Joint Annual Meeting ISMRM-ESMRMB 2014 10-16 May 2014 Milan, Italy


NEURO 2 (10:30-12:30)

4604-4627 Fetal & Pediatric Neuroimaging
4628-4651 Normal Brain Anatomy
4652-4674 Normal Brain Physiology & Developing Brain
4675-4698 Normal Ageing Brain
4699-4722 Neurodegeneration (Not AD Dementia)
4723-4746 Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia
4747-4770 Stroke 1
4771-4794 Stroke 2

Fetal & Pediatric Neuroimaging

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  10:30 - 11:30

  Computer #  
4604.   1 In Vivo Detection of Reduced Purkinje Cell Fibers with Diffusion MRI Tractography in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders -permission withheld
Jeong-Won Jeong1,2, Joseph Shin2, Vijay N Tiwari2, Harry T Chugani1,2, and Diane C Chugani1,2
1Pediatrics and Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2PET center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States

Postmortem neuropathology reports reduced number and size of Purkinje cells (PC) in a majority of cerebellum specimens from persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated whether structural changes related to decreased PC could be detected in vivo by measuring diffusion weighted imaging streamlines connecting the cerebellar cortex to the dentate nucleus. It was found that 73.3% of children with ASD showed reduced fractional anisotrpy in streamlines connecting cerebellar cortex to right dentate nucleus. This study detected white matter pathology in a similar portion of cases as in postmortem pathology showing decreased PC in lateral posterio-lateral cerebellar cortex.

4605.   2 Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin on white matter development in preterm infants investigated with tract based spatial statistics -permission withheld
Ruth L O'Gorman1, Petra S Huppi2, Hans Ulrich Bucher3, Brigitte M Koller3, and Cornelia F Hagmann3
1University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Division of Child Growth & Development, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 3Department of Neonatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Erythropoietin (Epo) is a haematopoetic cytokine which has been shown to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects on the brain. This study investigates the effects on Epo on the development of white matter in preterm infants. Tract based spatial statistics (tbss) analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data from 58 preterm infants revealed increased FA in Epo-treated infants in the corpus callosum, internal and external capsule, corona radiata, centrum semiovale, and the corticospinal tract. Neurodevelopmental follow-up data should help to clarify the developmental significance of these findings, but early Epo administration appears to improve white matter development in preterm infants.

3 The Effect of Maternal Substance Abuse on Fetal Brain Growth
Devasuda Anblagan1,2, Kaiming Yin1, Rebecca M Reynolds3, Fiona Denison2, Mark E Bastin4, Colin Studholme5, James P Boardman2, Scott I Semple1,3, Neil Roberts1, and Jane E Norman2
1Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 4Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States

Retrospective motion correction is now possible for fetal brain MRI at 2nd and 3rd trimester, making it possible to quantify brain development in utero. The Isotropic Cavalieri method has been applied to analyse 3D reconstructed fetal brain images from 36–38 weeks to measure brain growth in fetuses exposed to maternal substance abuse compared with non-exposed fetuses. Fetal intracranial and cerebral volumes were reduced by maternal substance abuse, and cerebellum volume and pial surface area in female exposed fetuses are significantly smaller compared with male exposed fetuses. Analyses will be extended to include fetal brain measurement at 24–27 weeks.

4607.   4 Impaired white matter development in extremely low birth weight infants with previous brain hemorrhage
Xiawei Ou1, Raghu Ramakrishnaiah1, Charles Glasier1, Sarah Mulkey1, Zhaohua Ding2, and Jeffrey Kaiser3
1Unversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States, 2Vanderbilt University, TN, United States, 3Baylor College of Medicine, TX, United States

The purpose of this study is to evaluate white matter in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with or without previous hemorrhage in the brain. We enrolled ELBW infants for MRI examination at term-equivalent age and reviewed their medical records of IVH diagnosis by routine ultrasound, divided them to different groups according to the extent of hemorrhage, and compared their white matter respectively to healthy newborn term infants by conventional MRI and DTI. Our results suggested that previous hemorrhage in the brain has significant effects on white matter development in ELBW infants at term-equivalent age, and that ELBW infants with no brain hemorrhage are more likely to have normal white matter development.

4608.   5 Automated Quantification of Diffuse White Matter Abnormalities in Very Preterm Infants Predicts Language and Cognitive Development at Two Years of Age
Lili He1 and Nehal A Parikh1,2
1Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States, 2The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, United States

The developmental significance of the frequently encountered diffuse white matter signal abnormality (WMSA) findings on term MRI in very preterm infants remains in question. Guided with our very preterm infant brain atlas, we objectively quantified WMSA on conventional T2-weighted MRI at around term-equivalent age. We demonstrated automatically detected WMSA volume to be a significant predictor of cognitive and language development at 2 years of age. Our findings support the use of objective automated techniques to accurately quantify the lesion burden in perinatal-neonatal brain injury. Our work will facilitate population-based studies to more accurately characterize WMSA’s long-term sequelae.

6 Sensitivity of magnetic susceptibility to white matter health in Cerebral Palsy
Zoe A Englander1,2, Wei Li2, Anastasiya Batrachenko2, Jessica Sun3,4, Mohamad Mikati3,4, Joanne Kurtzberg3,4, Chunlei Liu2,5, and Allen W Song2,5
1Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 3Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 4The Robertson Cell and Translational Therapy Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 5Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

We investigate the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to detect myelin specific white matter (WM) damage in Cerebral Palsy (CP). The theoretical dependence of magnetic susceptibility on white matter fiber angle due to the presence of myelin is well characterized. QSM anisotropy was compared between healthy and damaged white matter in CP. By localizing voxels with aberrant anisotropy characteristics, specific regions of WM damage were identified.

4610.   7 Longitudinal TBSS study of preterm and at term newborns
Paola Scifo1, Elisa Marchetta2,3, Silvia Pontesilli2, Elisa Scola2, Antonella Poloniato4, Graziano Barbera4, Antonella Iadanza2, Andrea Falini2,5, and Cristina Baldoli2
1Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, -, Italy, 2Neuroradiology, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, -, Italy, 3Univeristà degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, -, Italy, 4Pediatric Department, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, -, Italy, 5Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, -, Italy

Brain maturation in the early ages of life is characterized by crucial microstructural changes. This work aims to study the different development of White Matter in pre-term newborns with respect to those born at term, by using TBSS for the statistical comparison of DTI FA and MD maps acquired on a 3T scanner. The results show an advanced brain maturation in term vs preterm infants at 40 weeks PMA and a progressive maturation of preterm brains in the three ages of acquisition, demonstrating the feasibility of TBSS analysis on DTI data for the evaluation of myelination process.

Maria A. Rocca1,2, Paola Valsasina1, Sara Sala1, Vittorio Martinelli3, Angelo Ghezzi4, Pierangelo Veggiotti5, Andrea Falini6, Giancarlo Comi3, and Massimo Filippi1,3
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Mi, Italy, 3Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 4UO Neurologia 2 - Centro Studi Sclerosi Multipla, Ospedale di Gallarate, Gallarate, VA, Italy, 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, National Neurologic Institute "C. Mondino", Pavia, PV, Italy, 6Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

Resting state functional MRI (RS fMRI) and graph theory were applied to investigate the functional organization of large-scale brain networks (connectome) in 52 pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 16 healthy controls (HC). Pediatric MS patients compared with HC showed a relatively preserved global topology of functional network organization. The local reorganization of functional network in pediatric MS patients involved only a few infratentorial and supratentorial brain regions including the cerebellum, basal ganglia and paritetal/occipital areas. The limited reorganization of brain topology found in pediatric MS patients might contribute to explain their better clinical outcome.

4612.   9 Graph network measures of brain connectivity and its relation with behavior and cognitive performance in preterm-born 6 years-old children
Elda Fischi-Gomez1,2, Emma Muñoz-Moreno3, Lana Vasung2, Djalel Eddine Meskaldji4,5, Sebastien Urben6, Maryline Monnier7, Koviljka Barishnikov6, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa2, François Lazeyras5, Jean-Philippe Thiran1,8, and Petra Susan Hüppi2
1Signal Processing Laboratory LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Division of Child Development and Growth. Department of Pediatrics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 3Fetal and Perinatal Medicine Research Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain, 4MIPLab, Institute of Bioengeneering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 6Child Clinical Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 7Developmental Unit. Division of Neonatology (DMCP), University Hospital Center (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 8Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland

We have applied connectome analysis techniques and graph model-based brain network measures in a group of prematurely born children, known to be a population at high risk for structural and functional brain abnormalities, in order to assess the influence of brain connectivity on their cognitive capacities and behavior.

4613.   10 Pulsed arterial spin labeling in 2-year-old children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair and occlusion of the right common carotid artery after neonatal ECMO therapy: Quantitative cerebral perfusion imaging at 3.0 T
Claudia Hagelstein1, Frank G. Zoellner2, Meike Weidner1, Thomas Schaible3, Fabian Zimmer2, Lothar R. Schad2, Stefan O. Schoenberg1, Katrin Zahn4, and K. Wolfgang Neff1
1Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 2Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 3Dept. of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 4Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Purpose: To quantify cerebral perfusion in children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair with right common carotid artery (rCCA) occlusion after ECMO therapy using pASL. Materials and Methods: In 14 patients the rCCA was occluded after ECMO therapy (primary ligation or secondary occlusion after reconstruction). 15 patients without ECMO served as controls. Results: In patients with rCCA occlusion subcortical perfusion of the right hemisphere was significantly lower compared to the left hemisphere (p=0.011). In one third of the patients with rCCA occlusion, relCBF of the right hemisphere was reduced of more than 20%. Conclusion: Based on the possible hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere after rCCA occlusion, reconstruction of the rCCA should be preferred after ECMO therapy.

4614.   11 Regional Microstructure And Volume Abnormalities In The Corpus Callosum Of Neonates With Transposition Of The Great Artery Undergoing Cardiopulmonary By Pass Surgery.
Malek Makki1, Jitka Majerova2, Walter Knirsch3, Beatrice Latal4, and Cornelia Hagmann2
1MRI Research, Univesity Children Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Neonatalogy, University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland, 3Cardiology, University Children Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland, 4Child Development Center, University Children Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland

DTI and 3D volumetric acquisitions were preformed on 15 neonates with transposition of the great artery before and after surgery and compared to 20 age matched healthy controls. We subdivided the corpus callosum into 5 parts: genu, rostrum, body, isthmus, and splenium and compared their volume and their DTI indices. Pre and post surgical patients had significantly lower sub-structural volumes compare to healthy controls but no correlation with DTI indices. Altered DTI indices were observed in all sub-structures in the post surgical group while pre-surgical patients showed altered DTI indices in the splenium and rostrum.

4615.   12 Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study
Shanshan Wang1, Guoguang Fan1, Ke Xu1, and Ci Wang1
1The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

We used the tractography approach of DTI to detect differences in fractional anisotropy in major cerebellar white matters in children with diffuse PVL. The present study provides more information for understanding the pathophysiology of motor impairments by showing the correlations between the SCP and MCP microstructure injury and GMFCS levels in children with diffuse PVL.

4616.   13 Assessment of Brain Damage and Plasticity in the Visual System after Early Occipital Injury: Comparison of FDG-PET with Diffusion MRI Tractography -permission withheld
Jeong-Won Jeong1, Joseph Shin2, Vijay N Tiwari2, Harry T Chugani1, and Csaba Juhasz1,2
1Pediatrics and Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2PET center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States

The present study combined DWI streamline tractography with FDG-PET to determine the relation between occipital cortical metabolic changes and abnormalities of the corresponding visual tracts in children with unilateral Sturge-Weber syndrom (SWS). We found that decreased occipital glucose metabolism is associated with decreased visual streamline volume on the affected hemisphere. We also found that high glucose metabolism in the contralateral occipital (visual) cortex is associated with high DWI streamline volume of the corresponding visual pathway. This study demonstrates that FDG-PET combined with DWI tractography can be utilized to investigate both brain damage and plasticity in children with early occipital lesion.

4617.   14 Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging of brain infection in children
hong zhang1,2, Xuna Zhao3, Jinyuan Zhou2, and Yun Peng4
1Imaging Center,Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Neurosection, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Peking University, Beijing, China, 4Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing, China

APT-MRI is a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) based approach in which the amide protons of endogenous proteins and peptides are irradiated to accomplish detection using the water signal. In this study, the APT approach was incorporated with standard brain MRI sequences and applied to children with brain infection at 3T. The initial results show that APT imaging can enhance the noninvasive identification of tissue heterogeneity in brain infection.

4618.   15 Segmentation of fetal pericerebral spaces based on reconstructed high-resolution MRI
Maud CAGNEAUX1,2, Meritxell BACH CUADRA3,4, Sébastien TOURBIER3,4, Marie SCHAER5, Salem HANNOUN2, Laurent GUIBAUD1, and Dominique SAPPEY-MARINIER2
1Radiology, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France, 2CREATIS (UMR 5220 CNRS & U1044 INSERM), University of Lyon and CERMEP-Imagerie du Vivant, Lyon, France, 3University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM), Lausanne, Switzerland, 5University of Geneva, Switzerland

The aim of our study is to determine the feasibility of the fetal brain segmentation applied to pericerebral spaces (PCS), which relies only on subjective pattern recognition expertise. 10 patients who underwent a fetal MRI were included. High-resolution reconstruction using motion compensation BTK was applied to obtain volumetric images of the fetal brain from 2D MR stacks. PCS were extracted using semi-automatic segmentation, requiring manual expert slice to slice corrections. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of PCS segmentation, albeit time consuming and expert-dependent. It could help diagnosing fetal cerebral pathologies and become a daily tool in the fetal brain exploration.

Sara Cirillo1, Maria A. Rocca1, Paola Valsasina1, Pierangelo Veggiotti2, Lucia Moiola3, Angelo Ghezzi4, Giancarlo Comi3, Andrea Falini5, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, National Neurologic Institute "C. Mondino", Pavia, PV, Italy, 3Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 4UO Neurologia 2 - Centro Studi Sclerosi Multipla, Ospedale di Gallarate, Gallarate, VA, Italy,5Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

We explored abnormalities of resting state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) of the dentate nuclei (DN) of the cerebellum in relapsing-remitting pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls and whether these alterations correlate with clinical and MRI measures of disease severity. In both groups, RS FC of the R DN was significantly correlated with the FC in other portions of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, several regions in the prefrontal cortices and parietal lobes. Compared to HC, patients experienced a distributed pattern of reduced RS FC in multiple regions, which was influenced by disease duration and accumulation of white matter lesions.

4620.   17 Abnormal cortical and thalamic development in children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning
Niels Bergsland1,2, Francesca Baglio1, Gisella Baglio1, Raffaello Nemni1,3, Mario Clerici1,3, Michela Zanette1, and Valeria Blasi1
1Istituto IRCCS Santa Maria Nascente, Fondazione Don Gnocchi, Milan, Italy, 2Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, 3Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) children present with cognitive, motor, social and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. It has become increasingly recognized that gray matter plays a significant role in this condition. The current study compared BIF and typically developing groups of children in measures of cortical thickness/area as well as subcortical structural volumes in BIF. It was shown that BIF children present with brain development delay in cortical areas and that thalamus which are associated with motor and cognitive abilities crucial for intellectual functioning.

Maria Elisa Morelli1, Maria A. Rocca1, Elisabetta Pagani1, Lucia Moiola2, Angelo Ghezzi3, Andrea Falini4, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 3UO Neurologia 2 - Centro Studi Sclerosi Multipla, Ospedale di Gallarate, Gallarate, VA, Italy, 4Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

Manual hippocampal tracing of 3DT1-weighted contiguous coronal slices and radial mapping analysis were applied to assess the patterns of global and regional hippocampal volume changes in paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Global hippocampal volume was reduced, bilaterally, in patients versus HC. In patients, radial atrophy affected the cornu Ammonis, subiculum and dentate gyrus (DG) of both hippocampi, mostly on the right side. Compared to cognitively preserved patients, those with cognitive impairment had radial atrophy of the subiculum and DG of the right hippocampus. MR-based radial mapping analysis is feasible for developing reliable markers of disease progression in MS.

4622.   19 Alterations in Cardiac-Correlated Brain BOLD Signal in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
Hua-Shan Liu1, Abbas F. Jawad2, Nina Laney2, Stephen Hooper3, Jerilynn Radcliffe2, Divya Moodalbail2, Christos Davatzikos1, Robert Schultz2, Susan Furth2, and John Detre1
1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

We investigated the group difference of the cardiovascular fluctuation-induced modulation in BOLD fMRI signal between patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and control subjects. We found that CKD patients showed a significantly increased cardiac modulation in BOLD fMRI in the anterior cingulated cortex as compared with control subjects.

4623.   20 Pituitary stalk compression by dorsum sellae and growth disorders. -permission withheld
Toshiaki Taoka1, Toshiaki Akashi1, Masahiko Sakamoto1, Toshiteru Miyasaka1, Tomoko Ochi1, Saeka Hori1, Takeshi Wada1, and Kimihiko Kichikawa1
1Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between pituitary stalk compression by dorsum sellae and clinical findings in short stature children. We evaluated degree of compression findings of pituitary stalk by dorsum sellae. The pituitary stalk compression with stalk deformity by dorsum sellae has significant correlation with late childhood onset short stature. This finding suggests that compression of pituitary portal system by dorsum sellae could be a possible cause for late childhood onset short stature with growth hormone deficiency.

4624.   21 In vivo characterization of morphological changes in prenatally irradiated mice using MRI
Tine Verreet1,2, JanakiRaman Rangarajan3,4, Tom Dresselaers5, Frederik Maes3, Sarah Baatout1, Lieve Moons2, Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane1, and Uwe Himmelreich5
1Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK CEN, Mol, Belgium, 2Laboratory of Neural Circuit Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Belgium, 3ESAT/PSI - Medical Image Computing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 4iMinds-KU Leuven Future Health Department, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 5Biomedical MRI unit, Department of Imaging and Pathology, KU Leuven, Belgium

Epidemiological studies have shown that in utero irradiation exposure causes a higher incidence of neurological disorders and cognitive defects like seizures and mental retardation (for e.g. survivors of the atomic bombings). There is renewed interests to investigate whether even low doses of radiation can cause long-term neurological defects. However, animal studies in this field are scarce and underpinning causes remain unclear. The main objective of this study is to characterize the morphological effects of in utero exposure to low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation on the mouse brain using in vivo MRI. Prenatally irradiated mice show reduction in brain volume at higher dose (0.66 Gy, 1 Gy), which is comparable to results from human studies. Morphological changes are in line with the cognitive function assessed by behavioral experiments.

4625.   22 Gender Specific Effects on the Development of White Matter Tracts after Preterm Birth
Devasuda Anblagan1,2, Mark E Bastin3, Sarah Sparrow2, Chinthika Piyasena4, Rozi Pataky5, Emma Moore2, Graham Wilkinson5, Neil Roberts1, Scott I Semple1,4, and James P Boardman2
1Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 4Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 5NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Preterm delivery affects 11% of all live births and is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental impairment and suboptimal educational achievement in childhood. Some of the adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae of preterm birth are gender-specific and may be neuroprotective strategies: preterm males have a worse neurodevelopmental outcome than females. We present the first application of an automatic single seed point tractography-based segmentation method, probabilistic neighborhood tractography, to study the gender specific effect on developing white matter tracts in preterm infants. Our work demonstrates increased diffusivities and reduced fractional anistropy in the cingulum cingulate gyri of female preterm infants compared with male equivalents.

4626.   23 ASL perfusion MRI in hypothermia treated infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
Arzu Kovanlikaya1, Linda Heier1, Jonathan P Dyke2, Jeffrey M Perlman3, and Allison Dunning4
1Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 3Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Public Health/Biostatistics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

Cerebral perfusion in subjects with HIE after hypothermia have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to assess perfusion on ASL and compare to conventional MRI in the second week of life. CBF values were compared to normals reported in the literature. Subjects with qualitative basal ganglia injury on conventional MR had lower CBF. Relative hyperemia in deep gray matter with no corresponding qualitative abnormality may be related to timing of injury evolution. CBF can quantified by ASL in hypothermia treated infants in the second week of life. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the progression of hyperperfusion.

4627.   24 Effects of craniosynostosis on cerebral blood flow
Dustin K Ragan1, Gary Skolnick2, Jose A Pineda1, Matthew D Smyth3, and Kamlesh Babulal Patel2
1Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Craniosynostosis is associated with elevated ICP, however its physiological effects are largely unknown. We studied the effects of craniosynostosis on cerebral perfusion using pseudocontinuous ASL. Focal regions of apparent hyperemia were detected, suggesting either metabolic abnormalities or a decrease in CSF space.


Normal Brain Anatomy

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  10:30 - 11:30

  Computer #  
4628.   25 Hippocampal Shape Analysis in Adult Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: The Effect of Cranial Radiotherapy
Qing Ji1, John O. Glass1, Michelle N. Edelmann2, Kevin R. Krull2, Robert J. Ogg1, and Wilburn E. Reddick1
1Radiological Science, St.Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States, 2Epidemiology & Cancer Control, St.Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States

Hippocampal volume and shape were examined in two groups of adult survivors of childhood ALL and compared to healthy controls using the SPHARM statistical shape model. Survivors were treated with either only chemotherapy or cranial radiotherapy (CRT) and chemotherapy. The mean hippocampal volumes of both survivor groups were lower than that of healthy controls, but did not reach statistical significance. Abnormal shape deformations were found primarily in the right hippocampus of survivors treated with CRT. Since the shape abnormality may correlate with hippocampal damage, the results of this study suggest that radiation may cause more damage to the hippocampi than chemotherapy alone in adult survivors of childhood ALL.

4629.   26 Visualization of Intra-Thalamic Anatomy with White-Matter-nulled MPRAGE at 7T
Thomas Tourdias1,2, Manojkumar Saranathan2, Ives R Levesque2, Jason Su2, and Brian K Rutt2
1Service de NeuroImagerie Diagnostique et Thérapeutique, CHU Pellegrin - Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 2Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

We present a 3D-MPRAGE pulse sequence at 7T specifically optimized to visualize the thalamic anatomy. Simulations of the MPRAGE signal behavior using our intra-thalamic T1 measurements and empirical optimization in volunteers showed that (i) nulling the signal of the white matter (WM), (ii) increasing the time between two inversion pulses, (iii) increasing the length of the readout, and (iv) using a low flip angle provided the best tradeoff between thalamic signal, intra-thalamic contrast while limiting the blur. This method allowed to accurately and reproducibly delineate 15 thalamic nuclei in healthy controls.

4630.   27 Catechol-O-methyl transferase Val108/158Met genotype influences the striatum volume in healthy subjects: A voxel-based morphometry study at 3T MRI.
Keita Watanabe1, Shingo Kakeda1, Reiji Yoshimura2, Abe Osamu3, Ide Satoru1, Rieko Watanabe1, Asuka Katsuki2, Wakako Umene-Nakano2, Jun Nakamura2, and Yukunori Korogi1
1Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan, 2Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan, Japan, 3Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme engaged in the degradation of dopamine by catalyzing the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. Although COMT appears to be concentrated especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe, the recent studies showed that COMT impact on brain activation is not limited to the PFC and medial temporal lobe, but extending into the striatum in healthy subjects. We investigated the relationship between the Val108/158Met COMT genotype and striatum volume. We found that COMT genotype affects the caudate volume,which may relate to the differences of dopamine level in the striatum.

4631.   28 Comparison and Reproducibility of Atlas-based Brain Parcellation Methods
Zhaoying Han1, Nils Daniel Forkert1, Julian Maclaren1, Nancy Fischbein1, and Roland Bammer1
1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

The automatic atlas-based brain parcellation is an important processing step for longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies. The aim of this work is to evaluate the robustness of three non-linear registration frameworks (NiftyReg, FSL and ATNS), by applying them to 120 high-resolution T1-weighted datasets acquired multiple times from three healthy subjects. The MNI atlas was registered to each dataset and the resulting non-linear transformations were used to warp the Harvard-Oxford subcortical brain regions to each subject for regional volume determinations. All three registration methods lead to robust brain parcellation results with low standard deviations, but considerable differences between the methods.

4632.   29 Visualization of human brainstem substructures using gray matter nulling 3D-MPRAGE at 7Tesla
Michael Wyss1, Mike Bruegger1,2, Bernd Daeubler3, Laetitia Vionnet1, David Brunner1, and Klaas Pruessmann1
1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH, Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

The human brainstem and its substructures are known to be involved in a multitude of functions. Incorporated substructures are small and extremely densely packed, resulting in low intrinsic contrast between these structures. All this facets together hamper the accurate, non-invasive visualization by in-vivo MR imaging. This work describes the application of a modified 3D-MPRAGE sequence at 7T in the human brainstem. The use of an optimized high resolution 3D-MPRAGE sequence in the gray matter nulling regime at 7Tesla provides a clearly enhanced image contrast between different substructures in the human brainstem, which are nearly invisible with normal MR imaging.

4633.   30 Feasibility of in-vivo high-resolution MRI of hippocampus substructures at 7 T
Chan Hong Moon1, Jung-Hwan Kim2, and Kyongtae Bae2
1University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2University of Pittsburgh, PA, United States

We tested the feasibility/limitation of in-vivo imaging of substructures in the human hippocampus at high-field 7 T by comparing the resultant image with an ex-vivo sub-millimeter high-resolution MR image of a hippocampus specimen. Subregional morphology of hippocampal formation was successfully imaged in vivo, and the layer III profile in entorhinal cortex could be visualized.

4634.   31 Quantification of the Cerebellar Lobe Volumes using a 2D T2 TSE PROPELLER Sequence: Reliability Analysis.
Marco Piccirelli1, Alexander A. Tarnutzer2, Werner Wichmann1, Antonios Valavanis1, Dominik Straumann2, and Franziska C.S. Altorfer1
1Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, ZH, Switzerland, 2Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, ZH, Switzerland

Cerebellar volumetry correlates multiple clinical findings (ataxia, seizures, psychiatric symptoms) with localized cerebellar atrophy. Therefore, researchers quantified the volume of cerebellar parts using high-resolution 3D-T1-SPGR sequences, which has an intrinsic low CSF/GM contrast and is motion-sensitive. Nevertheless, the coarse volumetry reported in clinical studies is corrupted by the low resolution of clinical 3D-T1-SPGR. To avoid artifacts, we propose an intrinsically motion insensitive PROPELLER 2D-T2-TSE to clearly depict cerebellar borders and quantify cerebellar lobe volumes. These results set the basics for a clinically useable quantification of cerebellar atrophy and give a reference to further volumetric analysis of individual cerebellar lobes.

4635.   32 High Resolution Imaging of the deep cerebellar nuclei at 7Tesla
Mike Bruegger1,2, Michael Wyss1, Bernd Daeubler3, Daniel Nanz4, Alex Ringenbach5, David Brunner1, and Klaas Pruessmann1
1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH, Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Department of Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 5Institute for Medical and Analytical Technologies, University of Applied Sciences of Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz, Basel, Switzerland

The deep cerebellar nuclei (dentate, fastigial, globose, emboliforme) are of significant functional importance, but difficult to investigate in detail non-invasively because of their small size and tight arrangement. This work presents a modified 3D-MPRAGE sequence with high spatial resolution (voxel size=0.275mm3) in the gray matter nulling regime at 7T. Focusing on the dentate nuclei (DN) bilaterally, we aimed to contribute to the ongoing debate linking handedness, size and hemispheric asymmetry by examining 26 healthy volunteers (13 right/left handed). We revealed a significantly smaller left DN irrespective of handedness, age and sex.

4636.   33 Robust and fast T1 mapping by slab-selective inversion recovery turboflash
Ke Jiang1, Yiu-cho Chung1, Yin Wu1, and Yanjie Zhu1
1Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen key laboratory for MRI, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

We propose a fast and robust 2D T1 mapping method that uses real time imaging to sample the recovery of the slice selective inversion pulse. The technique was capable of acquiring two T1 maps in 6 seconds and full brain coverage (18 slices) in 1 min with a high spatial resolution of 1.1mm x 1.1mm x 4mm.

Simon Duchesne1, Fernando Valdivia2, Nicolas Robitaille2, Abderazzak Mouiha2, Abiel F. Valdivia2, Martina Bocchetta3, Liana G. Apostolova4, Rossana Ganzola2, Greg Preboske5, Dominik Wolf6, Marina Boccardi3, Clifford R. Jack Jr.5, and Giovanni B. Frisoni3
1Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada, 2Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada, 3IRCCS Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy, 4UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 6Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany

We present early user cases for a platform for manual segmentation of the hippocampus on magnetic resonance images, set within the context of the EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol project (HarP). The interactive web system allows for protocol learning, segmentation training and qualification of the ability of new tracers to segment the hippocampus according to the HarP. Our objective was to demonstrate that the training process embedded in the platform led to increased compliance with the HarP. Statistical testing of training over three phases showed a significant effect of Jaccard overlap, demonstrating that training positively increased compliance with the HarP. 

4638.   35 Fast and Accurate Brain Tissue Segmentation with Polarity Categorization (POLCAT)
Steven Kecskemeti1,2 and Andrew L Alexander3,4
1Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 3Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, WI, United States, 4Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States

Intensity-based brain tissue segmentation algorithms rely on post-hoc image intensity at a single point along the relaxation recovery curve of MPRAGE exams, making them very sensitive to unexpected signal variations such as the spatial heterogeneity of radio-frequency (RF) coil sensitivities. This work develops a novel, robust and efficient method for brain tissue segmentation that relies on intrinsic properties such as T1 and is insensitive to variations in RF receiver coil bias. The method assigns the tissue class according to the sign of the real signal intensity after voxel-wise complex-multiplication of inversion recovery images with different inversion times.

4639.   36 Training Labels for Hippocampal Segmentation Based on the EADC-ADNI Harmonized Hippocampal Protocol
Marina Boccardi1, Martina Bocchetta1, Felix Morency2, Masami Nishikawa3, Rossana Ganzola4, Michel Grothe5, Dominik Wolf6, Alberto Redolfi1, Michela Pievani1, Andreas Fellgiebel6, Hiroshi Matsuda3, Stefan Teipel5, Simon Duchesne7, Clifford R. Jack Jr.8, Giovanni B. Frisoni1, and Luigi Antelmi1
1IRCCS Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy, 2IMEKA, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, 3Kawamura Gakuen Woman's University, Abiko-City, Japan, 4Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada, 5German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock, Germany, 6Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany,7Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada, 8Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol (HarP) is a Delphi definition of manual hippocampal segmentation from MRI. Training manual raters, and especially automated segmentation algorithms, requires large datasets representative of wide physiological variability. This work produced a set of 270 hippocampal labels certified to comply with standard HarP segmentation allowing proper training of tracers and algorithms alike.

4640.   37 Anatomical structure correlated with control performance for an electroencephalography-based brain-computer interface: A voxel-based morphometry study
Kazumi Kasahara1,2, Charles Sayo DaSalla2, Manabu Honda1,2, and Takashi Hanakawa2,3
1Department of Functional Brain Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodairashi, Tokyo, Japan,2Department of Advanced Neuroimaging, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodairashi, Tokyo, Japan,3PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been widely studied for their potential to replace lost functions in the form of neuroprostheses. However, BCI performance varies considerably among individuals, and the factors affecting BCI performance are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between performance of an electroencephalographic (EEG) mu rhythm-based BCI (EEG-BCI) and brain structure. We found correlations between EEG-BCI performance and gray matter volume of Area 5, the dorsal premotor cortex, and supplementary motor area. These findings demonstrate the need to develop BCIs better suited to individual performance variability and may also provide insight into the methods for doing so.

4641.   38 Investigation of normal brain aging in rodent experimental model by DTI, Volumetry and localized proton spectroscopy
Stefano Tambalo1, Alessandro Daducci2, Elisa Mosconi1, Silvia Fiorini1, Nicolo' Sonato1, Marta Balietti3, Patrizia Fattoretti3, Andrea Sbarbati4, and Pasquina Marzola5
1Dept. of Neuological and Movement Science, Università di Verona, Verona, Verona, Italy, 2STI IEL LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Neurobiology of Aging Laboratory and Cellular Bioenergetics Laboratory, I.N.R.C.A. (Italian National Centres on Aging), Ancona, Italy, 4Dept. of Neuological and Movement Science, INSTM Firenze, Verona, Italy, 5Dept. of Computer Science, University of Verona, Verona, Italy

In the last decade many studies of human brain aging based on MRI advanced techniques have been published. Clinical studies are potentially affected by several factors, such as life-style or genetic variability. Experimental models of aging could be useful in dissecting physiological from pathophysiological events as well as the impact of environmental or genetic factors. They could also represent a platform to study the effect of pharmacological and non-pharmacological “therapies” in delaying brain aging. Aim of present work was the investigation of brain aging in a rodent experimental model by advanced MRI techniques and the assessment of its potential translational value.

4642.   39 Feasibility of an automatic software for medial temporal structures resected patients
Gabriela Hossu1, Romain Tonnelet2, Virginie Voltzenlogel3, Daniel Gounot4, Louis Maillard5, Liliann Manning6,7, and Marc Braun2
1CIC-IT, CHU Nancy, NANCY, France, 2Neuroradiology, CHU Nancy, NANCY, France, 3Psychopathologie clinique, Psychologie de la Santé et Neurosciences Laboratoire Octogone - CERPP, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France, 4Biophysique, Faculté de Médecine de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 5Neurology, CHU Nancy, NANCY, France, 6Neuropsychologie, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 7U1114, INSERM, France

To access Freesurfer feasibility when studying medial temporal structures resected patients compared to controls. MRI exams where performed at 3T on 45 subjects (22 controls and 23 epileptic patients with resection). Freesurfer software version 5.2 was used in order to study left and right hippocampus. Automatic hippocampus segmentation is possible even for resected patients with a quite good precision.

4643.   40 Visualizing Connectomes Elucidated from Dimensionality Reduction in an Immersive Virtual Reality Environment (CAVE2™)
Allen Q. Ye1, Galen Thomas-Ramos2, Johnson J. GadElkarim3,4, Olusola A. Ajilore3, Anand Kumar3, Richard L. Magin1, Jason Leigh2, and Alex D. Leow3,5
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, United States, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, United States, 5Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, California, United States

Current methods in developing brain connectomes use somewhat arbitrary or heuristic methods. Moreover, restriction in presentation formats typically relegate connectomes into a 2D environment. In this methodological abstract, we propose to use dimensionality reduction to take tractographic networks and convert them into an intrinsic space, one that is more correlated to graph distance. To address the issue of presentation, we use CAVE2™, an immersive virtual reality environment. We believe that using such an immersive space will improve comprehension in clinicians of the complex structure of the brain, as well as allowing for newer, more advanced connectomes to be developed.

4644.   41 Relationship between Cerebral Ventricles dilatation and Cerebrospinal Fluid oscillations
Bader Chaarani1, Cyrille Capel2, Jadwiga Zmudka3, Joel Daouk1, Anthony Fichten2, Catherine Gondry-Jouet4, Roger Bouzerar1, and Olivier Balédent1
1Department of Imaging, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France, 3Department of Geriatrics, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France, 4Department of Radiology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France

In this work, we study the relationship between ventricular dilatation and cerebrospinal fluid flow at the aqueductal and cerebral levels in 45 neurodegenerative diseases. Results show that cerebrospinal fluid flow does not depend on ventricular morphology.

4645.   42 Segmentation of Small Veins Using 3D isotropic SW images at 7T
Narayanan Krishnamurthy1, Yujuan Zhao2, Rebecca Maccloud3, Tiejun Zhao4, Shailesh Raval3, Junghwan Kim3, Caterina Rosano3, Howard Aizenstein3, and Tamer Ibrahim3
1Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3University of Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Siemens Medical Solutions, PA, United States

We took isotropic 0.5 mm 3D SWI images to visualize small veins. The isotropic voxels allow the semi-automatic segmentation methods to track the vessels across slices. In addition we looked at the feasibility of using 3D mask from isotropic images to segment structures like the hippocampus from high in-plane resolution 2D SW images (0.2x0.2mm)

4646.   43 Relationship between Cortical Folding Pattern and Brain Network Characteristics
Kaiming Li1 and Xiaoping Hu1
1Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

This study investigated the relationship between cortical folding pattern and characteristics of structural brain network. The cortical folding pattern was measured using curvature of reconstructed cortical surface. The brain network was constructed via probabilistic fiber tractography of multishell high resolution diffusion images. Node degree, clustering coefficient, closeness centrality and average fiber length of the resultant network were quantified and analyzed. Our result indicates that structural brain network may be closely related to cortical folding pattern.

44 Developmental trajectories of cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy children
Jackie Leung1 and Andrea Kassner1,2
1Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Non-invasive imaging strategies can assess cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) by quantifying blood flow changes in response to a vasoactive stimulus. This measure has become a valuable tool in the clinical assessment of cerebrovascular disease. However, little is currently known about CVR from childhood through adolescence. The purpose of this study was to use BOLD MRI to determine how CVR changes with age in healthy children. We observed that CVR increases linearly with age up to the late teens, when a sudden decrease is observed. In contrast cerebral blood flow steadily decreased throughout the measured age range.

4648.   45 Gender-Specific Templates of T1, T2 and mcDESPOT Myelin Water Fraction Map Spanning Early Childhood
Sean Deoni1, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh2, Holly Dirks1, Nicole Waskiewicz1, Lindsay Walker1, and Douglas Dean1
1Advanced Baby Imaging Lab, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 2Neuroimaging, King's College London, England, United Kingdom

Few studies to-date have aimed to comprehensively investigate or map early infant brain development, despite this period being a crucial period of brain and behavioral maturation. In this work, we used the mcDESPOT relaxometry method to quantitative evaluate T1, T2 and myelin water fraction, VFM, in a large sample of healthy and typically-developing children 2.5 months to 5.5 years of age. From 424 total datasets, 14 mean male and female T1, T2 and VFM maps were created spanning 3 to 60 months of age. These publicly-available data ( provide an unprecedented view into normal brain development.

4649.   46 Neonatal Asymmetry between Preterm and Term Neonates:An MRI Structural Network Study
Jing Wang1,2, Mengye Lyu1,2, Jie Gao1, Yumiao Zhang1, Yanyah Li1, Qinli Sun1, and Jian Yang1,2
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The First Hospital of Medical School, Xi¡¯an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

Recent studied have demonstrated that neonatal brain networks have hemispheric asymmetry. However, changes of the asymmetry are not yet understood between preterm and term neonates. Our study compared network parameters of cerebral hemispheres between preterm and term neonates. The results showed more evident leftward asymmetry on term neonates with more efficient information transfer than preterm neonates. Moreover, comparing lateralization index of betweenness centrality in the cerebral hemispheres of preterm and term neonates, we concluded for term neonatal brain, left hemisphere has preferably evolved into regions with visual and language function while lateralized regions with cognitive functions come out in the right hemisphere.

4650.   47 Accurate PET Reconstruction for PET/MR Scanners using Synthetic CT -permission withheld
Snehashis Roy1, Wen-Tung Wang1, John Anthony Butman2, and Dzung Pham1
1Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

In functional imaging, PET/CT images are regularly acquired in clinical setting. CT-based electron density attenuation coefficient maps enable correct reconstruction of PET images. Recently, the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been popularized in PET/MR systems. We demonstrate that Ultra-short echo time (UTE) dual-echo images can effectively be used to synthesize realistic looking CT via patch matching from subject to atlas. We show that PET reconstruction using synthetic CT based μ-maps are very close to that obtained with original CT based μ-maps and synthetic CT provides better PET reconstruction than DIXON based μ-map.

4651.   48 Phase distribution of white matter using phase difference enhanced MRI -permission withheld
Tetsu Niwa1, Tetsuya Yoneda2, Takuya Hara1, Tatsuya Sekiguchi1, Takakiyo Nomura1, Takashi Okazaki1, Shuhei Shibukawa1, Noriharu Yanagimachi1, Taro Takahara3, and Yutaka Imai1
1Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan, 2Medical Physics in Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kummamoto, Japan, 3Biomedical Engineering, Tokai University School of Engineering, Kanagawa, Japan

We assessed the phase distribution of the neonatal brain using phase difference image. Phase difference image was created with a combination of the magnitude and masked phase image with relatively small positive phase using 3D gradient echo-planar imaging. Signal ratio at the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the corpus callosum, and the semiovale center was calculated. As a result, a certain phase distribution was noted in neonatal brain, which was different from that of fractional anisotropy at diffusion tensor imaging.


Normal Brain Physiology & Developing Brain

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  10:30 - 11:30

  Computer #  
4652.   49 GABA concentration predicts perceptual learning ability after repetitive electrical stimulation
Nicolaas A Puts1,2, Stefanie Heba3, Tobias Kalisch4, Benjamin Glaubitz3, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke3, Martin Tegenthoff3, Hubert Dinse4, and Richard A Edden1,2
1Russell J. Morgan department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 3Department of Neurology, BG-klinikum Bergmannsheil, Ruhr - University, Bochum, na, Germany, 4Neural Plasticity Lab, Institute for Neuroinformatics, Ruhr - University Bochum, Bochum, na, Germany

GABA concentration predicts baseline behavioral sensitivity as well as learning capacity. This has strong implications for understanding learning and brain plasticity.

4653.   50 Hemispherical asymmetry contributes to preserved language abilities in alcohol dependents: A combined 1H MRS and VBM approach
Deepika Bagga1, Shilpi Modi1, Prabhjot Kaur1, Mohan lal Garg2, Debajyoti Bhattacharya3, Subash Khushu1, and Namita Singh1
1NMR Research centre, INMAS, Delhi, delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab, India, 3Department of psychiatry, Base Hospital, Delhi, delhi, India

Language abilities are primarily left lateralized and relatively preserved in alcohol dependents. A recent fMRI study at our centre has also suggested a probable involvement of left parieto-temporal network in maintaining language functions. Thus, to assess the metabolic and structural basis of preserved language abilities, proton in vivo MRS study on parietal and temporal lobe bilaterally and whole brain VBM study were performed on alcohol dependent subjects and healthy controls. The preserved metabolite ratios and intact gray and white matter volumes in left hemisphere as compared to right hemisphere might contribute to preserved language abilities in alcohol dependent subjects.

4654.   51 Effects of Propofol Anesthesia and Sex on Cerebral Blood Flow
Pelin Aksit Ciris1, Maolin Qiu2, and R. Todd Constable3
1Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, and Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

We present whole brain quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow at rest and during Propofol administration across a cohort of 32 normal male and female subjects, and the highlight significant differential effects of sex and anesthesia. Our findings were in good agreement with the limited available literature. Such variations should be considered in the interpretation of perfusion or fMRI studies conducted under anesthesia. Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, could lead to more specific models of cerebrovascular responses, improved assessment of anesthetic requirements and better management of anesthesia in all patients.

4655.   52 Cerebral blood flow, vascular reactivity and oxygen consumption in healthy aging.
J. B. De Vis1, E. T. Petersen1, A. Bhogal1, L. J. Kappelle2, and J. Hendrikse1
1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Previous studies have found conflicting results when it comes to age-related changes in brain hemodynamic parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of age on brain hemodynamics. For this purpose, calibrated MRI was performed in a group of young healthy subjects and a group of elderly healthy subjects. We found lower whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in the elderly subjects compared to the young subjects.

4656.   53 Differentiating neural and vascular effects of caffeine in resting state connectivity study
Yongquan Ye1 and E. Mark Haacke1,2
1Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States

Caffeine is known to modify both the levels of cerebral persuion and alertness, affecting the resting state connectivity results. Existing studies have demonstrated that the induced connectivity changes are mainly the result of neural stimluation, the role and ratio effect of the perfusion part is yet to be explored. We use flow dephasing dark blood method the aquire resting state data and compare them between normal BOLD data under the pre- and post-caffeine intake conditions. We found that reduction in perfusion during caffeine intake may actually account for a greater effect than expected, and is opposite to caffeine's neural enhancement effects.

4657.   54 Effects of hormonal contraception on the default mode network: a resting-state MRI study
Timo De Bondt1, Dirk Smeets2, Wim Van Hecke2, Yves Jacquemyn3, and Paul M Parizel1
1Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 2icoMetrix, Leuven, Belgium, 3Gynaecology and Obstaetrics, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium

It is well established that sex differences occur in brain structure and function, which result in behavioral dissimilarities. However, only in recent years, the effect of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptives has been considered. In this research we used spatially constrained independent component analysis to infer differences in resting state BOLD response of the default mode network in a healthy population of young women. When comparing natural cycle (NC) group with hormonal contraceptives (HC) group, results show a decreased activity in the posterior cingulate cortex in the HC group.

4658.   55 Method of transforming brain spectroscopic waterline data into standard brain space (analyzing functional MRS in FSL)
Hamed Mojahed1, Fernando Arias-Mendoza1, and Truman R Brown2
1Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 2Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States

We present a method to register waterline spectroscopic brain data to standard MNI brain for inter-subject analysis. High spatial resolution non-water suppressed 3D EPSI data with CSF suppression inversion recovery pulse was acquired from visual cortex during a flickering checkerboard visual presentation. Principal component analysis was performed on the resulting data. 1st PC score map was registered to high spatial resolution structural MPRAGE. The transformation matrix of this registration was applied to the 2nd PC score map. MPRAGE was registered to standard brain and its transformation matrix was applied to 1st or 2nd PC score maps to enable group analysis.

4659.   56 Metabolic aberrations underlying impaired abstract reasoning abilities in chronic alcoholism: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging study
Deepika Bagga1, Shilpi Modi1, Prabhjot Kaur1, Mohan lal Garg2, Debajyoti Bhattacharya3, Subash Khushu1, and Namita Singh1
1NMR Research centre, INMAS, Delhi, delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab, India, 3Department of psychiatry, Base Hospital, Delhi, delhi, India

Proton in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) study on frontal and parietal brain regions was performed on alcohol dependents and healthy controls to look for the metabolic aberrations underlying the abstract reasoning deficits observed in alcohol dependents as shown by a recent fMRI study at our centre. This study suggested the probable role of fronto-parietal circuit for poorer abstract reasoning abilities. A significant reduction in NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr ratios and a significant increase in Cho/Cr and Ins/Cr ratios was observed which could possibly account for impaired abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol dependents.

4660.   57 Structural Covariance Brain Networks in Preterm and Term Neonates
Mengye Lyu1,2, Xianjun Li1,3, Jing Wang1,3, Ed X. Wu2,4, and Jian Yang1,3
1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 4Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

This study investigated the structural covariance networks of preterm and term neonatal brains. By examining the global topological properties, inter-hemispheric connections, and nodal centrality shift, we characterized the distinct features of these two networks. The preterm neonatal brains, compared with term neonatal brains, contained fewer high degree nodes and had lower global and local efficiency. Inter-hemispheric connections in preterm neonatal brains were significantly fewer than in term. Regions involved with visual processing and emotion gained higher centrality in the term neonatal brains. These findings revealed the connectivity pattern with increasing regional interaction and integration in early brain development.

4661.   58 A new set-up to investigate neurophysiological effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the brain of fish via MR imaging and spectroscopy
Matthias Schmidt1, Hans-Otto Pörtner1, and Christian Bock1
1Integrative Ecophysiology, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Bremen, Germany

CO2-induced ocean acidification leads to neurological disorders in fish with unknown consequences for marine ecosystems. In order to investigate the exact mechanisms of how CO2 interferes with the teleost nervous system we developed a stereotactic holding device enabling in vivo MR imaging and spectroscopy on the brain of fish for several days without use of anaesthetics during the experimental procedure. This setup was used to acquire anatomical images of the brain of an Antarctic Notothenoid to identify possible regions for future studies. Following we investigated the effects of severe hypercapnia on the acid-base and energy status.

4662.   59 Frequency specificity of regional homogeneity in the resting-state human brain
Xiaopeng Song1, Yi Zhang2, Zhenyu Zhou3, and Yijun Liu1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shanxi, China, 3GE Health care, Beijing, Beijing, China

To examine the frequency characteristics of regional homogeneity (ReHo) in different brain areas, a data-driven method, Empirical Mode Decomposition, was adopted to decompose the time series of each voxel into several components with distinct frequency bands. ReHo in each of the components were then calculated. Results showed that ReHo in cortical areas were higher and more frequency-dependent than those in the subcortical regions. BOLD oscillations of 0.02-0.04Hz mainly contributed to the cortical ReHo, whereas the ReHo in subcortical areas involved a wider frequency range. Our work may advance the understanding of the neural-physiological basis of local BOLD activities.

4663.   60 Changes in Functional Connectivity during Propofol Anesthesia as Evaluated with Intrinsic Connectivity Distribution
Maolin Qiu1, Ramachandran Ramani2, Dustin Scheinost1, and Robert Todd Constable1,3
1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 2Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, and Neurosurgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Intrinsic functional connectivity contrast (ICC) has been used to examine the effects of anesthetics on the human brain, but several issues have been problematic, one of which is that a correlation threshold has to be arbitrarily chosen and different thresholds may yield different results. A new approach based on the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD) was proposed to eliminate the need to choose a threshold. In this work we report the anesthetic effects of propofol on functional connectivity based on the ICD method and the results are compared with those obtained using ICC.

4664.   61 Changes of leg- and hand-related corticospinal tract volumes during brain development -permission withheld
David O. Kamson1,2, Csaba Juhasz1,2, Harry T Chugani1,2, and Jeong-Won Jeong1,2
1Pediatrics and Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2PET center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States

We estimated the streamline volume of the leg- and hand-related segments of the corticospinal tract (CST) in children between age 1 and 14 with or without neurological disease using a novel DTI technique. We found a steady decline of right hemispheric leg-related CST volumes with age, while there was no age-effect on the left hemispheric leg-related CST volume, or in either the left or right hand-related CST segments. Our findings are possibly a result of the gradual increase in the dominance of the left hemisphere.

4665.   62 Neural mechanisms of imaginary pushing an object in different spatial directions: an fMRI study
Wim Van Hecke1, Dirk Loeckx2, and Ralf Otte3
1Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium, 2icoMetrix, Belgium, 3tecData AG, Switzerland

In this study, we examined the neuronal processes involved in an imaginary motor task using functional MRI. 15 healthy subjects were asked to imaginary push a cursor on a screen in different spatial directions. We found similar, bilateral brain activations during pushing the cursor in different spatial directions, involving the putamen, cerebellum, middle frontal gyrus, parietal cortex, and supplementary motor area. A predictive analysis showed high reliability to differentiate imaginary pushing from actual finger tapping, but only small differences were found between imaginary pushing in different spatial directions.

4666.   63 Reproducibility of BOLD and CBF responses to fixed step changes in inspired O2/CO2 using dual-echo pCASL -permission withheld
Felipe B Tancredi1, Isabelle Lajoie1, Danny J Wang2, and Richard D Hoge1
1Centre de recherche de l'IUGM, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Functional MRI of BOLD and CBF responses to blood gas manipulations have been used to characterize cerebral vascular reactivity and calibrate physiological models allowing estimation of CMRO2. Characterizing the test-retest reliability of such measures will aid in power calculations required for future research and clinical applications. We have determined the coefficient of variation for BOLD and CBF responses to hypercapnia/hyperoxia using step changes in inspired CO2/O2 to manipulate these blood gases, and a dual-echo pCASL sequence to simultaneously image blood flow and oxygenation. We have found that pCASL measures of BOLD and CBF in grey-matter were robust and consistent.

4667.   64 Graph Analyses of the Network Connectivity Changes during Propofol-Induced Sedation and Unconsciousness
Maolin Qiu1, Ramachandran Ramani2, Xilin Shen1, and Robert Todd Constable1,3
1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 2Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Neurosurgery, Yale School of Medicine, Connecticut, United States

Understanding how brain function is affected by anesthetics will help both anesthesiologists and neuroscientists reveal the underlying cognitive processes for consciousness and sleep. Anesthetic effects on the resting-state brain connectivity between regions of interest (ROIs) could be evaluated using graph theory, but parcellation of ROIs might be among the critical factors that account for the diversity in the previously observed results. Functional MR image voxels can be grouped into brain ROIs based on the resting-state connectivity coherence. In this study we evaluated the anesthetic effects of propofol on the connectivity between ROIs parcellated based on the similarity of resting-state time courses.

4668.   65 Cerebral Blood Volume Imaging using DANTE-based Flow Suppression
Ze Wang1, Tiejun Zhao2, and Linqing Li3
1Univ of Penn, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Siemens Co. Ltd, PA, United States, 3Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important neuro-physiological measure which is of great interest to neuroscientific and basic research. Non-invasively measuring CBV has been a challenge due to the difficulty of distinguishing tissue signal from both the arterial and venous flow signal. By using the flow-sensitized DANTE preparation sequence, we proposed a technique for non-invasively measuring regional CBV.

4669.   66 Characterizing spatial-temporal patterns of neonatal brain development using volume-surface analysis
Yajing Zhang1, Michael I. Miller1, Linda Chang2, and Kenichi Oishi3
1Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Many neurological diseases and functional defects in infants are correlated with abnormal development of specific cortical regions. Therefore, it is important to monitor neonatal cortical development using quantitative tools. We proposed a volume-surface analysis tool based on diffeomorphic mapping technique, and provide informative location-based measures on longitudinal data for characterizing the spatial-temporal growth patterns in the neonatal population.

4670.   67 Measurement of the myelin-to-axon diameter g-ratio in very-preterm infants using multi-modal MRI
Andrew Melbourne1, Zach Eaton-Rosen1, Giles Kendall2, Alan Bainbridge3, Nicola J Robertson2, Neil Marlow2, and Sebastien Ourselin1
1CMIC, University College London, London, London, United Kingdom, 2Academic Neonatology, UCL Institute for Women's Health, London, United Kingdom,3Medical Physics, University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom

This abstract describes the development of a novel multi-modal biomarker of brain energetic efficiency and its application to a cohort of very-preterm neonates.

4671.   68 Higher Striatal GABA Relates To A More Serial And Efficient Mode Of Action Cascading And Stronger Attentional Gating In Airplane Pilots
Shalmali Dharmadhikari1,2, Ali Yildiz3, Clara Quetscher3, Witold Chmielewski3, Ulrike Dydak1,2, and Christian Beste4
1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, W Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 3Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience, Biopsychology, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany,4Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Dresden, Germany

A neurobiochemical-electrophysiological study was conducted to examine the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the mechanism of action cascading, and hence the mechanisms mediating superior “multi-tasking” performance in airplane pilot trainees vs controls. Airplane pilot trainees exhibited stronger coupling leading to superior action control in situations requiring a cascading of actions. The results indicate that the speed of responding as well as attentional gating functions depend on striatal GABA concentrations. The results show that GABA is an important modulator of “multitasking” abilities.

4672.   69 The morphometry research of auditory speech cortex in bilateral cerebral hemisphere for preschool children on magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)
Zhang Yumiao1, Luo Xue2,3, Gao Jie3, and Yang Jian3
1The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi¡¯an Jiaotong University.Xi¡¯an, PR China, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology,Xi' an Jiaotong Universi, China, 3The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi¡¯an Jiaotong University.Xi¡¯an, PR China, Shaanxi, China

Summary Aim: Preschoolers To explore the morphological changes of cortical auditory language of preschoolers by magnetic resonance. Methods: The cortex of the superior temporal gyrus was divided from the 3D-FSPGR T1WI images by a tool of the FreeSurfer 5.1 software package, and then measured their morphology including volume, surface area and thickness of the cortex. Results: The difference of total bilateral superior temporal gyrus, only the statistical outcome of total cortex thickness is significant as follows: t= 2.965, p=0.006, the right superior temporal gyrus showed significant advantages. Conclusion: The right superior temporal gyrus showed significant advantages in exploring human evolution and progress is significant in exploring human evolution and progress.

4673.   70 The b=0 dependence of diffusion-based functional MRI signals to measure neuronal activations
Hyug-Gi Kim1, Geon-Ho Jahng2, Dal-Mo Yang2, Kyung-Nam Ryu3, Dong-Wook Sung3, and Woo-Suk Choi3
1Biomedical Enginerring, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, 2Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, 3Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Korea

To investigate neuronal changes depended on a b0 value on diffusion fMRI, we designed a diffusion-based fMRI sequence with two different b0 values. One DWI with b=0 s/mm2 (b0_b) was obtained during the first baseline scan and another DWI with b=0 s/mm2 (b0_a) was again obtained during the last stimulation scan. A single-shot spin echo sequence was run for trace-weighted imaging on 16 young subjects. We calculated ADC maps using b0_a and b0_b called as ADC_a and ADC_b, respectively. Results and discussion are presented.

4674.   71 Evidence for Sensitivity Adjustment in the Auditory Cortex during Audio-Visual cross-modal fMRI -permission withheld
Johannes Bernarding1, Sebastian Baecke1, Claus Tempelmann2, and Andre Brechmann3
1Medical Faculty, Institute for Biometry and Medical Informatics, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, 2Medical Faculty, Clinic for Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, 3Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany

In a cross-modal audio-visual fMRI study an unusual linear ramp-like increase of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) was observed in the auditory cortex during isolated visual stimulation while during coupled audio-visual stimulation the well-known block-design HRF was seen. It is hypothesized that expecting coupled visual-acoustic stimuli while only an isolated visual stimulus was presented led to an decrease of the cortical sensitivity threshold thus increasing unconsciously the perception of the ambient constant scanner noise. This result may be interpreted as evidence that internal expectations can lead to strongly changed perceptions even if external stimuli remain constant.


Normal Ageing Brain

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  10:30 - 11:30

  Computer #  
4675.   73 Increased grey matter transit times are associated with white matter hyper intensities
Jan Willem van Dalen1, Henri J M M Mutsaerts2, Lisa S M Eurelings1, Martijn D Steenwijk3, Hugo Vrenken3, Matthan W A Caan2, Aart J Nederveen2, and Edo Richard1
1Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Noord Holland, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Noord Holland, Netherlands, 3Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Noord Holland, Netherlands

White matter hyper intensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) are a common finding on brain MRI in the elderly, associated with hypertension, cognitive decline and mortality. Although they are thought to arise from low grade ischemia, the relation between WMH load and cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, WMH and CBF data, including transit time, were obtained from 3D FLAIR and pCASL (including vascular crushing) MRI scans of 196 community dwelling elderly with systolic hypertension. Unlike total and crushed CBF, grey matter transit time was significantly associated with increasing WMH load.

4676.   74 Measuring the effects of aging and gender on regional brain shear stiffness in healthy volunteers with MR Elastography
John Huston1, Arvin Arani1, Matthew C Murphy1, Kevin J Glaser1, Armando Manduca2, David S Lake2, Scott Kruse1, Clifford R Jack1, and Richard Ehman1
1Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 2Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

Objective: To evaluate global and regional brain stiffness as a function of age and gender using an improved magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) approach. Methods: Full volume 3-dimensional brain stiffness measurements were acquired in a total of 45 healthy amyloid-negative, cognitively normal subjects in the age range of 56-89 years. Results: Significant negative correlations between age and brain stiffness were observed in the cerebrum and the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. A significant gender bias was also observed in the occipital and temporal lobes. Conclusions: These results suggest both age and gender impact stiffness in certain regions of the brain.

4677.   75 Brain Iron Content and Smoking History in Healthy Older Individuals
Yosef A Berlow1,2, David L Lahna3, Daniel L Schwartz4, Randall L Woltjer5, Robin L Guariglia3, Lisa C. Silbert3, Jeffrey A Kaye3, and William D Rooney1,2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States, 2Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States, 5Department of Pathology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States

Cigarette smoking has been demonstrated to significantly alter systemic iron metabolism. This study utilized R2 measurements from MRI scans of 81 healthy elderly individuals to investigate the relationship between smoking history and MRI measures of brain iron content using a region of interest analysis. Individuals with long-term smoking histories were found to have increased R2 values in the caudate and putamen compared to aged-matched nonsmokers and individuals with short-term smoking histories. Increased R2 values were correlated with pack year history in the caudate. These findings suggest that smoking cigarettes may increase lifetime brain iron accumulation in these basal ganglia structures.

4678.   76 Fornix shows a unique pattern of microstructural alteration and a relationship to network efficiency in healthy ageing
Rok Berlot1,2, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley3, Derek K Jones3, and Michael J O'Sullivan1
1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 3Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, and the Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

The link between age-related alterations in individual tracts, whole white matter and network topology remains unclear. In healthy elderly, we explored microstructural variation in temporal association tracts, its relationship to global white matter alterations and structural network topology. Microstructural measures of the fornix, both uncinate fasciculi and left parahippocampal cingulum show significant relationships with age, but only the fornix shows a relationship independent of global white matter alterations. Network global efficiency decreases with age, which is mediated by fornix microstructure. The fornix demonstrates age-related variation not shared with the rest of the brain and a tight link to network topology.

4679.   77 Dyslipidemia and hypertension as cerebral blood flow predictors in the CRESCENDO cohort of elderly subjects.
Jeremy Deverdun1,2, Tasnime Akbaraly3, Frederic Ben Naim4, Alain Bonafe5, Adam Brickman6, Celine Charroud3, Stephane Chemouny1, Jeannette Fareh7, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur5, François Molino8, Olivier Soulier4, Jason Steffener6, Florence Portet3, Yaakov Stern6, Karen Ritchie3, and Emmanuelle Le Bars5
1Intrasense, Montpellier, Herault, France, 2Theoretical Physics, Universite Montpellier 2, Montpellier, Herault, France, 3Unit 1061 : Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and clinical research, Inserm, Herault, France, 4Intrasense, Herault, France, 5Service de neuroradiologie, CHU Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier, Herault, France, 6The Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, New York, United States, 7SysDiag UMR3145, CNRS, Herault, France, 8Theoritical Physics, Universite Montpellier 2, Montpellier, Herault, France

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important factor in brain function. We to assess the link between quantified gray matter CBF and epidemiological factors obtained 12 years before, on a large cohort of elderly subjects. Mean and regional CBF were obtained from Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling sequence after correction for white matter lesion and partial volume effect. Results exhibit significant decrease in CBF in dyslipidemia and an increase in hypertension. The regional analysis highlights localization of these modifications in posterior circulation territories (hypertension), and regions of the anterior circulation (dyslipidemia). Those two factors seems able to predict CBF variations.

Paola Valsasina1, Maria A. Rocca1, Alessandro Meani1, Francesco Mele1, Federica Agosta1, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

Using graph theoretical analysis, we analyzed the combined effects of age and gender on large-scale functional brain networks. Significant age-related abnormalities were detected in both genders. Males showed higher average network values than females. Both genders experienced a significant age-related decline of nodal degree and local efficiency of several regions of the frontal lobe, temporal regions, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and deep gray matter nuclei. The age-related decline of functional network connectivity measures in both genders might contribute to clarify fundamental pathophysiologic aspects of healthy aging.

4681.   79 Oxygenation responses to an autonomic challenge in the elderly estimated with the means of quantitative fMRI. Is the white matter at risk of hypoxic injury?
Iwo Jerzy Bohr1, Claire McDonald2, Jiabao He3, Simon Kerr4, Julia Newton5, and Andrew M Blamire1
1Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 2Newcastle University, United Kingdom, 3Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 4Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 5Clinical Academic Office, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Hypoxic ischemia is considered to be a major factor contributing to formation of age-related white matter lesion. We hypothesize that transient hypoxic episodes caused for instance by standing could contribute to this process. Using quantitative fMRI (measuring effective transverse relaxation rate; R2*) we investigated the brain areas particularly vulnerable to transient hypoxia during performance of Valsava manoeuvre (VM). We employed general linear model to estimate the impact of VM on R2*. We found that deoxygenation statistical map overlapped strongly with watershed region between the middle cerebral and posterior artery perfusion territories.

4682.   80 An Investigation into the Formation and Histology of Focal Basal Ganglia Mineralization with quantitative MRI
Andreas Glatz1, Lukas Pirpamer2, Christian Langkammer2, Maria C. Valdés Hernández1, Mark E. Bastin1, Joanna M. Wardlaw1, Franz Fazekas2, Reinhold Schmidt2, and Stefan Ropele2
1Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Styria, Austria

Multifocal T2*-weighted hypointensities in the basal ganglia are linked to focal mineralization and have been proposed as a novel biomarker for microvascular disease and ageing. In this study we investigated the progression of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities and the histology of the underlying tissue with quantitative MRI in a cohort of 300 community-dwelling subjects (183 females; 64 ± 11 years) without history or signs of neuropsychiatric disorders. The results indicate a significant association of their volume with age and that they are linked to mostly aggregated and paramagnetic trace metals, which might be of vascular origin.

4683.   81 Diffusion kurtosis metrics as biomarkers of microstructural development: a comparative study of a group of children and a group of adults
Farida A Grinberg1,2, Ivan I Maximov1, Ezequiel Farrher1, Irene Neuner1,3, Laura Amort1,4, Heike Thönneßen1,5, Kerstin Konrad6,7, and N. Jon Shah1,8
1INM-4, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 3Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany, 4Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Germany, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 7Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 3, Forschungszentrum, Germany, 8Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has become interesting as an efficient method for characterising non-Gaussian water diffusion in brain tissue. In this work, we used DKI to evaluate and compare water diffusion properties in the whole brain and in anatomically defined regions in a group of children and in a group of adults. An intergroup comparison using TBSS and averaged atlas-based regional data analysis shows that DKI metrics are significantly more sensitive to age related microstructural changes than conventional DTI.

4684.   82 Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging of White Matter in the Aging Brain
Andreana Benitez1, Clifford Chan1, Ali Tabesh1, Jensen H. Jensen1, and Joseph A. Helpern1
1Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States

Using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), we found significant decline in mean, axial, and radial kurtoses in white matter (WM) in the aging brain (N=27, ages 55-83). We also found that these metrics were correlated with executive functions (i.e. Trailmaking Test-Part B), primarily in fronto-parietal regions, over and above the effect of age. Consistent with and in extension of prior literature, our results highlight the pervasiveness of WM degeneration in the aging brain and its association with executive functions, using a clinically viable innovation in diffusion MRI.

4685.   83 Diffusion tensor imaging bootstrap metrics differentially predict memory among older adults
Robert S Vorburger1, Christian G Habeck1,2, Atul Narkhede1, Vanessa A Guzman1, Jennifer J Manly1,2, Yaakov Stern1,2, Richard Mayeux1,2, and Adam M Brickman1,2
1Taub Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

The fractional anisotropy is one of the most popular diffusion tensor imaging parameters to investigate white matter microstructural abnormalities associated with cognition in aging. However, fractional anisotropy often does not provide enough reliability and sensitivity. Here, we use bootstrap metrics of the principal eigenvector which may provide more sensitive measures of fiber integrity for the examination of brain-behavior relationships. Using the fornix as a region-of-interest, we show that these new metrics predict memory performance independently compared to fractional anisotropy.

4686.   84 Aging in Deep Gray Matter Revealed by Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging
Nan-Jie Gong1,2, Chun-Sing Wong1, Chun-Chung Chan3, Lam-Ming Leung4, Yiu-Ching Chu5, and Queenie Chan6
1Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Geriatrics & Medicine, United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong, China, 4Psychiatry, United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong, China, 5Radiology, Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong, China,6Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, China

we utilised DKI method in both deep gray and white matters of normal aging adults. The results suggested that diffusional kurtosis can provide measurements in a new dimension complementary to those of diffusivity metrics. Kurtosis together with diffusivity can more comprehensively characterize microstructural compositions and age-related changes than diffusivity alone. In terms of deep gray matter, higher MK and FA in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and red nucleus mirrored the higher microstructural complexity and directionality compared to putamen, caudate nucleus and thalamus. In particular, we proposed that the unique age-related increasing of FA, MK and KR in the putamen may be resulted from iron deposition.

4687.   85 Establishing a reference of iron deposition in human brain deep grey matter nuclei using susceptibility mapping
Manju Liu1, Saifeng Liu2, Dane Dicicco3, Charbel Habib4, Yanwei Miao5, and E. Mark Haacke1,3
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 3The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 5Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian, Liaoning, China

Iron is a vital element for human brains to function properly. Iron overload or deficiencies is harmful to the brain. This study focuses on establishing the brain iron deposition reference in healthy people using magnetic susceptibility mapping (SWIM), which is generated from Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) phase images. We recruited 180 normal subjects, and the 3D volume of 7 brain nuclei were analyzed. The results show iron content increases with age in Putamen, Red Nucleus and Caudate Nucleus. The iron changing pattern in our study is consistent with Hallgren and Sourander’s work, which was performed on the post mortem human brains.

4688.   86 Age and Gender - Related Changes in the Normal Human Brain Using Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) with Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) Analysis
Chandana Kodiweera1, Andrew K Alexander2, and Yu-Chien Wu1
1Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States, 2Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

To better characterize the findings of diffusion-weighted imaging with underlying biological and pathological changes of the human brain, several multiple-compartments diffusion models were proposed recently. In this study, we used Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI), a 5-shells diffusion-encoding scheme, with Neurite Orientation and Density Imaging (NODDI) data analysis. Fifty-two subjects aged from 18 to 72 years were studied. We found that the orientation dispersion index increases as age increases suggesting that the white matter organization loses coherence over age. While WM organization seems to be more sensitive with normal aging, the overall intracellular volume fraction remains stable over the aging course.

4689.   87 Extremely slow water diffusion in rodent brain as a intracellular biomarker for aging
SHU-JUAN FAN1,2, Peng CAO1,2, Wenwen A. Han1,2, and Ed Wu1,2
1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China

Extremely slow water diffusion at ultrahigh b values in brain is thought to be related to restricted water diffusion in the nerve fibers and transmembrane water flux. With diffusion-weighted MRS, this study demonstrated a decrease of slow water ADC and increase of its fraction with aging, and the gradual development of the slow-diffusion water pool during postnatal development. These results were potentially related to the degenerative changes in nerve fiber during aging and the development of axonal membranes and myelin sheath during early life, supporting slow water diffusion as an intracellular biomarker for assessing aging-related structural brain changes.

4690.   88 Voxel-based morphometry of brain changes in oromandibular dystonia
Bo Hou1, Yuan Tian2, Hui You1, Xin-hua Wan2, and Feng Feng1
1Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China, 2Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China

This study compared brain changes between oromandibular dystonia£¨OMD£©and healthy controls with VBM for the first time, revealing some motor-relative regions involved and implying some brain changes that may be relative to nonmotor manifestations.

4691.   89 Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid: IR FASE vs. FASE
Yasutaka Fushimi1, Tomohisa Okada1, Taha M. Mehemed1, Akira Yamamoto1, Mitsunori Kanagaki1, Aki Kido1, Koji Fujimoto1, Naotaka Sakashita2, and Kaori Togashi1
1Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, 2Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan

Oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated differences of characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid.

4692.   90 Human post-mortem brain phantom as a standardization model for multicentre MRI studies
Amgad Droby1, Adriane Gröger1, Isabella Spiwoks-Becker2, Anne Schänzer3, Till Acker3, Frauke Zipp1, and Ralf Deichmann4
1Neurology department-Neuroimaging center (NIC), Johannes Gutenberg university hospital, Mainz, Deutschland, Germany, 2Institute of microanatomy and neurobiology, Johannes Gutenberg university hospital, Mainz, Deutschland, Germany, 3Institute for neuropathology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Deutschland, Germany, 4Brain Imaging Center (BIC), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland, Germany

Multi-centre MRI studies are essential for enrolling large and diverse patient cohorts in the study of neurological diseases. Therefore, a multi-centre MRI standardization tool that mimics the in-vivo human brain is needed. Here, we provide evidence that a human post-mortem brain is a valid model for the standardization of multi-centre MRI studies. Using T1 mapping, T2, MTR and PD, the relaxation times of this model were found to be stable over the time course. Moreover, such a model can provide volumetric measures of GM and WM, which could also be used for intra- as well as inter-site comparisons.

4693.   91 Optimizing MR acquisition time for dynamic pituitary gland evaluation utilizing GRASP
Camilla Rossi Espagnet1, Lev Bangiyev1, Kai Tobias Block2, Robert Grimm3, Fernando Boada2, Timothy Shepherd1, David Chen2, James Babb2, and Girish Fatterpekar1
1Neuroradiology, NYULMC, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, NYULMC, New York, NY, United States, 3Pattern Recognition Lab, FAU, Erlangen, Nuremberg, Germany

Purpose of this study is to evaluate signal-time curves (STC) utilizing GRASP to optimize acquisition time (TA) for dynamic pituitary evaluation. STCs generated from normal appearing anterior pituitary gland and microadenomas in 20 patients evaluated peak enhancement at 60 seconds and then every 10 seconds. There was no significant change in peak enhancement of anterior pituitary gland 90 seconds after administration of contrast. Also, a significant difference in peak enhancement between microadenoma and anterior pituitary gland could be consistently measured during this time. Our findings demonstrate that 90 second TA is sufficient to provide optimal dynamic evaluation of pituitary gland.

4694.   92 Investigation of Age-related Changes in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependency Signals during the visuospatial N-back using Functional MRI
Mitsunobu Kunimi1, Sachiko Kiyama1, and Toshiharu Nakai1
1National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi, Japan

We compared the association between task difficulty and cerebral activity during visual N-back task between the young and elderly groups using blood oxygenation level dependency fMRI. The change of percent signal change depending on task difficulty shows reduction in the up-regulation of the regions responsible for visuospatial working memory in response to increasing task demands in the elderly. It was suggested that the regulation ability of load of visuospatial working memory was decline depending on age. It might cause that elderly cannot utilize visuospatial working memory efficiently.

4695.   93 Age-Dependent Changes in the Histograms of ADC Values -permission withheld
Uwe Klose1, Marion Batra1, and Thomas Nägele1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) sequences were used in in clinical routine examinations. Calculated ADC histograms were were examined for the detection of of age-dependent brain volume losses. 783 patient measurements were performed with a 3T scanner. Data were checked visually and 233 data-sets with pathologies were excluded. The value of the relative number of pixels in the brain compartment of the histogram (ADC-values lower than 1.15 10-3 mm2 /s) of each subject was evaluated. The results for all patients were drawn against age and fitted by a polynomial. The decrease of the fitted curve was stronger for men than for women.

4696.   94 A selective ageing effect on the frontal lobe connections
Michel Thiebaut de Schotten1,2, Katrine Rojkova1, Marika Urbanski1, Frederic Humbert1, Flavio Dell'Acqua2, and Emmanuelle Volle1
1Brain and Spine Institute, Paris, France, 2Natbrainlab - Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom

Cognitive decline affects predominantly executive functions, and brain changes seem to distribute unevenly, concerning predominantly the frontal region. Hence, the study of the frontal connections is of particular interest for the neurosciences of ageing. Here our results suggest for the first time that aging alters significantly specific long and short tracts in the frontal lobes which brings up interesting hypotheses on a pathophysiological explanation for aging decline in visuospatial and verbal working memory, memory encoding and retrieval, reward-based associative learning that can be tested in the elderly.

4697.   95 Multivariate Patterns of Age-Associated Microstructural Change Measured by Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging
Jean-Philippe Coutu1,2, H. Diana Rosas2, and David Salat2,3
1Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2MGH/HST Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MA, United States, 3VA Boston Healthcare System, MA, United States

Age-associated white matter degeneration has previously been investigated using techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an extension of DTI, accounts for non-Gaussian water diffusion and can reflect alterations in the distribution and diffusion properties of tissue compartments. Little work so far has focused on combining diffusion measures to understand how age affects white matter regionally. We show here that a combination of DTI and DKI metrics enables the classification of white matter regions according to specific multivariate patterns of age-associated changes that might be representative of different types of microstructural pathology in brain aging.

4698.   96 Age-related increased R2 and R2* in the C57BL/6J mouse Basal Ganglia correlated with elevated iron levels measured by synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence
Thomas Walker1, Christos Michaelides1, Harry Parkes2, William Crum1, Amy Herlihy3, and Po-Wah So1
1Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2CR-UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom, 3Agilent technologies, Yarnton, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

Brain iron accumulation with ageing may play a role in senescent processes, with age-related increases in basal ganglia R2 and R2* observed in man and associated with increased iron. Here, we show similar increases in R2 and R2* values of the basal ganglia in aged C57BL/6J mice compared to young. Subsequent direct measurement of iron by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence elemental iron mapping suggests the increased R2 and R2* values here may indeed arise from higher iron concentrations in this region. Thus, iron dyshomeostasis may play a role in ageing and MR relaxometry may be used to monitor ageing processes.


Neurodegeneration (Not AD Dementia)

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  11:30 - 12:30

  Computer #  
4699.   1 Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in the Basal Ganglia of Parkinson’s Patients
Christian Langkammer1, Lukas Pirpamer1, Stephan Seiler1, Tamara Pendl1, Ferdinand Schweser2, Andreas Deistung2, Petra Katschnig-Winter 1, Mariella Koegl-Wallner1, Eva Maria Stoegerer1, Juergen Rainer Reichenbach2, Franz Fazekas1, Stefan Ropele1, Reinhold Schmidt1, and Petra Schwingenschuh1
1Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria, 2Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, University Hospital-Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping, both methods validated highly sensitive for iron, demonstrated elevated iron concentration in the putamen of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) showed with respect to healthy controls.

4700.   2 Quantitative assessment of the substantia nigra, red and subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson’s disease using susceptibility weighted imaging
Jason Langley1, Jan Sedlacik2, Xiaoping Hu1, Jens Fiehler2, and Kai Boelmans3
1Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg, Germany, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg, Germany

The substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and red nucleus are important structures in the study of Parkinson’s disease and all three structures contain high concentrations of iron. A hallmark of Parkinson’s disease is the increased deposition of iron in the substantia nigra and red nucleus as well as the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This study compares volumetric estimates of the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and red nucleus. Statistically significant volumetric difference between parkinson’s disease and control groups in the red nucleus and the phase difference between the two groups in the substantia nigra are reported.

4701.   3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7T enables the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
Mirco Cosottini1, Mauro Costagli2, Daniela Frosini3, Ilaria Pesaresi4, Laura Biagi5, Roberto Ceravolo3, Ubaldo Bonuccelli3, and Michela Tosetti5
1University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 2Imago7, Pisa, Italy, 3University of Pisa, Italy, 4Santa Chiara Hospital, Italy, 5IRCCS Stella Maris, Italy

This contribution demonstrates that a short (4’02”) 3D multi-echo GRE sequence at 7.0T targeting the midbrain allows a precise characterization of Substantia Nigra and the visualization of its inner organization in healthy subjects and in patients with Parkinson’s disease. This imaging sequence permits the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease with remarkable accuracy.

4702.   4 Early detection of subtle neurodegeneration in non-cognitively impaired HIV patients using TBSS and VBM
Nicholas G Dowell1, Cynthia Wong1, Emilie Elliot2, Roshani Patel2, Paul S Tofts1, Martin Fisher3, and Mara Cercignani1
1Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom, 2Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 3Elton John Centre, Brighton and Sussex University Hospital, Brighton, United Kingdom

The introduction of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the life expectancy and quality of life of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of this treatment, the incidence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders has continued to rise. Here we study 24 non-cognitively-implaired HIV+ patients (12 untreated, and 12 treated with HAART) to detect early subtle brain changes. We use diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry to show that mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity is significantly increased in the patient cohort. Volume loss is also detected among the patient group. This study reveals that subtle brain changes can be detected before the manifestation of cognitive deficit.

Laura Ludovica Gramegna1, Claudia Testa1, Claudio Bianchini1, David Neil Manners1, Rita Rinaldi2, Giovanni Rizzo1, Valerio Carelli3,4, Raffaele Lodi1, and Caterina Tonon1
1Functional MR Unit, Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 2Unit of Neurology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy, 3Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 4IRCCS Institute of Neurological Science of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is the commonest form of autosomal recessive spino-cerebellar ataxia. We investigate by 1H-MRS possible metabolic changes in the cerebellar hemispheres and their relationship with genetic and clinical severity in 28 patients. Patients had lower NAA/Cr (p<0.001) and Cho/Cr (p=0.004) in comparison to the controls. MD values calculated in the same VOI were increased in patients (p<0.001). NAA/Cr reduction correlated with the increase in MD values, disease duration and clinical severity as assessed by the ICARS scale. Biomarkers derived from 1H-MRS can be used to monitor disease progression and to evaluate the effect of therapy in clinical trials.

4704.   6 Multiband Acquisitions for Clinically-Feasible 3-T MRI Track Density Imaging to Parcellate Thalamic Nuclei for Functional Neurosurgery
Timothy Shepherd1, Sohae Chung1, Christopher Glielmi2, Alon Mogilner3, Himanshu Bhat4, Stephen F Cauley5, Kawin Setsompop5, Fernando Boada1, and Douglas Kondziolka3
1Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Siemens Healthcare, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 4Siemens Healthcare, Charlestown, MA, United States, 5A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Dept. of Radiology, MGH, Charlestown, MA, United States

This study combined two recent innovations, track density imaging (TDI) and multi-band diffusion acquisitions, to create a clinically feasible 3-T MRI protocol for thalamic parcellation to identify the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) in elderly patients with essential tremor prior to functional neurosurgery. This represents a rapid translation of novel research technology to clinical practice without requiring high-field MRI or long scan times poorly tolerated by real patients.

4705.   7 Mapping Gray Matter Structural Integrity in Adults Perinatally infected with HIV
Varan Govind1, Anai Cuadra2, Elizabeth Willen2, M Judy D Post1, Kristopher Arheart3, and Sulaiman Sheriff1
1Radiology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States, 2Pediatrics, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States, 3Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States

The long term impact of HIV infection and the potential effects of its therapeutics on the brain are not completely characterized. Previous brain imaging studies have assessed only the changes in white matter and some deep gray matter structures. In this study, all gray matter structures within the brain are evaluated using diffusion kurtosis imaging metrics in adults perinatally infected with HIV and a matched control group for comparisons. The results indicate significant changes in 19 of the 60 gray matter structures evaluated. These changes may indicate underlying pathologies responsible for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in people with HIV infection.

4706.   8 Longitudinal DTI Study in Parkinson's Disease -permission withheld
Ling Ling Chan1,2, Helmut Rumpel1, Kia Min Ng2, Chooi Sum Yeoh1, and Eng King Tan2,3
1Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore, 2Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore, 3National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore

This longitudinal case control DTI study evaluated the rate of change in FA and ADC in Parkinson’s disease over a 5 year period. We found an increased FA and ADC in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. There was a significant difference in the rate of change in the DTI parametrics in the putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra and frontal white matter between PD and controls. The increased FA of gray nuclei in PD over time was unexpected and possibly related to iron deposition. The rate of DTI changes over time may be useful as potential imaging markers of disease progression.

4707.   9 Early evidence of disease onset by in vivo MRI in a model of ALS
Linda Chaabane1, Nilo Riva1, Caterina Bendotti2, Angelo Quattrini1, and Giancarlo Comi1
1INSPE, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy, 2Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Dept of Neuroscience, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milano, Italy

In this study, the progression of peripheral nervous system damage was monitored in the hSOD-1G93A rat model of ALS by in vivo MRI. Both T2 relaxation time and DTI parameters were analyzed from the preclinical onset to advanced stage of degeneration. This in vivo follow-up of disease progression allowed the definition of T2 relaxation time as a high sensitive marker of early nerve alterations as detected at asymptomatic stage. T2 increase correlated to degenerating nerve fibers associated to endoneurial oedema.

4708.   10 Effects of COMT Val158Met Polymorphism on Resting State Brain Connectivity in HIV Infection and Aging
Linda Chang1, Caroline S. Jiang1, Vanessa Douet1, Eric T Cunningham1, Nataliya Holmes1, Ahnate Lim2, Xin Zhang1, and Thomas Ernst1
1Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Hawaii at Manoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, 2Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

Despite effective antiretroviral medications for HIV viral suppression in the plasma, milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent. Polymorphism of the Val158Met for the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene may play an important role in the development of HAND. 83 participants (40 HIV+ subjects and 43 HIV-seronegative controls) were studied using resting state fMRI to evaluate age-dependent changes in functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI) in relation to the COMT genotypes. HIV subjects with Met/Met alleles had the steepest and greater than normal age-dependent decline in rs-fcMRI. COMT genotype combined with rsfcMRI may be useful for predicting which patient may develop HAND.

4709.   11 Widespread brain changes in patients with advanced glaucoma -permission withheld
Antonio Giorgio1, Paolo Frezzotti2, Ilaria Motolese2, Eduardo Motolese2, Antonio Federico1, and Nicola De Stefano1
1Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Siena, Italy, 2Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology Unit, University of Siena, Siena, Siena, Italy

By using a multimodal MRI approach, this study demonstrates in patients with advanced primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) the presence of structural and functional changes that go well beyond the visual system, thus providing evidence that POAG can be considered a vision disorder belonging to the group of neurodegenerative conditions and, as such, spreading throughout the brain

4710.   12 Characterization of water transportation via aquaporin using tri-exponential model in cerebral infarction and Parkinson's disease - preliminary study
Xueying Ling1, Zhongping Zhang2, Zhoushe Zhao2, Lian Huang3, Yusheng Zhang4, Li Guo5, Yongjin Shi6, Changzheng Shi6, Li Huang6, and Hao Xu6
1medical imaging center, the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 2GE healthcare, China, Guangdong, China,3neurology, the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 4neurology, the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university, Guangdong, China, 5the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university, Guangdong, China, 6medical imaging center, the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university, Guangdong, China

In biologic tissues, water molecules motion mainly includes perfusion in the capillary network, diffusion in the extracellular space, and the permeation in the membrane by aquaporins. A triexponetial model based on multiple b-value diffusion weighted imaging (mbDWI) has theoretical advantages over currently available water diffusion measurements. Because it is intrinsically quantitative, and is mainly dependent on three components hypothesis, i.e. capillary flow (fast component), pure water diffusion (intermediate component) and high b-value related diffusion (slow component probably by aquaporins in the membrane).

4711.   13 In-vivo detection of dopamine in the substantia nigra using 3D MRSI
Adriane Gröger1,2, Rupert Kolb2, and Uwe Klose2
1Department of Neurology and Neuroimaging Center (NIC), Mainz, Germany, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Tübingen, Germany

Progressive degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress which can also explain our MRSI findings of reduced NAA, creatine, glutathione and dopamine as well as elevated taurine, GABA and glutamate in the region of the substantia nigra.

4712.   14 Putamen radial diffusivity is an independent predictor of prion disease severity
Harpreet Hyare1, Enrico De Vita2, Marie-Claire Porter1, Ivor Simpson1, Ged Ridgway1, Simon Mead1, Peter Rudge1, John Collinge1, Sebastien Ourselin3, and John Thornton2
1Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC), University College London, London, United Kingdom

As we enter the era of therapeutic trials in human prion diseases, identification of imaging secondary endpoints is paramount. We present the largest comprehensive cross-sectional and longitudinal findings of microstructural changes in a heterogenous group of patients with human prion disease and argue that radial diffusivity in the putamen is an independent predictor of disease severity and a potential secondary endpoint in future clinical trials in this disease.

4713.   15 Cortico-striatal-thalamic network functional connectivity in hemiparkinsonism -permission withheld
Francesca Caso1, Federica Agosta1, Iva Stankovic2, Alberto Inuggi1, Igor Petrovic2, Marina Svetel2, Vladimir S Kostic2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, BG, Yugoslavia

Cortico-striatal-thalamic functional connectivity (FC) was assessed in chronically treated (t-PD) and drug-naïve (n-PD) hemiparkinsonian patients.. N-PD patients experienced an increased basal ganglia reciprocal connectivity while the affected caudate nucleus and thalamus were hypoconnected with the ispilateral fronto-insular cortices. The enhanced subcortical FC was “normalized”, or inverted into hypoconnectivity, in t-PD patients, who also exhibited an increased FC of the striatal and thalamic regions with the sensorimotor and association posterior cortices. FC changes occur in early hemiparkinsonian patients, antecede the onset of motor symptoms on the opposite body side, and are modulated by levodopa possibly through an increased thalamic outflow.

4714.   16 Voxel Based Morphometry and TBSS in PSP and MSA -permission withheld
Enrico De Vita1,2, Luke Massey3, John S Thornton1,2, Mark J White1,2, Christopher Sinclair1,2, Andrew J Lees3, Tarek Yousry1,2, and Rolf H Jager1,2
1Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom, 2Academic Neuroradiological Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 3Sara Koe PSP Research Centre and Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, Department of Molecular Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom


4715.   17 Fast and fully automatic differentiation of patients with idiopathic Parkinsonian syndrome and progressive supranuclear palsy using T1-weighted MRI datasets -permission withheld
Nils Daniel Forkert1, Jan Sedlacik2, and Kai Boelmans3
1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany

The differentiation of the progressive nuclear palsy (PSP) from the idiopathic Parkinsonian syndrome (IPS) based on clinical criteria is often difficult and high failure rates have been reported. This work presents a fully automatic method for the automatic differentiation of these two neurological diseases using an atlas-based analysis of high-resolution T1-weighted datasets for regional brain volume determination and subsequent classification using a support vector machine. A first evaluation based on 78 datasets revealed that the proposed method is capable of differentiating IPS (n=57) and PSP patients (n=21) fully automatically in less than 10 minutes and an accuracy of 87.2%.

4716.   18 31P-MRSI at 7T in Parkinson's Disease
Silvina G. Horovitz1, Peter Lauro1, Andrew Van1,2, Pascal Sati3, Steve Li4, Pritha Ghosh1, Nora Vanegas-Arroyave1, Codrin I Lungu5, and Mark Hallett1
1Human Motor Control Section, NINDS - NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Texas A&M University, Texas, United States, 3Neuroinmunology Branch, NINDS - NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 4MRS Core, NIMH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 5NIH Parkinson Clinic, NINDS - NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States

Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. Post-mortem studies suggest mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. We assessed mitochondrial function in vivo using phosphorus chemical shift imaging (31P-CSI) at 7T in a cohort of PD, Parkinsonian syndromes and healthy controls. Processing was performed using JMRIU, matlab and AFNI. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by phosphocreatine concentrations and compared to markers of membrane integrity in several brain areas affected by the disorder. High energy phosphates in most affected side of patients' substantia nigra showed significant decrease when compared to the less affected side and to healthy controls.

4717.   19 Spatiotemporal Characterization of Neurodegeneration in the Visual System upon Acute and Chronic Optic Neuropathies using Diffusion Tensor MRI
Leon C. Ho1,2, Ian P. Conner3, Seong-Gi Kim1,4, Ed X. Wu2, Gadi Wollstein3, Joel S. Schuman3, and Kevin C. Chan1,3
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 4Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Dept. of Biological Sci, SKKU, Suwon, Korea

This study determined spatiotemporally the progression of microstructural disorganization in acute and chronic optic neuropathies of different severity using diffusion tensor MRI so as to better understand the mechanisms of pathological processes such as glutamate excitotoxicity, and in neurodegenerative diseases such as ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Our data suggested anterograde degeneration along the visual pathway upon acute glutamate excitotoxic retinal injury with varying rates of λ// and λ┴ changes along time. In addition, mild, early distal axonopathy might be detected in vivo along the visual pathway upon chronic ocular hypertension.

4718.   20 Transverse Relaxation and Volumetric Neural Changes in the H67D HFE High Iron Mouse Model
Mark David Meadowcroft1,2, Douglas G Peters1, Carson Purnell2, Fatima Ali-Rahmani1, Qing X Yang1,2, and James R Connor1
1Neurosurgery, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Radiology, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

High Iron (HFE) H63D and C282Y polymorphisms are found with increased prevalence in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. A mouse model has been generated that has a knock-in of the mouse homolog (H67D) for the human HFE gene. This mouse model has been shown to have alterations in brain iron homeostasis and promotes an environment of oxidative stress. The goal of this study is to longitudinally track the H67D mouse brain changes with non-invasive imaging parametric imaging. The results show that the H67D mice have alterations in transverse relaxation indicative of high iron loading and changes in volumetric congruent with neuronal atrophy.

4719.   21 Preliminary Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging of the substantia nigra in de novo Parkinson disease: Diagnostic Utility of Histogram Analysis -permission withheld
Koji Kamagata1, Masaaki Hori1, Kohei Kamiya1, Michimasa Suzuki1, Akira Nishikori2, Mariko Yoshida1, Fumitaka Kumagai2, Taku Hatano3, Hiroyuki Tomiyama3, Nobutaka Hattori3, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan

We preliminarily investigated the efficacy of analyzing histograms of diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) in vivo. The mean and median values of FA and MK in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (Mann–Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction). The median MK in the SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.910; sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.83). Our results demonstrate that histogram analysis of MK measurements can be a useful tool to diagnose PD in vivo.

4720.   22 Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies Support Pre-symptomatic Degeneration of Selective Axonal Fibers in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease).
Rodolfo Gatto1, Weiguo Li2, Ehsan Tavassoli1, Andrea Buenaventura1, William Hendrickson3, Gerardo Morfini1, and Richard Magin2
1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 3Research Resource Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration and eventual death of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Among several mutant SOD1 mouse models generated, G93A-SOD1 represent the best-characterized one. The remarkable correspondence in clinical phenotype observed between G93A-SOD1 mice and human ALS made this model a benchmark for pre-clinical screening of ALS therapies. As a step towards this end, we performed correlative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histological studies in white (WM) and grey (GM) matter of spinal cords obtained from pre-symptomatic G93A-SOD1 mice and wild-type (control, WT-SDO1) mice

4721.   23 Verification of impaired vasoreactivity in subjects with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A post-hoc analysis of visual-stimulus fMRI
James A Goodman1, Mark R Austin2, Andrea S Les2, Zhiyong Xie1, Yao Zhang3, and Claire Leurent4
1Precision Medicine - Clinical and Translational Imaging, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, United States, 2IXICO plc, London, United Kingdom, 3PharmaTherapeutic Statistics, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, MA, United States, 4Neuroscience Research Unit, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, MA, United States

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by cerebrovascular amyloid deposition and has been shown to be associated with reduced cerbrovascular reactivity in transgenic animal models and in a cohort of human subjects. In this work we attempt to replicate previously-published findings in an independent cohort of CAA subjects and age-matched controls by performing a retrospective analysis of the ascending slope of the hemodynamic response to visual stimulus fMRI. Despite differing field strengths, acquisition protocols and analysis pipelines, a similar observation of significantly reduced cerebrovascular reactivity was observed, demonstrating the robust nature of this characteristic of CAA.

4722.   24 7T MRI and MR Spectroscopy of a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease After AAV Gene Therapy
Heather Gray-Edwards1, Nouha Salibi2,3, Ashley Randle1, Ronald Beyers4, Hai Lu5, Shumin Wang4,5, Thomas Denney4,5, Diane U Wilson1, Judith Hudson6, Allison Bradbury1, Victoria McCurdy1, Ravi Seethamraju2, Aime Johnson6, Nancy Cox1, Miguel Sena-Esteves7, and Douglas Martin1,8
1Scott-Ritchey Research Center, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States, 2Siemens Healthcare MR R&D, Malvern, PA, United States, 3AU MRI Center, Auburn University, AL, United States, 4AUMRI Center, Auburn University, AL, United States, 5Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, AL, United States, 6Department of Clinical Sciences, Auburn University, AL, United States, 7Medical School, University of Massachusetts, MA, United States, 8Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University, AL, United States

Sandhoff disease (SD) is a form of GM2 gangliosidosis in humans that is untreatable and fatal by 5 years of age. We performed intracranial AAV-mediated gene replacement in a feline model of SD, resulting in a >four-fold increase in lifespan and marked attenuation of neurologic signs. 7T MRI and MRS revealed partial normalization of brain architecture and metabolic changes, including reduction of a toxic metabolite, NAHex. Here we report, MRS detection of taurine in GM2 gangliosidosis, which may represent taurine-conjugated GM2, a novel mechanism for export of water insoluble GM2.


Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  11:30 - 12:30

  Computer #  
25 Longitudinal Changes in Glutamate in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy Measured by GluCEST
Rachelle Crescenzi1,2, Catherine DeBrosse1,2, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga2, Kevin D'Aquilla2, Hari Hariharan2, Ari Borthakur2, Virginia M.-Y. Lee3, and Ravinder Reddy2
1Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Center for Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging (CMROI), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research (CNDR), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Glutamate is a wide-spread excitatory neurotransmitter, and has been shown by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to decrease in the hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Here we have studied this quickly progressing mouse model longitudinally, using GluCEST and 1H MRS to measure the effects of progressive tau pathology on glutamate levels. Glutamate increases during neuronal development of adolescent mice, and decreases in the thalamus/hypo-thalamus with the progression of tau pathology. In two cases, extremely low GluCEST values predicated early disease onset.

4724.   26 Resting state functional connectivity in a triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease: preliminary results
Hanbing Lu1, Dong Liu2, Joshua Banks1, Elliot A. Stein1, Mark P Mattson2, and Yihong Yang1
1Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Insitute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

Human neuroimaging studies suggest that brain regions associated with AƒÀ deposition and cortical atrophy in AD patients overlap remarkably well with the so-called default mode network (DMN), indicating that compromise in spontaneous activity within the DMN may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and for monitoring the progression of AD. The triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3~TgAD) shares amyloid and tau pathologies, and cognitive deficits similar to human AD patients, and has been valuable in studying the pathophysiology and progression of AD. In the present study, we aimed to identify the mouse DMN and to investigate its potential dysregulation in a 3~TgAD mouse model.

4725.   27 Testing models of neurodegenerative spread via regional atrophy and its slope
Ashish Raj1 and Eve LoCastro2
1Radiology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New Nork, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

Atrophy progression in Alzheimer’s Disease is highly stereotyped, starting from medial temporal origins, to adjoining temporal and parietal cortices, and finally to frontal cortex. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare 3 popular models of spread: exponential, sigmoid and network-diffusion, by applying them to MRI-derived volumetric data from the public ADNI database. We test how well these models capture the relationship between baseline and rate of change of atrophy. We find that the network-diffusion model’s slope prediction matched measured atrophy slope more accurately than competing models.

4726.   28 Brain Perfusion and Glucose Metabolism by Simultaneous FDG-PET/MR-ASL in Patients with Cognitive Disorders: Initial Experience.
Marco Aiello1, Carlo Cavaliere1, Ilaria Boscolo Galeazzo2, Elena Salvatore3, Francesca B. Pizzini4, Alberto Beltramello4, and Emanuele Nicolai1
1IRCCS fondazione SDN, Naples, Italy, 2University of Verona, Italy, 3Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy, 4General Hospital, Verona, Italy

Simultaneous acquisition of brain metabolism and perfusion by hybrid FDG- PET/MR arterial spin labeling (ASL) may better characterise physio-pathological processes underpinning cognitive disorders. Many technical issues should be considered. While collecting patients group data, here we present 4 typical case-reports. We found a good agreement between blood perfusion and glucose metabolism in MCI and AD. As for as vascular dementia patient, a mismatch between perfusion and metabolism raised up, showing a decreased frontal perfusion in absence of significant metabolism reduction in these areas. These preliminary data show good feasibility in terms of image quality and patient endurance.

4727.   29 Volumetric changes of subcortical nuclei in Mild Cognitive Impairment Converter: A longitudinal MRI study
Xiaojing Long1, Weiqi Liao1, Chunxiang Jiang1, Dai Shan1, Yanjun Diao1, and Lijuan Zhang*1
1Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

Previous studies have demonstrated volume shrinkage of subcortical nuclei in the brain of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the evolution of the volumetric changes remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the atrophy trajectory of subcortical structures from longitudinal data.

4728.   30 Cerebrospinal fluid and brain matter repartition in neurodegenerative diseases
Bader Chaarani1, Cyrille Capel2, Jadwiga Zmudka3, Joel Daouk1, Anthony Fichten2, Catherine Gondry-Jouet4, Roger Bouzerar1, and Olivier Balédent1
1Department of Imaging, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France, 3Department of Geriatrics, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France, 4Department of Radiology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, Somme, France

This work studies the alteration of cerebral cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) and brain matter repartition in neurodegenerative diseases, compared to control using 2D index ratios. Compartments in question are: intra and extraventricular CSF, grey matter and white matter, with consideration of transependymal CSF resorption.

4729.   31 Parietal white matter lesions increase the risk of conversion to AD in patients with amnestic MCI and higher levels cognitive reserve.
Laura Serra1, Massimo Musicco2, Mara Cercignani3, Mario Torso1, Barbara Spanò1, Roberta Perri2, Lucia Fadda2, Carlo Caltagirone2, and Marco Bozzali1
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 2Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 3University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom

Cognitive reserve (CR) in Alzheimer Disease (AD) accounts for differences among individuals in their ability to cope with cognitive decline. By using a questionnaire to assess CR and visual rating scales to assess gray matter atrophy and white matter abnormalities, we show an interaction between different levels of CR, severity of white matter lesions (but not severity of temporal lobe atrophy) with the relative risk of conversion to AD, in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. A specific interaction between CR, WM lesions and GM atrophy allows a quantification of the conversion time from a-MCI to AD.

4730.   32 Predicting topographic patterns of future atrophy in Alzheimer's disease using network diffusion model
Ashish Raj1 and Eve LoCastro2
1Radiology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New Nork, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

Recent studies on prion-like trans-neuronal proteopathy of Alzheimer's disease were captured by a mathematical network-diffusion model enacted on fiber connectivity network of the brain. Here we apply this model to predict future atrophy patterns of demented individuals using baseline MRI. These results could lead to potential breakthroughs in diagnostic, prognostic, and clinical trial assessment in AD, apart from its clear value in understanding the pathophysiology of disease.

4731.   33 Degeneration of Functional and Structural Connection between the Two Hemispheres in AD and MCI
Jianli Wang1, Zhiqun Wang2, Han Zhang3, Robert Mchugh1, Xiaoyu Sun1, Kuncheng Li2, and Qing X. Yang1,4
1Radiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China,3Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 4Neurosurgery, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients perform poorly on tasks that require interhemispheric communication, which suggests a deficit in the interhemispheric integration of information. To investigate the relationship between the interhemisphere functional deficits and degeneration of the white matter connections in the AD, we quantitatively measured interhemispheric functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity method, together with the brain diffusion parameters with diffusion tensor imaging in the AD and mild cognitive impairment patients and compared with those in the cognitive normal healthy controls.

4732.   34 Direct Comparison of Integrated PET-MRI and PET-CT FDG Quantification in the Dementia Population
Timothy Shepherd1, Bang-Bin Chen2, Kent Friedman1, Christopher Glielmi3, Thomas Koesters1, Kimberly Jackson1, Yu-Shin Ding1, David Faul3, and Fernando Boada1
1Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, 3Siemens Healthcare, New York, NY, United States

Research indicates combining PET and MRI biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease will provide better stratification of patients with suspected dementia for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of experimental therapies. Integrated PET-MRI is ideally positioned to provide this information simultaneously, but PET-MRI radiotracer quantification is not trivial and its accuracy not established. We report direct comparison of MRI- to CT-based attenuation correction methods in the same patients with suspected dementia.

4733.   35 Volume-based vs. voxel-based brain morphometry in Alzheimer's disease prediction
Alexis Roche1,2, Daniel Schmitter1,3, Bénédicte Maréchal1, Delphine Ribes1, Ahmed Abdulkadir4, Meritxell Bach-Cuadra2,5, Alessandro Daducci5, Cristina Granziera1,6, Stefan Klöppel4, Philippe Maeder2, Reto Meuli2, and Gunnar Krueger1
1Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare IM BM PI, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Biomedical Imaging Group, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Group of Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, University of Freiburg, Germany, 5Signal Processing Laboratory 5, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 6Service of Neurology, University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

This study compares different MR T1-based brain morphometry methods for automated classification of Alzheimer patients, mild cognitively impaired patients and elderly controls on a standardized analysis set of 818 scans from the ADNI NIH-funded project. The methods under investigation are standard voxel-based morphometry, as implemented by the SPM software, and volume-based morphometry as implemented in respectively different ways by FreeSurfer and Siemens prototype MorphoBox. Our results show that classification using volume-based morphometry is at least as accurate as voxel-based morphometry, therefore proving volume-based morphometry to be a valuable methodology to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

4734.   36 Mean diffusivity measurement in gray matter: a potential image-based biomarker of MCI and AD
Sung-han Lin1, Wen-Chiun Hsu2,3, Yao-Liang Chen4, and Jiun-Jie Wang5,6
1Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan, 2Department of Neurology, ChangGung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan County, Taiwan, 3Dementia Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan County, Taiwan, 4Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan County, Taiwan, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan, 6Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan County, Taiwan

The changes of mean diffusivity in cortical gray matter were compared among 121 participants, divided into three groups: healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. The percentage changes in frontal and temporal lobes between Alzheimer’s disease and healthy is approximately equal to that in Alzheimer’s disease with mild cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment with healthy. The involved regions of Alzheimer’s disease are overlapped with that by mild cognitive impairment and normal. Combining the changes and involved regions of mean diffusivity, it could be suggested that mild cognitive impairment is a transition stage between healthy and Alzheimer’s disease.

Peipeng Liang1,2, Zhiqun Wang1, Tianyi Qian3, Jie Lu1,2, and Kuncheng Li1,2
1Dept. of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Brain Informatics, Beijing, China, 3Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaborations NE Asia, Beijing, China

The acupuncture stimulation on the acupoints of Liv3 and LI4 was found to modulate the DMN activity in AD patients.

4736.   38 Regional brain volume changes correlate with functional differences between APOE-e4+ and APOE-e4-
Nicholas G Dowell1, Simon L Evans2, Paul S Tofts1, Sarah L King2, Naji Tabet3, and Jennifer M Rusted2
1Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom, 2Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom, 3Postgraduate Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom

The presence of the APOE-e4 gene represents a significantly higher risk factor for developing Alzheimer's Disease. We scanned 80 healthy volunteers across two age-groups(young group: 20 with the e4 gene and 21 without, mid age group 17 with APOE-e4, 22 without). Our study identified local regional volume change in brain areas that positively correlated with fMRI activation between our two genetic groups. Brains areas identified were parahippocampus, cuneus, occipital and inferior parietal.

4737.   39 Graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional MRI reveals widespread disconnection in amnestic mild cognitive impairment
Ludovico Minati1,2, Dennis Chan1, Chiara Mastropasqua3,4, Laura Serra3, Barbara Spano'3, Camillo Marra5, Carlo Caltagirone6,7, Mara Cercignani1, and Marco Bozzali3
1CISC, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, East Sussex, United Kingdom, 2Scientific Department, Neurological Institute "Carlo Besta", Milan, Italy, 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy, 4Neuroscience Department, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy, 5Institute of Neurology, Università Cattolica, Rome, Italy, 6Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy, 7Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy

This paper investigates changes in functional network architecture in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using graph-based analysis of task-free fMRI and fine cortical parcellation. Widespread disconnection was observed primarily in cortical hubs known to manifest early Alzheimer pathology. The connectivity changes determined using graph-based analysis significantly exceed those detected using independent component analysis both in amplitude and topographical extent, and are largely decoupled from the presence of overt atrophy. This superior ability of graph-based analysis to detect disease-related disconnection highlights its potential use in the determination of biomarkers of early dementia.

4738.   40 More severe atrophy of basal nuclei in behavioral variant Frontotemporal Dementia compared to Alzheimer’s disease
Christiane Möller1, Nikki Dieleman2, Wiesje van der Flier1,3, Adriaan Versteeg4, Yolande Pijnenburg1, Philip Scheltens1, Frederik Barkhof4, and Hugo Vrenken4,5
1Neurology / Alzheimercenter, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 4Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 5Physics & Medical Technology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands

There is no reliable imaging marker for the differentiation between Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and behavioral variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in bvFTD suggests that basal nuclei may help in distinguishing these two types of dementia. Investigation of 7 subcortical structures with the FIRST algorithm in patients with AD, bvFTD and controls revealed that hippocampal and amygdala volume were reduced in both types of dementia to a similar extent. However, volumes of caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus were smaller in bvFTD than in AD, providing evidence for a potential marker for the discrimination between bvFTD and AD.

Federica Agosta1, Elisa Canu1, Sebastiano Galantucci1, Alessandro Meani1, Giuseppe Magnani2, Alessandra Marcone3, Andrea Falini4, Giancarlo Comi2, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy,2Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 3Department of Clinical Neurosciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy, 4Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy

Our study showed that global functional network organization is spared in the aMCI patients, except for the higher hierarchy likely reflecting a high sub-modular decomposition of the functional networks. On the contrary, local functional network organization is altered in aMCI patients in critical regions known to be hit by Alzheimer's disease. The graph analysis approach is promising for understanding the pathophysiology of the functional impairment of aMCI patients and convertion to dementia. Longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate the clinical meaning of the presenting data.

4740.   42 The relationship of neuroimaging measures to dementia status and cognition in older adults with Down Syndrome
Katherine A Koenig1 and Pallab Bhattacharyya1
1Imaging Sciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

The current work investigates the relationship between neuroanatomical and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and measures of cognitive functioning and dementia in individuals with DS. 15 adults with Down Syndrome underwent 1H-MRS scanning at the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). DLPFC choline was related to both measures of cognition and dementia. Cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes were related to age, and white matter and ventricular volumes were related to dementia measures. These results highlight the need for longitudinal studies of this population, to clarify the relationship between imaging measures, baseline cognitive ability, and dementia.

4741.   43 Regional White Matter disruption within the Corpus Callosum in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment Single and Multiple domain
Elena Makovac1, Barbara Spanò1, Laura Serra1, Giovanni Giulietti1, Mario Torso1, Mara Cercignani1,2, Carlo Caltagirone3,4, and Marco Bozzali1
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 2Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy, 4Department of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy

Two main clinical subtypes of amnestic MCI has been described, single-domain and multiple-domain aMCI In the present study we examined the Corpus Callosum (CC) by applying DTI-based tractography in SDamci and MDamci. Using a vixel-based approach, we were able to delineate a precise direction of WM damage inside the CC, starting from the Splenium in SDamci and proceeding toward the Genu in the MDamci, and eventually declining in a general CC WM damage in the final AD stage. These findings clarify some relevant aspects of AD pathophysiology and provide information of potential prognostic value for disease monitoring.

4742.   44 Focal thalamic degeneration is involved in PC/PCC dIsconnection and cognitive deficits of early Alzheimer's disease
Paolo Vitali1,2, Fulvia Palesi3,4, Gloria Castellazzi4,5, Carol Di Perri2, Stefano Bastianello2,6, Elena Sinforiani7, and Egidio D'Angelo4,8
1Brain MRI 3T Mondino Research Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, PV, Italy, 2Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, 3Department of Physics, University of Pavia, PV, Italy, 4Brain Connectivity Center, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Pavia, PV, Italy, 5Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, 6Neuroradiology, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Pavia, PV, Italy, 7Neurology, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Pavia, PV, Italy, 8Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy, University of Pavia, Pavia, PV, Italy

The aim of this study was to test whether thalamic, other than hippocampal, degeneration is significant in early phases of Alzheimer's disease, and if it can also drive PC/PCC dysconnection and early cognitive deficits.In this study, both voxel-wise and VOI analysis demonstrated in AD and MCI a significant diffuse macrostructural (atrophy) and microstructural (^MD) degeneration of hippocampi and hippocampal-PC/PCC tracts, but only focal mild degeneration of thalami and thalamic-PC/PCC tracts. However, the most significant neuropsychological correlation in AD and was found for the right thalamic-PC/PCC tract, and degeneration of left PC/PCC correlated with atrophy of the thalamic-PC/PCC tract. As a whole, these results suggest that, although hippocampi and hippocampal-PC/PCC tracts are more significantly degenerated, focal thalamic degeneration could also drive PC/PCC disconnection and cognitive deficits in early phases of Alzheimer's disease.

4743.   45 Assessment of cortical phase changes in Alzheimer’s disease patients at 3T using T2*-weighted imaging.
Sanneke van Rooden1, Naomi Smulders1, Maarten J. Versluis1, Annemarieke M. van Opstal1, Andrew G. Webb1, Mark A. van Buchem1, and Jeroen van der Grond1
1Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands

Recent findings suggested that the level of iron accumulation, which may reflect AD pathology and more specifically amyloid deposition, is reflected by phase information on T2*-weighted MRI at 7T. The aim of this study was to translate the imaging methods from 7T to 3T MRI to investigate whether these differences could be detected using T2*-weighted 3T MRI data. Our 3T MRI data show no phase differences between AD patients and controls as opposed to our previous 7T MRI data which showed an increased cortical phase shifts in AD patients, and an association with cognitive performance.

4744.   46 Functional connectivity of DMN is underestimated due to signal loss in parahippocampal regions and its remedy
Yu-Sheng Tseng1, Teng-Yi Huang1, and Yi-Jui Liu2
1National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan

The study of Grecius et al. indicated that default mode network (DMN) is closely involved with memory processing and resting-state activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and hippocampus decreases in the AD group. However, in their study, the hippocampal coactivation in DMN was almost absent when the GE-EPI images were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Grecius et al. suggested that the signal loss of hippocampus is most likely due to susceptibility artifacts at 3.0 T1. We assume that optimization of slice orientation reduces signal loss of the human hippocampus area and improves measurements of functional connectivity of DMN. In this study, we investigate the signal intensities of GE-EPI images and functional connectivity of DMN using three conventional slice orientations.

47 Choroid Plexus: functional and structural changes in healthy subjects in risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease
Pablo Garcia-Polo1,2, Virginia Mato1,3, Gonzalo Pajares2,4, Daniel Garcia-Frank5, Norberto Malpica1, Ana Ramos6, Juan Alvarez-Linera7, Eva Carro8, and Juan Antonio Hernandez-Tamames2,3
1LAIMBIO-DTE, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, Madrid, Spain, 2Center for Biomedical Technology U.P.M., Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid, Spain,3Center for Alzheimer's Disease Queen Sofia Foundation CIEN Foundation, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, 4Center for Alzheimer's Disease Queen Sofia Foundation CIEN Foundation, Madrid, Spain, 5IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain, 6Radiología, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain, 7Hospital Ruber Internacional, Madrid, Spain, 8Neurology-Neurophysiology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

This work analyses structural and functional changes in the choroid plexus (CP) in a healthy population (25 subjects, PAD group) in risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) (left and right hippocampus
4746.   48 Exploring amyloid-associated cerebral vasculopathy in an aged nonhuman primate model by multiparametric MRI
Silun Wang1, Jeromy Dooyema2, Xiaodong Zhang1, Lary C. Walker2,3, and Eric Heuer2,4
1Yerkes Imaging Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, GA, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Emory University, GA, United States, 4University of Hawaii at Hilo, HI, United States

We analyzed the histopathologic correlates of age-associated vasculopathy in a unique nonhuman primate model of cerebral β-amyloid angiopathy using multiparametric MRI. Regions indicative of possible past microbleeds were detected as hypointense regions via SWI, and low ADC values were confirmed histologically to contain abundant hemosiderin, β-amyloid deposition, microgliosis and astrogliosis, but no demyelination. Our results support the use of SWI and DTI as potential imaging modalities to characterize cerebral vasculopathy and associated degenerative changes in the senescent brain.


Stroke 1

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  11:30 - 12:30

  Computer #  
4747.   49 Wavelet-based Partial Volume Effect Correction for Simultaneous MR/PET of the Carotid Arteries.
Jason Bini1,2, Mootaz Eldib1, Philip M Robson1, and Zahi A Fayad1
1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York, United States

Simultaneous MR/PET scanners allow for the exploration of novel partial volume effect correction techniques. We report here the first attempt to apply these methods to simultaneous MR/PET imaging of the carotid arteries. The current study shows a comparison of the effects on quantitative PET of a wavelet-based partial volume effect correction technique for use in carotid MR/PET protocols. The wavelet-based technique is designed to compensate for partial volume artifacts such as tissue fraction effects. The technique applied here demonstrated an improvement in both resolution and quantification in the phantom and the in the carotid arteries of the patient.

4748.   50 Quantitative Carotid MR/PET Imaging: Comparisons to PET/CT and clinical evaluation of MR-Attenuation Correction versus CT-Attenuation Correction in MR/PET Emission Data
Jason Bini1,2, Philip M Robson1, Claudia Calcagno1, Mootaz Eldib1, and Zahi A Fayad1
1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York, United States

18F-Fluorodeoxyglocuse (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has shown promise in quantifying metabolic activity of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques in patients. In this study, we examine the quantitative differences between our carotid artery imaging protocol on a PET/CT and an MR/PET scanner, controlling for circulation time. Large differences between PET/CT and MR/PET were observed. When reconstructing the same PET data with MR- and CT-based attenuation maps in the MR/PET reconstruction we see a high quantitative correlation between reconstructed PET images. This study supports the use of MR/PET for quantitative measure of metabolic activity in the carotid arteries.

4749.   51 Relation of 4D Flow MRI of ophthalmic artery to cerebral vascular reactivity estimated with SPECT in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion
TETSURO SEKINE1, Yasuo Amano1, Ryo Takagi1, Yasuo Murai2, and Shinichiro Kumita1
1Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan, 2Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan

Ophthalmic artery (OphA) with retrograde flow is one of the collateral flows in the patients with internal carotid artery occlusion. 4D Flow MRI was able to assess the flow direction of OphA, which is related to decrease in cerebral vascular reactivity measured by SPECT.

52 Translational implementation of non-invasive Magnetic Resonance brain oxygen mapping in acute (72 hours) ischemic stroke patients
Florence Colliez1, Julie Magat1, Marta M Safronova2, Bénédicte F Jordan1, Bernard Gallez1, and Thierry Duprez3
1Louvain Drug Research Institute, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, 2Service de Radiologie, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium, 3Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

Mapping brain oxygenation is a key-challenge in the clinical work-up of many cerebral disorders. Measurements of proton T1 relaxation induced by paramagnetic molecular oxygen have previously demonstrated capability to monitor changes in tissue oxygenation. The MOBILE (Mapping of Oxygen by Imaging Lipid relaxation Enhancement) sequence increases the sensitivity of this measurement by selectively calculating the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of lipids after suppressing water signal. We hereby investigated in a translational “proof of concept” way whether MOBILE enabled detection of brain oxygen deprivation in the clinical setting of ischemic acute ischemic (72 hours) stroke patients.

4751.   53 Characterization of a 60-minute MCAO using immunohistochemical evaluation in conjunction with MRI
Lora Talley Watts1, Qiang Shen1, and Timothy Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

This study examined the expression of an early and late marker of the apoptotic cascade associated with perfusion and diffusion abnormality at 2 and 24 hours following a 60 minute MCAO in rats. Quantitative correlations of apoptotic expression were made with ADC and CBF measures. We found a strong correlation of ADC and CBF values with molecular markers of apoptosis and cell death. The finding provide molecular underpinnings of quantitative prediction of ischemic fate and functional reorganization based on acute MRI data.

54 Cerebral Vascular Reactivity Impairment Contributes to Functional Connectivity Loss in the Transient MCAO Rat Brain -permission withheld
Xiao Wang1, Xiao-Hong Zhu1, Afshin A Divani2, and Wei Chen1
1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States,2Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, United States

Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides a noninvasive and unique way to study brain function organization and connectivity in both healthy subjects and diseased conditions. It is generally accepted that the spontaneous hemodynamic signal fluctuations mainly originate from the underlying neural activity, however, the loss of spontaneous BOLD coherence at the resting state may not exclusively result from the neuron origin due to the complicated nature of the BOLD signal. The effect of impaired cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) on rs-fMRI BOLD coherence was investigated by performing CBF, CVR and rs-fMRI imaging on day 1 and day 7 post 1-hour occlusion in MCAO rat brain. It reveals that the BOLD time courses for those lesion regions with compromised CVR show flattened noise-like patterns with much weak synchronization strength, while the coherence partially resumes as the CVR recovers on day 7 after the occlusion. The overall results demonstrate that the hemodynamic response condition is important for the study of the brain function connectivity while baseline CBF might not be a good indicator of the state of cerebral vascular reactivity.

4753.   55 MR-based modeling of interventions in basilar artery aneurysms
Vitaliy L Rayz1, Michael T Lawton2, Adib Abla2, Van Halbach3, Gabriel Acevedo-Bolton1, and David Saloner1
1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Neurointerventional Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Computational models constructed from PC-MRI and MRA data can be used to predict flow fields resulting from vascular interventions. Interventional treatment of basilar aneurysms is particularly challenging since these lesions cannot be completely removed from the circulation without sacrificing flow to the vital pontine perforators. We report on image-based, patient-specific flow simulations in vascular geometries resulting from alternative virtual surgeries on fusiform and giant aneurysms of the basilar artery. The effect of the proposed flow revisions on patency of the pontine perforators is evaluated by simulating virtual contrast transport. This information, available a priori, may be helpful in clinical decision-making.

4754.   56 Transsynaptic effect on degeneration of callosal motor fibers in patients with stroke using diffusion spectrum imaging
Chia-Lin Koh1, Pei-Fang Tang2, Hsiu-I Chen3, Ching-Lin Hsieh1, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng4,5
1School of Occupational Therapy, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan, 4Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

The callosal motor fibers (CMF) were found to be degenerated in chronic stroke patients whose lesions involved corticospinal tract (CST) at the level below corpus callosum. Our study results supported that the degeneration of CMF was due to retrograde transsynaptic degeneration effect from CST degeneration. Furthermore, we found that the integrity of CMF contributes to upper extremity motor impairment severity in addition to CST integrity.

4755.   57 Cerebral Vascular Reactivity Assessment Using the SR-T1 Method in Normal and MCAO Rat Brain -permission withheld
Xiao Wang1, Xiao-Hong Zhu1, Afshin A Divani2, and Wei Chen1
1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States,2Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, United States

Cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) is an important physiologic property of assessing brain arteries response to vasoactive challenge and it is of great value of studying many cerebrovascular diseases, such as arterial stenosis, ischemic stroke and hypertension. CVR could be evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), transcranail Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response, arterial spin labeling (ASL) based cerebral blood flow (CBF) calculation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the saturation-recover T1 (SR-T1) imaging method is sensitive and reliable to evaluate CVR by comparing it with the CASL based CBF method. Data show that the spatial pattern of CVR images generated with these two techniques is very similar in both normal and MCAO rat brain. Moreover, there is an excellent agreement of percentage CVR change imaged with these two techniques although their absolute scales are different. Therefore, the SR-T1 method provides a simple and reliable way of evaluating CVR in addition to measure parametric tissue property of T1/R1, CBF change and BOLD simultaneously.

4756.   58 fMRI of Cerebrovascular Reserve in Patients with Severe Intracranial Arterial Stenosis
Alexandre Krainik1,2, Arnaud Attye1, Naila Boudiaf3, Johan Pietras4, Thomas Perret2, Irene Tropres3, Florence Tahon1, and Olivier Detante2,5
1Neuroradiology and MRI, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 2U836 Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, INSERM, Grenoble, France,3IRMaGe facility, University Joseph Fourier, France, 4IRMaGe facility, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 5Neurology, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France

Management of patients with Severe Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (SIAS) at risk of stroke events recurrence remains controversial. A better characterization of these patients might be helpful to define therapeutic strategy. BOLD fMRI to hypercapnic challenge has been proposed to identify impaired cerebrovascular reserve (CVR BOLD fMRI). We conducted a prospective study in 21 patients referred for a SIAS to estimate CVR BOLD fMRI, and compared their data a 100 volunteers’ dataset. Nine patients out of 21 had significantly impaired CVR. Thus, CVR BOLD fMRI could be helpful to better select patients with SIAS for more invasive treatment.

4757.   59 Predicting stroke severity with structural connectivity network disruption as measured with the Network Modification (NeMo) Tool
Amy Kuceyeski1, Mark Villanueva2, Ashish Raj1, Michael O'Dell2, and Joan Toglia3
1Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Rehabilitation Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 3Occupational Therapy, Mercy College, NY, United States

The Network Modification (NeMo) Tool quantifies losses in the brain connectivity network by mapping areas of damage onto a large collection of healthy tractograms. This allows for a clinically feasible method for identifying areas that are most affected by loss of connectivity due to stroke, which can provide insight as to type and severity of functional loss. Here we hypothesized the NeMo Tool’s measure of connectivity disruption could better predict stroke severity, measured with NIHSS, than lesion volume. Our partial least squares regression model predicted NIHSS from baseline disconnection with accuracy of R2=0.75, while correlation with lesion volume was R2=0.28.

4758.   60 Patterns of collateralization in acute ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation
Alex Förster1, Holger Wenz1, Hans Ulrich Kerl1, and Christoph Groden1
1Neuroradiology, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Assessment of collateral flow in posterior circulation stroke (PCS) by MRI techniques has not been studied systematically. We aimed to investigate collateral flow in 38 PCS patients with two different approaches: presence of FLAIR vascular hyperintensities (FVH) and dynamic 4D angiograms generated from perfusion-weighted raw images. Collateral flow as represented by FVH was present in 30 (78.9%) patients with PCS. Collateralization grade on dynamic 4D angiograms was 0 in 1 (3.3%), 1 in 9 (23.7%), 3 in 18 (47.4%), and 4 in 10 (26.3%) patients. Collateralization in PCS can be assessed in detail by different static and dynamic MRI techniques.

4759.   61 Hematoma Evolution Measured by Quantitative MRI
Jingwei Zhang1,2, Thanh D. Nguyen2, Tian Liu3, Shixin Chang4, Ilhami Kovanlikaya2, and Yi Wang1,2
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 3MedImageMetric LLC, New York, NY, United States, 4Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine, Shanghai, China

The purpose of this study was to design an in vitro hematoma model and to apply quantitative MR methods to study its T1, T2 and magnetic susceptibility changes as hematoma evolves.

4760.   62 Isotropic and Anisotropic Measures of Anomalous Diffusion in Chronic Stroke Subjects
Carson Ingo1, Yu Fen Chen2, and Todd B. Parrish2
1C. J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

In this study, we make use of anomalous diffusion measures in chronic stroke patients to better characterize tissue complexity in the left hemisphere, local to the necrotic regions, which often results in language deficits. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate application of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) theory and Entropy to model in vivo anomalous diffusion measurements in neurodegenerative subjects. In this study, FA(D) indicates the longitudinal fasciculus remains connected, however the complementary anisotropic information provided by α and H suggest the tissue microstructure is severely compromised, perhaps due to neurodegenerative processes or cell death.

4761.   63 Can 3D pCASL be another predictor to evaluate the collateral Perfusion in Patients with severe intracranial arterial stenosis?
Xin Lou1, Diandian Huang1, Lin Ma1, and Kaining Shi2
1Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2MR Research (China), General Electric Company GE ( China ) Co., Ltd.-Healthcare, Beijing, Beijing, China

DSA remains the method that can best measure collateral extents, but it is relatively time-consuming, invasive, and costly. Determining the presence and adequacy of collateral blood flow is important in patients with severe intracranial stenosis or occlusion due to collateral flow can maintain cerebral circulation and may be another potential therapeutic target in acute ischemic stroke. Our study suggest that multi-post labeling delay time three dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling technique may be a useful tool to investigate the collateral perfusion in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis.

4762.   64 Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on cerebrovascular health in children with sickle cell disease
Junseok Kim1,2, Jackie Leung2, Indra Narang3, Suzan Williams4, and Andrea Kassner1,2
1Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4Haematology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Previous work on the pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) population has demonstrated that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), a measure of vascular health, was globally reduced compared to healthy controls. In addition, a high percentage of SCD patients suffer from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It is currently unknown if the presence of OSA in SCD further impairs vascular health. We hypothesized that CVR is globally reduced in SCD patients with OSA compared to those without. The results showed that CVR in the SCD patients with OSA was significantly lower than those without OSA, thus placing them at greater risk for serious vasculopathies.

4763.   65 Evaluation of Atherosclerotic plaques in Acute Ischemic Stroke of Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Using High-Resolution intracranial vessel wall imaging
Hong Sik Byun1, Jihoon Cha1, Oh Young Bang2, Suk Jae Kim2, Sookyung Ryoo2, Hyung-Jin Kim1, Byung-joon Kim1, Yi Kyung Kim1, Ji Young Lee1, Pyoung Jeon1, and Keon Ha Kim1
1Departments of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, 2Departments of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Recently, high-resolution (HR) intracranial vessel wall imaging is used to demonstrate intracranial arterial wall abnormality. The aim of this study was to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque with contrast enhancement on the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) in patients with unilateral noncardiogenic acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-eight patients were included in this study. MRI was performed at 3.0 T. The patterns of enhancing wall thickening of the ipsilateral and contralateral MCA were compared. All of ipsilateral MCA and most of contralateral MCA showed enhancing wall thickening, however, the burden and involved site was different between ipsilateral and contralateral MCA.

4764.   66 Tract-based assessment of the subcortical motor network plasticity after stroke
Silvia Obertino1, Ying-Chia Lin2, Alessandro Daducci3, Jean-Philippe Thiran3, Reto Meuli4, Gunnar Krueger5, Cristina Granziera4, and Gloria Menegaz1
1Computer Science, University of Verona, Verona, Select, Italy, 2Computer Science, University of Verona, Italy, 3Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Switzerland, 4CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5Siemens, Switzerland

This study aimed at investigating myelin and axonal plasticity in the subcortical motor networks (SC-MN) contralateral to stroke by applying diffusion spectrum (DSI) and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. Ten patients and ten HC underwent DSI scans. Generalized Fractional Anisotropy (GFA) was derived from DSI scans and Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) values were calculated as percent of the ratio (MT-M0)/M0 for each fiber. Both histogram features (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosys, peak hight, peak position) and measures of histogram distances were used for between group comparisons. Results suggest both short term (1 month) and mid term (6 months) axonal and myelin plasticity in the uninjured cortico-subcortical motor circuits.

4765.   67 Quantitative Study of Longitudinal Relaxation Rate Change in the Transient MCAO Rat Brain -permission withheld
Xiao Wang1, Afshin A Divani2, Xiao-Hong Zhu1, Jessica Nordberg2, Julian Tokarev2, Yi Zhang1, and Wei Chen1
1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States,2Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, United States

The longitudinal relaxation rate (time) R1 (T1) is a crucial physical property which could guide the choice of imaging parameters and its alteration of tissue is also closely related to the underlying pathology of variety of diseases. This study aims to quantitatively investigate the R1 change of the rat brain tissue subsequent to the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on day 1 and day 7 after a 1-hour occlusion, and to examine CBF contribution to the brain tissue R1 alteration. The results show that the R1 in the varied lesion area decreases about 6-25% of its contralateral control and the R1 decrease is mainly dominated by the brain tissue property alteration. In addition, R1 shows statistic difference among varied lesion region while no statistic significant difference is found among baseline CBF on both day 1 and day 7 of post-occlusion, indicating that the R1 images are potentially more sensitive to the extent of lesion than CBF images. The quantified T1 (or R1) image is an important imaging modality and should provide a noninvasive, sensitive and reliable way to help determining the tissue damage caused by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

4766.   68 Comparative Assessment of Carotid and Vertebral Arteries by FSE IDEAL Black Blood Sequence with and without Diffusion Preparation: A Low Refocusing Flip Angle and Strong T1-weighted Approach
Subhendra Nath Sarkar1, Robert Greenman2, Faisal Khosa3, Rafeeque Bhadelia1, Michael Plum1, William Dunay1, and David B Hackney1
1Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, BOSTON, MA, United States, 2Radiology, Boston University Medical College, BOSTON, MA, United States, 3Radiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

Low refocusing flip angle FSE sequence can easily lend to low TE, thereby strong T1 weightings, high SNR and imaging speed that has been used along with fat-water separation with IDEAL reconstruction to satisfactorily null cervical arterial lumens with high conspicuity of arterial walls without using diffusion or gated double IR preparation. This approach may be used for effective black blood imaging to evaluate dissection or carotid plaques with general purpose spine array coils at any field strength within clinically feasible scan times in acute or outpatient settings.

4767.   69 The temporal evolution of Diffusion kurtosis imaging in ischemic stroke
Shun Zhang1, Wenzhen Zhu1, Shuixia Zhang1, Jingjing Shi1, Yihao Yao1, and Zhenyu Zhou1
1Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China

Diffusion weighted imaging has been widely used in the clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke£¬while it provides only less information. Diffusion kurtosis imaging is a quantitative measure of the non-Gaussianity of brain; may better characterize tissue microstructure. Our study is to investigate the temporal evolution of diffusion kurtosis imaging-related parameters in ischemic stroke.

4768.   70 Utility of Non Contrast 3D Volumetric Time-Resolved MRA combining Multiple Phase FAIR (CINEMA-FAIR) as a diagnostic tool for intracranial AVM and AVF in comparison with CE-dMRA
Akio Tsukabe1, Yoshiyuki Watanebe1, Hisashi Tanaka1, Yuuki Kunitomi1, Mitsuo Nishizawa1, Noriyuki Tomiyama1, and Masanobu Nakamura2
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan, 2Philips Electronics Japan, Japan

Recently 3D volumetric non contrast time-resolved MRA technique termed Contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi phase angiography combining multiple phase FAIR (CINEMA-FAIR) was proposed. CINEMA technique combines ASL with 3D segmented T1 weighted gradient echo sequence. FAIR preparation scheme with the Look-Locker sampling was used for spin tagging in this study. This study assessed the utility of CINEMA-FAIR as a diagnostic tool for intracranial AVF and AVM compared with contrast-enhanced dynamic MR angiography (CE-dMRA). CINEMA-FAIR could show comparable result from many view points, but was inferior to CE-dMRA in depicting drainage vein of AVM.

4769.   71 Automatic Two Stage Classification and Segmentation of Ischemic Stroke Lesions in Diffusion-Weighted MRI
Pieter C. Vos1,2, Steven Mocking2, Priya Garg2, Aurauma Chutinet3, William A. Copen4, Max A. Viergever1, and Ona Wu2
1Radiology, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 3Department of Neurorology, MGH, Massachusetts, United States, 4Department of Radiology, MGH, Massachusetts, United States

DWI is a reliable and routinely-used modality in the acute setting of ischemic stroke. Automated approaches for outlining the DWI lesion have the potential to assist in the rapid assessment of lesion volumetry in the acute setting of stroke. Our results demonstrate that the segmentation performance of pixel classification approach can be significantly improved with regional analysis, i.e. using a supervised classifier that discriminates false detected regions from true lesion regions in a two-stage classification approach.

4770.   72 Quantitative Analysis of DCE-MRI Parameters Ktrans and vL in Intracranial Aneurysms
Parmede Vakil1, Sameer A Ansari2, H. Hunt. Batjer3, Bernard Bendok2, Christopher S Eddleman3, Marie Wasielewski1, and Timothy J Carroll1
1Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 3UT Southwestern, Texas, United States

DCE-MRI derived intracranial aneurysm wall permeability is a quantitative, repeatable, and novel imaging metric that could provide additional and clinically useful information about aneurysm stability and rupture risk. Applications of this technique could include longitudinal study in individual patients.


Stroke 2

Thursday 15 May 2014
Exhibition Hall  11:30 - 12:30

  Computer #  
4771.   73 Time dependent treatment outcomes of NBO in experimental ischemic stroke
Yash Vardhan Tiwari1, Pavel Rodriguez1, Yuhao Sun1, Zhao Jiang1, Fang Du1, Qiang Shen1, Wei Li1, and Timothy Q Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

Previous studies have shown normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) to be effective in extending treatment time window in animal model of transient cerebral ischemia. However, both positive and negative effects of NBO treatment have been reported. As such, it is highly likely that the efficacy of NBO treatment in the early phase of ischemic insult is critically dependent on the treatment duration. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of varying treatment duration for NBO administration (25 and 150 min) on the 60-min MCAO model of stroke, longitudinally and noninvasively using quantitative MRI. We found that in early phase of acute experimental stroke the treatment outcome of NBO varies in a time dependent manner.

4772.   74 Brain imaging results identify structural and vascular abnormalities in type 2 diabetic adults compared to hypertensive controls
Ekaterina Tchistiakova1,2, Carol E. Greenwood3,4, Nicole D. Anderson3,5, and Bradley J. MacIntosh1,2
1Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Heart and Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 5Department of Medicine (Psychiatry), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Recent studies suggest that the negative effects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on the brain can result in increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. It is still unclear, however, if T2DM effects exceed those seen in co-occurring comorbidities, in particular hypertension (HTN). In this study imaging metrics were used to compare brain structure and vascular integrity between individuals with T2DM and HTN and hypertensive controls. Our results demonstrate regional decreases in vascular reactivity and tissue volume (i.e. cortical thinning) in the right visual processing regions in individuals with T2DM and HTN compared to HTN alone.

4773.   75 Global Effect of Focal Ischemic Stroke Revealed by Regional Homogeneity with BOLD fMRI
Lijuan Zhang1, Xiaojing Long1, Yanjun Diao1, Li Yi2, and Chunxiang Jiang1
1SIAT,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 2Neurology,Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Guangdong, China

Global alteration of the functional synchronization was observed in brains with typical focal IS lesion in this study. The varied regional homogeneity may indicate a disintegrative dynamic of the functional homeostasis of human brain under the ischemic injury. Rebalance of the functional synchronization at a global level may provide valuable reference for disease management and rehabilitation of ischemic stroke.

4774.   76 Differential Diagnosis of MELAS and Ischemic Stroke using 3D Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling
Xin Lou1, Lin Ma1, Diandian Huang1, and Kaining Shi2
1Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2MR Research (China), General Electric Company GE ( China ) Co., Ltd.-Healthcare, Beijing, Beijing, China

MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and a stroke-like episode) is a mitochondrial disorder that the neurological deficits and imaging characteristics resemble features of ischemic stroke. Our study suggest that three dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling, an alternative noninvasive perfusion technique based on fast spin echo sequence, is useful in differentiating MELAS from ischemic stroke when clinical symptoms and conventional MRI manifestations overlap in these two conditions.

4775.   77 Data-driven analysis of Cerebrovascular reactivity reveals regional vascular impairment in individuals with multiple systemic risk factors
Ekaterina Tchistiakova1,2, David E. Crane2, Sandra E. Black2,3, and Bradley J. MacIntosh1,2
1Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Heart and Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Cerebrovascular impairment is a common complication in individuals with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The presence of systemic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension can further hinder the maintenance of cerebral blood flow, thereby increasing the risk of TIA and stroke. In this study we examined the effects of systemic risk factors on cerebrovascular function, assessed using vascular reactivity metric (CVR), in individuals with SVD in regions associated with specific resting state networks. CVR decrease was associated with increased number of risk factors within the sensory-motor and default mode networks.

4776.   78 Preliminary results of evaluating feasibility of T1 SPACE to detect intracranial atherosclerosis
Woojin Lee1, Bo-mi Gil1, Jinhee Jang1, Bom-yi Kim1, In Seong Kim2, Hyun Seok Choi1, So Lyung Jung1, Kook-Jin Ahn1, and Bum-soo Kim1
1Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital,College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, Korea, 2Siemens Healthcare, Korea, Seoul, Korea

As MR angiography cannot demonstrate vessel wall, vessel wall imaging is important to detect vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The goal of this study was to evaluate feasibility of T1 SPACE to detect intracranial atherosclerosis in nonsymptomatic patient. Twenty nonsymptomatic patients underwent both TOF and T1 SPACE using 3.0 Tesla MR system were enrolled.TOF-source was considered as a reference standard for lumen of intracranial arteries. We measured luminal area of basilar artery and both cavernous internal carotid arteries on T1 SPACE and TOF source and vessel wall thickness by subtracting luminal diameter on TOF-source from outer diameter on T1-SPACE.Vessel areas measured from TOF-source and T1 SPACE showed significant linear correlation.However,there was no correlation between atherosclerotic risk factors and vessel wall thickness.

4777.   79 Local Signal Recovery in Clinical FLASH Imaging with Parallel Transmission
Rainer Schneider1,2, Christopher Gliemli3, Christian Geppert3, Jens Haueisen2, Fernando Boada4, and Josef Pfeuffer1
1MR Application Development, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, TU Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Thuringia, Germany, 3Siemens Healthcare, MR Research & Development, New York, NY, United States, 4NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

In clinical 3T imaging, gradient-echo-based sequences oftensuffer from signal loss induced by patient specific susceptibility artifacts. To tackle this problem, a recently proposed local signal recovery method using parallel transmission was transferred to a clinical setup. The approach was further extended by B1 inhomogeneity correction and evaluated with human in-vivo experiments using the common FLASH sequence. Signals could be recovered up to 50% in frontal orbital cortex, while maintaining the SNR level. Full signal recovery could be achieved, if lower SNR levels are tolerated.

4778.   80 Clinical values of IFIR 4D MRA in evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation
Akira Kunimatsu1, Yasushi Watanabe2, Naoyuki Takei3, Masaki Katsura1, Harushi Mori1, and Kuni Ohtomo1
1Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 3Global MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare, Japan

We assessed clinical utilities of an ASL-based non-contrast 4D MRA (inflow enhanced inversion recovery (IFIR) 4D MRA) incorporated into routine MRI protocols for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Non-contrast IFIR 4D MRA has a high spatial resolution almost equivalent to that of 3D TOF MRA and also can provide a higher temporal resolution than contrast-enhanced time-resolved MRA. Non-contrast IFIR 4D MRA was found to add hemodynamic information to 3D TOF MRA and can be an alternative to contrast-enhanced time-resolved MRA in evaluation of cerebral AVM.

4779.   81 Evaluation of a multiparametric qBOLD (mqBOLD) and cerebrovascular reserve in patients with severe intracranial arterial stenosis : a comparison study
Julien Bouvier1,2, Olivier Detante1,3, Florence Tahon4, Arnaud Attye4, Thomas Perret1, David Chechin2, Irene Tropres1,5, Sylvie Grand4,6, Emmanuel L Barbier1,6, and Alexandre Krainik1,4
1U836, INSERM, Grenoble, France, France, 2Philips Healthcare, Suresnes, France, France, 3Department of neurology, Joseph Fourier University, France, France, 4Department of neuroradiology and MRI, CHU de Grenoble, France, France, 5IRMaGe facility, Joseph Fourier University, France, France, 6Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, Joseph Fourier University, France, France

To identify hemodynamic alteration related to steno-occlusive disease, functional MRI of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR fMRI) to hypercapnia has been proposed. A decreased vascular reserve downstream a severe intracranial arterial stenosis (SIAS) was associated with increased apparent diffusion coefficient, suggesting a chronic low-grade ischemia. However, relationships between hemodynamic disorder and metabolism has not been shown using MRI, yet. In such patients, these abnormalities may further motivate endovascular stenting. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between tissular oxygen metabolism assessed with a multiparametric qBOLD (mqBOLD) approach with basal and functional changes of perfusion in patients with SIAS.

4780.   82 Association of Embolic Stroke Territory with Aortic Arch Retrograde Flow in patients with Cryptogenic Stroke
Edouard Michel Semaan1, Shyam Prabhakaran2, Kameswari Maganti3, Pim van Ooij1, Zoran Stankovic1, Alex Barker1, James Carr1, Michael Markl1,4, and Jeremy Collins1
1Radiology Department, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Neurology Department, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 3Cardiology Department, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Illinois, United States

Cryptogenic stroke accounts for 20-25% of embolic ischemic strokes. Several studies have suggested an association between descending aortic plaque and stroke. The purpose of this study was to assess retrograde diastolic flow at 4D flow MRI from the descending thoracic aorta into the great vessels in patients with cryptogenic stroke, as a potential stroke etiology. The prevalence of retrograde diastolic flow into the great vessels was 57%, and correlated with stroke location in 65% of subjects, providing a potential etiology for embolic stroke. Integrating 4D flow MRI into the cryptogenic stroke evaluation may enable therapies to prevent recurrent atheroembolism.

Y.C. Lin1, A. Daducci2, D.E. Meskaldji2,3, J.P. Thiran2,4, R. Meuli4, G. Krueger5, G. Menegaz1, and C. Granziera4
1Computer Science, University of Verona, Verona, VR, Italy, 2Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 3MIPLab, Institute of Bioengeneering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4CHUV, Lausanne, VD, Switzerland, 5Siemens Schweiz AG, Renens, VD, Switzerland

Our group previously applied diffusion spectrum and magnetization transfer imaging (DSI and MTI) to show motor connectivity plasticity in the uninjured hemisphere after stroke. However, our previous studies focused on average MRI indexes of tract integrity (generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)). These approaches offered a global view of tract remodeling but failed in revealing subtle changes affecting only partially single motor connections. In this work, we applied track-based quantitative analysis of GFA and MTR and supported evidence that this approach provides more detailed information on axonal plasticity and myelination after stroke.

4782.   84 The application of functional challenge tasks in Moyamoya patients
Chou-Ming Cheng1,2, Jin-Jie Hung1, Hsiao-Wen Chung3, Hung Sheng Che4, Muh-Lii Liang5, Jen-Chuen Hsieh1, Shing-Jong Lin1, and Tzu-Chen Yeh4
1Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Syrian Arab Republic, 3Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 4Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 5Neurosurgery Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan

Moyamoya disease is characterized by Moyamoya vessels near the stenosis regions induced by progressive stenosis of the internal carotid artery, cerebral artery. CVR and OEF are critical indicators of the severity in Moyamoya disease. In this research, blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of carbogen inhalation and hand grasping are adapted as challenge tasks to probe CVR and OEF in Moyamoya disease.

4783.   85 Fractional Anisotropy Changes of White matter Infarction and Hypoperfusion in Patients with Hyperacute Stroke: A Voxel-based Analysis Using DTI and DSC Perfusion
Kambiz Nael1, Scott R Lafleur1, Adam Bernstein1, Bruce M Coull2, Chelsea S Kidwell2, Elizabeth A Krupinski1, and Theodore P Trouard1
1Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Neurology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

The DTI-fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in acute infarction are variable between the infarction core and ischemic regions depending on the severity of ischemia and time of onset. In this study, using a combination of DTI and DSC perfusion, we conducted a voxel-based analysis of FA changes in the white matter infarction and hypoperfusion using defined thresholds. We found significant reduction of FA values in the infarction white matter indicative of loss of cellular integrity. In addition, the FA values were significantly higher in the hypoperfused white matter with Tmax ¡Ý 6 suggestive of microstructural changes related to ischemia without cell membrane disruption.

4784.   86 Effects of pre-reperfusion NBO administration in experimental ischemic stroke
Yash Vardhan Tiwari1, Yuhao Sun1, Fang Du1, Qiang Shen1, and Timothy Q Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) has shown to improve and worsen stroke outcomes in ischemic stroke. The positive outcome of NBO treatment in cerebral ischemia may depend on the treatment window and treatment duration which remain less explored. The goal of this study was to use quantitative MRI to longitudinally evaluate the effects of NBO in early pre-reperfusion treatment window (60 & 90 min reperfusion post MCAO) with varying NBO treatment duration (25 min & 50 min respectively). We conclude that NBO treatment along with reperfusion treatment reversed ADC lesion and salvaged tissue, and that longer treatment up to 50 min was more effective. We showed that NBO not only “buy” time and expand the treatment time window, but also that in pre reperfusion treatment window longer NBO treatment duration further salvages more tissues.

4785.   87 Remote Effect of Acute Ischemic Stroke Revealed by Microstructure and Fiber Density Analysis
Dai Shan1, Chunxiang Jiang1, Xiaojing Long1, Yanjun Diao1, and Lijuan Zhang*1
1Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

We explored the remote effect of ischemic stroke by comparing the microstructural indices and fiber density in cerebral peduncles (CP) in 14 subjects diagnosed with single and unilateral ischemic stroke remote to the CP. Fiber density was dramatically decreased in the CP ipsilateral to the lesion while mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy did not manifest significant difference between the bilateral CPs. Fiber density may serve as a sensitive index identifying remote white matter damage in acute ischemic stroke.

4786.   88 Segmentation methods and lesion masking influence spatial normalization and the detection of task-related activity. On behalf of he HERMES Study Group
Marie-Charlotte Plichta1, Agnes Aghetti2, Thomas A Zeffiro3, Laurent Lamalle4,5, Olivier Detante6,7, Marc Hommel8, and Assia JAILLARD5,9
1CHU Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 2Centre Hospitalo Universitaire, Grenoble, France, 3Neural Systems Group, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 4Unité IRM 3T - Recherche, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire, Grenoble, France, 5IRMaGe — Inserm US 17 / CNRS UMS 3552 RMN biomédicale et Neurosciences, SFR de l'Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 6Stroke Unit, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire, Grenoble, France,7Equipe 5 : Neuroimagerie Fonctionnelle et Perfusion cérébrale, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences (GIN) Inserm U 836, Grenoble, France, 8CIC Pôle Recherche, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire, Grenoble, France, 9Unité IRM 3T Recherche. Pôle Recherche., Centre Hospitalo Universitaire, Grenoble, France

We studied the effects of segmentation methods (SPM8) and lesion masking on the accuracy of MRI spatial normalization of brains and fMRI tactile task-related activation in large stroke lesions. The normalized T1-images were altered after Segment, with brain tissue outside of the MNI template. New-Segment method led to satisfactory T1-normalized images. There was no mask effect. We observed contralesional somatosensory activity using Segment and ipsilesional somatosensory activity with New-Segment. There was no mask effect with Segment, but higher activity with New-Segment. We showed that T1-image segmentation method influences spatial normalization, affecting the detection of task-related activity at the group level.

4787.   89 Underlying mechanisms of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient changes in the stroke rat brain revealed via diffusion basis spectrum imaging and histological examinations
Yi-Hua Hsu1, Chien-Hsiang Huang1, Chiao-Chi V. Chen1, Yong Wang2, Peng Sun2, Sheng-Kwei Song2, and Chen Chang1
1Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Evaluating the brain with stroke is challenge because the progressive ischemic injury confounds MRI measurements. Diffusion weighted MRI has been shown to be sensitive in detecting acute ischemic lesions while losing its sensitivity and specificity to ischemic injury chronically. To demonstrate the underlying tissue changes leading to this loss of sensitivity and specificity of DWI, we employed in vivo diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI), and post-imaging histology to assess the tissue structural changes in a stroke rat model. Results showed that DBSI specifically detects the ischemia-induced tissue damage and cell infiltration/proliferation.

4788.   90 Snapshot MR-OEF for Simultaneous Imaging of Tissue Oxygenation and CVR
Charles G Cantrell1, Rajiv G Menon1, Parmede Vakil1, and Timothy Carroll1
1Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

We have developed a novel method of imaging OEF with MRI. We present an analysis of MR-OEF images using breath-hold and cardiac-gating as inducers of physiologic stress.

4789.   91 Altered sensorimotor network of resting state fMRI in Leukoaraiosis
Youzhi Lai1, Xia Wu1,2, and Li Yao1,2
1School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

In this study, the sensorimotor network in resting state fMRI was investigated by group ICA and correlation analysis, for patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) and healthy controls. The results showed significant increased functional connectivity in medial volumes of dorsal posterior precuneus (DP-PCC), left lingual and supplementary motor area (SMA). Furthermore, the results also revealed a strong correlation between the visuospatial ability score of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the number of positive z-scores in the DP-PCC. It was suggested that the motor dysfunction in patient with LA maybe associated with the impairment in visuospatial function.

4790.   92 Quantitative assessment of the cortical vessel sign after mechanical stroke treatment
Günther Grabner1,2, Klaus A. Hausegger1, Michael Hauser1, Sonja M. Obmann3, Jörg R. Weber3, and Thomas Kau1
1Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, General Hospital of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria, 2Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria, 3Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria

The cortical vessel sign (CVS) on susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) is a known phenomenon in case of ischemic stroke. Here we evaluated the CVS which is defined by an enhanced visibility of venous blood vessels quantitatively in 13 patients in the subacute stage of embolic stroke. The CVS evaluation was based on automatic vessel segmentation and the definition of 3 dimensional ROIs. While the CVS may occasionally be positive in the region of irreversible ischemic brain infarction, automatic quantitative CVS analysis showed no significant difference between paired vascular territories in the subacute stage after mechanical thrombectomy.

4791.   93 Methylene blue treatment delays the progression of ischemic penumbra into infarct
Pavel Rodriguez1, Jiang Zhao2, Shiliang Huang2, Qiang Shen2, and Timothy Q. Duong2
1Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States, 2Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

Methylene blue (MB) has unique energy enhancing and antioxidant properties and has recently been shown to reduce neurobehavioral impairment in animal models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer’s Diseases. We recently showed that MB has significant effect on hemodynamics, metabolic activity, and evoked responses in vivo using MRI. The goal of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of MB treatment in ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that MB treatment delays infarct growth in a permanent stroke in rats.

4792.   94 3D high resolution MPRAGE helps identify intraplaque hemorrhage in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic diseases
Lei Zhang1,2, Qi Yang3, Xin Liu1,2, and Yiu Cho Chung1,2
1Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, China, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory for MRI, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, China, 3Radiology Department, Xuanwu Hosptial, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing, China

Atherothrombotic intracranial disease is a major cause of cerebral ischemia. Lesion enhancement may be detected using high resolution T1 weighted imaging. MPRAGE are commonly used to detect thrombus in carotid plaques and other vascular beds. This study proposes the combined use of T1 weighted imaging and MPRAGE to help identify intraplaque hemorrhage. The protocol was applied in 10 patients diagnosed with intracranial artery stenosis. It was found that the lesions may or may not enhance post-contrast, and contrast enhancement of the lesion may not have associated hyperenhancement in MPRAGE.

4793.   95 Metabolism of hyperperfused tissue after stroke reperfusion therapy.
Andrew Bivard1, Venkatesh Krishnamurthy2, and Mark Parsons2
1Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia, 2University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

Hyperperfusion on arterial spin labeling (ASL) has been associated with improved clinical outcome. We sort to assess the metabolic profile of patients recovering from ischemic stroke following successful reperfusion and penumbra salvage. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 60 patients 24 hours after symptom onset with voxels were placed in the reperfused tissue that did not infarct on diffusion imaging and exactly contralateral. Hyperperfusion and increased glutamate on MRS in recently reperfused tissue was significantly related to improved patient outcome on the modified Rankin disability scale (p<0.001). Increased glutamate and was a marker of significantly better patient outcome following stroke.

4794.   96 Automated lesion detection from multimodal brain MRI using Markov random fields and random forest
Jhimli Mitra1, Soumya Ghose1, Pierrick Bourgeat1, Olivier Salvado1, Stephen Rose1, Bruce Campbell2, Alan Connelly3, Susan Palmer4, Leeanne Carey4, and Jurgen Fripp1
1The Australian e-Health Research Centre, CSIRO Computational Informatics, CSIRO Preventative-Health Flagship, Herston, QLD, Australia, 2Department of Medicine and Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia, 3Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia,4The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia

We present an automated method to delineate chronic ischemic stroke lesions, white-matter hyperintensities and other secondary lesions from multimodal MRI. Accurate delineation of such lesions is crucial in analyzing the structure-function relationships of the brain post-stroke and critical in the management of stroke patients. The method firstly employed a maximum aposteriori-Markov field based segmentation of the probable lesion areas from hyperintense regions of FLAIR images. Then features of these lesion areas from the multimodal MRI were used to train/test a random forest classifier. The performance was evaluated on 36 stroke patients (mean Dice 0.60+/-0.12, volume correlation 0.76)