Joint Annual Meeting ISMRM-ESMRMB 2014 10-16 May 2014 Milan, Italy

Brain Integrity with Trauma & Aging

Tuesday 13 May 2014
Space 2  10:00 - 12:00 Moderators: Carlo Pierpaoli, M.D., Ph.D., Michael Zeineh, M.D., Ph.D.

10:00 0250.   Multi-parametric MRI characterization of methylene blue treatment of mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Lora Talley Watts1, Justin Alexander Long1, Jonathan Chemello1, Qiang Shen1, Shiliang Huang1, and Timothy Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

This study investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of diffusion, T2 and fractional anisotropy associated with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) following methylene blue treatment. Lesion volume, diffusion, T2 and fractional anisotropy changes and behavioral scores generally correlated well with the improvement by methylene blue treatment compared to placebo controls. However, despite the presence of some lesions on day 7 and 14, behavioral measures mostly returned to normal in both groups, suggesting that there is functional compensation in our mild TBI model. Multi-parametric MRI offers a range of biomarkers that are sensitive to different tissue types and to different stages of TBI.

10:12 0251.   Acute DKI Alterations in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with and without Eventual Symptomatic Improvement
Joseph H. Rosenberg1, Jiachen Zhuo1, Chandler R. Sours1, Steven Roys1, Elijah O. George1, Kathirkamanthan Shanmuganathan1, and Rao P. Gullapalli1
1Deagnostic Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

DKI parameters were evaluated in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Patients were compared to controls, and patients with symptomatic improvement between sub-acute and chronic injury stages were compared to those without. Patients showed alterations in DKI parameters in the genu of the corpus callosum. Patients experiencing later symptom improvement showed DKI alterations at the acute stage distinct from those whose symptoms did not improve. Commonly affected regions were the corpus callosum body and genu and bilateral anterior corona ratiata. These DKI alterations may indicate greater acute microstructural damage to white matter tracts in those without eventual symptomatic improvement.

10:24 0252.   Self-Regulation of Amygdala Activation with Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback in Combat-Related PTSD
Raquel Phillips1, Vadim Zotev1, Han Yuan1, Kymberly Young1, Chung Ki Wong1, Brent Wurfel1, Frank Krueger1,2, Matthew Feldner1,3, and Jerzy Bodurka1,4
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2Neuroscience Dept., George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States,3Department of Psychological Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States, 4College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric condition. Individuals with PTSD suffer from the dysregulation of several types of emotion including fear, anxiety, and depression. Neurocircuit models of PTSD emphasize the role of the amygdala. We utilize advances in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) to directly modulate amygdala activity. This technique measures neuronal activity with sufficiently high temporal resolution that information from the amygdala is immediately available to form a feedback loop. We show that individuals with PTSD are able to use rtfMRI-nf training to enhance the control of the hemodynamic response of the amygdala.

10:36 0253.   
Demonstration of Differentially Degenerated Corpus Callosam in Patients with Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: With a Premise of Cortical-callosal Relationship
Kavita Singh1, Richa Trivedi1, Maria M D’souza1, Ajay Chaudhary2, Pawan Kumar1, Ram KS Rathore3, Rajendra P Tripathi1, and Subash Khushu1
1Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences, Delhi, Delhi, India, 2Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Delhi, Delhi, Delhi, India, 3Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Aim our study was to assess the degenerative changes, secondary to TBI in subdivisional fibres of CC, corresponding to cortical brain area primarily injured in chronic moderate TBI patients. DTT was done in 18 TBI (A: frontal lobe injury,n=6; B: occipito-temporal lobe injury, n=5; C: fronto-parieto-temporal lobe injury, n=7) and 11 healthy participants. Diffusion metrices of 7 sub-divisions of CC (Witelson’s scheme) were acquired using in-house developed software. The study showed significantly reduced FA and increased MD in the sub-divisions of CC corresponding to cortical brain area primarily injured. Reduced FA and increased MD values may represent regional Wallerian Degeneration.

10:48 0254.   Discrete Wavelet Analysis of Longitudinal Resting State fMRI in Mild TBI Patients
Chandler Sours1,2, Haoxing Chen3, Steven Roys1, and Rao P. Gullapalli1,2
1Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Magnetic Resonance Research Center (MRRC), Baltimore, MD, United States, 3University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

We investigated the mechanisms of recovery following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using discrete wavelet analysis of resting state fMRI and its relationship with post concussive syndrome (PCS). Our results demonstrate reduced strength of resting state coherence within the Default Mode Network in mTBI with PCS compared to those without PCS within multiple frequency ranges. These findings stress the importance of investigating resting state coherence using discrete wavelet analysis: however, further research is needed incorporating cardiac and respiratory monitoring as well as a sliding window analysis to fully characterize the dynamic properties of resting state coherence in mTBI patients.

11:00 0255.   The Dynamically Changing Default-Mode Network after Concussion in Sports: a Resting-State fMRI and DTI Integration Study
David C Zhu1, Tracey Covassin1, Sally Nogle1, Scarlett Doyle1, Doozie Russell1, Randy Pearson1, Jeffrey Monroe1, Christine Liszewski1, J. Kevin DeMarco1, and David Kaufman1
1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States

Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were applied to understand the dynamics of functional and structural connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) after concussion. The functional connectivity within DMN was significantly higher on Day 1 comparing to Days 7 and 30 after concussion. Noticeable change in structural connectivity and gross anatomy were not seen. This sequential change of DMN functional connectivity was not seen in the control group. Based on our results, the functional connectivity of DMN measured with sequential rs-fMRI can potentially serve as a biomarker to monitor the dynamically changing brain function after sports-related concussion.

11:12 0256.   
Age-related hypermetabolism in the human brain
Shin-Lei Peng1,2, Julie Dumas3, Denise Park1,4, Peiying Liu1, Francesca Filbey4, Carrie McAdams1, Amy Pinkham1,5, Bryon Adinoff1,6, Rong Zhang7, and Hanzhang Lu1
1UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, 3University of Vermont College of Medicine, VT, United States, 4University of Texas Dallas, TX, United States, 5Southern Methodist University, TX, United States, 6VA North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX, United States, 7Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, TX, United States

In this study, we provide evidence that the brain of older adults works ¡§harder¡¨ when compared to younger adults, as manifested by an age-related increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) (N=118). We further showed that, prior to the typical menopausal age of 51 years old, female and male groups have similar rates of CMRO2 increase (P=0.003). However, for the entire age range, women have a slower rate of CMRO2 change, when compared to men (P<0.001). Our data also revealed a possible circadian rhythm of CMRO2 in that brain metabolic rate is greater at noon than in the morning.

11:24 0257.   
More frequent cognitive activity in late life is associated with higher brain microstructural integrity in non-demented older adults
C. M. Barth1, R. S. Wilson2, A. Capuano2, S. Zhang2, D. A. Bennett2, and K. Arfanakis1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that: a) more frequent cognitive activity in late life is associated with higher microstructural integrity in brain white matter (WM), and b) microstructural integrity in WM mediates the relation between late life cognitive activity and cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for a community-dwelling sample of 397 older, non-demented adults. It was demonstrated that fractional anisotropy in a number of WM regions was significantly associated with frequency of late life cognitive activity. Also, FA in those WM regions partially mediated the relationship between late life cognitive activity and cognition.

11:36 0258.   Neural mechanisms of brain plasticity with cognitive training in healthy seniors
Sina Aslan1,2, Sandra B Chapman2, Jeffrey S Spence2, Molly Keebler2, Nyaz Didehbani2, and Hanzhang Lu3
1Advance MRI, LLC, Frisco, Texas, United States, 2Center for BrainHealth, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, United States, 3Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

This study investigates that engaging in complex mental activity offer promising ways to enhance brain integrity to promote successful cognitive aging. Using three MRI-based measurements, i.e. pCASL MRI, fcMRI, and DTI, we examined brain changes across three time points pre, mid, and post-training (12-weeks) in a randomized sample who received cognitive training versus a control group. We found significant training-related brain state changes at rest; specifically, (1) increases in global and regional CBF, particularly in the default mode and central executive networks, (2) greater connectivity in these same networks, and (3) increased white matter integrity in the left uncinate fasciculus.

11:48 0259.   Reduced fractional anisotropy in ageing: Is it driven by changes in tissue microstructure or by partial volume effects?
Johan Westborg1, Danielle Van Westen1,2, Markus Nilsson3, Jimmy Lätt2, Filip Szczepankiewicz4, Sebastian Palmqvist5, Erik Stomrud5, Lennart Minthon5, Katarina Nägga5, and Oskar Hansson5
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 2Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden, 3Lund University Bioimaging Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 4Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden,5Clinical Memory Research Unit, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Our aim was to disentangle the contribution of microstructural change and partial volume effects (PVE) to the reduction of the fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, observed in ageing. Using tractography, we show that the FA reduction with age becomes non-significant when the voxel-count in the tract segments is corrected for. An observed FA reduction in older (>71 years) subjects with ventricular enlargement was primarily driven by increased callosal atrophy. We did not observe microstructural change separate from atrophy and increased PVE.