, NY, United States

Previous studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)with neuroimaging and animal models have identified several brain structures of the “fear circuitry” to play critical roles in the neural mechanism of PTSD, including the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula; these structures are shown to be “hyper-responsive” in previous task-based neuroimaging studies during symptom provocation conditions. However the neural connectivity between these structures and other neural systems has not yet been systematically investigated, therefore the present study used resting state fMRI to study the functional connectivity with the above mentioned structures as seeds in combat veterans with (PTSD+) and without PTSD(PTSD-). Results demonstrated that PTSD subjects had decreased functional connectivity between the fear circuitry and prefrontal cortex compared to controls, and decreased functional connectivity between the insula and the default mode network.

1199.   Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Combat-Related PTSD
Leslie Yan1, Mariana Lazar1, Clare Henn-Haase1, and Charles Marmar1
1New York University, NEW YORK, New York, United States

Basal ganglia functional connectivity in combat-related PTSD

1200.   Shape Analysis of the Hippocampus and Caudate in First Episode Psychosis
Cathy Scanlon1, Liam Kilmartin2, Heike Schmidt1, Shane McInerney1, John McFarland1, Anna Fullard1, Sarah Hehir1, Srinath Ambati1, Joanne Kenney1, Michael Murray1, Jason Ridge1, Dara Cannon1, and Colm McDonald1
1Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway, Ireland, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway, Ireland


1201.   Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Default Network in Adolescent Internet Gaming Addiction
yan zhou1, Yawen Sun1, Weina Ding1, Yong Zhang2, and Jianrong Xu1
1Radiology, Ren Ji Hospital, Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, shanghai, shanghai, China, 2GE healthcare, shanghai, shanghai, China

The FC method was used to detect the change in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGD).Posterior cingulated cortex connectivity was gathered in 17 IGD and 24 normal controls adolescents. Adolescents with IGD have different resting state patterns. Our results suggested online game playing decreased the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and increased the excitability in auditory related brain regions.

1202.   Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activity in Drug-Naïve, First Episode Depression: A Resting-State fMRI Study
Hong Yang1, Manli Huang2, Qidong Wang1, and Zhan Feng1
1Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Using ALFF approach, we are to test the hypothesis of the abnormal neural activities in the prefrontal–limbic networks in drug-naïve, first episode depression. Twenty-three patients and twenty controls were recruited. Twenty-two axial slices covering whole brain were acquired. Data processing was performed using DPARS software. Compared to controls, a significant increased ALFF in right frontal lobe and a significant decreased ALFF in right cerebellum, right occipital lobe as well as right parahippocampa gyrus were showed in patients. The abnormal neuronal activity in resting state support a model of dysfunction in the prefrontal–limbic networks in first episode depression.

1203.   A Combined DTI and Structural MRI Study in Medicated-Naïve Chronic Schizophrenia
Liu Xiaoyi1, Hong Nan1, Chen Lei1, Lai Yunyao1, Hao Chuanxi1, and Yu Xin2
1radiology, people'hospital,Peking University,China, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China

In this study, we combined DTI and structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia patients with medication-naïve. We aim to investigate the relationship between the damage white matter and the cortical regions. The result in the study implicated for the psychopathology of schizophrenia both from an anatomical and connection perspective. And these abnormalities are not attributable to contamination by antipsychotic drugs.

1204.   Chronic Exposure of Neurotoxic Doses of D-Amphetamine Potentiates the Central Effect of an Acute Challenge with Methylphenidate.
A. Schrantee1,2, J.L. Tremoleda2, M. Wylezinska-Arridge2, W. Gsell2, and L. Reneman1
1Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Biological Imaging Centre, London, United Kingdom

This study assesses whether phMRI is a valid tool to study the sensitivity to study moderate DA dysfunction. To this end we administered dAMPH chronically and assessed the BOLD response to a MPH challenge.

1205.   Temporal Dynamics of Distributed Brain Networks in Schizophrenia
Darren Price1, Lena Palaniyappan1, Peter F. Liddle1, Elizabeth B. Liddle1, Emma Louise Hall1, Helen J. Smith1, Mary C. Stephenson1, Peter G. Morris1, and Matthew J. Brookes1
1SPMMRC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

fMRI has revolutionised systems neuroscience via the identification of a small number of remarkably robust spatially distributed networks that are active under many circumstances. However, whilst fMRI provides excellent spatial characterisation, its indirect nature and poor temporal resolution mean that it fails to provide information on the electrophysiological basis or precise timing of network events. Here, we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess network electrodynamics and healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. We show that patients exhibit significant differences in amplitude and timing of task-induced electrophysiological responses. In this way we highlight the advantages of a multi-modal approach to network characterisation.

1206.   J-Editing/MEGA-PRESS Time-Course Study of the Neurochemical Effects of Ketamine Administration in Healthy Humans
Lawrence S. Kegeles1,2, Xiangling Mao3, Najate Ojeil1, Raffael Massuda1, Mariana Pedrini1, Chi-Ming Chen4, Mark Slifstein1, Anissa Abi-Dargham1,2, Matthew S. Milak1, Carolyn Rodriguez1, and Dikoma C. Shungu3
1Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States

The effects on the brain of acute administration of ketamine are of current interest because of its psychotogenic and antidepressant properties. Rodent microdialysis studies have shown a surge in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) glutamate (Glu) with acute ketamine administration. In this study we use J-edited MRS to follow the time course of both Glu and GABA surges in the MPFC in healthy human subjects following acute i.v. ketamine administration. We find that both neurochemicals surge and return to baseline in humans on a similar time scale to the extracellular levels in rodents.

1207.   A Proton MRS Study of Brain in Patients with OCD and Their First Degree Relatives
Sundar Gnanavel1, Pratap Sharan2, Sudhir Khandelwal2, Uma Sharma3, Jagannathan NR4, and Rani Gupta Sah4
1Psychiatry, AIIMS, New Delhi, Select State, India, 2Psychiatry, AIIMS, New Delhi, Delhi, India, 3NMR, AIIMS, New Delhi, Select State, India, 4NMR, AIIMS, New Delhi, Delhi, India

The study aims to demonstrate alterations in neurochemical measures that are specific to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) using invivo proton MRS of caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial thalamus in patients of OCD and to identify their role as vulnerability markers by comparing them with the healthy first degree relatives of these patients and healthy controls. There were significant group differences in two of the three regions of interest: caudate nucleus and ACC. The study results support the neurodegenerative hypothesis of OCD and possibility of use of these bio-chemicals as putative markers that may aid in early intervention.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Head & Neck

1208.   Usefulness of Pseudo Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Noriyuki Fujima1, Daisuke Yoshida1, Tomohiro Sakashita2, Akihiro Homma2, Yuriko Suzuki3, Hiroyuki Sugimori1, Khin Khin Tha4, Satoshi Terae1, and Hiroki Shirato4
1Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 2Head and Neck Surgery, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 3Philips Electronics Japan, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 4Radiology, Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

This study shows tumor blood flow (TBF) can be noninvasively measured using pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. TBF can be useful information for estimation of prognosis and early detection of treatment effect. Moreover, TBF are considered as more sensitive indicator to determine treatment effect than conventional tumor volume measurement.

1209.   Role of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Stratifying Tumor Aggressiveness in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Amita Shukla-Dave1, Yonggang Lu1, Ashok R. Shaha1, Hilda E. Stambuk1, Andre E. Moreira1, Yousef Mazaheri1, Joseph O. Deasy1, and R. Michael Tuttle1
1Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

There remains a pressing need of non-invasive imaging methods to identify patients with aggressive tumors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study evaluates whether diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has potential to stratify tumor aggressiveness in PTC. Twelve PTC patients underwent pretreatment DW-MRI at 1.5T. The ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) and normalized ADC (nADC) were calculated from the DW-MRI data. All patients underwent surgery. Tumor aggressiveness was defined at pathology. nADC was able to differentiate between tumors with and without aggressive features. The study suggests nADC as a potential surrogate biomarker for stratifying tumor aggressiveness in PTC.

1210.   Simultaneous Diffusion-Weighted MRI of Brain and Cervical Spinal Cord Using a 64-Channel Head-Neck Array Coil at 3T
Boris Keil1, Julien Cohen-Adad1,2, David A. Porter3, Stephan Biber3, Keith A. Heberlein4, Christina Triantafyllou1, and Lawrence L. Wald1,5
1A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 3MR R&D, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany, 4Siemens Medical Solution USA, Siemens Healthcare USA, Charlestown, MA, United States, 5Health Science and Technology, Harvard-MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States

In this study we evaluated the suitability for simultaneous brain and cervical spinal cord diffusion-weighted MRI acquisition using a custom built array coil utilizing 64 channels. For further mitigation of non-rigid-body motion artifacts, we used a readout-segmented EPI acquisition technique with non-linear 2D navigator phase correction and navigator-based reacquisition. The DW images show well aligned correspondence to structural images with minimal distortions from the c-spinal cord throughout the full brain. The sequence and coil setup were capable of robustly tracking the corticospinal pathway at its full length from the motor cortex down to vertebra T1.

1211.   Textural Analysis of Echo-Planar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Improves Preoperative Characterisation of Suspected Thyroid Tumours
Anna M. Brown1,2, Sidhartha Nagala3, Daniel Scoffings4, Mary McLean2, Andrew N. Priest4, Piyush Jani3, and John Griffiths2
1School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 4Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom

Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy fails to diagnose up to 20% of malignant thyroid nodules. Texture analysis and linear discriminant analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps offers a novel approach to non-invasively distinguish between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We achieved high sensitivity (87%) and specificity (100%) on a training set, with 83/87 slices and 18/20 nodules correctly classified. Additionally, 11/14 slices and 5/6 nodules were correctly characterised in a test set. This study indicates great potential to better characterise indeterminate thyroid nodules, and a large prospective study is now needed to fully prove this model.

1212.   New Acquisition and Analysis for Segmentation of the Intraorbital Optic Nerve in vivo at 3T
Marios C. Yiannakas1, Ahmed T. Toosy1, Rhian E. Raftopoulos1, Raj Kapoor1, David H. Miller1, and Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott1
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom

A new image acquisition and analysis protocol is presented here for fast and reliable segmentation of the intraorbital optic nerve which employs an improved image acquisition scheme in conjunction with a robust image analysis method commonly used for the segmentation of the cervical cord, a similar model to the intraorbital optic nerve. The images obtainable with the use of the proposed acquisition protocol allow highly reproducible measurements of the mean cross-sectional area of the intraorbital optic nerve.

1213.   Visualization of Pulsatile CSF Motion Separated by Membrane-Like Structure Based on Four-Dimensional Phase-Contrast (4D-PC) Velocity Mapping
Akihiro Hirayama1, Satoshi Yatsushiro2, Hideki Atsumi1, Mitsunori Matsumae1, and Kagayaki Kuroda2
1Neurosurgery, Tokai university, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan, 2Human and information Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan

The 4D-PC is performed in a pulsatile flow phantom and a volunteer with arachnoid cyst to indicate usefulness of 4D-PC technique in assessing pulsatile CSF motion in comparison with Time-SLIP. The phantom was composed of a tube equipped a thin membrane and normal tubes, which poured pulsatile flow generated by the cardiac pump. The waveform anterior to the membrane was resemblance with that posterior to the membrane. However, labeled fluid by Time-SLIP in anterior membrane area showed only a slight displacement. Similar phenomenon was observed within the arachnoid cyst. This technique could indicate propagation of CSF pulsation through the membranous.

1214.   Value of 2D Phase Contrast-MRI for Investigation of Facial Hemodynamic: Preliminary Result in a Face Allograph Woman
Olivier Baledent1, Stephanie Dakpe1, Cyrille Capel1, Malek I. Makki2, Roger Bouzerar1, Sylvie Testelin1, and bernard devauchelle1
1university hospital, amiens, picardie, France, 2university hospital, zurich, zurich, Switzerland

The First human face allograft was made in 2005. Transplantation consisted in part of revascularization of facial arteries and veins. This investigation aims to develop a dedicated PC-MRI protocol to assess arterial and venous flow of the face. Mean arterial and venous flows from a control adult group were reconstructed along the cardiac cycle. PC-MRI shows that the Transplantation women vascular flows were functional both in the venous and arterial vessels of her face. PC-MRI protocol has shown its ability to measure arterial and venous flow of the face.

1215.   The Value of Pre-Treatment Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging and Tumor Volume in the Prediction of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Distant Metastasis - A Pilot Study
Shy-Chyi Chin1,2, Yu-Shi Lin2,3, and Ho-Ling Liu1,2
1Medical Imaging and Intervention, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 2Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan,3Diagnostic Radiology, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan

We have derived an imaging metric that combines T1-weighted DCE-MRI parameters and tumor volume to predict the distant metastasis (DM). Preliminary data indicate that the DCE-MRI parameter correlates well with a tumor¡¦s DM. Patients at risk of DM are sometime undetermined even with PET scan until there is clinical decline or radiologic progression. In clinical practice, knowing which patients will have DM is important to the individualization of care. Thus, tumor volume and DCE-MRI parameters, specifically, the maximal values of the Ktrans,ve and vp can be useful methods for tailoring treatment and improving patient outcomes.

1216.   Tagged MRI of Ocular Tissues at 3T and 7T
Thomas Stewart Denney Jr1,2, Nouha Salibi3, Ronald J. Beyers1, and Paul Gamlin4
1AU MRI Research Center, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States, 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States, 3Research Collaborations, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Auburn, AL, United States, 4Department of Vision Sciences, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States

Standard tagged cardiac MRI sequences and head coils were used to image ocular tissues at 3T and 7T. Normal volunteers were imaged at both 3T and 7T while undergoing a smooth pursuit eye motion generated by tracking a target that moved back and forth in a sinusoidal fashion on a black background. Images clearly showed the deformation of the extraocular muscles, optic nerve, and vitreous with only minor susceptibility artifacts outside the region of interest. Post-processing techniques for quantitative strain mapping in the extraocular muscles, optic nerve and globe are under development.

1217.   Comparison of MRI of the Neck with External Findings in Survived Manual Strangulation
Kathrin Ogris1,2, Thomas Widek1, Sonja Monika Pivec1,3, Thomas Ehammer1, Gerlinde Komatz4, Sabine Grassegger1,2, Kathrin Yen5, and Eva Scheurer1,2
1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical- Forensic Imaging, Graz, Styria, Austria, 2Medical University Graz, Graz, Styria, Austria, 3UKH Graz, Graz, Styria, Austria, 4MRI Institute Private Clinic of the Holy Sisters, Graz, Styria, Austria, 5Institue of Forensic and Traffic Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

In surviving victims of strangulation it is important to assure the diagnosis and to gain information allowing for a reconstruction of the assault based on objective findings. The aim of this study was to compare radiological findings of a native MRI with external findings in strangulated subjects regarding the forensic reconstruction of the event. External findings mostly did not correlate with internal injuries; however, the correlation of the injury localization with information on the assault gave insight into possible mechanisms of injury. MRI of the neck might become a standard procedure for the examination of living victims of strangulation.

1218.   To Investigate the Motion Artifact of Diffusion Weighted MRI in Parotid
Yi-Hsiung Lee1, Yi-Jui Liu2, Hing-Chiu Chang3, Chun-Jung Juan4, Teng-Yi Huang5, and Fu-Nien Wang6
1Ph. D. Program of Electrical and Communications Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, 3Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences College of Nuclear Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan

The DWI is widly used for diagnostic characterization of head and neck cancers, but inter-experimental comparison of parotid ADC remains difficult because of the wide variation of ADC measurements even in healthy volunteers. Most of studies attributed to the different b values, imaging distortion, chemical shift artifacts and fat content . The signal loss of DWI is often observed in liver study, but it seldom reports in head and neck. Our results demonstrate that the minor motion of mouth was occurred as DWI scan, and it is also an influence factor for ADC measurement in parotid.

1219.   Measurement of Magnetization Transfer Effects in the Brachial Plexus: Comparison with T2 and Diffusion Effects
Zaid Bin Mahbub1, Andrew Peters1, K Siddique Rabbani2, Olivier E. Mougin1, and Penelope A. Gowland1
1SPMMRC, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2Department of Biomedical Physics and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background suppression (DWIBS) has been previously proposed as a method of delineating the nerve roots from background tissue. To study common disorders in the Brachial plexus quantitatively we combine of DWIBS with various quantitative imaging techniques. This study measures MTR, Diffusion coefficients (D) and T2 of the nerves and spinal cord in the brachial plexus to provide a comprehensive method of quantitatively assessing peripheral nerve fibres.

1220.   Relaxation Effects of Oxygen on T2 and T1 with Application to Vitreous PO2 Measurement
Eric R. Muir1, Yi Zhang1, Jinqi Li1, Oscar San Emeterio Nateras1, Wei Zhou1, and Timothy O. Duong2
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2Research Imaging Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

Abnormal vitreal oxygen tension (pO2) is implicated in some ocular and retinal diseases. Paramagnetic molecular oxygen shortens water T1, an effect which has been used to non-invasively map pO2 of body fluids. Paramagnetic agents should also affect T2, but the effect of oxygen on T2 has yet to be thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to develop and calibrate MRI measurement of T1 and T2 with oxygen and apply these methods to non-invasively measure pO2 of the vitreous. Vitreous pO2 from T1 was more accurate than T2, likely due to the higher sensitivity of T2 to protein.

1221.   High Resolution 3T MR Imaging of the Cochlea Using Composite Gradients and Intratympanic Gadolinium in an Animal Model
Travis A. Abele1, K. Craig Goodrich2, Seong-Eun Kim2, Gretchen Mae Oakley3, Joshua D. Kaggie2, J. Rock Hadley2, Dennis L. Parker2, and Richard H. Wiggins III1,3
1Radiology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 2UCAIR, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 3Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

High-resolution MRI is valuable for evaluation of the inner ear. Using a novel composite gradient system, operating at double gradient strength, we sought to demonstrate improved spatial resolution of the inner ear on 3T MRI. Deceased guinea pigs were imaged with 3D-CISS using the composite gradient system and conventional body gradients alone. 3D-FLASH after intratympanic gadolinium administration was performed with the composite gradients. Composite gradient CISS achieved 8-fold greater resolution with only 61% increased imaging time. 12 hour averaged FLASH images demonstrated the ultra-thin vestibular membrane of the cochlea. Potential clinical applications include better detection of endolymphatic hydrops and cholesteatomas.

1222.   Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Extraocular Muscle Using 2D-Single-Shot Interleaved Multiple Inner Volume Imaging Diffusion-Weighted EPI at 3T
Hyung Suk Seo1, Seong-Eun Kim2, John Rose2, J Rock Hardley2, Dennis L. Parker2, and Eun-Kee Jeong2
1Radiology, Korea University, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, 2Radiology, Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

EOMs have developed differently from other skeletal muscle in histological, biological and histochemical aspects. Recently, single-shot DWEPI using interleaved multiple inner volume imaging could supply high-resolution DTI of orbit with reduced geometric distortion and blurring. The diffusivity values of EOM were lower and the FA values were higher than those of skeletal muscle.These results should be related to the unique functional, structural, histological, biochemical and histochemical properties of EOM. These DTI characteristics may be an important biomarker to diagnose the specific susceptible diseases of EOM.

1223.   The Diagnostic Value of 3D-FLAIR MRI After Intratympanic Administration of Gd-DTPA in Meniere's Disease
Honglu Shi1, Guangbin Wang1, Daogong Zhang1, Weibo Chen2, and Queenie Chan3
1Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong, China, 2Philips Healthcare, Shanghai, China, 3Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, China

According to absence of radiographic evidence for Meniere's disease diagnosis, we attempted to evaluate endolymphatic visualization in our research. 24 hours after intratympanic gadolinium administration through the tympanic membrane, 32 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease diagnosed clinically underwent 3D-FLAIR and 3D-Balance-FFE MRI. Two radiologists independently compared the enhanced perilymphatic space of bilateral cochlea and vestibular on 3D-FLAIR imaging. Statistically, the score of scala vestibuli, the enhanced range and the signal intensity of vestibule for the affected side were significantly lower than the healthy side. In conclusion, 3D-FLAIR MRI after intratympanic gadolinium administration can show the border between perilymph and endolymph and confirm endolymphatic hydrops.

1224.   Contrast Reagent Detection Sensitivity Increases with B0: 3T and 7 T Comparisons of Human Head
William D. Rooney1, Manoj K. Sammi1, John Grinstead1,2, Jim Pollaro1, Audrey H. Selzer1, Xin Li1, and Charles Springer1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Siemens Healthcare USA, Malverne, PA, United States

Contrast reagents (CR) find widespread use in MRI and an important consideration in ultra-high field MRI relates to CR detection sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the detection sensitivity of a low molecular weight gadolinium based CR at 3T and 7T in human head tissue. Twelve subjects were studied at 3T and 7T using a dynamic contrast enhanced MRI protocol with quantitative measurement of tissue water proton longitudinal relaxation rate constants. We find significantly better CR detection sensitivity at 7T compared to 3T.

1225.   High Resolution Inner Ear Imaging at 7 Tesla
Maarten J. Versluis1,2, Wyger M. Brink1,2, Wouter M. Teeuwisse1,2, Andrew G. Webb1,2, Matthias J.P. van Osch1,2, and Berit M. Verbist1
1Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2CJ Gorter Center for high field MRI, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

This abstract describes the steps that have been taken to enable high resolution T2-weighted imaging of the inner ear anatomy at 7 Tesla for potential use in screening for cochlear implantation. The small size of these substructures requires high resolution imaging to detect subtle changes. The intrinsic B1+ inhomogeneities in this area were mitigated by placing dielectric pads next to the ear by placing dielectric pads next to the ear. The high spatial resolution led to improved visualization of the substructures of the inner ear anatomy.

1226.   Variation of Myelin Water Fraction as a Function of TR
Saeed Kalantari1, Nazanin Komeilizadeh2, Irene Vavasour1, Ramin S. Sahebjavaher3, and Alex L. MacKay1
1UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada

1227.   Characterizing Longitudinal Relaxation in Bovine Brain White Matter ex vivo
Saeed Kalantari1, Radim Barta2, Nazanin Komeilizadeh3, Carl Michal2, and Alex L. MacKay1,2
1UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Department of Physics, UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada

The main goal of this research was to investigate whether white matter T1 relaxation in brain is a mono-exponential or a multi-exponential phenomenon.

1228.   Assessment of Velopharyngeal Function with Multi-Planar High-Resolution Real-Time Spiral Dynamic MRI
Xue Feng1, Josh Inouye2, Silvia Blemker1, Kant Lin3, Kathleen Borowitz3, Talissa A. Altes4, Tracy Kovach3, Walid El-Nahal3, Katie Pelland2, and Craig H. Meyer1,4
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 2Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 3Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 4Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is commonly seen in children who have had a cleft palate repair. Current clinical methods for visualizing VPI include nasal endoscopy and multi-planar video fluoroscopy, which suffer from poor patient tolerance and/or radiation exposure. Static MRI of the velum before and after surgery has been performed for the evaluation of occult submucous cleft palate and velum muscle modeling. Dynamic MRI during speech has also been developed with a relatively high temporal resolution to capture the movements of the tongue and velum. In our study, we focus on the velum movements and aim to simultaneously acquire two slices of the velum with sagittal and oblique coronal views with high spatial (1.2x1.2 mm2) and temporal (21 fps) resolution to get sufficient dynamic information for VPI evaluation and modeling using a real-time spiral SSFP sequence and a combined spatial and temporal parallel reconstruction method with off-resonance correction.

1229.   Combined Radial Acquisition and Regularized Reconstruction for Accelerated Vocal Tract Imaging
Michael Burdumy1,2, Matthias Echternach2, Bernhard Richter2, Jan G. Korvink3,4, Jürgen Hennig1, and Maxim Zaitsev1
1Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Department of Musicians' Medicine, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 3IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 4FRIAS, Freiburg, Germany

MRI has become a useful instrument to investigate movement patterns in the vocal tract during singing. In our study we present a new method to acquire and reconstruct images of the vocal tract during singing with an improved temporal resolution. We compare images from a Cartesian gradient echo sequence with images acquired with a radial gradient echo sequence. Data is reconstructed using a SENSE-like conjugated gradient method with low resolution sensitivity maps that are subsequently reconstructed directly from the echoes.

1230.   Characterization of Head and Neck Tumors in a Simultaneous Whole-Body MR/PET Scanner Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and FDG-PET
Christina Schraml1, Petros Martirosian2, Cornelia Brendle1, Holger Schmidt1,3, Mark Mueller4, Claus D. Claussen5, Christina Pfannenberg1, and Nina F. Schwenzer1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Department of Radiology, Tuebingen, BW, Germany, 2Section on Experimental Radiology, University Department of Radiology, Tuebingen, BW, Germany, 3Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen, BW, Germany,4Nuclear Medicine, University Department of Radiology, Tuebingen, BW, Germany, 5University Department of Radiology, Tuebingen, BW, Germany

The acquisition of diffusion-weighted images in a simultaneous hybrid 3 T MR/PET scanner provides diagnostic image quality for the assessment of head and neck cancer. Primary tumors and lymph node (LN) metastases significantly differed regarding standardized uptake values (SUV) in 18F-FDG-PET. However, no significant difference was found between primary tumors and LN metastases regarding apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). The absence of significant correlation between ADC and SUV suggests that DWI and FDG-PET might provide complementary information for the characterization of head and neck cancer.

1231.   Pretreatment Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI in Predicting Locoregional Control in Oropharyngeal or Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated with Chemoradiation
Yu-Chun Lin1, Jiun-jie Wang2, and Shu-Hang Ng1
1Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 333, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan

Fifty-four patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma underwent dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted imaging in a 3T MRI scanner. The Ktrans(tumor) of locoregional control (LRC) group was significantly higher than that of the locoregional failure (LRF) group. The Ktrans(node) of the LRC group was also higher than that of the LRF group with borderline significance. No significant difference was found in ADC(tumor) or ADC(node) between the two groups. Ktrans(tumor) of 0.45,determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve as a cutoff value for predicting local failure, attained 78.6% sensitivity of and 77.8% specificity

1232.   Multi-Echo Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging with Adaptive Averaging
Chou-Ming Cheng1,2, Hsiao-Wen Chung1, Hing-Chiu Chang1,3, Tzu-Chen Yeh4,5, Jen-Chuen Hsieh5,6, Shing-Jong Lin6, and Chao-Ying Wang7
1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3GE Healthcare, Global Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 5Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 6Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 7Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN) helps delineating hemorrhage and veins by incorporating phase information from long echo time (TE) signals and performing multiple echoes averaged, respectively. Since the averaging operation with signals from early echoes inevitably results in a dilution of T2* weighting, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvements and loss in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) present an obvious trade-off. In this research, an adaptive averaging scheme for multi-echo SWI is proposed, with weights of echoes adjusted according to the phase value of each voxel to achieve SNR improvements without sacrificing CNR.

1233.   MR Imaging of Meniere's Disease by Intratympanic (IT) and Intravenous (IV) Injection of Gd-DTPA: Double Contrast Injection and a Novel Imaging Strategy, HYDROPS2 for IT+IV
Shinji Naganawa1, Masahiro Yamazaki1, Hisashi Kawai1, Kiminori Bokura1, Michihiko Sone2, and Tsutomu Nakashima2
1Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

Endolymphatic hydrops of Meniere's disease has been evaluated by intratympanic (IT) or intravenous (IV) Gd injection. We have developed a novel method to image the patient who recieved IT in one ear and IV simultaneously. Proposed HYDROPS2 method can replace 3D-real IR method currently used in most institutions.

1234.   To Investigate the Deep-Gray Nuclei Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Fltered Phase Shift in Patients with Wilson's Disease
Xue Bai1,2, Guangbin Wang1, Lebin Wu1, Yube Liu1, and Honglu Shi1
1Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong, China, 2324#, Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021, Jinan, P.R. China, Jinan, Shandong, China

Susceptibility-weighted imaging which uses magnitude and phase information to enhance the local tissue susceptibility variations information is very sensitive to paramagnetic substances. Copper is paramagnetic ion, and Wilson's disease is copper ovreloading disesas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging filtered phase shift in brain gray nuclei of Wilson¡¯s disease

1235.   Caught Sleeping: Recording of Snoring During a Real-Time MRI Scan
Yoon-Chul Kim1, Michael I. Proctor2, Michael C.K. Khoo3, Shrikanth S. Narayanan1, and Krishna S. Nayak1
1Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Linguistics, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 3Biomedical Engineering and Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Real-time MRI has been used to study speech production as well as to identify collapse sites in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea. Snoring is a common precursor to apnea, and an indication of potential airway obstruction. We implemented a pulse sequence to allow for gradual ramping of gradients, resulting in gradual increase of acoustic noise, to facilitate natural sleep onset. In one subject, who reported falling asleep, we observed airway obstruction near the soft palate, and MRI-noise cancelled synchronized audio of snoring sounds.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Novel Neuroimaging Methods

1236.   T2* Measurement of the Pituitary with Susceptibility Artifact Compensation at 3T
Yoonho Nam1, Eung Yeop Kim2, and Dong-Hyun Kim1
1School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, 2Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

Preclinical diagnosis of iron overload in the pituitary gland is important for chronically transfused patients with hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia.1,2 T2* measurement is very sensitive for detecting iron deposition in several tissues3 but severe susceptibility artifact (due to sphenoid sinus) makes T2* measurement in the pituitary gland difficult. Instead, T2 measurement or T2*-weighted imaging have been used to assess iron deposition in the pituitary gland.1,2 In this study, we propose a T2* measurement method based on field map analysis and susceptibility artifact correction in the pituitary gland ultimately aimed at evaluating iron overload.

1237.   Vessel Density Imaging in Normal Human Brain Using Ferumoxytol
Helen Erica D'Arceuil1, Alex de Crespigny2, Michael E. Moseley3, Francis Blankenberg4, and Maarten Lansberg5
1Diagnostic Radiology, Stanford, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 4Pediatric Radiology, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 5Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA, United States

We estimated the vessel density parameter Q from changes in R2 and R2* relaxation rates before/after injection of ferumoxytol in 5 healthy subjects. Changes in R2 were highly correlated with changes in R2*. Q in normal gray matter was about 0.58, comparable to that previously reported in rodent brain, using MION contrast agents. This approach using a contrast agent at steady-state permits high resolution imaging of vascular parameters and may prove useful for assessment of angiogenesis, for example during vascular targeted therapy in oncology or regenerative therapy in stroke.

1238.   Measurement of Brain Oxygen Saturation Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Susceptibility Maps
M. Ayaz Khan1,2, Jie Liu1,2, Jaladhar Neelavalli3,4, Saifeng Liu5, Ewart Mark Haacke3,5, and Rong Zhang1,2
1Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Dallas, TX, United States,3Biomedical Engineering Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 5Biomedical Engineering Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Brain oxygen saturation is a key parameter for assessing oxygen supply, metabolism and tissue viability. Near infrared spectroscopy is a widely used technique to measure brain tissue oxygen saturation. However, this technique cannot be used to measures brain tissue oxygenation in deep brain structures and could be contaminated by changes in extracranial tissue oxygenation. Susceptibility weighted image mapping generates susceptibility maps which can be used to measure oxygen saturation in local venous structures in the brain. This study compared measurements of brain oxygen saturation using susceptibility mapping and near infrared spectroscopy in normal healthy subjects.

1239.   Metabolic Alterations in Corpus Callosum May Compromise Brain Functional Connectivity in MTBI Patients: An 1H-MRS Study
Brian Johnson1, Semyon Slobounov1, Wayne Sebastianelli1, and Thomas Neuberger1
1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States

After clinical resolution of signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) it is still not clear if there are residual structural or functional abnormalities of brain networks. 15 normal volunteers (NV) and 15 subacute mTBI subjects underwent 1H-MRS in the subacute phase of injury. We report that both in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in mTBI subjects compared to NVs. This novel finding supports our hypothesis that the functional disruption of interhemispheric brain networks in mTBI subjects may result from compromised metabolic integrity of the corpus callosum.

1240.   Automatic Nonlinear Transformation to Talairach Stereotaxic Space with Quality Assurance
Mingyi Li1, Blessy Mathew1, Katherine Koenig1, Jian Lin1, Michael Phillips1, and Mark J. Lowe1
1Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Transforming MRI brain images into Talairach space will greatly facilitate the comparison of neuroimaging research results across subjects and applications of atlas to research subjects and clinical patients. We developed an automatic processing pipeline based on nonlinear registration to transform brain images to Talairach space. The pipeline depended on matching scores derived from brain parcellation for quality assurance. The pipeline was tested on subjects including five controls and eleven patients with high EDSS score. The results showed the new method had significant improvement on the matching accuracy for both control and patients over two widely used methods.

1241.   Reduced Amygdala Volume in Smokers
Florian Schubert1, Simone Kühn2, Ralf Mekle1, Jürgen Gallinat3, and Bernd Ittermann1
1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2MPI for Human Development, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Charite University Medicine, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Nicotine initiates synaptic and cellular changes which may lead to structural brain alterations. We measured the amygdala volume of 25 smokers, 25 ex-smokers and 26 never-smokers using high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging at 3T and Freesurfer volumetry, and explored the results for relationships with respect to smoking behavior. The amygdala (both sides) was significantly larger in never-smokers than in ex-smokers and smokers. The total amygdala volume was significantly reduced with increasing number of pack years. These results indicate a possible loss of amygdala volume in subjects with a smoking history and point to a structural involvement of the amygdala in addiction.

1242.   Feasibility of Atlas-Based Segmentation of the Brain in the Presence of Tumor by a Weighted Least-Squares Demons Algorithm
Tom Haeck1,2, Thijs Dhollander1,2, Frederik Maes1,2, Stefan Sunaert1,3, and Paul Suetens1,2
1Medical Imaging Research Center (MIRC), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Center for Processing Speech and Images (PSI), Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

MR-images of the brain can be segmented by registration with an atlas. A common way to do so is to register the brain volume with an intensity atlas and consequently to propagate the labels of the atlas to the brain volume according to the resulting deformation field. However, most intensity-based registration algorithms fail in the presence of pathologies. This causes gross segmentation errors in the vicinity of the pathology. We study the possibility to improve the robustness of the demons algorithm by minor, easy-to-implement, modifications of the demons force.

1243.   Volumetric Effects of Hormonal Contraceptives and Menstrual Cycle Phase in the Fusiform Gyrus: A VBM Study
Timo De Bondt1,2, Wim Van Hecke3, Jan Sijbers4, Yves Jacquemyn5, Stefan Sunaert6, and Paul M. Parizel1,2
1Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 2Radiology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 3icoMetrix, Leuven, Belgium, 4Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 5Gynaecology and Obstaetrics, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 6Radiology, University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium


1244.   Brain Temperature and Brain Energy Changes During Tasks and Light Anesthesia: Estimation with MRS
Yoshichika Yoshioka1,2, Hiroshi Oikawa3, Yoshiyuki Kanbara4, Yutaka Matsumura4, Takashi Inoue5, Yutaka Shinohe6, Shigeharu Joh6, Tsuyoshi Matsuda7, Akira Nabatani8, and Junji Seki9
1Immunology Frontier Research Center (WPI-IFReC), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 2Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, and Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 3Radiology, Ninohe Hospital, Ninohe, Iwate, Japan, 4High Field MRI Research Institute, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate, Japan, 5Neurosurgery, Kohnan Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan, 6Dental Anesthesiology, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan, 7Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare Japan, Hino, Tokyo, Japan, 8Madical Imaging Strategic Planning Div., Canon, Ohtaku, Tokyo, Japan, 9National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan

Physiological human brain temperatures have been measured by MRS. However, it is not clear whether the brain temperature rises or falls during brain activations. We have tried to monitor brain temperature changes during exercises and some other maneuvers. We found that the brain temperatures fall during light tasks such as hand grasp, tongue stimulation, and sedation. We also could estimate the brain energy decrease during sedation as 0.2 W (estimated as a whole brain) with brain temperature changes. The energy difference between arousal and sedation in our case was about 1 % of the energy that brain needs.

1245.   Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis of Brain in Welders with Chronic Manganese Exposure
Seong-Uk Jin1, Jeehye Seo1, Jang Woo Park1, Moon Han1, Yongmin Chang1,2, and Kyung Jin Suh3
1medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 2Radioloty and molecular medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 3Radiology, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyungju, Korea

An increase in the Manganese concentration in the brain is a critical step in Mn neurotoxicity, also known as manganism. It is important question whether the neurobehavioral dysfunctions, which are often found in Mn-exposed welders, are associated with structural brain abnormalities in Mn-exposed welders. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated voxel-wise comparisons of gray and white matter at a whole-brain level, has been useful in characterizing subtle changes in brain structure in a variety of diseases associated with neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. the present research showed significant correlations between several neurobehavioral deficits and volumetric indices.

1246.   Tract Specific Analysis Reveals the Impact of Childhood Manganese Exposure on the Corpus Callosum
Yi Lao*1,2, Laurie Anne Dion3, Fernando Yepes2,4, Guillaume Gilbert5,6, Maryse Bouchard5, Dave Saint Amour^3, and Natasha Lepore1,2
1University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluña, Spain, 5Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada, 6Philips Healthcare, Montreal, QC, Canada

Long-term Manganese exposure(Mn) will cause neuromotor and deficits. However, studies focusing on the adverse effects of Mn on white matter microstructures are few in number. Moreover, white matter structures may not be accurately mapped in traditional voxel-based analysis which is widely used in related studies. Here we use a more recent semi-automated method- Tract Specific Analysis to quantify white matter changes caused by chronic Mn exposure. Tract Specific Analysis begins with a tensor-based registration and is followed by a tract-based statistical analysis on manually-delineated tracts. While the related studies were performed on adult humans, we look at the effects of Mn on brain white matter microstructure in children chronically exposed to Mn through drinking water.

1247.   Effect of Exenatide (A Weight Loss Drug) on fMRI Response to Food-Cues in Lean and Obese
Claudia Huerta1, Roy Eldor1, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani1, Ralph DeFronzo1, and Timothy O. Duong2
1UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

In this study, we propose to investigate the neural response to visual food cues utilizing fMRI in lean and obese subjects pre and post intravenously infusion of Exenatide, a synthetic version of the gut peptide GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), it is known to increase satiety and promotes weight loss. Lean showed an increased response in motivation, cognitive control and decision-making components of food intake regulation after Exenatide, whereas obese subjects showed increased neural response following Exenatide infusion only in a few structures classified in the motivation component.

1248.   Quantitative Study of Changes in Multi-Parametric MRI Markers Post-Laser Interstitial Ablation Therapy (LITT) for Epilespy
Pallavi Tiwari1, Shabbar Danish2, and Anant Madabhushi1
1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHIO, United States, 2Neurology, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States

In this work, we quantitatively evaluate changes in multi parametric MRI (MP-MRI) imaging markers (T1-w, T2-w, T2-GRE, T2-FLAIR, and ADC) over the epileptogenic foci, pre- and post- laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT), to (a) identify MR imaging markers that change most-dramatically over time while computing treatment related changes post-LITT, and (b) develop a weighted temporal MP-MRI signature corresponding to successful / unsuccessful treatment, by combining the imaging markers identified as most contributory in evaluating treatment related changes at different time points post-LITT, in a cohort of epilepsy patients.

1249.   Multi-Spectral Quantitative Regional MRI Analysis in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Diego Cantor1, Terry Peters2, and Ali Khan2
1Robarts Research - Imaging Labs, Western University, London, ON, Canada, 2Imaging Labs, Robarts Research, London, ON, Canada

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy is characterized by a diverse aetiology which is not always evidenced in MRI. The radiologic assessment consists in the identification of hypo/hyper-intensities in temporal structures as well as the comparison (intensity, volume) of homologous structures in the left and right hemispheres. We propose an synergistic, automated method to systematically identify regional abnormalities. Our method extracts temporal lobe regions for every patient on four different quantitative MR maps; extract regional metrics; then compares each patient against a group of volunteers for every region and every metric. A set of abnormal regions is reported for every patient.

1250.   Test-Retest Reproducibility of T1rho Mapping in Brain at 3T
Trevor Andrews1,2, Scott Hipko2, Jay Gonyea2, and Richard Watts2
1Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, United States

This study evaluates the test-retest reproducibility of a novel T1rho mapping acquisition in brain. The purpose is to assess the utility of this method for future clinical trials utilizing T1rho mapping in patients (e.g. with Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease).

1251.   CNR-Optimised MT Mapping for Improved Visualisation of the Substantia Nigra
Arjun Sethi1, Nicholas G. Dowell2, Neil A. Harrison1, and Mara Cercignani1
1CISC, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2CISC, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom

The purpose of this paper is to select the best combination of acquisition parameters to maximize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the substantia nigra and the surrounding white matter in magnetization transfer (MT) saturation maps. We used simulations based on quantitative MT models and the propagation of error equation to compute the CNR and extensively searched a 4-dimensional parameter space. Results show that the best CNR is found for the maximum MT saturation. In vivo data are used to support the results obtained with simulations.

1252.   Combined Diffusion and T2 Parameter Measures Identify Early Onset Cytosolic Oedema in Simulated Altitude Induced Hypoxia
Justin Stevan Lawley1, Paul Gerald Mark Mullins2, Sam Oliver1, and Jamie Macdonald1
1School of Sport Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom, 2School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom

Travel to altitude exposes the traveller to mild - moderate hypoxia. This leads to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS), symptoms of which suggest pathophysiological changes are occurring in the brain, oedema and potential swelling being two previously identified. We used Diffusion weighted Imaging and T2 calculations to study the development of oedema in AMS, and conclude that the initial oedema is intracellular only, and any swelling of tissue that occurs must do so by means other then vasogenic oedema.

1253.   Cerebral Blood Flow: Comparison Between Ultrasound and Phase Contrast MRI
M. Ayaz Khan1,2, Jie Liu1,2, Peiying Liu3, David Zhu4, Hanzhang Lu3, and Rong Zhang1,2
1Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Advance Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 4Cognitive Imaging Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lancing, MI, United States

Quantitative blood flow measurement is essential for assessment of cerebrovascular function under normal and diseased conditions. Color-coded duplex ultrasonography (CDUS) and phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two commonly used non-invasive techniques for measuring CBF. However, previous studies showed substantial differences between these two methods. Recent development in ultrasoud technology and quantification of blood vessel diameter using the edge-detection and wall-tracking method have significantly improved the accuracty of CBF measurement using CDUS. In the present study, we compared CBF meauserments using the PC MRI with the high-resolution 2-D CDUS methods.

1254.   Physiology-Based MRI Assessment of CSF Flow at the Foramen Magnum with a Valsalva Maneuver
Samuel Patz1,2, Yansong Zhao3, Neel Madan4, Mark E. Wagshul5, James P. Butler2,6, and Rafeeque A. Bhadelia2,7
1Radiology, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Philips Healthcare, Columbus, OH, United States,4Radiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States, 5Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States,6Sleep Medicine, Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 7Radiology, Beth Isarael Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States

Two MRI methods, 2D cine-PC and 1D Pencil Bean Imaging (PBI), were evaluated in healthy subjects for their ability to dynamically measure CSF flow during the physiological challenge of a Valsalva maneuver. Both fast cine-PC and PBI demonstrated expected changes in CSF flow with Valsalva maneuver in normal subjects. The real-time capability of PBI has the potential to detect Valsalva-related transient CSF flow obstruction in patients with Chiari I malformation.


Thursday, 25 April 2013 (13:30-15:30) Exhibition Hall
Manganese Enhanced MRI



A Surface Diffusion Method for Cortical Mn Administration in MEMRI
Wenwen A. Han1,2, Shu-Juan J. Fan1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is effective for studying brain activity, tracing neuronal pathways and layer-specific cortical microstructures , but the invasiveness of Mn administration methods may cause neuropathological changes, contaminating in vivo MEMRI investigation of neural functions. This study demonstrated a surface diffusion method as a less invasive alternative with similar signal intensity enhancement efficiency to the intracortical injection methods previously employed in MEMRI. Besides reducing disturbance to the physiology of the injection site, this method also allows large dosage application for tracing long-distance connections, e.g. corticospinal pathway. One application is studying brain connectivity and its functional modulation.

Transcallosal Connectivity Changes in Rodent Visual Cortex Following Monocular Enucleation or Light Deprivation: An MEMRI Study
Shu-Juan J. Fan1,2 and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Binocularity is one of the most prominent characteristics of neurons in the visual cortex. It relies on both direct ipsilateral geniculocortical inputs and callosal projections from the contralateral cortex. Understanding these underpinnings of binocularity plasticity may shed light on new therapies for amblyopia. In this study, we hypothesize visual manipulation of left or right eye may exert different impact on right to left callosal transfter, which could be characterized by high resolution MEMRI utilizing manganese ion (Mn2+) as an anatomical and functional neuronal marker. Our results are consistent with the findings from eletrophysiological and c-fos staining experiments and demonstrated MEMRI as a powerful tool for probing corpus callosum functions and plasticity with efficiency, sensitivity and specificity.

1257.   Aging Deficits in Axonal Transport Are Exacerbated by Abeta Plaques: An MEMRI Study
Elaine L. Bearer1,2, Joseph J. Gallagher2, Aaron Gonzales3, XiaoWei Zhang2, and Russell E. Jacobs4
1Pathology, University of New Mexico, Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 2Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States, 3Pathology, University of New Mexico, Health Sciences Center, Abuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 4Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

Transport defects impact neuronal survival. We are developing and applying high-field MEMRI to detect and measure transport dynamics in living mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present results from the aged double transgenic mice expressing human mutant amyoid precursor protein under control of the Tet-off promotor. Statistical parametric mapping and ROI analyses demonstrate decreased Mn2+ accumulation in the contralateral hippocampus and the medial septal nuclei in the forebrain after injection in the right hippocampus in aged versus young mice which is exacerbated with in the APP over-expressors who also display numerous Abeta plaques.

Interhemispheric Connectivity in MEMRI Correlates with Interhemispheric in Resting-State fMRI
Russell W. Chan1,2, Iris Y. Zhou1,2, Shu Juan J. Fan1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) were employed to investigate functional and structural interhemispheric connections in the visual cortex of rodent model. Our results showed that cortical connectivity measured with MEMRI and functional connectivity measured with RSfcMRI are well correlated and the results suggested that a close coupling exist between structural and functional connections in the interhemispheric visual cortex

1259.   Deconvolving the Intra- And Extracellular Water Components in the Rat Brain Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI)
Mohammed Salman Shazeeb1,2 and Christopher H. Sotak1,2
1Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, United States

Diffusion-weighted NMR techniques have established that the ADC of cerebral tissue water decreases during ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether the ADC change occurs due to changes in the intracellular (IC) space, extracellular (EC) space, or both. Past works have measured compartment-specific diffusion coefficients using gadolinium as an EC MR contrast agent which reduces the longitudinal (T1) relaxation time of the EC space. In this study, we investigate an alternative approach by using manganese (Mn2+), which acts as a calcium analogue. Mn2+ uptake by cells causes T1 of IC water to shorten, thus allowing differentiation between the compartmental MR signals.

1260.   Intratympanic Manganese Administration Revealed Sound Intensity and Frequency Dependent Functional Activity in Rat Auditory Pathway
Mun Han1, Seong-Uk Jin1, Jae-Jun Lee2, Kwan Soo Hong2, and Yongmin Chang1,3
1Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, 2Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, 3Department of Radiology & Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea

The cochlear plays a vital role in the sense and sensitivity of hearing; however, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the relationships between mechanical transduction of sound at different intensities and frequencies in the cochlear and the neurochemical processes that lead to neuronal responses in the central auditory system. In the current study, we introduced manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), a convenient in vivo imaging method, for investigation of how sound, at different intensities and frequencies, is propagated from the cochlear to the central auditory system. Using MEMRI with intratympanic administration, we demonstrated differential manganese signal enhancements according to sound intensity and frequencies in the ascending auditory pathway of the rat after administration of intratympanic MnCl2.Compared to signal enhancement without explicit sound stimuli, auditory structures in the ascending auditory pathway showed stronger signal enhancement in rats who received sound stimuli of 10 and 40 kHz. In addition, signal enhancement with a stimulation frequency of 40 kHz was stronger than that with 10 kHz. Therefore, the results of this study seem to suggest that, in order to achieve an effective response to high sound intensity or frequency, more firing of auditory neurons, or firing of many auditory neurons together for the pooled neural activity is needed.

1261.   An Improved Activity-Induced Manganese-Dependent MRI Study of the Rat Barrel Cortex
Nathalie Just1, Mario Lepore1, Hanne Frenkel1, and Rolf Gruetter2,3
1CIBM-AIT, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2CIBM-AIT, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

Activity-induced Manganese dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (AIM-MRI) enables an indirect measurement of neuronal activity following functional challenge. However, difficulties arising from the toxicity of Mn2+ ions and their ability to cross the blood brain barrier prevent a good reproducibility. As a result, AIM MRI has not shown its full value. We increased the physiological follow up of 6 rats by carefully monitoring blood pressure during MnCl2 and mannitol infusions. T1 mapping demonstrated a significant decrease of T1 in the barrel cortex following trigeminal nerve stimulation. Finally, histogram analysis allowed an optimized characterization of the synaptic activity of the barrel cortex.

1262.   Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) for Investigating a Genetic Rat Epilepsy Model
Lydia Wachsmuth1, Thomas Seidenbecher2, Thomas Budde2, and Cornelius Faber1
1Clinical Radiology, Experimental NMR, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany, 2Clinical Radiology, Experimental NMR, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany

In this study we used Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to investigate local accumulation pattern of manganese after systemic, fractionated administration by T1 weighted imaging and T1 mapping in a genetic rat model of human absence epilepsy, the Genetic Absence Epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). We found slight, but significantly reduced T1 relaxation times within the somatosensory cortex of GAERS rat, but no significant differences within other structures of the thalamocortical network when compared to nonepileptic controls. Rather small T1 relaxation reducing effects indicate that systemic administration of manganese is not sufficient and intracranial application has to be performed in future studies.

1263.   Manganese Enhanced MRI Reveals Stimulus-Evoked Neuronal Activation in Aplysia Californica
Guillaume Radecki1, Ileana Ozana Jelescu1, Romuald Nargeot2, Denis Le Bihan1, and Luisa Ciobanu1
1Neurospin, CEA, Gif sur Yvette, France, 2Institut de Neurosciences cognitives et intégratives d'Aquitaine, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France

Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been successfully used to map neuronal activity in small animals. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that MEMRI can be used to label activity-dependent Mn2+ uptake into the nervous system of a widespread model system in neuroscience, the Aplysia californica. Specifically, we show differences in Mn2+ accumulation into the neurons of ganglia coming from stimulated and non-stimulated animals. Such studies have the potential to provide insight into crucial neurological processes and into how specific molecular alterations give rise to modifications of neuronal circuitries.

1264.   Role of Neuroinflammation in MEMRI Signal Enhancement
Aditya N. Bade1, Biyun Zhou2, Santhi Gorantla1, Jiangtao Luo3, Howard E. Gendelman1, Michael Douglas Boska4, and Yutong Liu4
1Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha., Omaha, NE, United States, 2Anesthesiology Department, Tongji Medical College, Huanzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 3Department of Biostatistics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha., Omaha, NE, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha., Omaha, NE, United States

Mn2+ enhanced MRI (MEMRI) can be used to detect a number of neuropathological events. However, the mechanisms for Mn2+ signal enhancement in inflammatory pathobiological states remains controversial. Here, we applied intracranial LPS injection to create an inflammatory lesion and quantified signal enhancement after Mn2+ treatment. Combined with our previous in-vitro study of Mn2+ uptake in activated glial cells and neurons, we conclude that activated glia do not directly induce signal enhancement in MEMRI, but signal enhancement in MEMRI results from the increased neuronal activity induced by gliosis, mainly astrogliosis, stimulating neuronal Mn2+ uptake.

1265.   Mn Concentration Mapping with MRI: Comparision with Autoradiography and PET
Geoffrey Topping1, Andrew Yung2, Paul Schaffer3, Cornelia Hoehr3, Thomas Ruth3, Piotr Kozlowski2, and Vesna Sossi1
1Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada,3Nuclear Medicine, TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Mn concentration is mapped in rat brain with MRI, PET, and autoradiography after intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injection. Images of the same animals in three modalities are compared. MR relaxivity change from baseline is measured with a Look-Locker sequence. Mn-52 was produced by proton irradiation of Cr foil and used as a radiotracer for PET and autoradiography. MRI has sufficient resolution to resolve structural details, but shows artifacts in regions of high Mn concentration. PET has poor resolution, but is more consistent than MRI with autoradiography results.

1266.   Improving Visualization of Mouse Brain Nuclei in Manganese-Enhanced MRI Using Super-Resolution Reconstruction
Esben Plenge1, Dana S. Poole2, Dirk H.J. Poot1, Egbert A.J.F. Lakke3, Wiro J. Niessen1,4, Erik Meijering1, and Louise van der Weerd2,5
1The Biomedical Imaging Group (BIGR), Radiology & Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 3Anatomy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 4Quantitative Imaging Group, Dept. of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands, 5Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

In this study we demonstrate how super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) can be used to overcome the anisotropy issue and produce high-resolution isotropic volumes in acquisition times compatible with in-vivo experiments.

1267.   Effect of Manganese on Rat Hippocampus Metabolism: A 1H HRMAS Study
Alexia Daoust1,2, Emmanuel Luc Barbier1,2, Sylvain Bohic1,3, Séverine Maunoir-Regimbal4, and Florence Fauvelle4
1INSERM U836, grenoble, France, 2Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble institut des neurosciences, grenoble, France, 3European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, grenoble, France, 4IRBA-CRSSA, grenoble, France

MEMRI can be used for different applications such as tracing neuronal connections or functional imaging. However, the impact of Mn on brain tissues is still unclear. To evaluate the metabolic perturbations associated to an intracerebral injection of Mn, we obtained HRMAS NMR spectra from the rat hippocampus. Two effects were observed: a broadening of specific metabolites due to Mn paramagnetic effect and an important impact of Mn on the cerebral metabolism at the injection site. Both effects were not identical along hippocampus and across hemisphere, suggesting a concentration dependent effect.

1268.   MEMRI Based NOD/scid-IL-2Rlower case Greek gamma cnull Mouse Brain Atlas for HIV Pathobiology Studies
Balasrinivasa R. Sajja1, Biyun Zhou2, Mariano G. Uberti1, Larisa Y. Poluektova3, Howard E. Gendelman3, Michael Douglas Boska1,3, and Yutong Liu1,3
1Radiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 2Anesthesiology, Tongji Medical College, Huanzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, 3Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States

Strain specific mouse brain MR atlases provide a coordinate space for spatial normalization and permit longitudinal quantitative analyses associated with aging and disease progression. Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) enhances anatomic structures in the NOD/scid-IL-2Rlower case Greek gammacnull (NSG) mice. NSG mice can propagate human cell transplants and thus be used to study human disease. Image post-processing based on Laplacian operator was used to enhance brain structures boundaries without introducing artifacts. Thus, an in vivo MEMRI based NSG mouse brain atlas was generated. This atlas will be used to track structure-wise alterations during progression of HIV-1 in NSG mice implanted with human immune cells.

1269.   Functional Mapping of Rat Visual Cortex Following Light Stimulation Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI
Jun-Cheng Weng1,2, Liang-Chun Lin1, Guan-Ming Chen1, and Yeu-Sheng Tyan1,2
1School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Visual system is an important and well-known example of brain function. The well-defined relationship between animal visual cortical activity and light stimulation makes this system a unique model to study neuronal function and plasticity. Response to light stimulation has been investigated by non-invasive methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI). However, application of the above functional mapping methods to rat cortex remains challenging because stimulation should be given during scanning. Appropriate anesthesia and stable hemodynamic conditions must be maintained throughout the whole course of experiment. In the study, we sought to establish an alternative working protocol of applying manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to map the visual cortex following light stimulation. In the results, we have mapped rat visual cortex using MEMRI and have shown a clear relationship between manganese enhanced cortical regions and light-evoked activity. It will be potentially useful to study plasticity in surgically or genetically manipulated rat brains.

1270.   Manganese Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) Reflects Human Neuropathology in a Murine Model of HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)
Aditya N. Bade1, Santhi Gorantla1, Larisa Y. Poluektova1, Edward Makarov1, Howard E. Gendelman1, Michael Douglas Boska2, and Yutong Liu2
1Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha., Omaha, NE, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha., Omaha, NE, United States

Although antiretroviral therapy has decreased the prevalence of HAD, overall prevalence of HAND has remained unchanged affecting from 39 to 52% of infected patients. Diagnosis of HAND could be improved if disease biomarkers were available either from cerebrospinal fluid tests or by neuroimaging. We used Mn2+ enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to evaluate changes in the brain of humanized mice due to HIV-1 Clade-C infection. Changes in Mn2+ uptake in hippocampus and amygdala indicated neuronal pathology in these regions. Since the function of these regions includes memory, abnormal signal intensity in infected mice suggests memory deficits may be found in these animals.