Joint Annual Meeting ISMRM-ESMRMB 2014 10-16 May 2014 Milan, Italy

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
NEURO 2 (16:00-18:00)
1873-1887 Neuro: Methods
1888-1908 Neuro: Applications
1909-1927 Neurodegenerative Disease
1928-1957 Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia

1958-2001

Psychiatry
2002-2021 Traumatic Brain Injury
2022-2047 Stroke
2048-2081 Multiple Sclerosis 
2082-2092 Animal Models Multiple Sclerosis
2093-2113 Animal Models Brain
   

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Neuro: Methods

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

1873.   Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Exchange effects on Myelin Water Fraction Estimations from Spin-Echo and Steady-State Techniques
Jing Zhang1 and Alex L. MacKay1,2
1Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, B.C., Canada

 
This study was to investigate both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and exchange effects on the MWF estimation from Spin-Echo and Steady-State Techniques.

 
1874.   MR Quantification: An automated self-normalization technique to reduce variability in functional maps.
Arun GovindaRao1, Ramesh Venkatesan1, Uday Patil2, and Abhishek Goyal1
1Healthcare, General Electric, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, 2GE Global Research, General Electric, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

 
MRI though considered being an advanced technique for clinical diagnosis has not been accepted clinically as a quantification tool. Reliable and reproducible results have always been a challenge for MRI. For perfusion analysis, commercial vendors report relative functional maps due to various factors that prevent quantification. The criticality in reporting quantitative values is needed in perfusion based analysis. Stroke for example, decision for selection of candidates that require tPA is an task for clinicians using relative values, Quantification can help identify candidates accurately. Automated approach for normalizing the functional maps can reduce user induced variability leading towards more reproducible results.

 
1875.   Accelerating MRI data analysis by using Matlab toolboxes and Linux cluster
Mingyi Li1, Erik Beall1, and Mark Lowe1
1Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

 
When investigating intrinsic connectivity type of measure on fMRI datasets, we used Matlab Parallel Computing Toolbox and Matlab Compiler Toolbox on Linux cluster to greatly reduce the computation time. The same solution and methodology could also be useful for other researchers, especially those who are using Matlab in their data processing pipeline.

 
1876.   POSTMORTEM MRI TO GUIDE PATHOLOGICAL LOCALIZATION: INDIVIDUALIZED, 3D-PRINTED CUTTING BOXES FOR FIXED BRAINS
MARTINA ABSINTA1,2, GOVIND NAIR1, THOMAS TALBOT3, MASSIMO FILIPPI2, ABHIK RAY-CHAUDHURY4, CARLOS A. PARDO5, and DANIEL S. REICH1
1Translational Neuroradiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), NIH, BETHESDA, MARYLAND, United States, 2Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, MILAN, MILAN, Italy, 3The Laboratory of Cellular and Synaptic Neurophysiology, NICHD, NIH, BETHESDA, MARYLAND, United States, 4Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, NIH, BETHESDA, MARYLAND, United States,5Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, United States

 
We developed a technology to integrate postmortem, high-resolution MRI into the planning and execution of the pathological analysis through the precise localization of the target and cutting coordinates. Compared to standard pathological sectioning, the use of an individually rendered, 3D-printed cutting box for formalin-fixed whole-brains can improve the speed, quality, and accuracy of pathological localization of small findings identi-fied on MRI and should be applicable in a wide spectrum of neurological disorders.

 
1877.   Glutamate and GABA Imaging at 7 Tesla
Zhuozhi Dai1,2, Tao Zhang1, Yanglong Jia1, Gen Yan1, Gang Xiao3, Guishan Zhang1, Zhiwei Shen4, and Renhua Wu1
1Medical Imaging, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada,3Math and Information Technology, Hanshan Normal University, Guangdong, China, 4provincial key laboratory of medical molecular imaging, Guangdong, China

 
Glutamate and GABA are a pair of important neurotransmitters that play a key role in neuropsychiatric diseases. In these studies, we aim to imaging the Glutamte and GABA specifically using chemical exchange saturation transfer technique at 7 Tesla. In addition, we optimized the pre-saturation power respectively and further demonstrated the application in ischemic stroke model in vivo.

 
1878.   Towards clinical implementation of IVIM analysis in brain tumors: Influence of cerebrospinal fluid contamination on the perfusion fraction
Sotirios Bisdas1, Christian Braun2, Ulrike Ernemann1, and Uwe Klose1
1Neuroradiology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany, 2Neurology, Eberhard Karls University, Germany

 
The dependence of perfusion fraction (f) on CSF in IVIM analysis of brain can be demonstrated by DWI measurements with 2 different TEs. The f in cortical or juxta-cortical regions was higher in measurements with longer TE indicating that the fast decaying signal component had long T2, as expected for CSF. In white matter and tumor tissue, f showed no dependence on TE. Considering the influence of CSF on f values and the robustness of the method in lesions located in white matter and tumors is very important prior to any clinical dissemination of IVIM analysis in brain pathologies.

 
1879.   Exploring the pulse artefact in EEG recordings at 9.4 T magnetic field
Jorge Arrubla1, Lukas Breuer1, Nuno da Silva1, Jürgen Dammers1, Irene Neuner1,2, and N. Jon Shah1,3
1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, NRW, Germany, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, NRW, Germany, 3JARA - Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, NRW, Germany

 
In this study we investigate components of the pulse artefact in EEG data recorded at 9.4 T using a combination of ICA, ICASSO and CTPS. We found that the pulse artefact can be separated into different deflections, depending on the phase of the heartbeat, which contribute differently to the resulting artefact. It was possible to identify a link between the amplitude of the pulse artefact and the age of our volunteers, suggesting that the pulse artefact has a strong dependence on what we hypothesize is the arterial compliance.

 
1880.   Intermodality image guided MRI super-resolution
Jianhua Yan1, Jason Chu-Shern Lim1, and David W Townsend1
1A*STAR-NUS, Clinical Imaging Research Center, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

 
Image resolution of MRI is limited by several factors such as hardware, signal to noise ratio, hardware and time limitations or patient’s comfort. In typical clinical settings, several types of images are obtained with different voxel resolutions. Typically, resolution of through-plane is lower than that of in-plane. In many applications, such as image segmentation or registration, voxel size of low-resolution (LR) image is desired to match with a higher-resolution dataset. Traditionally, interpolation techniques such B-spline interpolation were applied. Super-resolution technique has been emerged as an effective way to improve the resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition time trade-offs compared with direct high-resolution (HR) acquisition. Here, an alternative super-resolution method with intermodality priors from another HR MRI is proposed. In particular, we aim to improve resolution of LR T2-weighted image with help of HR T1-weighted image

 
1881.   A complete neuroimaging protocol with optical prospective motion correction
Didem Aksoy1, Murat Aksoy1, Julian Maclaren1, Jakob Ehrl1, and Roland Bammer1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

 
Prospective motion correction is gaining popularity to prevent motion artifacts in MRI of the brain. In many cases, an optical system, such as a camera, is used to track head position. Many authors have claimed, or implied, that one of the advantages of the technique is that it is applicable to any imaging sequence, since it operates independently from the MRI scanner. The purpose of this work was to test this claim by developing and evaluating a complete neuroimaging protocol compatible with optical prospective motion correction.

 
1882.   3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud
Hui Xue1, Peter Kellman1, Souheil Inati2, Thomas Sorensen3, and Michael Schacht Hansen1
1Magnetic Resonance Technology Program, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 2National Mental Health Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 3Department of Computer Science, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

 
Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved image quality using two dimensional acceleration factors of R=3×2 and 3×3.

 
1883.   Modeling focal cortical dysplasia lesions using diffusion of gadolinium-DTPA in gel phantoms
Quentin Duché1,2, Giulio Gambarota1,2, Isabelle Merlet1,2, Oscar Acosta1,2, and Hervé Saint-Jalmes1,2
1Université de Rennes 1 - LTSI, Rennes, Bretagne, France, 2INSERM, UMR 1099, Rennes, France

 
Many disorders such as multiple sclerosis or focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) require the use of MRI to precisely delineate size ­limited lesions. Optimizing MRI sequences to enhance the contrast between healthy and pathological tissues is necessary. In addition, improving brain images post­processing algorithms of pathological subjects where usual assumptions are void is an important task. For this purpose, it is of primary interest to develop test objects able to mimic the aspect of certain brain lesions. This will allow the optimization for both MRI sequences and post­processing algorithms. In this work, we present a useful test object for sequences optimization.

 
1884.   Effect of short-term synaptic plasticity on the relationship between neuronal activity, BOLD, CMRO2 and CMRGlc studied by metabolic modeling of neuron-glia interaction
Mauro DiNuzzo1,2, Silvia Mangia3, Bruno Maraviglia1,4, and Federico Giove1,2
1MARBILab, Enrico Fermi Center, Rome, Rome, Italy, 2Department of Physics, U Sapienza, Rome, Rome, Italy, 3CMRR, U Minnesota, Minneapolis MN, United States, 4Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy

 
We developed a kinetic model of rat brain metabolism including electrophysiological information related to short-term synaptic plasticity in order to examine the coupling between neuronal activity, BOLD, and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2) and glucose (CMRGlc). We found that post-synaptic activity correlates with CMRO2 and BOLD, while pre-synaptic spiking activity correlates with CMRGlc. In particular, axonal action potentials, albeit consuming less energy than dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials, are found to be the primary determinants for the decrease in oxygen/glucose index at firing rates above 4-6 Hz. Our results are relevant for further understanding neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling.

 
1885.   Noninvasive Evaluation of Electrical Conductivity of the Normal Brain and Brain Tumors
Khin Khin Tha1, Christian Stehning2, Yuriko Suzuki3, Ulrich Katscher2, Jochen Keupp2, Ken Kazumata1, Shunsuke Terasaka1, Marc Van Cauteren3, Kohsuke Kudo1, and Hiroki Shirato1
1Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan, 2Philips Technologie GmbH, Germany, 3Philips Electronics, Japan

 
This study evaluated the repeatability of noninvasive electrical conductivity measurements by electric properties tomography (EPT) and the conductivity values of the normal intracranial compartments, normal-appearing brain parenchyma and intra-axial brain tumors, in 1 normal subject and 25 brain tumor patients. The results revealed high repeatability of the measurements, significantly different conductivity metrics between the tumors and adjacent normal-appearing brain parenchyma, and possible differentiation of WHO grade IV tumors from the other tumors. EPT provides information about the tissuesf electrical conductivity noninvasively and in vivo, and can become a tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the brain tumors.

 
1886.   The Effect of Hypoxia on Cerebral Arterial Calibre and Flow Velocity - An MRI Study
Ravjit Singh Sagoo1, David Bailey1, Sarah Wayte2, Eddie Ng'andwe1, Charles Handford3, Sanjoy Nagaraja1, Mahmud Saedon4, Helen Parsons5, Alex Wright6,7, Arthur Bradwell6,7, Christopher Imray4,7, and Charles Hutchinson1,8
1Department of Imaging, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom, 2Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom, 3University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 4Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom, 5Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom, 6University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 7Birmingham Medical Research Expeditionary Society, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 8University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom

 
One of the processes responsible for maintaining oxygen delivery in high altitude climbers is an increase in cerebral arterial flow velocity. Arterial dilatation has long thought to play no part in maintaining cerebral oxygenation, a theory that has recently been disputed. This study documents changes in middle cerebral artery (MCA) calibre, flow velocity, flow and calculated oxygen delivery in response to a 22-hour period of normobaric hypoxia in 12 subjects. MCA flow velocity significantly increased to maintain cerebral oxygen (p<0.05) while the increase in MCA calibre approached significance (p=0.09). A larger number of subjects may be needed to detect significance.

 
1887.   Impact of Hypertension and Aging on Resting State BOLD Response to Heart Rate Variation
Wendy W Ni1, Catie Chang2, Hesamoddin Jahanian3, Gary H Glover3, and Greg Zaharchuk3
1Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Advanced MRI Section, LFMI, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

 
Cardiac contribution to resting state BOLD signal fluctuations may be modeled as a linear response to heart rate variation using the RVHR model. In this study, we interpret three features of the response function as indicators of the strength of cerebrovascular autoregulation, and examine the differences between young normals, elderly subjects with hypertension and chronic kidney disease, and elderly normals. We find statistically significant differences in response strength between young and elderly normals, and between elderly normals and patients. Our numerical results also suggest that aging reduces autoregulation, while hypertension obscures the effect of aging on BOLD signal fluctuations.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Neuro: Applications

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

1888.   Failure of connectivity modulation during an attentional task in children with epilepsy is not explained fully by interictal activity
Elhum Shamshiri1, Maria Centeno1, Kelly St Pier2, Suejen Perani1, Helen Cross3, and David Carmichael1
1UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK, United Kingdom, 2Epilepsy Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK, United Kingdom, 3Neurosciences Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK, United Kingdom

 
The current study looks at aberrant cognitive networks previously established in children with epilepsy by exploring the task-related differences between patients and controls during a ‘natural stimulus’ and resting state. We used a GLM in SPM8 as well as functional connectivity looking at temporal changes in BOLD response to analyse the results. Significant differences between groups are found in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, connectivity results showed that patients recruit more brain regions than controls in performing cognitive tasks, and that patients are also shown to have problems with task switching and cognitive network modulation when compared to controls.

 
1889.   System imbalance of activated external awareness yet deactivated internal awareness in the vegetative state detected by resting state fMRI
Jianghong He1, Yi Zhang1,2, Zhenyu Zhou3, Ruxiang Xu1, and Yijun Liu4
1Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Army General Hospital, Beijing 100700, China, 2School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shanxi 710071, China, 3GE Healthcare, Beijing 100176, China, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

 
People's Republic of In disorders of consciousness (DOC), the vegetative state (VS) represents a unique mental status distinct from coma and the minimally conscious state. Functional MRI (fMRI) reveals that awareness can be reduced to two coexistent networks--- the external and internal awareness, and that the two components are anti-correlates. According to this framework, the present study hypothesizes that there is imbalance between the external and internal awareness in VS. Our study provides evidence that VS in DOC patients is likely related to the imbalance between the external and internal awareness systems as well as the DMN. The hyperactivaion of external awareness system and the hypoactive internal awareness and DMN exhibit a key pattern of brain activity in the unique mental states of VS, which may be further characterized as prognostic markers of VS and DOC.

 
1890.   Decreased functional connectivity between the mediodorsal thalamus and default mode network in disorders of consciousness
Jianghong He1, Yue Cui2, Ming Song2, Yi Zhang1, Yuanyuan Dang1, Tianzi Jiang2, and Ruxiang Xu1
1Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Army General Hospital, Beijing 100700, China, 2National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

 
It is generally assumed that interactions between thalamic nuclei and the cortex play an important role in consciousness. Recent studies have implicated the DMN in consciousness, which includes functional less strong connections within the DMN in patients with DOC. The purpose of the present study is to address this limitation by investigating functional connectivity between individual thalamic nuclei and the DMN in DOC patients. 9 DOC patients and 9 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. In comparison to healthy controls, DOC patients had significantly decreased functional connectivity between the mediodorsal thalamus and brain areas within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. Patients and controls did not show differences in functional connectivity for any thalamic nucleus other than the mediodorsal thalamus.

 
1891.   Connectivity increase in reward-related brain regions in patients with congenital lipodystrophy: A longitudinal study with leptin-substitution treatment
Haiko Schlögl1,2, Karsten Mueller1, Annette Horstmann1,3, Harald E Möller1, Konstanze Miehle2, Burkhard Pleger1,4, Arno Villringer1,4, Mathias Fasshauer2,3, and Michael Stumvoll2,3
1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Department for Internal Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Germany, 3Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig, Germany, 4Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University Hospital Leipzig, Germany

 
Patients with congenital lipodystrophy (LD) present reduced serum leptin concentrations, leading to disturbed eating behavior with the inability to develop sustaining satiety. We substituted leptin in eight LD patients and assessed functional resting state MRI during the first year of the treatment. Leptin substitution lead to decreased hunger and increased post-meal satiety. In fMRI we found a strengthened functional connectivity in dopaminergic reward regions (nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex) as well as the hedonic control centre (hypothalamus). These data suggest long-term adaptation of the interconnectedness of brain areas involved in the control eating behavior after leptin substitution in LD.

 
1892.   Preliminary study on structural brain network topology in chronic knee OA pain
Yue Xing1,2, Hamza Alshuft1,2, and Dorothee Auer1,2
1Radiological Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2Arthritis Research UK Pain Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

 
Graph theory combining MRI techniques enables a non-invasive description of structural and functional network topology in human brain. Despite the recent explosion of studies on functional brain network and anatomical connectivity provided by diffusion MRI, little is known about the structural architecture in patients with primary nociceptive disorders, which may cause reconfiguration of the underlying brain organisation. We measured cortical thickness of more precise localization of sulco-gyral regions on patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis and healthy controls. By applying graph theory analysis, we present a preliminary morphometric signature of knee osteoarthritis pain.

 
1893.   The Role of Cerebral Oedema in the Development of Acute Mountain Sickness: A MRI Study
Ravjit Singh Sagoo1, Victoria Bull2, Helen Parsons3, Sarah Wayte4, Eddie Ng'andwe1, Charles Handford5, Mahmud Saedon6, Chris Koller2, Alex Wright7,8, Arthur Bradwell7,8, Christopher Imray6,8, and Charles Hutchinson1,9
1Department of Imaging, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, United Kingdom, 2Department of Clinical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, United Kingdom, 3Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom, 4Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, United Kingdom, 5University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 6Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, United Kingdom, 7University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 8Birmingham Medical Research Expeditionary Society, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 9University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

 
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops in individuals following rapid ascent to high altitudes with low atmospheric oxygen levels. One of the proposed theories is that AMS may be due to an increase in intracranial pressure as a result of cerebral oedema. Based on changes in serial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps over a 22-hour period of normobaric hypoxia, we demonstrated that ADC values were significantly higher within the corpus callosum at 11 and 22 hours compared to baseline (p<0.01), representing oedema. This change was independent of the presence of AMS. No other significant changes in cerebral ADC values were observed.

 
1894.   Cognition decline and Cortical thickness change in Chronic Kidney Disease patients
Chun-Yuan Chang1,2, Fa-Hsuan Lin1, and Jong-Ling Fuh3
1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan, 22Department of Neurology, Min-Sheng General Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 3Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan

 
The CKD patients had smaller total cerebral cortex volume and smaller cortical thickness compared to the control subjects. Moreover,in neurocognition test,the CKD groups showed lower scores in MMSE, MoCA and digit span forward compared with the normal control group significantly.The CKD subjects had smaller gray matter volume compared with the control subjects in some brain regions.

 
1895.   Occupational Manganese Exposure Levels Correlate with Brain GABA Levels
Ulrike Dydak1,2, Eric J Ward3, Ruoyun Ma1, Sandy Snyder1, Elizabeth Zauber4, James B Murdoch5, Zaiyang Long1, and Frank Rosenthal1
1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 2Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 3School of Health Sciences, Purdue Universiy, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 5Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Mayfield Village, OH, United States

 
Thalamic GABA levels have been shown to be elevated in metal workers occupationally exposed to manganese (Mn). While symptoms of Mn neurotoxicity resemble those of Parkinson’s disease, the role of basal ganglia GABA is not clear in this context. This study finds a significant correlation between thalamic GABA levels and individual Mn exposure levels accumulated over the past three months in typically exposed welders, suggesting that GABA might serve as biomarker of recent exposure. Since the thalamus plays a major role in regulating cognitive and motor function, these findings may help to further elucidate the underlying mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity.

 
1896.   Quantitative cerebral water content changes after CSF removal in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a preliminary analysis using MRI at 3 T
Zaheer Abbas1, Kathrin Reetz1,2, Ana Sofia Costa2, Vincent Gras1, Shahram Mirzazade1,2, Johannes Schiefer2, Georg Neuloh3, Jörg Bernhard Schulz2,4, and N Jon Shah1,2
1INM-4, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 3Department of Neurosurgery, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany, 4Translational Brain Medicine, Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Jülich and Aachen, Germany

 
Proton density (PD) is tightly regulated in the human brain. Quantitative measures of PD have provided new insights into monitoring disease progression. MRI protocols were set up to quantitatively assess PD in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients, before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal by lumbar puncture. Data were co-registered to the MNI brain template and PD mean values for total white matter (WM), total grey matter (GM), frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal WM and GM were determined. Although, no changes in GM were found, increased water content in WM (about 3%) in iNPH decreased after lumbar puncture.

 
1897.   Structural and metabolic measurements in Rett patients with MECP2 mutation
Laura Biagi1, Manuela Casarano1, Roberta Battini1, Tommaso Pizzorusso2,3, Giorgio Pini4, Danilo Scelfo1,5, Giovanni Cioni1,6, and Michela Tosetti1
1IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa, PI, Italy, 2Institue of Neuroscience, National Research Council, Pisa, PI, Italy, 3University of Florence, Firenze, FI, Italy, 4Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Versilia Hospital, Lido di Camaiore, LU, Italy, 5Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa, PI, Italy, 6University of Pisa, Pisa, PI, Italy

 
The principal aim of this study is to identify specific biomarkers of Rett syndrome (RTT) using neuroimaging techniques that could be used as index of disease progression. 14 patients with MECP2 mutations and 14 matched healthy controls participated in the study. We explored Voxel-Based-Morphometry (VBM) and Cerebral perfusion by using pCASL technique. Data showed global reductions of GM and WM volumes in RTT patients and the capability of a functional/metabolic parameter like CBF to identify different profiles in the groups of RTT subjects, differentiating epileptic patients from no-epileptic ones and finding different alterations in patients with different respiratory patterns.

 
1898.   Apparent Fibre Density (AFD) Analysis Reveals Decreases in Axonal Density in the White Matter Pathways of Patients with Grey Matter Heterotopia
Shawna Farquharson1,2, David Raffelt1, Farnoosh Sadeghian1, J-Donald Tournier1,3, Simone Mandelstam1,4, Michal Schneider-Kolsky2, Samuel F Berkovic5, Ingrid Scheffer1,5, Graeme Jackson1,6, and Alan Connelly1,5
1The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2Department of Medical Imaging & Radiation Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3Deptartment of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4Medical Imaging, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 5Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 6Department of Medicine, Austin Health,University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

 
Individuals with neuronal migration disorders such as heterotopia often present with epilepsy that is refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Recent fibre tractography studies of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) patients have reported abnormal fibre tracks associated with regions of heterotopia. In the present study we use Apparent Fibre Density (AFD) to perform whole brain voxel-based analysis of DWI data from patients with PVNH to investigate differences in tissue microstructure. We observed a significant decrease in AFD in many white matter tracts beyond regions of heterotopia in PVNH patients compared to healthy control participants.

 
1899.   Correlations between diffusion-weighted and clinical parameters in uncompensated vestibular patients - a pilot study.
Angelique Van Ombergen1, Ben Jeurissen2, Floris Vanhevel3, Wim Van Hecke4, Vincent Van Rompaey5, Jan Sijbers2, Stefan Sunaert6, Paul Parizel3, Paul van de Heyning5, and Floris Wuyts1
1Antwerp University Research center for Equilibrium and Aerospace, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 2Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 3Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital & University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 4icoMetrix, Leuven, Belgium, 5Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital & University of Antwerp, Belgium, 6Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

 
Correlations between diffusion and clinical vestibular parameters in uncompensated vestibular patients and healthy controls were investigated. Multi-shell high angular resolution diffusion weighted data were acquired and tractography was performed. We found multiple significant correlations between diffusion parameters in several vestibular-related brain regions and clinical parameters. Thus, this pilot study shows that quantities derived from diffusion-weighted imaging appear to be correlated with several clinical parameters from vestibular testing. This suggests that the cause of the symptoms of unresolved continuous vertigo is probably more situated at the central level than at the peripheral level.

 
1900.   Evidence of a topographical and inflammatory brain response in Human T Lymphotropic Virus type-1-associated myelopathy (HAM)
Courtney A Bishop1,2, Qi Guo3, Rahul Dimber1, Rexford D Newbould1,2, Roger N Gunn1,2, Eugenii A Rabiner1,3, and Graham P Taylor4
1Imanova Centre for Imaging Sciences, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 3King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 4St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom

 
HTLV1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is a chronic, debilitating neuro-inflammatory disease that may be associated with neuro-cognitive defects in spite of being a peripheral infection. In this study, we used VBM and DTI to attempt to differentiate six HAM patients (with high viral load but varying disease burden) from healthy controls, in order to probe CNS changes before the development of cognitive defects. Both VBM and DTI analysis identified the thalamus as correlated to disease burden, which was reinforced by [11C]PBR28 PET identifying the thalamus as an area of inflammation in HAM patients.

 
1901.   Microstructural abnormalities related to the chronification of osteoarthritic pain: a DTI study
Diane Reckziegel1,2, Jennifer Dixon1,2, and Dorothee P. Auer1,2
1Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2Arthritis Research UK Pain Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom

 
DTI was used to investigate potential brain microstructural disruptions underlying any adaptive or predisposing changes to the networks in the brain in response to chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis (OA). TBSS and ROI-based analysis revealed an increase in thalamic MD as pain duration increases, and a tendency for association between more neuropathic-like symptoms and MD in an area involving the insula and ACC. Our findings suggest that microstructural abnormalities in OA pain, a primary nociceptive condition, are a feature of pain chronification. They seem to develop after several years of persistent pain probably preferentially in patients with more neuropathic-like symptoms.

 
1902.   Cerebral Blood Flow Changes Related to Pain Intensity in Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis
William J Cottam1,2, Jennifer Dixon1,2, Laura Condon1,2, Maryam Abaei1,2, and Dorothee Auer1,2
1Radiological and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Neurosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2ARUK Pain Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

 
In this study we aimed to characterise the central processing of chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain. We investigated the interrelations between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the level of experienced spontaneous OA pain severity in chronic knee OA pain patients. Within patient analysis showed positive correlations between spontaneous pain severity (VAS scores) and local CBF within the anterior cingulate cortex, left hippocampus, left amygdala, left insula, left thalamus, left putamen, subcallosal cortex and the brain stem. In conclusion, this study shows that ASL imaging allows us to map spontaneous OA pain involving known sensory and emotional pain processing areas.

 
1903.   White Matter Abnormalities in Males with suppressed HIV-Infection on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy compared to Representative Controls
Tanja Su1, Matthan Caan1, Ferdinand Wit2, Judith Schouten3, Gert Geurtsen3, Ben Schmand3, Frans Vos4, Peter Portegies5, Peter Reiss2, and Charles Majoie1
1Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Infectious disease, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands, 5Neurology, OLVG hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands

 
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has been suggested to remain common in patients with suppressed viraemia on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We used DTI tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to explore the contribution of white matter microstructural disintegration to HAND. Locally increased mean diffusivity in callosal fibers and association fibers were found in HIV-infected men on cART compared to representative uninfected controls. However, an association with cognitive impairment or impairment in any of the individually tested domains could not be demonstrated.

 
1904.   Decreased Apparent Fibre Density in Dravet Syndrome
David Raffelt1, Donna Parker1, Jacinta M McMahon1, Ingrid E Scheffer1,2, and Alan Connelly1,2
1Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 2Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

 
Dravet syndrome is a devastating disease characterised by the onset of infantile seizures, with myoclonic, focal, and absence seizures developing later in life. Childhood development is slowed resulting in intellectual disability in most patients. Despite a well-recognised molecular etiology, little is understood about the pathophysiology. MRI abnormalities to date have been relatively sparse and not reflective of the severity of the clinical picture. We performed the first diffusion MRI study of Dravet syndrome by a whole-brain analysis of Apparent Fibre Density (AFD). We observed a marked decrease in AFD in the majority of white matter tracts compared to control participants.

 
1905.   Atypical language lateralization in adult temporal lobe epilepsy patients: fMRI study using statistical threshold and spatial masking
Steve H Fung1,2, Christof Karmonik1,2, Mario F Dulay1,2, Robert G Grossman1,2, and Amit Verma1,2
1Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas, United States, 2Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States

 
We investigated the effect of statistical threshold and various spatial masks on laterality index (LI) calculation in determining language lateralization in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) evaluated using fMRI with language tasks. Majority of patients with TLE had some atypical lateralization, suggesting possible plasticity/reorganization of language function in patients with TLE.

 
1906.   Preliminary Multi-Modal Image Analysis in Epilepsy using Simultaneous PET/MR
Yu-Shin Ding1,2, Bangbin Chen3, Mariana Lazar1, Christopher Glielmi4, and Orrin Devinsky5
1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, 4Siemens Healthcare, New York, NY, United States, 5Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, NY, United States

 
Surgery for treatment-resistant epilepsy can be effective, but the decision to operate depends on a careful assessment of the risk-benefit profile for each patient. A combined PET/MR scanner with simultaneous acquisition allows direct correlation of PET data with MR-detected patterns of neural synchrony in the brain, facilitating the identification of an optimal biomarker. To demonstrate this feasibility, we initiated a comparative study in controls and epilepsy patients using FDG at 7 functionally connected networks. Our results showed significant group difference in metabolism at visual and attention networks, and that ALFF at PCC significantly correlated with SUV at attention network.

 
1907.   Structural and functional evolution of temporal lobe epilepsy using linear regression modeling
Victoria L Morgan1, Alexander S. Dagley1, Hakmook Kang2, Bassel Abou-Khalil3, and Baxter P. Rogers1
1Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 2Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, United States,3Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, United States

 
We used elastic net linear regression to identify regional structural and functional parameters that predict duration of temporal lobe epilepsy to quantify the evolution of the disease. We found that the volume of regions including the thalamus, putamen, entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus decrease linearly as duration increases. Functional connectivity between many regions including the left hippocampus and the right insula, left and right insula, and the right hippocampus and the left thalamus also vary linearly as duration of disease increases. The identification of this network can inform decisions on surgical treatment and prediction of surgical outcome.

 
1908.   MRI diffusion histogram analysis in paediatric optic pathway tumours with and without neurofibromatosis
Daniel Rodriguez1, Nigel P Davies2,3, L Abernethy4, Chris A Clark5,6, Tim Jaspan7, D Hargrave6, L MacPherson3, Martin O Leach8, G S Payne8, B L Pizer4, Andrew C Peet2,9, T Arvanitis9,10, Richard Grundy1,7, and Dorothee P Auer1,7
1University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 2University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 3University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 4Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 5University College London, London, United Kingdom,6Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 7Nottingham University Hospitals Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 8The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, United Kingdom, 9Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 10University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

 
The relationship between ADC histogram-based metrics and neurofibromatosis type1 (NF1) in optic pathway gliomas (OPG) is investigated. Non-NF1 OPGs are known to carry a significantly poorer prognosis without any differences in conventional MR imaging markers. This study suggests that there are no differences in ADC-based metrics between NF1 groups either.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Neurodegenerative Disease

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

1909.   Altered axonal integrity of lower limb motor tracts in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a DTI biomarker for differentiating lumbar-drainage responders from non-responders
Shih-Wei Chiang1,2, Cheng-Yu Chen3,4, Ping-Huei Tsai3, Hsiao-Wen Chung1, Chao-Ying Wang2, and Ming-Chung Chou5
1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Institue of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

 
Gait disturbance in iNPH is associatedwith altered axonal integrity in the corups callosum and lower-limb motortracts. The degree of axonal integrity changes is significantly increased inlumbar-drainage non-responders than the responders. DTI may potentially beuseful in differentiate the responders from non-responders in the diagnosticworkup of iNPH patients who might benefit fronm permanent ventriculo-peritonealshunting treatment.

 
1910.   Diffusion tensor imaging in bulbar and limb-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Arturo Cardenas-Blanco1, Judith Machts2, Julio Acosta-Cabronero1, Joern Kaufmann2, Susanne Abdulla3, Katja Kollewe3, Susanne Petri3, Reinhard Dengler3, Stefan Vielhaber2, and Peter Nestor1
1Brain Plasticity & Neurodegeneration, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, 2Neurology, Magdeburg medical school, Magdeburg, Germany, 3Neurology, Hannover medical school, Hannover, Germany

 
Bulbar onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-B) has a worse prognosis that limb onset (ALS-L). This could reflect either that ALS-B targets muscles more critical for survival or because it is biologically more aggressive. The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of neuro-degeneration between ALS-B and ALS-L patients carefully matching age, sex, cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction using DTI. The results indicated that both groups had similar distribution of change (corticospinal tracts) although ALS-B had more severe white matter tract degeneration than ALS-L. This suggests that, when matched for clinical markers of severity, ALS-B is a more aggressive variant.

 
1911.   Single subject VBM analysis
Joao M. S. Pereira1, Julio Acosta-Cabronero2, Peter J. Nestor2, Guy B. Williams3, and Miguel Castelo-Branco4
1Laboratory of Biostatistics, IBILI - Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, 2German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Magdeburg, Germany, 3Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Visual Sciences Laboratory, IBILI - Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

 
Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a common brain imaging tool used in research to detect differences in the volume of brain tissues between groups. Its application to a clinical setting has been hampered by its inability to assess single subjects. This work presents a proof of concept of single subject VBM, using a nonlinear registration algorithm to simulate normal anatomical variability and thus generate a sample of subjects out of a single scan.

 
1912.   Increased midbrain iron deposition in Parkinson’s disease measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping
Guangwei Du1, Tian Liu2, Mechelle M. Lewis1,3, Jeffrey Vesek4, Lan Kong5, Martin Styner6, Qing X. Yang4,7, and Xuemei Huang1,4
1Department of Neurology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, United States, 2MedImageMetric LLC, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Pharmacology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, United States,5Public Health Sciences, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, United States, 6Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States, 7Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, United States

 
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Increased iron content in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD patients has been reported as a surrogate marker of PD. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been proposed to directly quantify iron content in human brain. In this work, we examine the use of QSM as an in vivo marker(s) of PD related pathology in nigrastriatal structures. Our results showed increased susceptibility in the SN and the RN in PD patients compared with controls. This study supports the hypothesis that QSM can measure iron accumulation associated with the PD-related pathological process.

 
1913.   Studies in Epilepsy Patients using Simultaneous PET/MR: Preliminary Results
Yu-Shin Ding1,2, Bangbin Chen3, Christopher Glielmi4, Timothy Shepherd1, Thomas Koesters1, Anne-Kristin Vahle1, Kent Friedman1, Fernando Boada1, and Orrin Devinsky5
1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, 4Siemens Healthcare, NY, United States, 5Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, NY, United States

 
We have initiated a comparative study in neurotypical controls (NC) and epilepsy patients (Epi) using a state-of-the-art PET/MR combined imaging technology with simultaneous acquisition to study epilepsy. With quantitative data analysis on glucose metabolism in over 120 brain regions, we have identified the ROIs showed group differences. The fact that our preliminary results (e.g., abnormal regional glucose metabolism and prevalence of asymmetry) are consistent with the clinical data of epilepsy patients suggests that simultaneous PET/MR imaging provides a useful imaging tool to identify regional abnormality and assist in localizing the seizure focus.

 
1914.   An investigation of functional connectivity in the cognitive control network in Prodromal Huntington's Disease
Katherine A Koenig1, Mark J Lowe1, Jian Lin1, Deborah L Harrington2, Ken E Sakaie1, Jane S Paulsen3, and Stephen M Rao4
1Imaging Sciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Research, Neurology, and Radiology Services, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United States, 4Neurological Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

 
Activation on a motor task was used to seed a resting state connectivity analysis in the left primary motor cortex (M1) in 48 participants in the prodromal stages of Huntington’s disease (preHD) and 16 gene-negative participants. Bilateral anterior cerebellar lobes and bilateral middle temporal gyri showed a relationship between strength of connectivity to left M1 and time-to-onset in preHD. These findings suggest that connectivity strength is impacted by disease process prior to onset of symptoms in HD.

 
1915.   Investigating the long-term effects of systemic chemotherapy on brain white matter using multi-shell diffusion MRI and myelin water imaging
Thibo Billiet1,2, Sabine Deprez1,2, Burkhard Maedler3, Ronald Peeters1,2, Hui Zhang4, Alexander Leemans5, Thijs Dhollander6, Daan Christiaens6, Frederic Amant7, Ann Smeets7, Bea Van den Bergh8, Mathieu Vandenbulcke9, Eric Legius10, Stefan Sunaert1,2, and Louise Emsell1,2
1Translational MRI, Imaging & Pathology, KU Leuven & Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Medical Imaging Research Center, Leuven, Belgium,3Stereotaxis and MR-based Intervention, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn University Hospital, Bonn, Germany, 4Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 5University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands, 6ESAT-PSI Processing Speech and Images, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 7Leuven Cancer Institute (LKI), Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Unit, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium, 8Developmental Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands, 9Psychiatry, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 10Human Genetics, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

 
Systemic chemotherapy as a treatment against breast cancer patients is known to induce cognitive deficits, related with alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the brain's white matter. Using advanced diffusion techiques (DTI, DKI, NODDI) and multicomponent T2 relaxation, the long-term effects of this chemotherapy treatment are assessed.

 
1916.   Relationship between neuromelanin-weighted MRI contrast and PET radiotracer binding to dopamine transporter in substantia nigra
Hiroshi Kawaguchi1, Hitoshi Shimada1, Masayuki Suzuki1, Shigeki Hirano1, Hitoshi Shinotoh1, Jeff Kershaw1, Tetsuya Suhara1, and Hiroshi Ito1
1Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba, Japan
 
 
1917.   Dissociation Pattern in Resting-State Default Mode Network Connectivity in Type II Diabetes Patients
Ying Cui1, Yun Jiao1, Pei-Cheng Li1, Bing Luo1, Hai-Dong Zhu1, Cheng-yu Peng1, and Gao-Jun Teng1
1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospita, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

 
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, the etiology underlying is still largely unknown. The default-mode network (DMN) is an important brain network which supports several key functions. Dysfunction of DMN has been suggested as an early marker of several psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the integrity of the DMN by using independent component analysis (ICA) in T2DM patients and to correlate the DMN functional connectivity (FC) changes with neurocognitive performance and clinical variables. The disrupted DMN could help imply the mechanism linking T2DM and cognitive impairment.

 
1918.   Brain white matter involvement in OPA1-dominant optic atrophy and Leber's hereditary optic atrophy: a DTI study
David Neil Manners1, Giovanni Rizzo1,2, Chiara La Morgia1,2, Caterina Tonon1, Claudia Testa1, Piero Barboni3, Emil Malucelli4, Maria Lucia Valentino1,2, Leonardo Caporali1,2, Daniela Strobbe1,2, Valerio Carelli1,2, and Raffaele Lodi1
1Dept of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Emilia Romagna, Italy, 2IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Emilia Romagna, Italy, 3Studio Occulistico d'Azeglio, Bologna, Italy, 4Dept of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Emilia Romagna, Italy

 
Whole brain white matter of 19 OPA1-dominant optic atrophy (OPA1-DOA) patients was compared with 17 Leber's hereditary optic atrophy (LHON) patients and 19 healthy controls, using diffusion tensor imaging, to detect subtle structural alterations. LHON patients presented a preferential involvement of the optic radiation and of the acoustic radiation possibly due to trans-synaptic degeneration, with a protective effect of idebenone therapy. OPA1-DOA patients presented a widespread involvement supporting the view of a multisystemic disorder. The correlation between diffusivity abnormalities and the age of these patients also supports the hypothesis of a congenital and developmental disorder

 
1919.   Improved microstructural characterisation of T2-hyperintense lesions by combining multi-shell diffusion MRI and myelin water imaging
Thibo Billiet1,2, Sabine Deprez1,2, Burkhard Maedler3, Felice D'Arco4, Ellen Plasschaert5, Ronald Peeters1,2, Hui Zhang6, Alexander Leemans7, Bea Van den Bergh8, Mathieu Vandenbulcke9, Eric Legius5, Stefan Sunaert1,2, and Louise Emsell1,2
1Translational MRI, Imaging & Pathology, KU Leuven & Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Medical Imaging Research Center, Leuven, Belgium,3Stereotaxis and MR-based Intervention, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn University Hospital, Bonn, Germany, 4Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, University Federico II of Naples, Salerno, Italy, 5Human Genetics, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 6Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 7University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands, 8Developmental Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands, 9Psychiatry, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

 
Often Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients express hyperintensities on T2-weighted MRI brain scans. Their microstructure is still not well understood. Combining multicomponent T2 relaxation and advanced diffusion techniques (DTI, DKI, NODDI) we try to characterize these so-called "unidentified bright objects" (UBOs)

 
1920.   Comparison of Neuromelanin MRI with FP-CIT SPECT in Parkinson Disease
Paula Trujillo1,2, Paul Summers1, Giorgio Marotta3, Ioannis Isaias4,5, and Antonella Costa1
1Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, MI, Italy, 2Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, MI, Italy, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, MI, Italy, 4Centro Parkinson, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan, MI, Italy, 5Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Bayern, Germany

 
Our aim was to compare contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and volume measurements of the substantia nigra (SN) made using NM-MRI with dopamine reuptake in the caudate nucleus and putamen in Parkinson’s disease patients as measured using FP-CIT SPECT. Differences in NM-MRI measures between healthy controls (HC) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients were also examined. Both NM-MRI measures of the SN showed a significant correlation with the FP-CIT binding values, and were significantly different between the HC and PD groups. Our results suggest that NM-MRI may find use in quantifying pathology and following disease progression.

 
1921.   Analysis of Structural Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease using Graph Theory Analysis
João M. Sousa1,2, Rita G. Nunes1, Sofia Reimão3, Joaquim Ferreira4, and Hugo A. Ferreira1
1IBEB - Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 2FCT - NOVA University of Lisbon, Almada, Setubal, Portugal, 3Neurologial Imaging Department, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte - Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, Portugal, 4Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular and Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology, Lisbon, Portugal

 
In this work we compared structural connectivity metrics derived from diffusion data of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) subjects and a control group. As well as standard analysis of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD) Diffusion Tensor measures, Graph Theory (GT) analysis was employed. Detected differences in FA and MD were consistent with previous work, while connectivity metrics derived from GT were able to detect significant changes in further areas also known to be involved in PD. A new framework for exploring connectivity metrics as biomarkers for PD has been proposed which may offer novel insights into the disease.

 
1922.   A Longitudinal Study In Huntington’s Disease Reveals Differential Macro- and Micro-structural Effects
Jessica J Steventon1,2, Da Ma3,4, Manual J Cardoso4, Marc Modat4, Mark F Lythgoe3,4, Sebastian Ourselin4, Rebecca Trueman2,5, Anne E Rosser2, and Derek K Jones1
1Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, 2Brain Repair Group, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging (CABI), University College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC), University College London, London, United Kingdom, 5Nottingham University, Nottingham, United Kingdom

 
Patient studies in Huntington’s Disease (HD) are limited by the incompatibility of MRI with chorea, producing an incomplete picture of neuropathological changes at later disease stages. Here, we used both T2-weighted and diffusion MRI in a mouse model of HD at a pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time-point, where anaesthesia is necessary during scanning but eliminates chorea-related motion artefacts. We apply automated atlas-based segmentation and diffusion tractography for the first time in a knock-in mouse model of HD and find that macro-structural changes preceded micro-structural changes, suggesting microstructural abnormalities may be a downstream effect of grey matter abnormalities in HD.

 
1923.   Automated Tract Based Analysis of Diffusion Properties in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Florian Franz Erich Borsodi1, Christian Langkammer1, Valeriu Culea1, Lukas Pirpamer1, Christian Enzinger1,2, Reinhold Schmidt1, Franz Fazekas1, and Stefan Ropele1
1Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria, 2Division of Neuroradiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

 
Previous approaches to study microstructural tissue changes in the corticospinal tract (CST) of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were based on spatial statistics on a group level with its inherent limitations. In our research, we applied a new global probabilistic fiber tracking approach with an automated seed region positioning to study diffusion properties (FA, MD, RD, AD) in major white-matter tracts of 23 ALS patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls. In line with previous studies, we found significant changes in the CST, while other tracts remained unaffected.

 
1924.   Voxel-based morphometery to detect the effect of APOE on brain grey matter changes in Parkinson’s Disease
David Neil Manners1, Emil Malucelli2, Giuseppe Nicoletti3, Claudia Testa1, Caterina Tonon1, Aldo Quattrone3, and Raffaele Lodi1
1Dept of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Emilia Romagna, Italy, 2Dept of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Emilia Romagna, Italy, 3National Research Council Neuroimaging Research Unit, University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy

 
A voxel-based morphometry analysis was conducted on isotropic T1-weighted brain image volumes, acquired at 1.5 T, to determine whether variations in the APOE allele, known as a risk factor in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, are also associated with grey matter degenerative changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), with or without dementia. Despite a small increase in whole brain CSF in patients with the ε4 allele, after accounting for age, brain size and dementia, no localized grey matter changes were detected. Variations in the APOE allele are not associated with grey matter degenerative changes in the PD patients studied.

 
1925.   Altered coupling in triple networks under Parkinson's disease
Lele Xu1, Xia Wu1,2, and Li Yao1,2
1School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, Beijing, China

 
In this study, the group ICA and correlation analysis methods were performed to explore and compare the network coupling in the triple networks, including the salience network (SN), executive control network (ECN) and default mode network (DMN), for Parkinson¡¯s disease (PD) patients and normal controls. The results revealed decreased coupling between SN and ECN for PD patients, suggesting that SN may less focus on the processing of external stimuli for PD patients. Furthermore, the results also showed the decreased coupling between SN and DMN, indicating that for PD patients, SN may also less mediate the processing of internal events.

 
1926.   Comparison of single-modal and multi-modal VBM database detection of focal cortical dysplasia
Pi-Yu Hsu1,2, Chou-Ming Cheng2, Chi-Che Chou2, Li-Kai Cheng1, and Tzu-Chen Yeh1,3
1Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Integrated Brain Research Unit, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

 
This study was compared with single- and multi-modal voxel-based morphometry database approach to detect the lesion of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). The approaches used to assist or remind neuroradiologist for detecting the potential lesion of FCD.

 
1927.   Structural, Metabolic and Functional Relationships between the Eye and the Brain in Glaucoma using Multimodal MRI and Optical Coherence Tomography
Matthew C. Murphy1,2, Ian P. Conner1, Seong-Gi Kim2,3, Gadi Wollstein1, Joel S. Schuman1, and Kevin C. Chan1,2
1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Department of Biological Sciences, SKKU, Suwon, Korea

 
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the entire visual system, from eye to visual cortex. However, the pathogenesis of glaucoma in the human visual brain and its relationship with progression in the eye remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess that relationship in a group of 22 subjects spanning the spectrum of glaucoma severity. The results indicate a significant relationship between disease severity (as assessed by both clinical diagnosis and ocular structural measurements) and measures of brain function (measured by BOLD response to visual stimulation) and metabolism (measured by proton MRS in the visual cortex).

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

1928.   In vivo imaging of Tau pathology using Multi-Parametric Quantitative MRI
Jack A Wells1, James M O'Callaghan1, Holly E Holmes1, Nicholas M Powell1, Bernard Siow1, F Torrealdea2, Marilena Rega2, Ozama Ismail1, Simon Walker-Samuel1, Xavier Golay2, Simon Richardson1, Adam J Schwarz3, Michael J O'Neil4, Emily C Collins3, Niall Colgan1, and Mark F Lythgoe1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, UCL, London, London, United Kingdom, 2Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 3Lilly Corporate Centre, Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd, Indianapolis, United States, 4Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd Erl Wood Manor, Windlesham, Surrey, United Kingdom

 
In this study, we target diverse and specific components of tau pathology by applying multi-parametric MRI to the rTg4510 model of Alzheimer’s disease. We investigate how elevated tau expression affects: i) cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labelling ii) chemical exchange saturation transfer iii) brain glucose uptake using gluco-CEST iv) diffusion tensor imaging and v) brain atrophy using tensor based morphometry. Each technique can unambiguously discriminate tau pathology from healthy control subjects in selective white and grey matter regions, providing a platform for the longitudinal assessment of experimental treatments using non-invasive imaging techniques.

 
1929.   Regional Transverse Relaxation Alterations in the APP/PS1/Tau Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model Following Diet Induced Iron Loading
Mark David Meadowcroft1,2, Douglas G Peters1, Carson Purnell2, James R Connor1, and Qing X Yang1,2
1Neurosurgery, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Radiology, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

 
The role of iron in the formation of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary-tangles in not well understood. Our research has shown that the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model produces plaques in a light iron environment compared to Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, transgenic model plaques exhibit dissimilar plaque morphology, inflammatory response, and have less focal iron. The goal of this study is to recapitulate the Alzheimer’s neuronal milieu through diet induced iron over-loading with a novel lipophilic compound and evaluate the role of iron on Alzheimer’s disease pathology. The results show longitudinal changes in regional transverse relaxation indicative of iron loading and plaque progression.

 
1930.   Different patterns of White matter and Grey matter involvement account for Behavioural and Psychological symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease
Elena Makovac1, Laura Serra1, Barbara Spanò1, Giovanni Giulietti1, Mario Torso1, Mara Cercignani1,2, Carlo Caltagirone3,4, and Marco Bozzali5
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 2Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, United Kingdom, 3Deptment of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 4University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy, 5Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Italy

 
Behavioral disorders and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are known to correlate both with grey matter (GM) atrophy and white matter (WM) damage. Using probabilistic tractography and voxel based morphometry of the GM we were able to delineate precise patterns of correlation between WM damage in the Genu of the Corpus Callosum and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting four different BPSD clusters: mood alterations, frontal deficits, psychosis and apathy. Our data shows that BPSD are likely to be caused by a disconnection syndrome, rather than being a reactive response to accumulation of cognitive disabilities.

 
1931.   Altered Resting-State Connectivity of Hippocampus with Default Mode Network In Type 2 Diabetes
Hui Zhang1, Ying Hao1, Brad Manor1,2, Jue Zhang1,3, Jing Fang1,3, and Vera Novak4
1Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 3College of Enigneering, Peking University, Beijing, Beijing, China, 4Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

 
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cognitive impairment, vascular dementia and Alzheimer¡¯s disease (AD). It accelerates brain aging, leads to insulin resistance, and insulin transport. Intranasal insulin (INI) administration improved cognition and memory in healthy young and older people, but also in patients with cognitive impairment or mild AD. The mechanism for INI-related improvement of memory (hippocampus function) remains unclear. In our research, resting state fMRI was used to study connectivity between hippocampus and default mode network (DMN) after the administration of intranasal insulin or placebo in type 2 DM and controls adults.

 
1932.   Study of Cerebral Venous Density in Alzheimer’s Disease using Susceptibility Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Jeff Thompson1,2, Kevin Whittingstall3, Nicolas Vigneau-Roy3,4, Mohammed A. Warsi5, and Michael D. Noseworthy1,2
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2Imaging Research Centre, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada,3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, 4Molecular Imaging Centre, Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada,5Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

 
Using Susceptibility Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a significant increase in venous density was found in subjects with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This study used 37 suspected AD subjects and 16 healthy age-matched controls. The venous density was found for the whole brain, as well as the grey matter and white matter. The subjects brains were registered to an AD atlas and statistical testing was performed showing the brain regions of greatest venous difference.

 
1933.   MRI Relaxometry Correlation against Iron in Alzheimer’s Disease
Christos Michaelides1, David J Lythgoe1, Harold G Parkes2, Claire Troakes3, Istvan Bodi4, Tina Geraki5, Amy H Herlihy6, and Po-Wah So1
1Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, London, United Kingdom, 2CR-UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom, 3MRC London Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain Bank, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Clinical Neuropathology & London Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain Bank, King's College London, King’s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 5Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 6Agilent Technologies, Yarnton, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

 
Iron dysregulation may be a contributing factor to neuronal cell death in Alzheimer’s disease. MR relaxometry measurements in fixed post-mortem human AD and control samples were correlated with direct iron assessment by synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping. AD did not affect iron concentrations or relaxometry. Whilst R2 and R2* correlated with iron, R1 correlated less well, potentially due to significant effects from fixation time. Increased iron in white compared to grey matter is consistent with elevated iron concentrations within white matter myelin. Our results support R2 and R2* relaxometry in non-invasive assessment of brain iron.

 
1934.   Cortical Phase Shifts in Subjective Cognitive Impairment at 7 Tesla
Mathijs Buijs1, Sanneke van Rooden1, Maarten Versluis1, Andrew Webb1, Mark van Buchem1, and Jeroen van der Grond1
1Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

 
Subjective cognitive impairment can be prodromal to Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer-related pathology has been known to precede symptoms by as much as two decades. Using 7 Tesla MRI, cortical Alzheimer-related phase shifts can be visualized. We investigated whether these phase shifts could be detected in SCI, and whether there is a correlation between phase shifts and cognitive performance. We found significant correlations between measured cortical phase shifts and neuropsychological test scores. In subjects with SCI no AD-like phase shifts could be determined.

 
1935.   White matter damage in MCI converters and non converters to AD: a longitudinal study using probabilistic tractography
Elena Makovac1, Laura Serra1, Barbara Spanò1, Giovanni Giulietti1, Mario Torso1, Mara Cercignani1,2, Carlo Caltagirone3,4, and Marco Bozzali1
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 2Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, United Kingdom, 3Department of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Italy

 
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are known to have a higher risk of convertion to AD than healthy elderly subjects. In this longitudinal study, we used probabilistic tractography to perform a multiple DTI index analysis of the principal association, limbic and commissural WM tracts known to be involved by AD pathology. Subtle changes in brain structure associated with disease progression were remarkably more evident in aMCI converters than MCI non converters. These findings suggest that both primary myelin breakdown and axonal loss occur over AD evolution, and different patterns may account for different stages between preclinical and clinical AD.

 
1936.   Amyloid plaques detection by MRI: comparison of five mouse models of amyloidosis
Matthias Vandesquille1,2, Chrystelle Po1,2, Mathieu Santin1,3, Emmanuel Comoy4, and Marc Dhenain1
1MIRCen, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 2Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 3ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 4SEPIA, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 
Amyloid plaques are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease and numerous mouse models of amyloidosis have been developed to study the pathology. In APPsl/PS1M146Lmice amyloid plaques can be detected by in vivo MRI thanks to gadolinium-staining procedure, a method based on the intravenous or intracerebroventricular administration of gadolinium contrast agent to the mice. The present work evaluated gadolinium-staining procedure to compare the in vivo and ex vivo MRI detection of amyloid plaques in five different mouse strains developing amyloidosis. Depending on the strain, the number, the size and the contrast of the plaques are highly different.

 
1937.   Differentiating Microbleeds from Plaque in Alzheimers Disease
Michael Horn1, Nyoman Kurniawan2, Marianne D Keller2, Ian M Brereton2, and Graham J Galloway2
1University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

 
Automated detection of amyloid plaques and microbleeds visualised using MRI phase image and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) acquired using an ultra-high field magnet will be demonstrated. We hypothesised that the phase shifts between amyloid plaques and microbleeds are significantly distinct, and therefore fine-tuning the weighting of the phase map for creating SWI could help distinguishing microbleeds from plaques. The validity of this methodology will be assessed using a fixed brain from an APP23 mouse model of Alzheimers Dementia.

 
1938.   A Network-Diffusion Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Estimating both Disease's Progression and Foci
Michael Dayan1, Farras Abdelnour1, Eve LoCastro1, Amy Kuceyeski1, Sneha Pandya1, and Ashish Raj1
1Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

 
The origin and course of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was estimated with a diffusion model propagating on a network. The network nodes were defined in 73 healthy controls as 90 different cerebral regions and its edges as the connectivity strength between these regions, as estimated from diffusion imaging and tractography. The atrophy pattern in AD patients was estimated from a two sample t-test between 99 AD subjects and 95 age-matched controls. AD foci were estimated by seeding the diffusion model in all regions in turn and calculating the maximum correlation over time with the observed atrophy pattern. The most likely foci were found to be the hippocampus, caudate, putamen and amygdala. When seeding from the hippocampus, the AD progression calculated from the model was similar to the known time course of AD.

 
1939.   Neuropathologic correlates of brain white matter hyperintensity volume measured with ex-vivo MRI.
Aikaterini Kotrotsou1, David A. Bennett2, Julie A. Schneider2, Sue E. Leurgans2, and Konstantinos Arfanakis1,2
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the total volume of brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and various age-related neuropathologies, in a community cohort of 264 older persons. WMH volume was measured with ex-vivo MRI on brain hemispheres from all participants. It was demonstrated that the total WMH volume was significantly associated with AD pathology and gross chronic infarcts. To our knowledge, this study is the largest MRI-pathology investigation of WMHs in a community cohort to date.

 
1940.   Tract Based Spatial Statistic reveals no differences in white matter microstructural organisation between carriers and non-carriers of the ApoE ε4 and ε2 alleles in young healthy adolescents
Flavio Dell'Acqua1,2, Wasim Khan1,2, David Bouls1, Gareth J Barker1, Gunther Schumann2,3, Simon Lovestone2,4, and Andrew Simmons1,2
1Neuroimaging, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom, 2NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health and Biomedical Research Unit for Dementia, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom, 3Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom, 4Old Age Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom

 
Alleles of the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene are known to modulate the genetic risk for developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While the presence of ApoE ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for the development of late onset AD, the possession of the ε2 allele has been suggested to confer a protective effect against the disease. On a cohort of more than 500 young healthy adolescents this TBSS study found no differences in white matter microstructural organisation between carriers and non-carriers of the ApoE ε4 and ε2 alleles suggesting that effects of these alleles may emerge later in life.

 
1941.   Phospholipid and high-energy phosphate levels in multiple brain regions in Alzheimer’s disease: a 3D 31P-MRSI study
Anne Rijpma1,2, Marinette van der Graaf3,4, Olga Meulenbroek1,2, Rianne de Heus1, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert1,2, and Arend Heerschap3
1Geriatric Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 2Radboud Alzheimer Centre, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 3Radiology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 4Paediatrics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

 
3D 31P-MRSI was performed to assess whether regional variation could be observed in phospholipid and energy metabolism in 17 patients with mild Alzheimer Disease (AD). The results showed significantly (P<.01) higher PE and PC content for anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) than for retrospinal cortex (RSC). In addition, differences in high energy phosphates were found, with high Pi and NAD, low PCr and ATP for the ACC, and high PCr, low ATP, Pi and NAD for the RSC, both compared with contents obtained in the hippocampi. These variations indicate regional differences in phosphorus metabolism in the mild AD brain.

 
1942.   Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate tau pathology in a TG4510 mouse model of Alzheimer’s
Niall Colgan*1, Bernard Siow*1,2, James M O'Callaghan1, Jack A Wells1, Holly E Holmes1, Nick M Powell1,2, Ozama Ismail1, Simon Richardson1,2, Daniel C Alexander2, Emily C Collins3, Michael O'Neill4, Hui Zhang*2, and Mark F Lythgoe*1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, United States, 4Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd, Surrey, United Kingdom

 
We applied neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to estimate the microstructural changes due to tau pathology in the TG4510 (TG) animal model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The mouse model overexpresses a mutant human tau (P301L) resulting in intercellular tauopathies largely restricted to the hippocampus, cortex, olfactory bulb, and striatum. NODDI metrics discriminated between the wild type (WT) and TG is distinct regions of the brain associated with pathology.

 
1943.   4D Flow MRI for intracranial hemodynamic assessment in Alzheimer’s Disease
Leonardo A. Rivera-Rivera1, Eric M. Schrauben1, Sterling C. Johnson2, Kevin M. Johnson1, Michael Loecher1, Patrick Turski2, Chuck Illingworth2, and Oliver Wieben1,3
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 2Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

 
Cerebral arteries are often morphologically altered and dysfunctional in Alzheimer’s disease. In this pilot study, 4D flow MRI was used to measure intra-cranial flow features, particularly mean flow and pulsatility index, in patients with AD and in healthy controls. We found a statistically significant decrease in mean flow and increase in pulsatility index for the AD patients. With the large volume coverage and high temporal and spatial resolution demonstrated here, 4D flow MRI can provide additional biomarkers of vascular health that can contribute to the identifying patients who could benefit from interventions to improve circulatory system functions.

 
1944.   The spectrum of cortical microinfarcts; a post-mortem classification study with 7Tesla MRI
Susanne J. van Veluw1, Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg2, Wim G.M. Spliet3, Peter R. Luijten2, and Geert Jan Biessels1
1Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands,3Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

 
Cerebral microinfarcts are common neuropathological findings in the aging human brain, and correlate strongly with cognitive decline. Post-mortem brain MRI at high field strength (7Tesla) has proven to be useful in identifying microinfarcts and to translate findings to in vivo. In the current study, we have used post-mortem 7Tesla MRI to characterise microinfarct subtypes. By using a targeted approach, 4 types of intracortical microinfarcts could be identified. Future studies can now look into the causes of these abundant manifestations of small vessel disease to better understand their role in aging and dementia.

 
1945.   White Matter Hyperintensities and Physical Activity in People at Risk of Alzheimer's Disease
Bernd Merkel1,2, Nicola T. Lautenschlager3, Kay Cox4, David Ames2,5, Kathryn A. Ellis3, Elizabeth Cyarto5, Pramit Phal1, Bob Tran2, Christopher Steward1,2, and Patricia M. Desmond1,2
1Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia, 2The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 3Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia,4University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 5National Ageing Research Institute, Parkville, VIC, Australia

 
White matter hyperintensities (WMH), which appear bright on T2-FLAIR images, are considered to reflect pathology of brain vessels and have been linked to age-related cognitive changes as well as cognitive impairments and complaints. Physical activity (PA) may be a modifiable and potentially protective factor for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, its effect on cerebrovascular disease and AD is still not clear. We segmented and quantified WMH and hippocampal volumes of patients with subjective memory complaints (SMC) and mild cognitive impairments (MCI), who are at increased risk of developing AD. The volumes were associated with different exercise-related assessments of PA.

 
1946.   Magnetic susceptibility in subcortical gray matter is associated with Alzheimer's pathology: An ex-vivo QSM-pathology investigation in a community cohort
Arnold Moya Evia Jr1, David A Bennett2,3, Julie A Schneider2,3, Aikaterini Kotrotsou1, Robert J Dawe2, and Konstantinos Arfanakis1,2
1Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 3Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

 
Iron accumulation in the brain has been associated with aging, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). MRI techniques that allow detection of iron accumulation may lead to development of biomarkers of AD pathology. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was introduced recently, and is shown to be sensitive to changes in iron levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropathologic correlates of magnetic susceptibility in subcortical gray matter, by conducting the first ex-vivo QSM-pathology investigation in a community cohort.

 
1947.   Possible Compensatory Plasticity of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus to Memory Impairment In Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients Manifested As Increased Anisotropy and Fiber Density
Yung-Chieh Chen1, Cheng-Yu Chen2,3, Shih-Wei Chiang4,5, Hsiao-Wen Chung5, Yu-Te Wu1, Ping-Huei Tsai2, Yi-Hsiu Hsiao2, Ming-Chung Chou6, Hung-Wen Kao4, and Chao-Ying Wang4
1Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Imaging and Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Graduate Institue of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electrics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

 
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is manifested clinically with classic triad of gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. Quantification of anisotropy in terms of metrics such as the fractional anisotropy (FA) offers insight into microstructure alternations. The purpose of this study is to examine the diffusion tensor parametric behavior of anterior thalamic nucleus in response to memory changes in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Our study indicated that alternations of diffusion tensor metrics can be measured in thalamic nucleus responsible for memory in NPH patient, which may have potential clinical implications for responses monitoring at microstructure level in NPH patients under treatment.

 
1948.   WHITE MATTER LESIONS ACCOUNT FOR APATHY SYMPTOMS IN AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: A VOXEL BASED LESION SYMPTOM MAPPING STUDY
Mario Torso1, Laura Serra1, Giovanni Giulietti1, Roberta Perri2, Lucia Fadda2,3, Barbara Spanò1, Camillo Marra4, Mara Cercignani1,5, Carlo Caltagirone2,3, and Marco Bozzali1
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, IRCCS, Rome, Italy, 2Department of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation, IRCCS, Rome, Italy,3Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy, 4Institute of Neurology, Università Cattolica, Rome, Italy, 5Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom

 
This study, using Voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping (VSLM) and Voxel Based Morphometry analysis (VBM), investigated the contribution of White Matter lesions and regional grey matter atrophy in determining behavioural symptoms in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), which is widely regarded as a prodromal stage of Alzheimer disease. Behavioural symptoms were quantified by Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12 (NPI-12). The main finding of the study was that a selective and bilateral lesion damage to the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) was strictly associated to the presence and severity of patients’ apathy, in the absence of any contribution from regional grey matter loss.

 
1949.   Correlation of magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease
Gunther Helms1, Markus Matros2, Kai Kallenberg3, Niels K Focke4, Inga Zerr5, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer6, and Peter Dechent1
1Cognitive Neurology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany, 2Imaging Diagnostics and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Wolfsburg, Wolfsburg, Germany,3Neuroradiology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany, 4Neurology, Tübingen University Hospital, Tübingen, Germany, 5Neurology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany, 6Neuropathology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany

 
Reduced diffusivity is the radiological hallmark of spongiform degeneration of the basal ganglia in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (sCJD) which is difficult to detect by structural T1-weighted MRI. Using a novel semi-quantitative parameter for magnetization transfer (MT) with a high intrinsic contrast within GM, the MT-saturation, a significant reduction of MT was found in 5 sCJD patients compared to controls in caudate and putamen. This was correlated to the reduction in mean diffusivity thus associating hindered diffusion to increased water content. This can be explained by the influence of microcysts on diffusion and MT.

 
1950.   A longitudinal study of the corpus callosum size and shape in early Alzheimer’s disease
Babak A Ardekani1, Alvin H Bachman1, and Sang Han Lee1
1The Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York, United States

 
We studied the rate of change of the area and circularity (CIR) of the corpus callosum in normal aging and early AD using 75 normal controls (NC), 51 mild cognitively impaired (MCI), and 21 mild AD (AD) subjects, scanned about two years apart. Programs automatically segmented and measured the CC. The CIR declined significantly with time in all three groups. Furthermore, the rates of decline were significantly different between groups. Change in the circularity of the corpus callosum may be a useful imaging biomarker of AD progression.

 
1951.   Opposite neural trajectories of Apolipoprotein E lower case Greek epsilon4 and lower case Greek epsilon2 alleles with aging associate with different risks of Alzheimerprime or minutes disease
Hao Shu1,2, Yongmei Shi1, Gang Chen2, Zan Wang1, Duan Liu1, Chunxian Yue1, B. Douglas Ward2, Wenjun Li2, Zhan Xu2, Guangyu Chen2, Qihao Guo3, Jun Xu4, Shi-Jiang Li2, and Zhijun Zhang1
1Neurologic Department of Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 2Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, 4Department of Neurology, Affiliated Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

 
APOE ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor and ε2 allele is the protective factor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the similar influences of the two alleles on the brain function have challenged the conceptual framework that the altered brain functions are directly linked to AD development. Given aging is another risk factor of AD, we utilized the resting-state functional connectivity approach to demonstrate that the opposite aging trajectories may contribute to the different AD risks between the two alleles, indicating the antagonistic pleiotropic property of APOE polymorphism and the necessity for including aging in AD related imaging genetics study.

 
1952.   Controlling for white matter hyperintensities in cross-sectional voxel-wise diffusion MRI studies of aging
C. M. Barth1, D. A. Bennett2, and K. Arfanakis1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

 
Brain white matter hyperintense lesions (WMHs) are common in older adults. When diffusion imaging is used to investigate brain microstructure in cross-sectional voxel-wise studies of aging, it is necessary to control for the effects of WMHs on the diffusion parameters. This is often accomplished by including in statistical models a measure of the total volume of WMHs, which is problematic. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that controlling for the presence of WMHs (binary mask), allows more sensitive detection of other microstructural abnormalities compared to controlling for the total volume of WMHs.

 
1953.   Using the ADNI1 data set to assess the back-to-back reproducibility of brain volumetrics
Keith S Cover1, Ronald A van Schijndel1, Adriaan Versteeg1, Alberto Redolfi2, Jérôme Revillard3, Baptiste Grenier3, David Manset3, Hugo Vrenken1, Bob W van Dijk1, Giovanni B Frisoni2, and Frederik Barkhof1
1VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2IRCCS San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Italy, 3gnúbila France, France

 
To compare the reproducibility of the hippocampal atrophy rates over one year generated by different versions of the FreeSurfer/ReconAll and FSL/FIRST software packages using a back-to-back (BTB) reproducibility test. The test is based on the first Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1) data set - which includes two MPRAGE scans for each patient visit. The FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer/ReconAll reproducibilities of hippocampal atrophy rates were similar. The poor reproducibility of the well documented bug in longitudinal mode of FreeSurfer 5.0.0 is clearly evident. The ADNI1-based BTB benchmark presented is a valuable way to compare performance of volumetric algorithms.

 
1954.   Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals White Matter Damage in the Optic Nerves of Alzheimer’s Patients
Christopher Nishioka1, Christina Poh2, and Shu-Wei Sun2
1University of California, Riverside, CA, United States, 2Loma Linda University, CA, United States

 
Optic nerves of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients were analyzed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and compared to control patients. DTI scans were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Signs of white matter damage, including decreased fractional anisotropy, increased radial diffusivity and trace diffusion were seen in the AD patient population. These changes may be indicative of fiber loss and/or demyelination in the optic nerve.

 
1955.   A whole brain approach of multimodal neuroimaging techniques for in vivo investigation of brain tissue changes in Alzheimer's Disease
Maria Marcella Laganà1, Niels Bergsland1,2, Mario Clerici1,3, Pietro Cecconi1, Giuseppe Baselli2, Raffaello Nemni1,3, and Francesca Baglio1
1Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Milan, Milan, Italy, 2Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Milan, Italy, 3Physiopatholgy Department, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

 
Recent MRI studies investigated the relationship between gray (GM) and white matter (WM) alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease, selecting areas known to be altered in AD and correlating their volumetric and DTI indices. We performed TBSS of 22 AD patients vs 23 healthy controls, mapped the results to the JHU-WM atlas, computed mean FA values of significant voxel corresponding to each atlas region and correlated them to GM volume, using VBM of the whole brain. A significant correlation between WM integrity and volume of near GM regions were obtained. The cause/effect interpretation of these results requires longitudinal multimodal MRI studies.

 
1956.   A Machine Learning Approach for Computer-Aided Detection of Cerebral Microbleed Using High-order Shape Features
Amir Fazlollahi1,2, Fabrice Meriaudeau2, Luca Giancardo3, Christopher C. Rowe4, Victor L. Villemagne4, Paul Yates4, Olivier Salvado1, Pierrick Bourgeat1, and on behalf of the AIBL Research Group5
1CSIRO Preventative Health Flagship, CSIRO Computational Informatics, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, 2Le2i, University of Burgundy, Le Creusot, France, 3RLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, United States, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 5http://www.aibl.csiro.au/, Australia

 
Since the incidence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have come to attention as a potential biomarker of cerebrovascular disease and dementia, a computer-aided detection scheme to improve screening is required. In this work, a novel approach of CMB detection in SWIs is presented and compared to visual rating. The proposed method (1) identifies potential CMB candidates with their corresponding bounding boxes using a multi-scale Gaussian technique, (2) extracts a set of robust 3D Radon- and Hessian-based shape descriptors within the bounding boxes, as well as 2D Radon features computed on intensity-projection images, and (3) incorporates a cascade of random forests classifiers to reduce false detection rates.

 
1957.   Synaptic Amyloid Beta Affects Neural Conductivity But May Not Lead to Pre-synaptic Axonal Degeneration
Shu-Wei Sun1, Chen-Fang Chung2, Christopher Nishioka3, Hsiao-Fang Liang2, and Wei-Xing Shi2
1Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2Loma Linda University, CA, United States, 3University of California, Riverside, CA, United States

 
Synaptic deficits and brain atrophy are two major hallmarks in Alzheimer’s disease. Synaptic deficits usually occur early in contrast to the neuronal loss which usually occurs late. Thus, it is speculated that the early synaptic deficits may facilitate the later neuronal loss. A-beta was injected in the lateral geniculate nucleus, which affected the synapses but not the soma of RGCs. A-beta injected in axonal terminals may impair synapses to adversely affect the neural signal conduction. However, the injured synapses may not lead to a retrograded axonal degeneration to cause a neuronal loss.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Psychiatry

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

1958.   Heterogeneous Structural Connectivity of Default Mode Network in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Chieh-En Jane Tseng1, Yu-Chun Lo1, Yu-Jen Chen1, Yun-Chin Hsu1, Shur-Fen Susan Gau2, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng1
1Center of Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

 
Abnormalities in functional connectivity have been reported within the default mode network (DMN) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study uses diffusion spectrum imaging tractography to evaluate the white matter integrity of the white matter fiber tracts connecting the brain regions of the DMN in ASD. Differences between ASD and typically developing controls are subtle but show heterogeneity in structural connectivity.

 
1959.   
Dose-Dependent Influence of Short-Term Binge Ethanol Intoxication on Cerebral Neurochemical Changes in Rats Detected by Ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy
Do-Wan Lee1, Jung-Whan Min2, Jung-Hoon Lee1,3, Sang-Young Kim1, Jin-Young Jung1, Kyu-Ho Song1, and Bo-Young Choe1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea,2Department of Radiological Science, The Shingu University College of Korea, Seongnam, Seongnam, Korea, 3Department of Radiology, Kyunghee Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

 
The aim of presesnt study was to assess the effects of short-term binge ethanol intoxication on cerebral metabolite changes among the controls (CNTL), the low-dose-ethanol (LDE)-exposed, and the high-dose-ethanol (HDE)-exposed rats, which were determined with the ex vivo spectra. Our results showed that the normalized tNAA, GABA, and GSH levels were significantly altered among CNTL, LDE- and HDE-exposed rats. Moreover, the 6 pairs of normalized metabolite levels were significantly correlated in the individual rat data. Our ex vivo 1H HR-MAS NMRS results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose-dependent influence of short-term binge ethanol intoxication in the frontal cortex.

 
1960.   Functional and Structural Alterations Induced by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder
Yoshiyuki Hirano1,2, Takayuki Obata1,2, Chihiro Sutoh1,2, Daisuke Matsuzawa1,2, Naoki Yoshinaga1,2, Zhongming Liu3, Hiroshi Ito2, Hiroshi Tsuji2, and Eiji Shimizu1
1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, Chiba, Japan, 2National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba, Japan, 3School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States

 
We set out to investigate rsfMRI and DTI to assess the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on neural networks in patients with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant social anxiety disorders (SAD). Increased neuronal connectivity at rest was found between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and striatum after 16-week CBT compared with healthy subjects. Also, decreased FA value was observed in the right anterior limb of the internal capsule after CBT. These results suggested that changes in emotional-related neural circuit by CBT exposed alterations in functional and structural MRI.

 
1961.   Regional EEG Theta Increase enhances fMRI activity findings in a simultaneous EEG/fMRI study during Auditory Hallucinations in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients
Beatriz Dionisio1,2, Gracián García Martí1,3, Conrado J Calvo4, Nicolás Peñaranda2, Ana Beatriz Solana5, J. A. Hernández-Tamamés5, Luis Martí-Bonmatí3, and Julio Sanjuán1,2
1University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 2Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, INCLIVA, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 3Servicio de Radiología, Hospital Quirón de Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 4Instituto ITACA-Bio. Universitat Politècnica de València, Grupo Electrofiosiología y Bioingenería (GEB), Valencia, Spain, 5Fundación CIEN, Fundación Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain

 
The pathophysiology of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia remains poorly understood due to the complexity to capture the spontaneous episodes and lack of knowledge about its neuronal dynamics. By using simultaneous EEG/fMRI techniques, we aimed to identify power spectral differences of brain waves, linking regional findings to intrinsic hemodynamic activations leading to AHs in chronic patients. Our results suggest that simultaneous EEG/fMRI seems to be a promising technique for thorough investigation on AHs neural spatiotemporal mechanisms alleviating technical limitations. Both modalities were correlated during the spontaneous AHs, with specific regional increase in theta EEG activity and hemodynamic activations in auditory and language cortical areas.

 
1962.   7Li-MRS shows a higher lithium brain absorption in remission of bipolar disorder
Maria Concepcion Garcia Otaduy1, Marcus Vinicius Zanetti2, Rafael T. Sousa2, Wagner Farid Gattaz2, Claudia da Costa Leite1, and Rodrigo Machado-Vieira2,3
1Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Neuroradiology, LIM 44, Institute and Department of Radiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2Laboratory of Neuroscience, LIM 27, Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 3ETPB, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

 
In this study we assessed by in vivo 7Li-MRS lithium brain concentration in a group of patients with bipolar disorder after 6 weeks of lithium therapy, in order to test the hypothesis that patients presenting remission of the disease have a different absorption of lithium in the brain than non-remitted patients. Our results showed a higher brain to serum lithium ratio in the group of remitted patients when compared to patients with no remission. For remitted patients lithium brain concentration increased with lithium serum concentration, while in the non-remitted group there was no correlation between these measures.

 
1963.   
Disrupted modular organization and abnormal topological properties of the ACC in abstinent alcohol dependent patients to alcohol-cue reactivity
Guoying Wang1, Traute Demirakca1, Markus Sack1, Sabine Vollstaedt-Klein2, Derik Hermann2, Matthias Ruf1, Karl Mann2, and Gabriele Ende1
1Department of NeuroImaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany, 2Department of Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

 
Brain activation in ACC to alcohol-related cues is able to elicit craving and relapse. In this ongoing study we used graph theory to test modular organization and topological properties of the ACC in abstinent alcohol dependent patients’ response to alcohol-associated cues. Repeated ANOVA analysis shows a trend towards decreased modularity in patients over early abstinence in which modular size as well as modular composition changed. This trend for less modularity implies an increasingly disrupted modular organization over early abstinence. Moreover, the ACC seems to be a hub in whole brain network with abnormal activity/importance in patients.

 
1964.   Altered anterior cingulate chemistry, blood flow, and functional connectivity in schizophrenia
Benjamin W Krause1, S Andrea Wijtenburg1, Frank Gaston1, Sarah Nisonger1, Stephanie Korenic1, and Laura Rowland1,2
1MPRC, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
This study combined proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, arterial spin labeling, and resting state fMRI to investigate anterior cingulate neurochemistry, regional cerebral blood flow, and functional connectivity in participants with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Patients had significantly lower tNAA levels than controls. Additionally, tNAA was positively correlated with cerebral blood flow, and this relationship was found to be weaker in patients than controls. We also found altered anterior cingulate functional connectivity in patients, however, tNAA was not significantly correlated with AC functional connectivity in patients or controls.

 
1965.   Perfusion based functional connectivity in autism reveals hypo-perfusion and altered connectivity of the Default Mode Network associated with increased symptom severity
Kay Jann1, Devora Beck-Pancer2, Emily Kilroy3, Mirella Dapretto4, and Danny JJ Wang1
1Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States, 2) Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States, 3Division of Occupational Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States,4Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

 
The aim of the present study was to characterize abnormal patterns of resting state network perfusion and functional connectivity using pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) perfusion MRI. PCASL-based resting state networks and their baseline perfusion were identified using ICA in 12 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results show that altered perfusion in the DMN is related to autism symptom severity. Further, reduced DMN perfusion is associated with altered connectivity of anterior and posterior DMN, suggesting an association between baseline activity within networks, their connectivity and potentially alterations in stimulus processing and/or development of clinical symptoms in ASD.

 
1966.   White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia: A diffusion spectrum imaging study using whole brain tract-specific analysis
Yu-Jen Chen1, Chun-Chieh Fan2, Yung-Chin Hsu1, Yu-Chun Lo1, Chih-Ming Liu3, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng1
1Center for Optoelectronic Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Cognitive Science, UC San Diego, CA, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan

 
In this study, we employed a high throughput tract-specific analysis, called tract-based automatic analysis, and a feasible statistical testing by performing threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) and controlling family-wise error rate (FWER) to investigate the abnormalities of white matter tracts in schizophrenia using diffusion spectrum imaging. Our results showed consistent findings in association fibers and callosal fibers with previous studies. Furthermore, we also found many significant differences in projection fibers, such as frontal-striatal tracts and thalamo-cortical tracts. Moreover, clusters with significant difference could be discovered after applying TFCE and controlling FWER.

 
1967.   Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced increases in GABAergic neurotransmission in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat model: 1H-NMR spectroscopy study at 11.7 T
Sang-Young Kim1, Do-Wan Lee1, Hyunju Kim2, Eunjung Bang2, and Bo-Young Choe1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, 2Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul, Korea

 
In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on GABA level in chronic unpredictable mild stress model using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus tissues were harvested from rats brain and the spectra obtained from CPMG sequence were analyzed by LCModel. There were significant differences in GABA concentrations in chronic rTMS-treated rats compared to controls. Our finding indicates that chronic rTMS has a modulatory effect on GABAergic systems, suggesting its beneficial effects.

 
1968.   Boys with Comorbid ADHD and RD Show Increasing Disengagement with Age During a Sustained Attention Task
Brianne Mohl1, Dhruman D. Goradia1, Dalal Khatib1, Usha Rajan1, Arthur L. Robin1, David R. Rosenberg1, Noa Ofen1,2, Joseph E. Casey3, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar1, and Jeffrey A. Stanley1
1Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 2Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States, 3Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

 
ADHD commonly occurs with a reading disability (RD); inattention has been linked with poorer reading measures in ADHD. However, the neural basis of the association has yet to be investigated. Age interactions and main effects of diagnosis were modeled for functional activations in ADHD+RD, ADHD-RD, and controls during a sustained attention fMRI task. Results suggest that developmental patterns may be similar in ADHD subgroups compared to controls, but the degree of hypoactivation in attention-related areas is significantly worse in ADHD+RD.

 
1969.   Regional increases of cortical thickness in untreated, first-episode major depressive disorder
Su Lu1, Lihua Qiu2, John A. Sweeney3, and Qiyong Gong2
1West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2West China Hospital, Sichuan, China, 3University of Texas Southwestern, TX, United States

 
Most previous structural studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) investigated volumetric changes in chronic medicated patients. In the present study, we investigate both the cortical thickness and surface area changes in first-episode, treatment-naïve, mid-life MDD. By studying 46 first-episode, treatment-naïve, mid-life adult MDD patients and 46 matched controls, we firstly observed greater rather than reduced cortical thickness at early stage of MDD. These changes in first-episode, treatment-naïve, mid-life MDD patients may reflect an active illness-related cortical change close to illness onset, and thus may provide important new insight into the early neurobiological manifestations of the disorder.

 
1970.   Correlation of emotional-behavioral outcomes and white matter alterations in VLBW adolescents without overt disability
Ming-Chung Chou1, Ming-Ting Wu2,3, Hsiu-Lin Chen4, Yu-Chen Wu1, and Pinchen Yang5
1Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 3School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Pediatrics & Department of Respiratory Therapy, Kaohsiung Medical University & Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 5Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University & Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

 
In humans, birth weight generally correlates to gestational age and is easy to determine. Preterm infants are vulnerable to brain injuries, and brain injury due to prematurity and impaired brain development are inextricably intertwined. Nevertheless, there are few long-term brain MRI reports of adolescence born VLBW without overt neurological or mental disability. This study performed emotional-behavioral assessments and voxel-based DTI analysis in adolescents born VLBW without overt physical or mental disability. The results showed significant differences in DTI indices and emotional-behavioral outcomes between VLBW adolescents and control subjects. Therefore, we concluded that subtle WM alterations were significantly associated with emotional-behavioral measures in VLBW adolescents without overt disability.

 
1971.   MR connectomics identifies a distributed subnetwork lesioned in schizophrenia
Alessandra Griffa1,2, Philipp S. Baumman3,4, Carina Ferrari3,4, Philippe Conus3,4, Kim Q. Do3,4, Jean-Philippe Thiran1,2, and Patric Hagmann1,2
1Signal Processing Laboratory (LTS5), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Service of General Psychiatry and Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Naional Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) “SYNAPSY - The Synaptic Bases of Mental Diseases”, Switzerland

 
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder involving impaired brain connectivity. The connectome framework allows describing various aspects of the brain topology in terms of network measures, and is therefore well suited for the investigation of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study is to build on findings related to the alteration of global brain network properties, in order to identify the brain regions that mainly contribute to the integration and segregation deficit. Adopting a data-driven approach, we identified a distributed subnetwork affected in schizophrenia, and quantitatively characterized the related brain network topology reorganization.

 
1972.   Decreased Resting-state Functional Connectivity in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Networks Correlates with Deficient Visual Working Memory Performance in Adult Macaques with Neonatal Hippocampal Lesion
Yuguang Meng1, Xiaoping Hu2, Jocelyne Bachevalier3, and Xiaodong Zhang1
1Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

 
Previous studies showed that visual working memory dependent on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was impaired in adult rhesus macaques after neonatal hippocampal lesions. To further explore the neuronal substrates for the deficient working memory performances, the integrity of the whole functional network of dlPFC was examined by resting-state fMRI and correlations were found between the functional connectivity in the dlPFC network and the working memory performances.

 
1973.   Effects of Lisdexamfetamine on prefrontal brain activation, glutamate concentration and executive function in menopausal women with memory complaints: A double-blind placebo controlled crossover study at 7T
Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga1, Simon Vandekar2, Sheila Shanmugan2,3, Sarah Conlin2,3, Kejia Cai1, Mark A Elliott1, Hari Hariharan1, Jeanette Bradley2,3, Ravinder Reddy1, and Neill C Epperson2,3
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 3Penn Center for Women’s Behavioral Wellness, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

 
Menopausal women frequently report new onset decline in memory, focus, and organization- domains of cognition referred to as executive functions (EFs). Loss of estradiol effects on dopaminergic systems in the prefrontal cortex is thought to contribute to this phenomenon. We sought to test whether the psychostimulant lisdexamphetamine (LDX) improves EF in menopausal women and whether drug-induced changes in prefrontal glutamate and neural activation (measured at 7T) are responsible for improved working memory. This is the first study of its kind and may provide evidence to support LDX treatment in women with EF complaints related to natural or surgical/chemotherapy-induced menopause.

 
1974.   Volumetric morphometry and multivariate pattern analysis of white matter architecture in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Xinyu Hu1, Shiguang Li1, Lizhou Chen1, Qi Liu1, Yi Liao1, Fei Li1, Wanjie Tang2, Bin Li2, Yanchun Yang2, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1
1Huaxi MR Research Center(HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China

 
White matter (WM) is suggested to play an important role in pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we investigated the anatomic brain structures alterations of WM in OCD patients using both volumetric morphometry and multivariate pattern analysis. Decreased WM volume was revealed in bilateral external capsule of OCD patients compared to healthy controls, while discriminative regions were mainly involving the left middle frontal WM and bilateral temporo-patieto-occipital junction. Current study supported the potential translational role of WM for individual level diagnosis in OCD.

 
1975.   Preliminary Evidence of Pronounced Thinning in the Cortex of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Boys with a comorbid Reading Disability
Dhruman D Goradia1, Charles Frank1, Andrew Lorence1, Brianne Mohl1, Dalal Khatib1, Usha Rajan1, Arthur Robin1, David R Rosenberg1, and Jeffrey A Stanley1
1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States

 
The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a comorbid reading disability (RD) has been estimated to be as high as 45%. ADHD children with RD tend to have greater severity in cognition; however, morphological measures differentiating ADHD with RD from ADHD without RD remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate differences between subgroups in cortical thickness of key implicated areas in ADHD. As expected, ADHD with RD show a greater extent of cortex thinning than ADHD without RD in the prefrontal, parietal and cingulate areas, when compared to healthy individuals.

 
1976.   A diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter microstructure concerning suicidality in major depressive disorder
Huawei Zhang1, Zhiyun Jia1, Sugai Liang2, Li Yin2, Yi Huang2, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1
1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

 
Previous researches of suicide in depression always focused on either suicidal behavior or ideation. Present study aimed to give a more complete profile for the white matter microstructural abnormalities in depressive patients concerning suicide behavior. We found significant decrease in FA in the splenium corpus callosum in depressive patients comparing with healthy controls via MRI scans for diffusion tensor imaging and suicide attempters showed more significant decrease than patients without suicide attempt. Our results suggest that depression and suicide are associated with microstructure abnormalities of the white matter and people with suicide history have more severe cerebral alteration.

 
1977.   Structural deficits of mirror neuron system in autism spectrum disorder
Hsiang-Yun Chien1, Yung-Chin Hsu1, Yu-Jen Chen1, Yu-Chun Lo1, Yao-Chia Shih1, Susan Shur Fen Gau2, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng1
1Center for Optoelectronic Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan, 2Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taiwan, Taiwan

 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder featuring the deficits of social communication and interactions. Past studies have reported that mirror neuron system (MNS), which is important for human social development by imitation, shows functional deficient in the social imitation tasks. In current study, we hypothesize the structural connectivity in MNS would also be abnormal in ASD patients. By analyzing the cortical thickness and fiber tracks of specific MNS regions, we found that the bilateral pars opercularis has thinner cortical thickness and the commissural fiber between them also shows abnormal in ASD group. The preliminary result implies the structural deficits of MNS in ASD patients.

 
1978.   Convergent and Divergent Dynamic Functional Connectivity Patterns between Patients with Refractory and Nonrefractory Major Depressive Disorders
Bochao Cheng1, Lin Yuan2, Xuhong Liao3, Su Lui1, Xiaoqi Huang1, Yong He2, and Qiyong Gong1
1HMRRC.Radiology Department, West China hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, 3Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Zhejiang, China

 
We chose the left subgenual ACC as the seed region and explored the differed dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC) patterns in refractory and nonrefractory MDD in resting-state fMRI with the VPR combined with Kalman filtering approach. The results suggested that D-FC method can reveal the dysfunction brain network which is widely verified by the traditional static FC of MDD. And the cortical-limbic circuit, especially the prefrontal/temporal¨Climbic circuit, is the most stable varying important dysfunction brain network in MDD. The frontal part of left OFC, which shows reversed activity in MDD subtypes, may provide new insight into evaluate the treatment.

 
1979.   The amygdalar driving effects for overeating in Prader-Willi syndrome
Ju Liu1, Jianliang Yao1, Siyou Qiu1, Yi Zhang1, and Yijun Liu2
1School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shanxi, China, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

 
Prader-Willi syndrome(PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder associated with hyperphagia and early childhood obesity.To study the neurobiological drive for overeating implicated in Prader-Willi syndrome,the current study combined the resting-state fMRI and Granger causality analysis (GCA) techniques to investigate the interactive causal influences among key neural pathways underlying overeating in PWS.Our data revealed significantly enhanced causal influences from theamygdala to the hypothalamus and from both the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex to the amygdala. This study provides both a new methodological and neurobiological perspective to aid in a better understanding of neural mechanisms underlying common dietary obesity in the general public.

 
1980.   Diffusion tensor tractography reveals disrupted topological efficiency in white matter structural networks in adolescents with Internet addiction
Chenwang Jin1, Kai Yuan2, Tao Dong2, Ce Chen3, Hongmei Wang1, Wei Wang3, Ming Zhang1, Wei Qin2, and Jie Tian2
1Departmentof Medical Imaging,The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, Shanxi, China, 2School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shanxi, China, 3Department of psychiatry,The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, Shanxi, China

 
Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious society problem due to the bad influence on the adolescents. Adolescence is an developmental stage, encompassed by alterations in physical, psychological, and social development, and those behavior characteristics of IA may introduce injuries to teenage development in the future. Thus, it is critical to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. Although white matter integrity abnormalities have been reported in IA adolescents, little is known about the brain structural topological property changes and the relationship with the IA severity.

 
1981.   COMPARISON OF NAA DYNAMICS IN TASK-ACTIVATED MOTOR CORTEX IN THE NORM AND SCHIZOPHRENIA
Natalia Semenova1,2, Dmitry Kupriyanov3, Maxim Ublinskiy1, Irina Lebedeva4, and Tolibjon Akhadov1
1Children Emergency Surgery and Trauma Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation, 2N.M.Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation, 3Philips Healthcare, Moscow, Russian Federation, 4Mental Health Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation

 
The aim of this study was the analysis of motor cortex metabolism dynamics during period of BOLD response to fMRI motion task. The BOLD signal demonstrated maximum at the 6th sec after target stimulus for both patient and control groups, with lower intensity for schizophrenia patients. For control group, NAA decreased at the 12th second after fMRI motion task presentation and recovered to the initial value at the 15th second. Patient group demonstrates different dynamics of NAA in motor cortex – with smaller NAA intensity changes.

 
1982.   Fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging at 3-T MR for detection of patients with depression and comorbid hypertension in depression
Ying Liu1, Huishu Yuan1, Xiangzhu Zeng1, Zheng Wang1, and Han Zhang2
1Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2The consultation liaison, Peking University Mental Health Institute, Beijing, Beijing, China

 
As important diagnostic tools for cerebral microstructure impairment, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging(DKI) have the ability to assess the white matter characteristics by investigating water diffusion with a Gaussian and a non Gaussian models. Fractional anisotropy is a very important parameter of DTI. Diffusion kurtosis imaging is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy of kurtosis (FAk) is similar to FA in DTI, and can be conveniently defined as FAk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences between depression and comorbid hypertension in depression using FA of DTI and FAk of DKI.

 
1983.   MRS in early stage psychosis: Dependence on tissue fraction correction
Siân E. Robson1, Emma L. Hall1, Matthew J. Brookes1, Lena Palaniyappan2, Peter F. Liddle2, Mary C. Stephenson1, Molly Simmonite2, Elizabeth B. Liddle2, Michael Skelton2, Nikolaos G. Christodoulou2, Ayaz Qureshi3, and Peter G. Morris1
1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Notts, United Kingdom, 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Notts, United Kingdom, 3Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, NHS, Nottingham, Notts, United Kingdom

 
Abnormalities in structure, function and neurotransmission are seen in patients with psychosis, particularly in nodes of the ‘salience network’: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula. This study used 7T MRI and MRS to investigate tissue composition and metabolite concentrations in these regions and an occipital control region. Reductions in white matter were found in patients’ insula, along with decreases in glutamate concentration. Correction for tissue fraction removed the difference in glutamate, perhaps erroneously, since glutamate is mostly present in grey matter but differences in tissue fraction between patients and controls were seen in white matter only.

 
1984.   Verbal Memory Function, Glutamate, and Cerebral Blood Flow in Older Adults with Schizophrenia
S. Andrea Wijtenburg1, Benjamin W Krause1, Frank Gaston1, Stephanie Korenic1, Sarah Nisonger1, Peter Kochunov1, Danny JJ Wang2, L Elliot Hong1, and Laura M Rowland1,3
1MPRC, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Older adults with schizophrenia (SZ) have significant memory impairments when compared to healthy age-matched controls, and the pathophysiology of these memory impairments is poorly understood. Assessments of declarative verbal memory, glutamate, and regional cerebral blood flow from brain regions associated with verbal memory function (hippocampus and anterior cingulate) were conducted in older adults. Data were acquired on a 3T scanner from stable, chronic younger and older adults with SZ and age-matched controls. Results showed lower glutamate, CBF, and verbal memory scores in older adults with SZ.

 
1985.   White matter abnormalities in mesocorticolimbic network of drug naïve ADHD children by diffusion tensor imaging
Lizhou Chen1, Xinyu Hu1, Qi Liu1, Yi Liao1, Ning He2, Fei Li1, Ying Chen2, Lanting Guo2, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1
1Huaxi MR Research Center(HMRRC), West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

 
White matter (WM) abnormality had been studied with diffusion tensor imaging with inconsistent results while underline mechanism remained unclear. Present study performed in-depth investigation into WM abnormalities in a relatively large sample of ADHD children by using multiple diffusion parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity. The relationship between FA and neuropsychiatric measurements was also explored. Increased FA with discrepant cellular alternating patterns was detected in left cingulate bundle and posterior-body of corpus callosum, and the alternation of FA correlated with some cognitive domains.

 
1986.   Abnormalities of cingulate cortex in antipsychotic-naïve chronic schizophrenia
Xiaoyi Liu1, Yunyao Lai1, Xijin Wang2, Chuanxi Hao1, Lei Chen1, Zhenyu Zhou1, Xin Yu2, and Nan Hong1
1Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China, 2Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China

 
In this study, we examined the sub divisional morphology of cingulate cortex in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia by using a surface-based analysis. And we also investigated the changes of morphology in cingulate cortex and their associations with clinical variables and cognitive performance. The results show that changes of cingulate cortex play a critical role in schizophrenia, and demonstrated that the left PCC volume deficit may play a role in the working memory of the disorder. And these are not attributable to contamination by antipsychotic drugs.

 
1987.   Disrupted effective connectivity in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder
zhan feng1, manli huang2, and hong yang2
1radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, hangzhou, zhejiang, China, 2The First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, zhejiang, China

 
The prefrontal¨Climbic network(PLN) is dysregulated in major depressive disorders(MDD),We use the Granger causality analysis to study variation of effective connectivity in PLN.The decrease of effective connectivity of prefrontal cortex proved that top-down cognitive control function reduction existed in MDD. The abnormality of effective connectivity from right insular cortex to rACC showed that there was something wrong with the SN switching function between central-executive network and default-mode networks under the resting state.These specific abnormal connectivities further supplemented the dynamic active process of PLN of MDD patients.

 
1988.   Differing patterns of white matter connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders versus Sensory Processing Disorders
Yishin Chang1, Julia P. Owen1, Shivani Desai2, Emily Fourie2, Susanna Hill2, Anne Arnett2, Julia Harris2, Elysa Marco2, and Pratik Mukherjee1
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States

 
Over 90% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) demonstrate atypical sensory behaviors. However, there are children with sensory processing differences (SPD) who do not meet other criteria for ASD diagnosis. We use probabilistic diffusion fiber tractography to compare the white matter connectivity of children with ASD and SPD to neurotypical children. Both the ASD and SPD groups demonstrate abnormal connectivity in sensory processing pathways, while the ASD group alone demonstrates abnormal connectivity in tracts thought to subserve social and emotional processing. These observations help elucidate the roles of specific neural circuits in neurodevelopmental disorders.

 
1989.   Cerebral Blood Flow Change in Late-life Depression: An ASL MRI Study.
Mu-Lan Jen1, Che-Min Lin2, Jasin Wong1, Shwu-Hua Lee2, Yau-Yau Wai1,3, and Ho-Ling Liu1,3
1Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 3Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

 
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the whole-brain cerebral blood flow (CBF) change in late-life depression (LLD) using voxelwise analysis. Twenty-one LLD patients and seventeen elder controls underwent background suppressed 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) MRI scans. This study showed that significant (P<0.01, corrected) hypoperfusion in LLD in prefrontal cortex included left rectal, subcallosal and medial frontal gyrus. Also, CBF tend to be lower in LLD in the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus.

 
1990.   Changes in Gray Matter Volumes Induced by Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Drug-resistant Major Depression
Tai-Ying Liu1,2, Guan-Hua Huang1, Cheng-Ta Li3,4, Yong-Sheng Chen5, Tung-Ping Su3,4, Jen-Chuen Hsieh1,2, and Li-Fen Chen1,2
1Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Integrated Brain Research Unit, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Division of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan

 
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD), with up to 20% of patients not responding to antidepressant treatment, is a crucial issue. Add-on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), an emerging treatment approach for TRD, has been reported to modulate regional brain activity of the prefronto-thalamo-limbic system in depressed patients. Whereas how brain structures can be modulated by rTMS in depression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate, through voxel-based morphometric analysis, the effect of rTMS on gray matter density in TRD patients.

 
1991.   Less dynamic functional brain network in schizophrenia
Hu Cheng1, Sharlene Newman1, Joaquin Goni Cortes1, Jerillyn S. kent1, Josselyn Howell1, Amanda Bolbecker1, Aina Puce1, Brian F. O'Donnell1, and william P. Hetrick1
1Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States

 
Recent studies indicate less dynamic brain function in schizophrenia patients. Because head motion and other confounds can affect the FC and its variability, investigation of FC dynamics by directly comparing FC over time can be invalid. We propose a method to tackle this problem. By constructing two FCs from interleaved time points of the resting state time course, we can extract the variance of FC irrelevant to brain dynamics, and use it as a baseline in the evaluation of FC change. Using this approach, we found that the schizophrenia patients exhibited smaller variations of functional network compared to normal controls.

 
1992.   Clustering of contrast estimate patterns of fMRI to untangle genotypic effects on whole brain networks
Kayako Matsuo1, Chih-Min Liu2,3, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen4, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Simak5,6, Chen-Chung Liu2, Tzung-Jeng Hwang2,3, Ming-Hsien Hsieh2, Yi Ling Chien2, Hai-Gwo Hwu2,7, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng1,3
1Advanced Biomedical MRI Lab, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital & College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Division of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore, 5Functional Neuroimaging Group, Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 7Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

 
We investigated a new method to observe genotypic effects on brain activation using 104 people including patients with schizophrenia and controls with genotypes of NRG1-P3. After conventional SPM of fMRI with verbal working memory, group average contrast estimate volumes of 4 subject groups (schizophrenia/control by C-allele/TT-genotype) provided 4-value sets for the whole brain coordinates, and the 4-value sets underwent k-means clustering that yielded cluster means (10 divisions). These cluster means were then used as ‘true’ contrast definition values in SPM. We successfully obtained cluster-specific SPMs that helped observations of influences by age and task accuracy in a data-driven manner.

 
1993.   Alteration of developmental trajectory of temporal lobe grey matter in ADHD boys
Qi Liu1, Lizhou Chen1, Xinyu Hu1, Ying Chen1, Fei Li1, Yuanyuan Li1, Ning He1, Lanting Guo1, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1
1West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

 
Abnormal Gray matter volume (GMV) has been suggested to be an important neuroimaging biomarker of Attention Deficits/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). Present study compared GMV of drug-naïve ADHD boys with well-matched controls using voxel-based morpphometry analysis, and explored the age effect as well as correlation with neuropsychological measurements. Decreased GMV was revealed in bilateral temporal lobes extending to amygdala, which showed positive correlation with some cognitive functions. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between GMV with age in ADHD boys, as seen in healthy controls, which might indicate an abnormal developmental trajectory of GMV in ADHD.

 
1994.   Auditory GABA Concentration Is Related to Auditory Gamma-Band Power in Normal Controls and in Autism
Mark S. Brown1, Sarah Steinmetz2, Susan L. Hepburn3, Deb Singel4, and Donald C. Rojas5
1Radiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 2University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 3Psychiatry & Pediatrics, JFK Partners/University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States, 4Brain Imaging Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States,5Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States

 
Auditory Gamma band MEG responses and auditory GABA levels, measured with MRS J-editing techniques, were measured in 25 healthy controls and 24 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results show lower GABA and transient gamma band power in the ASD subjects compared to healthy controls. Transient gamma band power correlated with GABA levels in the control group and approached significance in the ASD group. The results are consistent with our previous preliminary work suggesting that auditory gamma band responses are related to auditory GABA.

 
1995.   Decreased Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in first-episode drug-naïve Major Depressive Disorder
Hong Yang1, Zhan Feng1, Shunliang Xu1, and Manli Huang2
1Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 2Department of psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

 
The resting state functional connectivity were examined between the two hemispheres in MDD patients using a recently proposed measurement named ¡®¡®voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity¡¯ (VMHC)¡¯. Twenty-three first-episode, medication-naive patients were compared with twenty matched controls. Compared to the controls, the MDD patients showed significant decreased VMHC in: superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, hippocampus, parahippocampa gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, putamen, caudate, parietal lobe, middle occipital gurus and precuneus. These findings suggest that the functional coordination between homotopic brain regions is impaired in MDD patients. Furthermore these impaired long-range connections likely reflect failure functional networks integration process in MDD.

 
1996.   Reduced Spontaneous Neural Activity in psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction:A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.
Min Guan1, Minghao Dong2, Xiangsheng Zhang3, Wei Qin2, Meiyun Wang1, Dapeng Shi1, and Jie Tian2
1Radiology, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, ZhengZhou, HeNan, China, 2School of Life Science and Technology of XiDian University, Shannxi, China, 3Urology, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, HeNan, China

 
Psychogenic ED has a high prevalance and a significant impact on the quality of life of sufferers and their partners.Little is known about the central pathological mechanism of psychogenic ED patients. Resting-state functional MR imaging and the Regional homogeneity (ReHo) method has been successfully used to investigate the functional modulations in patients with phychiatric diseases. We investigated neural activity in the resting state of psychogenic ED using ReHo method.Our present study for the first time demonstrated psychogenic ED exhibited decreased ReHo in the left VMPFC and right hippocampus, may leading to further improvement of the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism.

 
1997.   Kurtosis: A Potential Imaging Marker In Depression?
Atilla Gonenc1,2, Mary C Malloy3, David G Harper1,3, and Brent Forester1,3
1Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2McLean Imaging Center, Belmont, MA, United States, 3McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, United States

 
Currently, there is lack of data in geriatric bipolar disorder overall and in geriatric bipolar depression in particular. In this study, we utilized a recently developed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging technique to assess its sensitivity in detecting microstructural changes in the brain of older adults with bipolar disorder.

 
1998.   Cortical thickness correlates with symptoms in adolescents newly diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Oscar Gustafsson1,2, Maria Ljungberg1,2, Arvid Carlsson3, Maria L Carlsson3, Eva Forssell-Aronsson1,2, Tord Ivarsson4, Lars Jönsson5, Karin Melin4, and Göran Starck1,2
1Division of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, 2Department of Radiation Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden, 4Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden, 5Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden

 
A morphometric analysis of treatment-naïve adolescents newly diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), utilizing the image analysis software FreeSurfer, was performed. Cortical thickness and volume of subcortical structures was examined with a multivariate method (scaled subprofile modeling) which produces patterns of areas related to the disorder. Analysis of difference between patients compared to healthy controls and correlation to symptom severity, measured with the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), were performed. A significant correlation between cortical thickness and CYBOCS was found. Areas of major effect in the corresponding pattern included the left fusiform gyrus and the left parietal lobe.

 
1999.   Resting state neural network in monolateral and bilateral tinnitus
Chang-Woo Ryu1, Geon-Ho Jahng1, Dal Mo Yang1, Woo Suk Choi2, and Eui Jong Kim2
1Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, 2Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

 
Bilateral tinnitus has different resting state connectivity from monolateral tinnitus.

 
2000.   White Matter Impairment in Depression and Hypertension: A Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging Study at 3-T MR
Xiangzhu Zeng1, Huishu Yuan1, Ying Liu1, Zheng Wang1, and Han Zhang2
1Dept of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China, 2Dept of the consultation liaison, Peking University Mental Health Institute, Beijing, Beijing, China

 
As a new diagnostic tool for cerebral microstructure impairment, Diffusion Kurtosis imaging (DKI) has the ability to assess the white matter impairment of tissues by investigating water diffusion with a non-Gaussian model. Mean kurtosis(MK) is a key parameters of DKI and reveals the white matter damage accurately. This work evaluates the diagnostic utilities of MK in the case of depression and hypertension and specifies the white matter impairment in these patients.

 
2001.   Glutamatergic dysfunction in the anterior cingulate cortex in adults with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Jochen Bauer1, Anne Werner1, Waldemar Kohl1, Anya Pedersen2, Harald Kugel3, and Patricia Ohrmann1
1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany, Germany, 2Psychology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, Germany, 3Institut for Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany, Germany

 
Investigation of the glutamatergic metabolism in patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Increased glutamate level in the anterior cingulate cortex in patients reveals a glutamatergic dysfunction.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Traumatic Brain Injury

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

2002.   Multiparametric MRI characterization of NBO treatment following mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Justin Alexander Long1, Lora Talley Watts1, Jonathan Chemello1, Qiang Shen1, Shiliang Huang1, and Timothy Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

 
This study investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of diffusion, T2 and fractional anisotropy associated with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) following NBO treatment. Diffusion, T2 and fractional anisotropy changes generally indicated that lesion severity increased following administration of NBO treatment compared to the air treated control group. T2 increased in the NBO treatment groups initially (3 hrs and day 1 measures), returning to similar magnitude as the air treated control group by Day 2 and then showed a significant increase by 14 days post injury. ADC and FA differences were significant at all time points. Multi-parametric MRI offers a range of biomarkers that are sensitive to different tissue types at different stages of TBI and can distinguish differences in outcome based on treatments applied.

 
2003.   
Diffusion tensor imaging distinguishes between collegiate football players with and without concussion
Maurizio Bergamino1, Rashmi Singh1, Timothy Meier1, Rayus Kuplicki1,2, Christopher Nerio3, David Polanski3, and Patrick SF Bellgowan1,4
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2Tandy Computer Science, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, United States, 3Department of Athletics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, United States, 4Faculty of Community Medicine, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, United States

 
Investigation of white matter structural changes associated with sports-related concussion and the accumulation of head hits in young male athletes using DTI.

 
2004.   Assessment of Whole Brain Temperature in Brain Injuries by 3D Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging
Bhanu Prakash KN1, Sanjay K Verma1, Yevgen Marchenko1, Sankar Seramani1, Kan Enci Mary2, Charmaine Childs3, Lu Jia2, Andrew A Maudsley4, and Sendhil Velan S1,5
1Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore, Singapore, 2Combat Protection and Performance Lab, Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore, Singapore, 3Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom, 4Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Florida, United States, 5Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Singapore, Singapore

 
Measurement of in vivo temperature is of relevance in traumatic brain injuries including survival outcome of patients. Whole brain 3D MRSI approach with larger spatial coverage is highly desirable for assessing changes in cerebral metabolism and investigation of hot spots. 3D Echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) on a pre-clinical scanner was implemented to evaluate the brain temperature changes in mild and severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in rodents. Brain temperature across the brain was investigated in mild and severe TBI rodents. Reduction in acquisition time along with high spatial resolution allows translation of this technology to a clinical setting, and for investigating changes in brain temperature due to TBI, stroke, cancer, epilepsy and whole brain metabolic imaging in animals and humans.

 
2005.   Improved Oxidative Metabolism and Cellular Redox State Following Sodium or Ethyl Pyruvate Supplementation after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury
Brenda Bartnik-Olson1, Katsunori Shijo2,3, Sima Ghavim2, Neil Harris2, and Richard Sutton2
1Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

 
Traumatic brain injury initiates a cascade of events including increased oxidative stress that contributes to the period of generalized metabolic depression. Previously, sodium and ethyl pyruvate supplementation was shown to reduce cell death, attenuate reductions in cytochrome oxidase activity, and improve recovery following experimental TBI. In this study we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to determine if sodium or ethyl pyruvate supplementation influences the activity of metabolic pathways associated with the intracellular redox state and oxidative metabolism. Our findings show improvements in neuronal and astrocyte oxidative metabolism following sodium pyruvate supplementation and a reduction in the amount of glucose metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway following both sodium and ethyl pyruvate use, suggesting an improved redox state. These findings may explain, in part, the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of pyruvate supplementation following experimental TBI.

 
2006.   Brain Network Dysfunction in Young Athletes with Persistent Post-Concussion Syndrome
Marjorie Villien1, Brian Edlow2, Elissa McIntosh2, Maulik P. Purohit3, Andre van der Kouwe1, Janet C. Sherman2, David Greer4, Ross Zafonte3, and Ona Wu1
1Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 3Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 4Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

 
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the US, with the highest incidence among young adults. The majority of mild TBI patients recover within a few months, but for up to 20% symptoms persist and lead to a devastating impact on interpersonal relationships and potentially to long-term disability, named as persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS). The pathophysiological basis of PPCS remains unknown. This resting state fMRI study demonstrates that multiple resting brain networks are altered in young athletes with PPCS and also suggest that the inferior parietal lobule is implicated in the pathogenesis of PPCS.

 
2007.   Hemorrhagic lesions and its clinical correlation based on venous and arterial damage in Traumatic Brain Injury
Hardik Doshi1, Jun Liu2, Robin Hanks3, E Mark Haacke4, and Zhifeng Kou4
1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Second Xiangya Hosipital,Central South University, Hunan, China,3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States

 
TBI is one of the major epidemics around the world. It causes many deaths and disabilities every year. Blood from hemorrhages is an important biomarker. Susceptible Weighted Imaging (SWI) is most sensitive MRI sequence for detection of blood. Veins and arteries undergo lot of pressure and stress during the event of trauma. It can easily cause a vessel wall to break down. Depending on the type of blood vessel (Artery or Veins), recovery varies significantly. Location and severity of the insult also plays an important role. The main objective of this study is to investigate the spatial relationship between hemorrhagic bleed and different types of vessels, e.g. veins vs. arteries, as well as its relationship with TBI patients’ clinical and outcome information

 
2008.   MR imaging of brain deformation during mild angular acceleration, referenced to brain anatomy and microstructure
Andrew Knutsen1, Philip Bayly2, Jerry Prince3, John Butman4, and Dzung Pham1
1Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, The Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Washington University in St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Johns Hopkins University, MD, United States, 4Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, MD, United States

 
Tagged MR images of brain deformation during mild angular acceleration were acquired in four live human subjects. High resolution MPRAGE and diffusion images were also acquired, and were registered into the tagged image space. Two-dimensional principal strains were computed from the tagged MR images and mapped into anatomical structures identified using the MPRAGE. Strains were also computed along principal fiber directions identified via DTI. Quantifying strain in the live human brain is important to understand the role that brain structure plays in the deformation response to skull acceleration, and to help validate computation models of traumatic brain injury.

 
2009.   Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging in Repeated Concussion
David K Wright1,2, Jack Trezise3, Leigh A Johnston1,4, Roger Ordidge2, Terence J O'Brien3, and Sandy R Shultz3
1The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 2Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 3Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia, 4Neuroengineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

 
Although a single brain concussion rarely has lasting effects, recurrent concussions may result in cumulative chronic neurological and neuropsychiatric impairments. The current clinical management of concussion is based on assessing for the resolution of neurocognitive impairments, however an asymptomatic state may not accurately indicate that the brain has fully recovered. Here we investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a platform in assessing the brain effects of concussion. The results show MRI to be sensitive to the subtle pathophysiological changes that occur in the concussed brain and contribute to the cumulative and degenerative effects of repeated concussion.

 
2010.   Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Rodent Model
Sanjay K Verma1, Bhanu Prakash KN1, Sankar Seramani1, Enci Mary Kan2, Kian Chye Ng2, Mui Hong Tan2, Jia Lu2, and S Sendhil Velan1,3
1Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore, Singapore, 2Combat Protection and Performance Lab, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore, Singapore, 3Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

 
Traumatic brain injury due to blasts by improvised explosive devices is increasing, creating various neuropsychological dysfunctions such as attention deficit, working function, motor skills etc in both animals and humans. We investigated the effect of open field blast injuries on rat brain using Diffusion tensor imaging which provides the degree as well as directionality of water diffusion in brain. The increase in FA , AD and decrease in RD at day 1 in CC may be probably due to edema or change in the water content within the myelin sheath. Decrease of diffusivity in the cortex and hippocampus indicates cytotoxic edema and slight increase at day 28 probably due to reduced tissue cellularity.

 
2011.   The alternation of functional motor network in the profession fighter populations.
Wanyong Shin1, Katherine Koenig1, Blessy Mathew1, Bank Sarah2, Mark J Lowe1, Michael Phillips1, Michael T Modic3, and Charles Bernick2
1Radiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 2Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic, Las Vegas, Nervada, United States, 3Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

 
Traumatic brain injury has been reported in professional combat athlete population. We have developed the protocol of Professional Fighters’ Brain Health, in which the professional fight athletes are participated and scanned using MRI for a baseline evaluation and annually over 4 years. The initial finding in the first year scan has shown that the number of knockout predicts the diffusion change in white matter. In this study, we presented the preliminary result of the functional connectivity alternation. The study indicated that the functional motor network connection is decreased according to the number of fights during 1 year.

 
2012.   Seemingly Inconsistency between Damaged White Matter Structure and Increased Functional Connectivity in Cingulum: Initial Response of Brain Plasticity to Trauma
Armin Iraji1, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh2, Randall Benson1, E. Mark Haacke1, and Zhifeng Kou3
1Wayne State University, DETROIT, MI, United States, 2University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 3Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States

 
Detection of the neuropathological or physiological substrates may hold the best opportunity to improve the diagnosis and proactive treatment of mTBI patients. Functional and structural connectivities can be a good index to investigate the effect of brain injury. The posterior cingulate cortex is renowned as the brain’s central hub, which integrates and relays the information; therefore, it involves many brain functional networks and regulates their activation based on information that it gathers from the entire central nervous system (CNS). We examine the change in the PCC connectivity using both resting state fMRI and probabilistic diffusion tractography.

 
2013.   Neuroinflammation in Chronic Sports-Related Repetitive Brain Trauma
Alexander Peter Lin1, Molly Charney1, Huijun Vicky Liao1, Sai K Merugumala1, Christine Baugh2, and Robert A Stern2
1Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Center for Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States

 
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative condition that can result from sports-related repetitive brain trauma. It is characterized by the deposition of tau proteins which may induce neuroinflammation. The goal of this study is to measure neuroinflammation in retired NFL athletes at high risk for CTE by measuring glutathione levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our results show that glutathione levels are reduced in NFL players when compared to age-matched professional athlete controls with no history of head injury. As GSH is utilized by the brain to neutralize reactive oxidative species, the reduction is reflective of neuroinflammation.

 
2014.   Mean apparent propagator MRI to determine the spatio-temporal trajectory of cortical microstructure abnormalities following controlled cortical impact in the mouse.
Elizabeth Hutchinson1,2, Michal Komlosh1,2, Alan Barnett1,2, Mustafa Irfanoglu1,2, Evren Ozarslan1,3, Susan Schwerin2,4, Sharon Juliano2,4, and Carlo Pierpaoli1
1STBB, NICHD/NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, USUHS, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 4Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, USUHS, Bethesda, MD, United States

 
We have applied the recently developed MAP-MRI framework to the investigation of brain injury. MAP-MRI provides an analytic representation of the diffusion propagator and a series of novel diffusion-MRI “stains” that quantify non-Gaussian water diffusion. The combination of this recent advance in diffusion modeling and the ability to quickly image fixed tissue at high spatial resolution has allowed us to identify new markers of microstructural change in the mouse cortex following controlled cortical impact and to characterize the spatio-temporal profiles of these abnormalities from 24 hours to 3 months following injury.

 
2015.   Simulation of Diffusion Changes in Different Pathologies After Traumatic Brain Injury
Mu Lin1, Hongjian He1, and Jianhui Zhong1
1Center for Brain Imaging Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

 
In order to investigate different pathological changes¡¯ influences on DTI parameters such as axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy and to explain the contradictious clinical observations, a Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted. The preliminary results showed that, in acute stage, axonal injury and cytotoxic edema were the primary factors determining DTI parameter changes, and they could literally lead to opposite observations. In subacute stage, demyelination and vasogenic edema were the predominant factors, which affected DTI parameters in a similar way. Axial and radial diffusivity were sensitive to axonal injury and demyelination, but they were easily disrupted by edema., but they were easily disrupted by edema.

 
2016.   Multi-Modal Neuroimaging and Spectroscopy of Mild and Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries in Rodent Model
Sanjay K Verma1, Sankar Seramani1, Bhanu Prakash KN1, Jadegoud Yaligar1, Enci Mary Kan2, Kian Chye Ng2, Jia Lu2, and S Sendhil Velan1,3
1Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore, Singapore, 2Combat Protection and Performance Lab, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore, Singapore, 3Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Singapore, Singapore

 
TBI is a serious and global public health issue. Fluid percussion injury in rats is a commonly used animal model simulating traumatic brain injuries. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes by MRS, structural changes using DTI in hippocampus and changes in microvasculature by SWI in FPI based mild and severe TBI. Neuronal loss, membrane disruption is observed in mild and severe injuries by MRS. The structural changes and micro-vessel damage was observed by DTI and SWI respectively. The combined imaging and spectroscopic assessment provides valuable markers for investigating structure and metabolism in mild and severe injuries.

 
2017.   Prospective study of changes in regional brain myelin content after concussion
Elham Shahinfard1, Michael Jarrett1, Irene Vavasour1, Shannon Kolind1, Enedino Hernández-Torres1, Jack Taunton1, David K Li1, and Alexander Rauscher1
1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

 
Repetitive concussion or hits to the head can have serious cumulative effects. Studies in animals and in humans with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest damage to the axon's myelin sheath. We studied two ice hockey teams over one season and measured the brain's myelin water fraction before and after concussion. Voxel-wise tract based statistical analysis showed significant reduction of myelin water fraction at two weeks post-injury for the eleven concussed subjects. Using an atlas-based based region of interest approach, we found reduction in myelin in the whole cohort at the end of the hockey season compared to baseline.

 
2018.   Tissue outcome in areas surrounding the impact site in traumatic brain injury
Justin Alexander Long1, Lora Talley Watts1, Qiang Shen1, Shiliang Huang1, and Timothy Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

 
We previously reported heterogeneous perfusion disruption beyond the impact area following mild TBI. However, it is unclear how such hemodynamic disruption affects tissue outcome. This study evaluated the effects of perfusion deficit on ADC, T2 and FA by analyzing a series of ROIs away from to the impact area. MRI parameters did not changed when CBF dropped to 60% of normal, but changed only when CBF dropped below 20% of normal at 1-3hrs and 2 days post TBI. CBF recovered on day 14 and so did FA, ADC and T2 values, suggesting that this mild TBI model induces reversible injury.

 
2019.   Using Advanced MR Techniques to Investigate Traumatic Brain Injury
Iain David Croall1, Christopher Cowie2, Jiabao He3, Anna Peel1, Joshua Wood1, Benjamin Aribisala4, Patrick Mitchell2, David Mendelow2, Fiona Smith1, David Millar5, Thomas Kelly2, and Andrew Blamire1
1Magnetic Resonance Centre, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom, 2Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom, 3Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 4Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 5Neurocog, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom

 
Diffuse axonal injury resulting from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) can be investigated using advanced MR techniques. While different modalities are specialised for specific analyses, little research has combined techniques. We present a joint Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy investigation examining mildly injured TBI patients at 6 days post-injury. Regarding the DTI findings, we present a new conclusion on the previously unusual and contentious finding of increased fractional anisotropy, while a novel result of increased N-acetylaspartate and evidence of creatine alterations post-injury are reported following Spectroscopy analysis. Additionally, these physical changes are correlated with measures of cognitive functioning.

 
2020.   Perturbed CO2 reactivity within and beyond the impact area following hyperacute mild TBI
Justin Alexander Long1, Qiang Shen1, Lora Talley Watts1, Shiliang Huang1, and Timothy Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States

 
The initial direct mechanical damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is followed by secondary damage that includes impaired cerebral blood flow, autoregulation, and metabolic function. The goal of this study was to longitudinally examine the vascular reactivity to CO2 in mild TBI during hyperacute and chronic phase up to 14 days. Extensive and severe CO2 reactivity disruption beyond the impact area was observed in hyperacute TBI. Area of CO2 response abnormality appeared much larger than CBF, T2, and ADC abnormality in the hyperacute phase. T2 and CO2 reactivity mostly normalized by day 14 but mild hypoperfusion and reduced CO2 reactivity remained on day 14. These multi-parametric MRI offers complementary, clinically relevant information.

 
2021.   Propylene glycol: are levels observed in brain MRS solely related to dosing?
Robert Johnstone1,2, Katalin Povázai3, Jonathan Ashmore4, Nicholas Byrne2,3, Sarah Peel2,3, Ata Siddiqui3, Jean-Marie U-King-Im3, Denis Azzapardi2, Andrew Kapetanakis3, and Geoff Charles-Edwards1,2
1Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, London, United Kingdom, 2King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, 4King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

 
The presence of a doublet at 1.1 ppm in MRS is often attributed to the presence of propylene glycol, a widely used excipient. This work investigates the assumed direct relationship between administered PG and observed PG levels in MRS and finds a poor correlation between the two measurements. This suggests further work is required to elucidate the relevant of PG levels in MRS and their any clinical relevance.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Stroke

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

2022.   Remote Ischaemic Post Conditioning is Neuroprotective in White Matter in a Piglet Model of Perinatal Asphyxia: an MRS and Immunohistochemistry Study
Alan Bainbridge1, Mojgan Ezzati2, Kevin Broad2, Go Kawano2, Aaron Oliver-Taylor2, Igor Fierens2, Jamshid Rostami2, Jane Hassell2, Ilias Tachsidis3, Pierre Gressens4, Mariya Hristova5, Kate Bennett2, Magdalena Sokolska6, Price David6, Bobbi Fleiss4, Derek Yellon7, Derek J Hausenloy7, Xavier Golay8, and Nicola J Robertson2
1Medical Physics, UCLH NHS Foundation trust, London, United Kingdom, 2Institute for Women's Health, University College London, United Kingdom, 3Medical Physics, University College London, United Kingdom, 4Centre for the Developing Brain, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College, United Kingdom,5Wellcome Centre for Imaging Neuroscience, University College London, United Kingdom, 6Medical Physics, UCLH NHS Foundation trust, United Kingdom, 7The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, United Kingdom, 8Institute of Neurology, University College London, United Kingdom

 
Neonatal encephalopathy is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. There is an unmet need to develop novel, non-invasive approaches, which can be used alone or in combination with hypothermia to augment neuroprotection. The aim of this study was to assess whether hind limb remote IPostC after transient hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is neuroprotective based on 1H and 31P MRS cerebral biomarkers and immunohistochemistry in a piglet model of perinatal asphyxia. Remote IPostC was neuroprotective based on reduced WM Lac/NAA at 48h and reduced TUNEL positive cells in WM. Whole brain 31P MRS NTP/epp was preserved with remote IPostC.

 
2023.   
Cerebrovascular reactivity quantification in patients with intracranial stenosis before and after surgical revascularization
Carlos C. Faraco1, Lindsey M. Dethrage1, Meaghan A. Neill2, Lori C. Jordan3, Robert J. Singer4, J Mocco5, Paul F. Clemmons6, Manus J. Donahue1,3, and Megan K. Strother1
1Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States, 3Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Section of Neurosurgery, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 6Department of Radiology Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
Pre- and/or post-revascularization BOLD scans were acquired on non-atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis (i.e., Moyamoya disease) patients during hypercarbic hyperoxic (carbogen; 5% CO2 / 95% O2) vascular stimulation to demonstrate the effectiveness of BOLD fMRI to longitudinally monitor CVR. Patients with pre- and post-op scans continued to demonstrate significantly improved (p<.001) CVR in the operative hemisphere at the time of their second post-op scan (17±5 months post-op). When all patients’ scans were grouped by time after revascularization, significant (p<.001) improvements were seen beginning at approximately one year post-op and stabilized at approximately two years post-op.

 
2024.   
Hippocampal disconnection predicts cognitive impairment in patients with cerebrovascular disease
Dewen Meng1, Akram A. Hosseini1, Richard J. Simpson1, Robert A. Dineen1, and Dorothee P. Auer1
1Radiological Sciences,Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

 
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) have not been well established. Resting-state functional MRI has provided new insights on the functional connectivity (fc) of brain. The aim of this study was to assess fc abnormalities as potential neural substrate of cognitive impairment in patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery disease.Our findings show that VCI results from long range disconnection of the left hippocampus fc and default mode network, suggesting that fc assessed by resting-state fMRI has the potential to become a diagnostic marker that may also be useful for the assessment of treatment and rehabilitation.

 
2025.   
Voxel-based comparison of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and FDG-PET in head-and-neck cancer
Petra van Houdt1, Britt Kunnen1, Olga Hamming-Vrieze1, Jeroen van de Kamer1, and Uulke van der Heide1
1Radiation Oncology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands

 
This study presents a voxel-based comparison between FDG-PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI for twenty-one patients with head-and-neck cancer. At voxel-level the correlations within the gross tumor volume were higher between SUV and Ktrans and kep compared to the correlations at patient-level. Therefore, it is important to take tumor heterogeneity into account.

 
2026.   
Evaluation of Basilar Artery Atherosclerotic Plaque Distribution by 3D High Resolution MR Vessel Wall Imaging and Semi-Automatic Analysis Tool
Zhensen Chen1, Huijun Chen1, Aofei Liu2, Wei-Jian Jiang2, William Kerwin3, Chun Yuan1,3, and Xihai Zhao1
1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research & Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 2New Era Stroke Care and Research Institute, The Second Artillery General Hospital PLA, Beijing, China, 3Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

 
During stenting procedure of basilar artery (BA) atherosclerosis, the plaque may be pushed and block the ostia of the perforating arteries that usually originate from the lateral or dorsal walls of BA, thus causing severe ischemic events. Hence, assessment of BA plaque distribution is important prior to stenting. This study sought to develop a semi-automatic analysis tool to comprehensively evaluate plaque characteristics, particularly cross-sectional distribution, in 58 symptomatic patients. We found that >60% of BA plaques mainly affected lateral or dorsal walls, suggesting the necessity of evaluation of lesion distribution prior to treatment using 3D MR vessel wall imaging.

 
2027.   Routine clinical evaluation of cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients with atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis using carbogen MRI
Manus Joseph Donahue1, Lindsey Dethrage1, Carlos Faraco1, Lori Jordan1, Paul Clemmons1, and Megan K Strother1
1Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

 
Carbogen (i.e., 5%CO2/95%O2)-induced measures of CVR are potentially safer than measures elicited by other hypercarbic gas mixtures, owing to abilities of carbogen to increase oxygen delivery to tissue. However, carbogen adds additional complications owing to effects of transient hyperoxia on metabolism and increases in sPO2. Here, we applied a carbogen MRI protocol in intracranial stenosis patients (n=54). Findings demonstrate focal regions of CVR discrepancy between healthy and diseased hemispheres in patients, consistent with angiographic measures of impairment, however only when z-statistic markers of CVR are utilized. However, quantitative interpretation of absolute signal changes is altered by increases in blood [HbO2]/[Hb].

 
2028.   
Imaging the ‘Dis-Connectome’: Using Resting-State fMRI to Study Perfusion and Connectivity Deficits in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease
Thomas Christen1, Hesamoddin Jahanian1, Wendy Wei Ni1, Deqiang Qiu1, Michael E Moseley1, and Greg Zaharchuk1
1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

 
In this work, we compared perfusion maps obtained with resting-state BOLD fMRI (no contrast agent used) to perfusion maps obtained with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (Gadolinium contrast agent) in 20 patients with cerebrovascular diseases. We also derived connectivity maps from the same data and analyzed the influence of time delays on the results.

 
2029.   Serial changes in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Acute Ischemic Stroke
George William John Harston1, Jacob Levman2, Thomas Okell3, George Pope4, Ian Reckless4, Fintan Sheerin4, Martino Cellerini4, Stephen Payne2, Michael Chappell2, Peter Jezzard3, and James Kennedy1
1Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 2Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 3Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 4Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

 
Diffusion-weighted imaging, using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), is the current imaging gold standard to define infarction acutely for patients with ischemic stroke. The natural history of this biomarker is debated and its validity in defining infarction has been challenged. In this study repeated measures of ADC were systematically taken from a cohort of patients with ischemic stroke to explore the changes of this biomarker over time. It was found that ADC lesion reversal within 24 hours does not predict sustained tissue recovery, but a small proportion of tissue with abnormal ADC at 24 hours will recover by 1 month.

 
2030.   
White matter abnormalities in children with sickle cell anaemia: Potential link with oxygen desaturation
Jamie M Kawadler1, Fenella J Kirkham2, Simon Barker3, Tim CS Cox4, and Chris A Clark1
1Imaging & Biophysics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom, 2Neurosciences Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom, 3Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom, 4Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom

 
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder affecting the oxygen-carrying capacity of haemoglobin. In children, overt and silent stroke are prevalent. In those with no apparent stroke on MRI, white matter (WM) abnormalities have been described, but links to disease-mediating factors (i.e. chronic anaemia and oxygen desaturation) are unknown. We performed a whole-brain voxel-wise WM analysis, finding anisotropy decreases in subcortical WM and increases in diffusivity widespread across the brain in patients compared to controls. We also found a trend correlation between lower daytime oxygen saturation and higher radial diffusivity in patients, which may have implications for oxygen therapy.

 
2031.   
MRI-based quantification of the CMRO2 response to apnea in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Zachary B Rodgers1, Varsha Jain1, Michael C Langham1, Sarah Leinwand1, Richard J Schwab1, and Felix W Wehrli1
1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

 
It has been hypothesized that the repeated nocturnal apnea experienced by patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results in blunting of the normal neurovascular apneic response, causing repeated nocturnal hypoxia which manifests as neurologic comorbidities. In this study, a recently developed method for rapid MRI-based quantification of CMRO2 was used to determine whether OSA results in reductions in resting-state CMRO2 and the CMRO2 response to apnea. Preliminary results, though not statistically significant, suggest OSA-associated reductions in both baseline and apneic CMRO2.

 
2032.   Increase of fractional anisotropy in contralateral thalamic motor nucleus in MCA stroke using tract-based segmentation method
Yi-Hsiu Hsiao1, Yung-Chieh Chen2, Cheng-Yu Chen1,3, Shih-Wei Chiang4,5, Hsiao-Wen Chung5, Ping-Huei Tsai1, Ming-Chung Chou6, Hung-Wen Kao4, and Chao-Ying Wang4
1Department of Medical Imaging and Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Graduate Institue of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan,4Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electrics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

 
Thalamus plays a pivot role in the process of rebuilding the circuitry after MCA stroke by neuro-adaptation called plasticity. One previous study has demonstrated that, by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), an increase in mean diffusivity in thalamus was shown after MCA infarct but fractional anisotropy (FA) remained unchanged. This study was limited by a lack of investigating the individual thalamic nucleus. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the changes of FA in the motor-sensory-related thalamic nuclei (VA, VL and VPL) in patients with MCA ischemic stroke at both acute and chronic stages using tract-based segmentation method.

 
2033.   Vasospasm and phlebectasia following subarachnoid hemorrhage
Yuhao Sun1,2, Qiang Shen1, Shiliang Huang1, and Timothy Q Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

 
Vasospasm is a hallmark of human SAH and needs to be treated promptly. Similar animal MRI studies of vasospasm in SAH are sparse. Moreover, SAH’s effects on veins remain unknown in SAH patients and animal models of SAH. This study investigated the effects of SAH on cerebral arteries and veins in rats using MRA and MRV. SAH caused severe time-dependent arterial vasospasm. SAH also increased venous volume, impeding vein reflux. These changes likely play a role in early brain injury in SAH. Our studies point to an additional and underappreciated set of physiologic effects that are caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage.

 
2034.   [14C]2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography confirms metabolism within ischaemic penumbra identified by two complementary, PFC-enhanced dynamic MR imaging techniques
Graeme A Deuchar1, David Brennan2, William M Holmes1, Maria del Rosario Lopez Gonzalez1, Martin Shaw3, I Mhairi Macrae1, and Celestine Santosh2
1Institute of Neuroscience & Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 3Clinical Physics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

 
Thrombolysis, the only licensed therapy for acute stroke remains under-utilised due to safety concerns concerning its use beyond the 4.5hr “treatment-window” Improved brain imaging would enable safer and wider treatment by identifying patients with salvageable brain tissue (penumbra) who would benefit from thrombolysis regardless of time. Existing imaging is inadequate and lacks diagnostic validation. GOLD (Glasgow-Oxygen-Level-Dependent) imaging uniquely employs MRI, hyperoxia and an oxygen-carrier perfluorocarbon (Oxycyte®) to enhance metabolic differentiation of penumbra from irreversibly damaged tissue thereby providing clinicians with a stratified measure of tissue viability while also supporting penumbra survival through improved oxygenation (additional imaging time carries no penalty).

 
2035.   Atypical BOLD fMRI response is co-localized with abnormal resting perfusion in patients with arteriovenous malformations
Erin L Mazerolle1, Roberta La Piana2, Donatella Tampieri2, Kelvin Mok2, Maria Cortes2, Denise Klein2, and G Bruce Pike1
1University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

 
Pre-treatment mapping has become an established clinical application of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. However, in patients with abnormal perfusion such as arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), it can be difficult to interpret BOLD results. We used arterial spin labelling (ASL) to evaluate whether perfusion information can clarify the interpretation of atypical fMRI responses in AVM patients. We found that atypical BOLD functional connectivity and activation was preferentially localized to regions of abnormally high perfusion. We propose that clinical applications of BOLD in patients with abnormal cerebral hemodynamics could greatly benefit from additional measurements such as ASL.

 
2036.   An artifact-free imaging protocol for the mapping of cerebrovascular reactivity.
Harshan Ravi1,2, Binu P Thomas1,2, Shin-lei Peng1, and Hanzhang Lu1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, United States

 
With a growing need for specific biomarkers in vascular diseases, there has been a surging interest in mapping cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) of the brain. The increase in CVR with CO2 inhalation is an expected outcome, however recent studies reported apparent negative CVR. This apparently negative CVR is predominantly located in brain ventricles. This is attributed to a dilation of blood vessels during CO2 inhalation, which displaces the bright CSF signal in ventricle causing an “artifactual” reduction in BOLD signal. In this work, we performed simulation and experimental studies to re-optimize the BOLD imaging parameters such that negative CVR is removed.

 
2037.   A Novel MRI Technique for Assessing Collaterals in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Jeong Pyo Son1, Suk Jae Kim2, Sookyung Ryoo2, Mi-Ji Lee2, Jihoon Cha3, and Oh Young Bang1,2
1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, 2Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, 3Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

 
Assessing the status of collateral circulation is important in acute ischemic stroke. However, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) which is considered as the gold standard for evaluation of collaterals is invasive and has a risk of thrombotic complications. In this study, we developed a novel MRI technique for evaluation of collateral flow which can be generated using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) source data. This technique may provide insight on collateral perfusion in patients who are not otherwise candidates for conventional angiography and may potentially replace it in the future.

 
2038.   Measuring vascular reactivity with breath-holds after stroke: implications for fMRI study interpretation
Kevin Murphy1, Richard J.S. Wise2, and Fatemeh Geranmayeh2
1CUBRIC, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, 2Computational Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

 
BOLD fMRI is a widely used technique to map brain function and monitor its recovery after stroke. Impairments in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) will alter neurovascular coupling causing BOLD interpretability problems. This study demonstrates that CVR can be measured successfully using a breath-hold task in a stroke population. Reduced CVR in the stroke penumbra limits the interpretability of the BOLD signal in that area in comparisons with controls. However, since CVR in the penumbra remains unchanged over time, a finding of increased penumbral activity in a longitudinal study is less likely to be due to changes in vascular reactivity.

 
2039.   Depiction of vessel pathology in stroke imaging at 7.0T using non-contrast MPRAGE
Vince Istvan Madai1,2, Federico C von Samson-Himmelstjerna1,3, Florian Weiler3, Nora Sandow4, Matthias Günther3, Peter Vajkoczy4, Thoralf Niendorf5, Jens Wuerfel6,7, and Jan Sobesky1,2
1Centre for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Fraunhofer-Mevis, Bremen, Germany, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 5Berlin Ultrahighfield Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Centrum (MDC), Berlin, Germany, 6Neurocure Clinical Research Centre, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 7Department of Radiology, Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

 
MPRAGE imaging at 7T allows for the generation of intracranial angiographies (MRA). This is promising as TOF at 7T is limited owing to SAR-constraints. To be of clinical value, however, 7T MPRAGE-MRA has to offer at least the diagnostic level of the highest current clinical standard, e.g. TOF-MRA at 3T. In the present work, we analyzed 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease (stroke and moya-moya-disease) at 3T and 7T. We could show that 7T MPRAGE offers a diagnostic quality comparable to 3T TOF. This is promising, as high-resolution anatomic and vascular imaging could be performed using a single sequence at 7T.

 
2040.   Comparison of plaque imaging and luminal stenosis to discriminate clinical presentation in middle cerebral artery disease
Wenjia Peng1,2, Zhongzhao Teng2,3, Adam J Brown4, Jianmin Yuan2, Qi Liu1, Jonathan H Gillard2, and Jianping Lu1
1Department of Radiology, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, Shanghai, China, 2University Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom,3Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

 
Intracranial atherosclerosis is a major substrate for stroke, accounting for 5-10% of strokes in western societies and 33-55% of strokes in Asian populations. Plaque wall MR imaging is capable of depicting high risk morphological and compositional features, such as intraplaque hemorrhage and fibrous cap rupture. However, it is unclear if this technique could provide complementary information to lumen stenosis to discriminate clinical presentation in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic disease. The result obtained in this study indicated that high-resolution MCA plaque wall imaging using 2D Turbo MR sequences provided limited additional value to luminal stenosis.

 
2041.   A statistical analysis to determine significant within-subject changes of BOLD MRI cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2
Olivia Sobczyk1, Adrian Crawley2, Julien Poublanc2, Kevin Sam2,3, Daniel M. Mandell2, David Mikulis2, James Duffin3,4, and Joseph Fisher3,4
1Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,3Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4Anaesthesiology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

 
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measured as the cerebral blood flow (e.g. BOLD MRI) response to a vasoactive stimulus (e.g. carbon dioxide), has been used to gauge neurovascular function. Despite uniform test conditions, between-test differences in CVR remain due to variations in normal physiology and in the measurement technology over time. We score test-to-test changes in CVR as the z-value derived from those of a cohort of healthy subjects tested on the same scanner. We demonstrate this approach identifies changes between tests that are unlikely to be attributed to physiology and technical variation, and thus attributed to interval change in pathology.

 
2042.   Predicting Final Infarct Volume at One Week Post Ischemic Stroke: Recanalization and Baseline Infarct Volume are Important Parameters for Early Infarct Estimation
Mark Krongold1,2, Mohammed Almekhlafi1,2, Andrew Demchuck1,3, Richard Frayne1,2, and Armin Eilaghi1,2
1Department of Radiology and Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2Seaman Family MR Centre, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 3Calgary Stroke Program, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

 
Our goal was to characterize infarct volume evolution over time with focus on the first 30 days post stroke. We screened 964 ischemic stroke patients and included 59 patients who had baseline DWI infarction and ≥2 FLAIR follow up imaging sessions. We show that the final infarct volume can be predicted after the first week. Recanalization status and baseline infarct volume significantly effect infarct expansion pattern and infarct volume size. These findings can potentially maximize recruitment in clinical trials, decrease needed follow up imaging sessions, and improve stroke management.

 
2043.   IVIM Perfusion Fraction in Acute Stroke: Initial Clinical Experience
Christian Federau1, Suna Sumer2, Fabio Becce1, Kieran O'Brien3, Reto Meuli1, and Max Wintermark2
1Radiology, CHUV, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 3Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

 
In the setting of acute ischemic stroke, currently used perfusion methods (DSC and CTP) may fail to properly take into account leptomeningeal collateral blood flow supply, which is essential for clinical prognosis. Perfusion measurement using IVIM might theoretically solve this issue, as it is thought to be mainly dependent on the local microvascular perfusion. We present our initial clinical experience in 17 cases of acute brain strokes (< 6 days), demonstrating that the perfusion fraction f is significantly reduced in the infarcted area.

 
2044.   Dilated Perivascular Spaces in the Basal Ganglia Are a Biomarker of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in a Very Elderly Dementia Population
Thomas P Hansen1, John Cain1, Nitin Purandare2, Owen Thomas3, and Alan Jackson1
1Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire, United Kingdom, 2Greater Manchester Old Age Psychiatry Service, University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Salford Royal NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Manchester, Lancashire, United Kingdom

 
We examine the discriminative power of the related perivascular spaces (PVS) in an elderly population of patients with vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia and age-matched normal controls. We compare to previously described PVS scoring systems. The discriminative power standard white-matter scoring systems and PBS are modelled using non-linear regression. We demonstrate that PVS scores have greater significant independent discriminative power for the separation of VaD from normal and AD subjects than white matter hyper intensity scoring systems.

 
2045.   Automated Analysis of MR Perfusion Images Using a Vascular Territory Based Approach
Neil Chatterjee1,2, Parmede Vakil1,2, Shyam Prabhakaran1, Sameer Ansari1, Michael Hurley1, and Tim Carroll1,2
1Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

 
MR perfusion imaging has become an important tool in the assessment of cerebrovascular disease. A commonly used technique to quantify MR perfusion results is to have a physician manually draw ROIs in different vascular territories, but this is a time consuming and subjective process that can introduce bias. Here we propose a method for automatically constructing subject-specific vascular territory ROIs and validate the method in cohorts of ischemic stroke patients and healthy volunteers.

 
2046.   Feasibility of High-resolution MR Imaging for the Diagnosis of Arterial Dissection Involving the Intracranial Vertebrobasilar System
Jin Wook Choi1, Miran Han1, Sun Yong Kim1, and Nae Jung Lim1
1Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Gyunggido, Korea

 
Arterial dissection is a significant cause of stroke in younger patients. A safe and feasible tool for early diagnosis is needed to prevent neurologic sequelae. Direct imaging findings of dissection were well visualized by HR-MR imaging, and detection of a dissection flap on CE-T1WI is the most diagnostic finding. HR-MR imaging could be a useful and non-invasive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of arterial dissection involving the intracranial vertebrobasilar system.

 
2047.   Cerebrovascular reactivity as objective markers of hemodynamic compromise: A pilot study
Olivia Sobczyk1,2, Daniel M. Mandell2, Kevin Sam2,3, Adrian Crawley2, Julien Poublanc2, David Mikulis2, James Duffin3,4, and Joseph Fisher3,4
1Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,3Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4Anaesthesiology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

 
We used cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), the change in cerebral blood flow, as measured using BOLD MRI in response to a hypercapnic vasodilatory stimulus to test neurovascular reserve. We scored CVR values voxel-by-voxel in terms of statistical differences from the corresponding voxel in a cohort of healthy subjects. We averaged the z-scores in the MCA territories in a cohort of patients with steno-occlusive disease and in healthy subjects. Frequency distribution histograms showed only a small overlap in average z-values between patients and healthy subjects suggesting this analysis may be a sensitive and specific objective discriminator for steno-occlusive disease.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Multiple Sclerosis

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

2048.   An investigation of brain neurite density and dispersion in multiple sclerosis using single shell diffusion imaging
Lise Magnollay1, Francesco Grussu2,3, Claudia A.M. Wheeler-Kingshott2, Varun Sethi2, Hui Zhang3, Declan Chard2,4, David H. Miller2,4, and Olga Ciccarelli1,4
1NMR Research Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 3Department of Computer Science and Centre for Medical Image Computing, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 4NIHR UCL-UCLH Biomedical Research Centre, London, United Kingdom

 
Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) provides information about orientation dispersion (ODI) and neurite density (NDI) of the underlying tissue. We applied NODDI to single-shell brain diffusion-weighted imaging of relapsing-remitting MS patients and healthy controls. Patients showed (i) lower ODI in the internal capsules and genu of the corpus callosum than controls, (ii) lower NDI in the genu of the corpus callosum and right occipital cortex than controls, (iii) higher FA in the right internal capsule than controls. In patients, lower occipital cortex NDI correlated with longer disease duration. Therefore, NODDI parameters reflect tissue abnormalities not detectable with FA.

 
2049.   Increased microstructural damage in the normal appearing white matter appears to distinguish SPMS from RRMS
Yunyan Zhang1, Bailey Komishke2, Luanne Metz3, and Lenora Brown3
1University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2University of British Columbia, BC, Canada, 3University of Calgary, AB, Canada

 
To understand the mechanism relating to distinct disability, we evaluated both macroscopic and microscopic tissue change in advanced SPMS and mild RRMS, with a focus on the corpus callosum. We found smaller white matter volume, not gray matter, in SPMS than in RRMS subjects but similar T2 lesion load. Also in SPMS, corpus callosum was atrophic, where fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity was significantly compromised. No difference between mild RRMS and controls. Our results suggest the importance of NAWM and early intervention may protect mild RRMS patients from developing advanced disability.

 
2050.   Relationship of high-resolution diffusion tensor MRI measures of the cingulum bundle with cognitive function in multiple sclerosis
Katherine A Koenig1, Ken E Sakaie1, Mark J Lowe1, Jian Lin1, Erik B. Beall1, Stephen M Rao2, Lael Stone2, Robert Bermel2, Bruce D Trapp3, and Micheal D Phillips1
1Imaging Sciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Neurological Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Neurosciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

 
The current work uses DTI tractography to investigate the integrity of the posterior cingulate-entorhinal cortex in 57 subjects with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and 17 controls. Subjects with MS showed pathologic DTI measures, and all DTI measures were related to measures of spatial episodic memory.

 
2051.   Functional Relevance of White Matter Degradation in Multiple Sclerosis: A Tract-Based Spatial Meta-Analysis
Thomas Welton1, Dorothee Auer1, and Rob Dineen1
1Radiological Sciences Group, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom

 
Relevance of tract-specific white matter degradation to clinical and cognitive functional status in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a focus of recent research, but a consensus is yet to emerge. We present the first voxelwise meta-analysis of tract-based spatial statistics studies in MS, incorporating data across 8 studies and 358 patients. Our findings confirm widespread reductions in tract FA in MS patients in comparison to controls. Damage to white matter tracts in the corpus callosum and posterior cingulum was associated with elevated disability and cognition.

 
2052.   Comparison of efficacy of diffusion kurtosis imaging in detection of occult brain damages in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis
Wenshu Qian1, Koon-Ho Chan2, Mina Kim1, and Henry Ka-Fung Mak1
1Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 2Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

 
Early diagnosis and differentiation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from multiple sclerosis (MS) is vital to provide timely and proper treatment. However, conventional MRI techniques are not sensitive to assess the occult microstructural changes in brain tissues in the early or stable stage. In this study, we investigated the normal-appearing white matter and cortical gray matter in controls and patients with NMO and MS using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). Our results demonstrate that DKI-derived indices are sensitive to detect the microstructural abnormalities and can distinguish pathological alterations in NMO from MS, suggesting DKI may be a useful diagnostic tool of NMO.

 
2053.   Comparison of Susceptibility-Weighted-Imaging determined vessel diameters to histological measures
Günther Grabner1, Assunta Dal-Bianco2, Hans Lassmann3, Siegfried Trattnig1, and Simon Hametner3
1MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

 
Susceptibility-Weighted-Imaging allows high resolution imaging of the venous system. However, the real size of the imaged veins remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between apparent SWI vessel sizes and real vessel diameters measured on histological tissue. Two in-vitro SWI acquisitions were performed, one on a healthy and one on a multiple sclerosis brain. Furthermore we compared the SWI enlargement factor in healthy brain tissue to the MS brain. Results indicate an SWI enlargement factor of about 3.7 for vessels with a histological diameter below 100 µm independently from disease status.

 
2054.   MS diagnosis is predicted at initial clinical presentation by venocentric lesions detected with 3T SWI
Matthew P Quinn1,2, Marcelo Kremechutzky3, and Ravi S Menon1,2
1Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada,3Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

 
Visualizing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) with MRI is a critical step in diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS), but WMHs are also present in other diseases. The presence of central veins within WMHs may be specific to MS. In this study, healthy controls (HCs) and patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS were imaged with FLAIR (to identify WMHs) and SWI (to identify veins). After clinical follow up, it was determined that all CIS patients who were diagnosed with MS within the 11 month study window had more than 40% lesions with central veins at clinical presentation.

 
2055.   Improved Identification of MS Disease-Relevant Changes in Gray and White Matter using Susceptibility-Based Ultra-High Field MRI
David A. Rudko1,2, Igor Solovey2, Joseph S. Gati2, Marcelo Kremenchutzky3, and Ravi S. Menon2
1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Robarts Research Institute, Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, London, Ontario, Canada, 3Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

 
Conventional MRI measures of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease status, using the number and location of lesions in white matter have not correlated well with clinical symptoms or demonstrated significant predictive power for understanding disease progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitative susceptibility (QS) and apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping as surrogate biomarkers of clinically relevant, age-adjusted demyelination and iron deposition in MS. QS and R2* maps acquired using 7T gradient echo MRI identified demyelination and iron accumulation in MS that correlated strongly with clinical disability. Using this information may allow earlier administration of therapies and monitoring of MS pathology in-vivo.

 
2056.   Corticospinal Tract Degeneration Correlates with Clinical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis
Sanjeev Chawla1, Ilya Kister2, Robert I Grossman1, and Yulin Ge1
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Neurology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

 
The purpose of present study was to determine fiber degeneration along the course of corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 33 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who alongwith 17 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Significant reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) and elevation in mean diffusivity (MD) alongwith trends towards increase in axial and radial diffusivities were observed in patients compared to controls. Combination of MD and FA provided sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 63.6% to distinguish two groups. A significant inverse correlation between FA and EDSS was observed. Our study demonstrates quantitative structural degeneration of CST in MS.

 
2057.   Prediction of Time Between CIS Onset and Clinical Conversion to MS using Random Forests
Viktor Wottschel1,2, Daniel C. Alexander2, Declan T. Chard3, Christian Enzinger4, Massimo Filippi5, Jette Frederiksen6, Claudio Gasperini7, Antonio Giorgio8, Maria A. Rocca5, Alex Rovira9, Nicola De Stefano8, Mar Tintoré9, David H. Miller3, and Olga Ciccarelli1
1NMR Research Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, London, United Kingdom, 2Microstructure Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department for Computer Science, UCL, London, London, United Kingdom, 3NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroimflammation, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Neurology and Section of Neuroradiology, Medical Unversity of Graz, Graz, Graz, Austria, 5Neuroimaging Research Unit, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Milan, Italy, 6Department of Neurology, Glostrup Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 7Neurology Unit, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Rome, Italy, 8Department of Neurological and Behavioral Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Siena, Italy, 9Department of Radiology and Neuroimmunology Unit, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

 
We present a feasibility study predicting the time-to-conversion (in days) from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) using the machine learning technique random forests. T1 weighted baseline MRI data of 203 CIS patients from multiple European centres was spatially normalised and subdivided in 100 independent training and testing sets. From every training set an individual random forests was created consisting of 100 trees. The median error over all 100 bootstraps was 0.7 (range 0.57-1.16). Considering the slightly skewed data set and high similarity in T1 signal in the patient cohort, this is a very promising result.

 
2058.   What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis?
Martijn D. Steenwijk1, Marita Daams1,2, Petra Pouwels3, Lisanne J. Balk4, Prejaas K. Tewarie4, Joep Killestein4, Bernard M.J. Uitdehaag4, Jeroen J.G. Geurts2, Frederik Barkhof1, and Hugo Vrenken1,3
1Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, VU University medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 3Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 4Department of Neurology, VU University medical center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands

 
Gray matter (GM) atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the relation with white matter (WM) pathology is largely unknown. We aimed to identify the WM measures that explain whole brain GM, cortical and subcortical atrophy in a large cohort (n=208) of long-standing MS patients using stepwise linear regression. WM atrophy and lesion volume were the most important measures explaining whole brain and subcortical atrophy, while cortical atrophy was associated with NAWM integrity loss. The weaker relationship between GM atrophy and WM pathology in progressive patients might indicate a more independent neurodegenerative disease process in these patients.

 
2059.   White matter abnormalities are associated with cognitive dysfunction in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
K.A. Meijer1, M. Cercignani2, N. Muhlert1, V. Sethi1, D. Chard1,3, M. Ron1, A.J. Thompson1,3, D.H. Miller1,3, J.J.G. Geurts4, and O. Ciccarelli1,3
1NMR Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom, 3NIHR University College London Hospitals, Biomedical Research Centre, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands

 
We investigated whether loss of white matter integrity is associated with cognitive dysfunction in secondary progressive (SPMS) patients using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Cognitively impaired patients showed a more extensive loss of WM integrity than cognitively preserved patients; most pronounced differences were observed in the fornix, corpus callosum, forceps major, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right uncinate fasciculus. In patients, the DTI metrics of many of these tracts showed significant correlations with processing speed and visual memory processing, suggesting that disruption in these tracts may result in a disconnection syndrome which is responsible for cognitive impairment in MS.

 
2060.   Does white matter, grey matter or lesion multi-component relaxation differ between neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis brain?
Elisabeth Baumann1,2, Lucy A. E. Matthews3, Anthony Traboulsee1, Jacqueline Palace3, and Shannon Kolind1
1Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany, 3Oxford University and Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom

 
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are clinically similar demyelinating diseases, however it has recently been found that each has distinct pathological characteristics. Illustrating these differences with MRI has proven challenging. We investigated the fraction of fast-relaxing signal (fM, thought to be linked to myelin) and T1 (influenced by total water content) in NMO, MS and control whole-brain. fM was decreased in NMO and MS white matter and MS grey matter. T1 was increased in MS and NMO white matter. No significant differences were found between diseases, but MS consistently demonstrated lower fM and higher T1 than NMO.

 
2061.   Is primary progressive multiple sclerosis an independent disease entity? – An ultrahigh field MRI lesion analysis
Joseph Kuchling1, Ivan Bozin1, Jan Dörr1, Caspar Pfueller1, Lutz Harms2, Thoralf Niendorf3, Friedemann Paul1, Tim Sinnecker1, and Jens Wuerfel4
1NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medicine Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

 
Differences between primary progressive (PP) and relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described, raising the question whether PPMS is part of the MS disease spectrum or a disease entity of its own. We addressed this issue by investigating RRMS and PPMS lesions using UHF-MRI with high spatial resolution resolution. However, gray and white matter lesions could not differentiate RRMS and PPMS regarding plaque morphology, distribution and appearance. Our findings support the hypothesis that PPMS is part of the MS disease spectrum and does not represent a disease entity of its own.

 
2062.   Pathological substrate of MRI-derived cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis
Veronica Popescu1, Roel Klaver2, Yvon Galis-de Graaf2, Pieter Voorn2, Dirk Knol3, Adriaan Versteeg1, Geert Schenk2, Frederik Barkhof1, Helga E De Vries4, Hugo Vrenken1,5, and Jeroen JG Geurts2
1Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Anatomy and Neurosciences, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 5Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

 
In multiple sclerosis grey matter becomes atrophic. Atrophy correlates with disability and cognitive impairment. It is unknown which tissue component causes this atrophy. In a combined post-mortem MRI-histopathology study, five anatomical regions were systematically sampled from 11 brain donors with MS. After generalized estimating equations with false discovery rate correction two predictors survived: axonal density in the superior frontal gyrus and astrocytes numbers in the inferior frontal gyrus. Cortical atrophy seems predominantly driven by neuropilema changes and gliosis, and not by inflammation or demyelination. This points towards the need to intensify the search for neuroprotective medication in MS.

 
2063.   Automated Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis Brain Lesions at 7T
Blake Dewey1, Pascal Sati1, Snehashis Roy2, Luisa Vuolo1,3, Colin Shea1, Dzung Pham2, and Daniel S. Reich1
1National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 2Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 3Departments of Neurology and Radiology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

 
Automatic lesion segmentation is required for analyzing large datasets provided by multicontrast 3D high-resolution imaging of multiple sclerosis. Although several methods have been proposed for MRI at clinical field strength (3T and below), 7T imaging remains uninvestigated due to more severe image bias (B1 field inhomogeneities, etc.) that can deeply impact the results of the existing segmentation algorithms. In this study, we propose an optimized multicontrast 3D high-resolution acquisition protocol combined with the use of advanced nonlinear bias correction and the LesionTOADS algorithm to create robust image segmentation and lesion load quantification at 7T.

 
2064.   T2/T1 ratio z-scores as a quantitative metric for Multiple Sclerosis
E Datta1, A Zhu2, E Crabtree2, D Goodin2, A Green2, S Hauser2, B Cree2, and RG Henry1,2
1Bioengineering, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, 2Neurology, UC San Francisco, California, United States

 
Multiple Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by lesions resulting from inflammatory demyelination. The ratio of T2 and T1 brain scans provides a new metric that can be compared between controls and patients to observe changes in white matter integrity that correlate with clinical disability scores. Z-scores obtained from this comparison show correlations with T2 lesion volume along with clinical measures such as EDSS. Thus far, the T2/T1 z-score metric has shown itself to be a promising substitute for T2 lesion volume, which does not capture the varying degrees of disease in sclerotic tissue.

 
2065.   Neuromyelitis optica spinal cord has increased T1 and decreased myelin water fraction
Clara Tabea Strunk1,2, Lucy A.E. Matthews3, Anthony Traboulsee1, Jacqueline Palace3, and Shannon Kolind1
1Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany, 3Oxford University and Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom

 
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) clinically resembles multiple sclerosis (MS), but has a different mechanism of demyelination. Brain MRI studies have had difficulty distinguishing between diseases. Our goal was to determine whether differences in myelin or total water content, as measured with multi-component relaxation imaging, could be detected between NMO and MS in cervical spinal cord. Surprisingly, little difference was found between NMO and MS in spinal cord, although both were significantly altered compared to healthy controls. Differences in myelin and total water content were more easily detected between controls and MS or NMO in spinal cord than in brain.

 
2066.   Comparison of Three Putative MR Myelin Markers in Multiple Sclerosis Subjects and Healthy Controls
Irene Margaret Vavasour1, Shannon H Kolind2, Alexander Rauscher1, Roger Tam1, Nicholas Seneca3, David Leppert3, Alex L MacKay1,4, David KB Li1, and Anthony L Traboulsee2
1Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Medicine (Neurology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Switzerland, 4Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

 
This study compared the results obtained from 3 quantitative MRI measurements (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), myelin water fraction (MWF) and fraction of myelin signal from steady state imaging (fM)) in white matter from subjects with MS and healthy controls. The 3 putative myelin MRI markers demonstrate reduction across structures in MS compared to controls however, MWF demonstrated the largest decreases and range of differences between structures. All 3 metrics followed the same pattern showing the greatest decreases in the ILF, followed by the CC, SLF, MN and finally CST. The strongest correlation between metrics was found between MWF and fM.

 
2067.   Direct Detection of Myelin Using Zero-Echo Time (ZTE) Imaging in Lamb Spinal Cord
Cheng Li1, Alan C. Seifert1, Suzanne L. Wehrli2, Michael J. Wilhelm3, David B. Hackney4, and Felix W. Wehrli1
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2NMR Core Facility, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

 
Direct assessment of myelin would reveal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and enhance our understanding of neurological diseases. Our previous work demonstrated that myelin can be directly imaged on a 9.4T NMR laboratory spectrometer/imaging system with ultra-short echo time (UTE) imaging. However, the extremely short T2 values (~100s) and relatively low proton density of myelin limit its detectability on clinical scanner. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative zero-echo time (ZTE) imaging of reconstituted extracted myelin and intact lamb spinal cord at 9.4T and on a 3T whole-body scanner.

 
2068.   Depiction of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Zero Echo Time (ZTE) Imaging at 7T
Douglas A. C. Kelley1, Angela Jakary2, Roland Henry3, Sarah J Nelson2, and Daniel B Vigneron2
1Neuro Apps and Workflow, GE Healthcare, Corte Madera, CA, United States, 2Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States

 
T1 weighted Zero Echo Time (ZTE) imaging at 7T with phased array coils provides improved depiction of cortical and subcortical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and surrounding tissue. In equivalent scan times to conventional methods, the sequence provides more uniform grey-white contrast, allowing improved delineation of cortical structures in addition to providing clear depiction of MS lesions and fast relaxing tissues within the brain. Images acquired with both conventional and ZTE inversion recover prepared sequences in several MS patients are compared.

 
2069.   Magnetization Transfer Saturation per TR (MTsat) better discriminates Normal-Appearing White Matter than Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) in Multiple Sclerosis
Rexford Newbould1,2, Charlotte Thomas3, Rebecca Quest4, Jean Lee3, Lesley Honeyfield4, Alessandro Colasanti1,3, Paul Matthews3,5, Adam Waldman4, and Paolo Muraro3,6
1Imanova Centre for Imaging Sciences, London, United Kingdom, 2Experimental Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Imaging, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 5Neurosciences, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, London, United Kingdom, 6Clinical Neurosciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

 
MT saturation per TR (MTsat) has been proposed as a more quantified measure of magnetization transfer than MTR. Here, we acquired MTsat and MTR maps in 38 MS subjects and 13 healthy controls, outlined white and grey matter lesions on co-registered MPRAGE and T2w-FLAIR volumes. Both MT contrasts highlighted T1 and T2-visible lesions well. Normal-appearing white matter in controls and MS subjects did not differ in the MTR maps, but did strongly in MTsat maps. MTsat might be highlighting early NAWM degeneration in these MS subjects.

 
2070.   Longitudinal mixed-effect model analysis of the association between global and tissue specific brain atrophy and lesion accumulation in patients with CIS
Mihael Varosanec1, Dana Horakova2, Jesper Hagemeier1, Niels Bergsland1, Michaela Tyblova2, Zdenek Seidl3, Manuela Vaneckova3, Jan Krasensky3, Michael G. Dwyer1, Eva Havrdova2, and Robert Zivadinov1
1Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo SUNY, Buffalo, NY, United States, 2Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, 3Department of Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

 
We investigated accumulation of new brain lesion, lesion volume, and contrast enhancing lesions with respect to the atrophy of gross brain structures in patients with clinically isolated syndrome. Longitudinal linear and quadratic mixed effect model analyses were performed for each time point and in dual directions. The more robust inverse mixed-effect model results suggest that the level of brain atrophy can explain T2 lesion accumulation better than the T2 lesion accumulation can explain accumulation of brain atrophy. These results suggests that close monitoring of brain volume changes may be relevant for identifying patients at risk for MS conversion.

 
2071.   Analysis of Inhomogeneous Magnetization Transfer Applied In Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Gopal Varma1, Mohit Neema2, Fotini S Papadopoulou1, Shahamat Tauhid2, Rohit Bakshi2, and David C Alsop1
1Radiology, Division of MR Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

 
The apparent specificity of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (IHMT) to myelinated tissue lends itself to study in pathologies related to myelin loss. A preliminary results from IHMT applied in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are reported. A statistically significant difference is found from the IHMT ratio in comparison with a group of healthy volunteers for a posterior region of interest. The difference within this region is less significant in analysis of the more commonly used MT ratio. IHMT might therefore provide a potential improvement over MT in analysis of MS and other myelin related diseases.

 
2072.   Multiple Sclerosis lesion fingerprint using multicontrast MRI
Guillaume Bonnier1,2, Alexis Roche1,3, David Romanasco4, Samanta Simioni2, Djalel-Eddine Meskaldji4, David Rotzinger3, Ying-Chia Lin5, Gloria Menegaz5, Myriam Schluep2, Renaud Du Pasquier2, Tilman Johannes Sumpf6, Jens Frahm6, Jean-Philippe Thiran4, Gunnar Krueger1,7, and Cristina Granziera1,2
1Advanced Clinical Imaging technology group, Siemens-CIBM, EPFL, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 4STI / IEL / LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 5Dept. of Computer Science, University of Verona, Itlay, Italy, 6Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany, Germany, 7Healthcare Sector IM&WS S, Siemens Schweiz AG, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

 
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of multiple sclerosis patients provide limited information about the nature and the extent of brain damage and repair. We established a clinically compatible protocol including quantitative MRI techniques (qMRI, T1, T2, T2* relaxometry) and semiquantitative Magnetisation Transfer Imaging to provide a comprehensive MRI fingerprint (CMF) of lesions that is more adherent to the real underlying pathology and to assess the CMF contribution to clinical performances in patients. Lesions characteristics, revealed by combination of q/sq MRI, highly correlated with patients clinical performance and more severe lesions appeared to drive the clinic-radiological correlations.

 
2073.   Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion Weighted Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis: A Follow-up Study
Sanjeev Chawla1, Ilya Kister2, Robert I Grossman1, and Yulin Ge1
1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Neurology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

 
To evaluate changes in perfusion parameters from deep gray matter regions, 15 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) twice at an interval of 2 years in a longitudinal study. Using one tailed paired t-tests, significant elevation in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and flow (rCBF) were observed from thalami at follow-up period compared to baseline probably secondary to inflammatory activities. Additionally, significant elevation in rCBF and reduction in relative mean transit time were observed from basal ganglia. Our preliminary findings suggest that DSC-PWI may be valuable in detecting follow-up hemodynamic impairment in MS.

 
2074.   Multicontrats MRI improved the clinico-radiological correlation in early multiple sclerosis patients with minor deficits
Guillaume Bonnier1,2, Alexis Roche1,3, David Romanasco4, Samanta Simioni2, Djalel-Eddine Meskaldji4, David Rotzinger3, Ying-Chia Lin5, Gloria Menegaz5, Myriam Schluep2, Renaud Du Pasquier2, Tilman Johannes Sumpf6, Jens Frahm6, Jean-Philippe Thiran4, Gunnar Krueger1,7, and Cristina Granziera1,2
1Advanced Clinical Imaging technology group, Siemens-CIBM, EPFL, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 4STI / IEL / LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, 5Dept. of Computer Science, University of Verona, Itlay, Italy, 6Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany, Germany, 7Healthcare Sector IM&WS S, Siemens Schweiz AG, Suisse, Switzerland

 
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with multiple sclerosis provides only limited insights into the nature of brain tissue damage with modest clinical-radiological correlations. In this study, quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI techniques (T1, T2, T2*, MTR) were applied to study the potential of the MRI-accessible microstructural information to predict cognitive and motor scores in patients. A multiparametric analysis of whole brain abnormalities showed that MRI measures of microstructural alterations lead to significant improvement in clinical-radiological correlations even in the presence of minor functional deficits.

 
2075.   Intralesional vein shrinking in multiple sclerosis lacks in severeness -preliminary results from a 7T MRI study
Katharina Müller1, Joseph Kuchling1, Ivan Bozin1, Jan Dörr1, Caspar Pfueller1, Lutz Harms2, Thoralf Niendorf3, Friedemann Paul1, Tim Sinnecker1,4, and Jens Wuerfel1,5
1Neurocure Research Center, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Asklepios Fachklinikum Teupitz, Brandenburg, Germany, 5Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medicine Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

 
Vascular alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described decades ago. T2* weighted ultrahigh field MRI at 3 Tesla (T) visualized shrinked brain veins within MS plaques in vivo. However, this observation may be influenced by partial volume effects. We addressed this issue by developing a novel quantification algorithm and a novel MR-post processing procedure that generates susceptibility weighted turbo inversion recovery magnitude (sTIRM) images. We observed less intralesional venous shrinking on sTIRM compared to T2* weighted FLASH imaging. Our results confirm initial reports showing venous shrinking within MS lesions that is probably not as severe as expected.

 
2076.   Time resolved MR angiography in patients with MS, their healthy siblings and unrelated controls.
Enedino Hernández-Torres1, Lindsay Machan1, Dessa Sadovnick2, Nancy Martin1, Warren Perera1, Anthony L Traboulsee2,3, David Li1, and Alexander Rauscher1
1Radiology, UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2MS Clinic, UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Neurology, UBC, BC, Canada

 
It has been suggested that multiple sclerosis may be associated with changes in the brain's draining veins. In this study we investigated the existence of those changes using time resolved MR angiography in three different groups: patients with MS, their healthy siblings and unrelated controls. We analyzed the cerebral circulation times for the three groups and did not find significant differences between the different groups (p>0.2). The results obtained suggests that drainage abnormalities are not characteristic for MS.

 
2077.   Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from Optic Neuritis to Clinically Definite Multiple Sclerosis
Stig Praestekjaer Cramer1,2, Helle Simonsen1, Signe Modvig2, Jette Lautrup Frederiksen2, and Henrik BW Larsson1
1FI-Unit, Department of Diagnostics, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Danmark, Denmark, 2Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Danmark, Denmark

 
We measured permeability of the blood-brain-barrier with DCE_MRI in 32 patients at onset of Optic Neuritis and 17 matched healthy controls. We found significnatly higher permeability in normal appearing white matter ON patients compared to controls, and permeability was significantly correlated with biomarkers of inflammation and cell migration in the cerebrospinal fluid. In 50% of ON cases, the patient will later develop multiple sclerosis, and we found significant higher permeability in patients that where diagnosed with MS within one year after ON onset. These findings further emphasize the importance of BBB pathology in both ON and MS, and could be a supplementary prognostic marker for conversion from ON to MS.

 
2078.   BBB Breakdown due to Axonal Degeneration: A Potential Confounding Factor for MS Diagnosis
Shu-Wei Sun1,2, Christopher Nishioka3, Steven Kaspick4, Chen-Fang Chung4, JoAnn Park4, and Hsiao-Fang Liang4
1Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States, 3University of California, Riverside, CA, United States,4Loma Linda University, CA, United States

 
Retina ischemia caused axonal degeneration along optic nerve (ON) and tract (OT) of WldS and wild-type, while the damage was delayed in WldS. In WldS, ON and OT showed significant reductions of axial diffusivity in weeks 1 and 2, respectively, which provided us the time window of distinguished injure severity between the proximal (ON) and distal sections (OT) of RGC axons. Gd-T1WI and Evans blue both showed significant BBB leakage in RI-affected ON and OT beginning at week 1 in WldS mice. The remote BBB leakage may be observed in Gd-T1WI and may confuse the MS diagnosis.

 
2079.   Multi-Parametric qBOLD Approach for Robust Oxygen Extraction Fraction Quantification in Clinical Use
Sebastian Domsch1, Frederik Wenz2, and Lothar Rudi Schad1
1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

 
The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) approach, based on the tissue model, has facilitated promising in-vivo results using MRI. Thereby, the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is of great clinical interest providing a parameter for brain tissue viability or monitoring radio and chemo therapy. However, the qBOLD approach has not become clinically established yet due to numerous fit-parameters in the tissue model requiring high SNR or long measurement times clinically not available. In this work, a multi-parametric qBOLD approach is proposed to obtain robust OEF maps within clinical acquisition times using separate MR sequences to reduce the number of unknown fit-parameters.

 
2080.   Altered cerebrovascular reactivity and its restoration with Interferon beta treatment in multiple sclerosis
Marek Allen1, Valentina Tomassini2, Nikolaos Petsas3, Marco Carni3, Emilia Sbardella3, Kevin Murphy1, Patrizia Pantano3, Carlo Pozzilli3, and Richard Wise1
1CUBRIC, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2School of Medicine, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

 
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the capacity of blood vessels to increase blood flow to brain tissue, a process essential for preserved neurovascular coupling. Using breath hold-induced hypercapnia we aimed to investigate CVR in multiple sclerosis patients and the effect of interferon-beta treatment. We discovered a reduced reactivity in patients compared with healthy controls independent of distributed grey matter density reductions. This was reversed following commencement of interferon-beta1a treatment to a level comparable with controls. The effect of immunomodulation on CVR in patients suggests altered CVR is related to MS inflammatory activity and could indicate a marker for early therapeutic effect.

 
2081.   Thalamic activation during verbal encoding is related to episodic memory in MS
Katherine A Koenig1, Ken E Sakaie1, Mark J Lowe1, Jian Lin1, Erik B. Beall1, Stephen M Rao2, Lael Stone2, Robert Bermel2, Bruce D Trapp3, and Micheal D Phillips1
1Imaging Sciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Neurological Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Neurosciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

 
We investigate functional activation during the encoding phase of an episodic memory task in 16 healthy controls and 32 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 16 with intact cognition and 16 with impaired episodic memory. MS patients with impaired episodic memory showed lower thalamic activation during encoding of correct words, and mean signal in the left thalamus was related to episodic memory performance and thalamic volume in MS patients but not controls. A larger sample and longitudinal measures are required to clarify the temporal relationship of functional activation, thalamic atrophy, and cognitive performance in MS.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Animal Models Multiple Sclerosis

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

2082.   Understanding white matter pathology through correlating longitudinal and quantitative MRI metrics weekly in the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination
Vanessa L Palmer1,2, Sheryl L Herrera3, Jonathan D Thiessen4, Shenghua Zhu5, Richard Buist4, Xin-Mi Li6, and Melanie Martin2,7
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 2Physics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 3Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 4Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 5Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 6Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 7Biomedical Engineering, Physics & Astronomy, Radiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

 
DTI, qMTI, and multicomponent T2 relaxometry might help quantify changes related to demyelination. To understand the interplay different MRI methods have as white matter changes in the corpus callosum of the cuprizone mouse model, in vivo T2-weighted (T2w) and MTI were acquired weekly in control and cuprizone-fed mice. Weekly DTI, qMTI, T1/T2 relaxometry, T2w imaging, and EM were used to analyze ex vivo tissue after each week of cuprizone delivery. The addition of the weekly ex vivo tissue analysis allows for a more complete understanding of the correlations between MR metrics and EM measures of tissue pathology.

 
2083.   Determinants and Consequences of Brain Atrophy, Disability, Demyelination, Remyelination and Neuronal Loss in an MS Model
Istvan Pirko1, Jeffrey Gamez1, Pascal Alihnuii Atanga1, Stephanie J LaFrance2, Slobodan I Macura3, and Aaron J Johnson2
1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 2Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 3NMR Core Facility, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

 
Brain atrophy in MS is an important determinant of functional outcome, yet its pathogenesis remains unclear. Using a virally induced murine MS model, we determined that class I haplotype plays a major influence on atrophy development. Atrophy and disability are independent from each other in mouse strains that don’t develop persistent demyelination; however, atrophy and disability strongly correlate when chronic demyelination is present. Brain atrophy development is overall unrelated to and independent of demyelination, and is the consequence of axonal/neuronal loss. Remyelination results in axonal preservation, preserved disability, and lack of brain atrophy development in the studied model.

 
2084.   Differences in the Brain of Irradiated Mice Investigated with White Matter Imaging Techniques
A. Elizabeth de Guzman1,2, Jonathan Bishop1, Jacob Ellegood1, and Brian J, Nieman1,2
1Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

 
Magnetization transfer (MT), susceptibility weighted (SW) and diffusion tensor (DT) MR imaging are commonly used techniques to study white matter damage in neurodegenerative diseases. Using these methods, we investigated the effects of cranial irradiation on white matter pathology in the mouse. Differences were detectable in many white matter structures using MT and SW, but not DT MRI. We hypothesize that dymelination plays a larger role in irradiation induced damage than axonal changes. In the future we will study the effect of myelin protection in this irradiation model, and see how this affects the imaging outcomes.

 
2085.   Gray matter demyelination and remyelination detected with multimodal quantitative analysis at 11.7T in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
Alexandra Petiet1, Marie-Stéphane Aigrot2, and Bruno Stankoff2,3
1Center for Neuroimaging Research, Brain and Spine Institute, Paris, Ile-de-France, France, 2UPMC / INSERM UMR975, Brain and Spine Institute Research Center, Paris, Ile-de-France, France, 3APHP, Tenon Hospital, Paris, Ile-de-France, France

 
Myelin is a component of the nervous system that is disrupted in multiple sclerosis, resulting in neuro-axonal degeneration. We investigated the longitudinal effect of chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination in the brain of treated vs untreated mice at 11.7T. Signal intensity ratios, T2 values, and diffusion metrics measurements showed significant and reversible modifications in the corpus callosum, the external capsule, the cerebellum, the caudate putamen, the thalamus, and the cortex of treated mice. These multimodal data will provide better understanding of the MR signal specificity for myelin assessment, and will be the basis to test therapies against gray matter demyelination.

 
2086.   Automated Lesion Segmentation in a Marmoset Model of Multiple Sclerosis via Subtraction MRI
Colin Shea1, Pascal Sati1, Joseph Guy1, Emily Leibovitch1, Steven Jacobson1, Afonso Silva1, and Daniel S. Reich1
1NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States

 
Subtraction MRI is a powerful tool to study new lesions in multiple sclerosis, however unique challenges exist for its application in marmoset models of disease because of the lack of equivalent image processing tools. We developed an automated method to segment new white matter lesions from PD and T2 weighted MRI in marmosets using a new brain tissue atlas, inhomogeneity correction, intensity normalization, subtraction, and object detection. Our method can robustly detect new lesions in serial scans which will enable further study of lesion evolution in marmoset models of multiple sclerosis.

 
2087.   Histological correlation of manganese enhanced MRI in the demyelinating disease model brain.
Masaki Fukunaga1,2, Makoto Masumura3, Shuichi Koda3, Tomokazu Shimonaga3, Ryuichi Nakamura3, Yuki Mori1, and Yoshichika Yoshioka1,2
1Biofunctional Imaging, IFReC, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 2Brain Functional Imaging Technologies, CiNet, NICT-Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 3Asubio Pharma Co. Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo, Japan

 
Cuprizone is a mitochondrial toxin that induces apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and demyelination in the central nervous system, and is used for animal model of de- and re-myelination in multiple sclerosis. Recently, manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is utilized to reveal the mechanisms of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, especially it enhances image contrast of the glial (astrocytes and microglia) activations in the pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated manganese contrast enhancement in cuprizone induced demyelinated mouse brain using 11.7T ultra high field MRI, and analyzed with histology and glial marker expressions.

 
2088.   Multiexponential T2 and Quantitative Magnetization Transfer in Rodent Brain Models of Hypomyelination
Kathryn L West1, Nathaniel D Kelm1, Daniel F Gochberg2, Robert P Carson3, Kevin C Ess3, and Mark D Does1,4
1Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, TN, United States, 3Neurology, Vanderbilt University, TN, United States, 4Vanderbilt.University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, TN, United States

 
Myelin water imaging (MWI) by multi-exponential transverse relaxation (MET2) and quantitative Magnetization Transfer (qMT) provide valuable information about myelin content and microstructure in white matter, yet have a known discord between measures. 3D high resolution imaging protocols allow for efficient whole brain evaluation of abnormal myelination in recently developed hypomyelinated mouse models. In addition, comparing MWF and PSR measures to histology can provide insight to better understand white matter microstructure.

 
2089.   Pre-symptomatic Degeneration and Dysmyelination of Axons in a Huntington’s Mouse Model Revealed by Diffusion Tensor MRI
Allen Q. Ye1, Rodolfo Gatto1,2, Ehsan Tavassoli2, M. Andrea Buenaventura2, Gerardo A. Morfini2, and Richard L. Magin1
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

 
The cause of Huntington’s disease (HD) is well defined; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits remain unknown. In this abstract, we explore the use diffusion tensor imaging of double transgenic YFP-R6/2 mouse, which allows the direct visualization of HD through intrinsic fluorescent properties, in pre-symptomatic mice. Both diffusion tensor imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence studies showed differential degeneration of axonal fibers across the corpus callosum (CC) long before the development of HD-like motor symptoms.

 
2090.   Diffusion tensor imaging detects demyelination and axonal injury in mouse spinal cord
Nabeela Nathoo1, Dayae Jeong2, Michael B. Keough3, Tad Foniok1, V. Wee Yong3, and Jeff F. Dunn1,4
1Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States, 3Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4Experimental Imaging Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

 
We used a focal demyelinating model in mouse spinal cord, with a known course of demyelination and remyelination, to assess if scalar measures obtained using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could detect demyelination. During the time point with maximal demyelination, radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity were elevated while fractional anisotropy was reduced. Anterior to the lesion, axial diffusivity was significantly reduced at the time point of maximal demyelination compared to the time point with ongoing remyelination, suggestive of axonal injury. Taken together, these results support the use of DTI to assess demyelination and axonal injury in spinal cord.

 
2091.   Pixel-by-pixel based discrimination of inflammation using multi-parametric MRI
Ana Belen Martin-Recuero1, Agi Krzyzanowska2, Carlos Avendaño2, Ania Benítez1, Pilar Lopez-Larrubia1, Gerardo Brioso1, and Sebastian Cerdan1
1IIBm, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain, 2Anatomy, Medical School, Madrid, Spain

 
Cerebral inflammation underlies the most prevalent neurological disorders, including cancer, ischemia or neurodegeneration but current bioimaging methods are not able to distinguish unambiguously between the inflammatory component and the intrinsic pathology. We report here a novel decision support system which selects the MRI sequences more relevant for discriminating automatically pixel-by-pixel between the inflamed component and the healthy mouse brain. Our results correlate well with multi-parametric MRI calculation and immunostaining experiments. This method may improve the clinical workflow and the non-invasive assessment of inflammation.

 
2092.   Regional differences in viscoelasticity in normal and inflamed mouse brain
Jing Guo1, Juergen Braun2, Dominique Berndt3, Carmen Infante-Duarte3,4, Ingolf Sack1, and Jason M. Millward3,4
1Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Department of Medical Informatics, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Immunology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany

 
We applied MRE to study regional differences in viscoelasticity in normal and inflamed mouse brain. In normal mouse brain, we found that the posterior region (comprising cerebellum and brainstem) is softer than the anterior region in a midsagittal slice. We also examined the alterations in G' of the GKO mice where more cerebellum involvement is expected during EAE, we observed the reduction in G' during the course of disease and a significant increase in the ratio of G' between the posterior and anterior part of the brain at day 14, which may relate to the infiltration of immune cells.

 
 

TRADITIONAL POSTER SESSION ○ NEURO 2
Animal Models Brain

 
Tuesday 13 May 2014
Traditional Poster Hall  16:00 - 18:00

2093.   Partial preservation of white matter in a murine model of Niemann-Pick type C disease with therapeutic intervention: An ex vivo DTI study
Min-Hui Cui1,2, Cristin D. Davidson3, Ziqin Yuan1, Kwame Kyei1, Steven U. Walkley3, and Craig A. Branch1,2
1Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States, 2Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States, 3Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States

 
A mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease, a fatal inherited metabolic disorder, shows disease amelioration upon administration of miglustat, cyclodextrin, or a combination of both compounds. Here, we show preservation of white matter as evidenced by increased FA in two distinct brain regions, the corpus callosum and fimbria. Cyclodextrin and combination therapy provided greater benefit than miglustat alone, following suit with what we have observed in longevity and in reductions of stored cholesterol and glycosphingolipids within treated NPC1-/- mice.

 
2094.   Lack of dystrophin results in abnormal cerebral water exchange and perfusion in vivo
Candida L Goodnough1, Ying Gao2, Xin Li2, L. Henry Goodnough3, Chris A Flask2,4, and Xin Yu2
1Physiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, OH, United States, 3Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, oh, United States, 4Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

 
Dystrophin, a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, plays a role in the formation and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The absence of dystrophin has been shown to lead to a leaky BBB and enhanced arteriogenesis in vitro. To elucidate the function of dystrophin in maintaining water balance and perfusion at the BBB in vivo, we characterized the effect of dystrophin disruption on cerebral perfusion and water exchange across BBB using arterial spin labeling and diffusion-weighted MRI in dystrophin-deficient mice versus wild-type. Our results demonstrate a reduction in diffusion and increase in perfusion associated with the absence of dystrophin.

 
2095.   Mouse model of ADA deficiency shows similar brain abnormalities as human patients.
Yichao Yu1, Gavin Kenny1, Lin Zhang2, N. M. Powell1,3, H. Bobby Gaspar4, and Mark F. Lythgoe1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, 3Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Centre of Immunodeficiency, Molecular Immunology Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

 
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a major cause of severe combined immunodeficiency. Patients suffer from a loss of immune protection and a consequent susceptibility to infections, but also exhibit behavioural impairments and volume loss in certain brain structures. We have a mouse model of ADA deficiency, and using high resolution ex vivo MRI and tensor-based morphometry, we for the first time identified in the ADA deficient mice volumetric changes of brain structures that emerged later during development, mirrored human findings, but were much more extensive. This provides further evidence of brain abnormalities in this disorder and opens up new questions.

 
2096.   Nigrostriatal pathway evaluation with diffusion MRI and three-dimensional histological analysis in a monkey model of Parkinsonprime or minutes disease
Keigo Hikishima1,2, Kiyoshi Ando1, Ryutaro Yano3, Yuji Komaki1,2, Kenji Kawai1, Takashi Inoue1, Masayuki Yamada4, Toshio Itoh1, Suketaka Momoshima5, Hirotaka James Okano6, and Hideyuki Okano2
1Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan, 2Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, 4School of Health Science, Fujita Health University, Aichi, Japan, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 6Division of Regenerative Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

 
Movement dysfunction in Parkinsonfs disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. We used a microscopic diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) technique with an isotropic resolution of 60 ƒÊm and three-dimensional histological analysis to visualize the nigrostriatal pathway in the common marmoset, a small non-human primate. We also developed longitudinal voxel-based analysis to detect the distribution of degeneration. In this study, we report that microscopic DTT visualized the nigrostriatal pathway and longitudinal voxel-based analysis assessed neuronal degeneration in a monkey model of Parkinsonfs disease.

 
2097.   Positive allosteric modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 modulates dopaminergic brain circuits
Nellie Byun1,2, Robert L Barry3, Richard Baheza2, Stephen Damon4, John C Gore2, and P Jeffrey Conn1
1Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashviille, TN, United States, 4Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States

 
We performed functional connectivity and permutation analyses on two pharmacological MRI (phMRI) data sets to identify statistically significant differences between circuit correlations observed in (1) the amphetamine response versus (2) modulation of the amphetamine response by VU0360172 a compound that targets the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5, a target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Correlation analysis of the phMRI responses, a translational approach for characterizing drug-related functional connectivity patterns, provided more information than traditional individual ROI amplitude results, revealing modulation of circuits connected to entorhinal, cingulate, and motor cortices, and striatum.

 
2098.   Age-dependent decrease of capillary density in arcAbeta mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis detected with relaxation rate shift index Q mapping at 9.4T using a cryoprobe
Giovanna Diletta Ielacqua1, Felix Schlegel1, Markus Rudin2, and Jan Klohs1
1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH, Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich, Switzerland

 
It has been shown that in Alzheimer’s Disease amyloid deposition in cerebral microvessels plays an important role in cerebral perfusion. In this MRI study we investigated capillary density through relaxation rate shift index Q, and perfusion with bolus tracking . All measurements were performed on a 9.4T scanner equipped with a cryogenic phased-array coil, recording a 2D Spin Echo-RARE, a 3D Gradient Echo-FLASH and an EPI sequence. Our results show there is a decrease of capillary density and cortical perfusion in 24months-old arcAâ mice, suggesting that the index Q is a reliable indicator of capillary density in brain microvasculopathies

 
2099.   Neurofunctional and neurochemical endophenotypes in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder investigated by fMRI and MRS
Marija M. Petrinovic1,2, Michael Saxe1, Barbara Biemans1, Peter Scheiffele2, Markus von Kienlin1, and Basil Künnecke1
1F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharma Research & Early Development, DTA Neuroscience, Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 2Biocenter, University of Basel, Basel, Basel, Switzerland

 
Alterations in neural function and neurochemistry have been proposed as mechanisms underlying behavioural deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have leveraged fMRI/MRS in five mouse models of ASD to bridge the gap between genetic/molecular findings and behavioural phenotypes. fMRI revealed prominent neurofunctional alterations in brain regions implicated in socio-emotional, cognitive and sensorimotor processing. fMRI fingerprints were heterogeneous across the models, yet, they reflect the complexity of ASD symptoms found in patients. 1H-MRS in these models showed consistent changes in cerebral glutamate levels indicative of a dysbalance in excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission which has been purported as a substrate for ASD.

 
2100.   Characterization of age-dependent brain atrophy in presymptomatic YAC128 Huntington disease mice
Ling Guo1, Xuan Vinh To1, Xin Hong1, Reshmi Rajendran1, Si Kang Lew1, Yee Ling Tan1, Yihui Huang2, Michael R. Hayden2,3, Mahmoud A. Pouladi2,3, and Kai-Hsiang Chuang1
1Singapore BioImaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore, 2Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore, 3Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

 
Longitudinal structural MRI was conducted to track morphological changes in presymptomatic YAC128 Huntington disease (HD) mice. YAC128 mice, relative to wild-type, showed progressive atrophy of the striatum and white matter tracts starting from 1.5 months, while cortical atrophy was found only at 6 months. The progressive atrophy in striatum at very early age indicates the vulnerable areas. The neurodegeneration pattern identified will be useful for evaluation of preclinical treatment trials of HD.

 
2101.   Pre-pubertal clozapine administration prevents post-pubertal emergence of brain structural pathology in an animal model of schizophrenia
Yael Piontkewitz1, Yaniv Assaf1, and Ina Weiner1
1Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel

 
Schizophrenia involves progressive structural brain aberrations preceding the onset of symptoms. This raises the question whether schizophrenia can be prevented. We used an animal model to assess the efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine to prevent the neuroanatomical deterioration. Pregnant dams were injected with the viral mimic Poly-I:C. Offspring received preventive treatment with clozapine during adolescence. At adulthood rats were scanned using the 7T scanner (Bruker). The protocol included quantitative T2 mapping and DTI. Poly-I:C led to the emergence of hallmark structural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Some of these structural abnormalities were non-existent following peri-adolescence administration of clozapine.

 
2102.   Metabolic Alterations in Rat Brain due to Chronic High Altitude Stress: A 1H-MRS study
Sunil Koundal1, Sonia Gandhi1, Tanzeer Kaur2, Rajendra P Tripathi1, and Subash Khushu1
1NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, Delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

 
Neurometabolic alterations in response to chronic high altitude stress were studied with 1H-MR Spectroscopy. Inositol and choline concentrations were significantly decreased after 7 and 14 days of altitude exposure which was linked to altered astrocyte metabolism and neuronal rescue effort respectively. A significant decrease in Glutamate+Glutamine after 14 day hypoxia reflected altered glutamate metabolism. An increment in taurine reflects protective effect from excitotoxic injury. There was no significant NAA change, implying retained neuronal integrity. This study along with in vitro High resolution NMR spectroscopy and other biochemical analysis may provide better insights of the injury and possible interventions.

 
2103.   Chronic High Altitude induced Apparent Diffusion Coefficient changes in Rat Hippocampus
Sunil Koundal1, Sonia Gandhi1, Tanzeer Kaur2, Richa Trivedi1, Rajendra P Tripathi1, and Subash Khushu1
1NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, Delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

 
Effect of high altitude exposure on water diffusion in brain hippocampus region was studied with the help of Diffusion Weighted Imaging by calculating Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values from the region of interest. It was found that high altitude hypoxic stress had an effect on water diffusion properties in hippocampal region. There was significant decrease in ADC values after 14 days of high altitude stress in CA2/3 and Dentate gyrus (Dg) region of hippocampus while CA1 showed significant decrease after 21 days of stress. Decrease in ADC value depicted cytotoxic edema indicating changes in tissue architecture at micro structural level.

 
2104.   BOLD response to forepaw stimulation in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia
Bianca Gonzales Cerqueira1, Shiliang Huang1, Glenn M. Toney2, and Timothy Q. Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2Physiology, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

 
This study evaluated the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on basal CBF and stimulus-evoked responses in animals exposed to 14 and 28 days of CIH. We found that BOLD and CBF activations in response to forepaw stimulation trended toward a reduction with increasing CIH exposure duration, although did not reach statistical significance. Basal CBF in the somatosensory cortex decreased with increasing CIH exposure, significantly when controls were compared to 28 day CIH animals. There were no changes in cerebral rate of oxygen consumption, M value, or CBF response to hypercapnia among the groups.

 
2105.   Structural and vascular changes in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia
Bianca Gonzales Cerqueira1, Shiliang Huang1, Glenn M. Toney2, and Timothy Q. Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2Physiology, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

 
Sleep apnea is correlated with cardiovascular disease and cognitive deficits. Exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is used to model sleep apnea. Rats underwent CIH for 14 or 28 days. CIH reduced basal CBF for all ROIs, significantly in the somatosensory cortex for 28-day CIH. CIH did not affect ADC or CBF response to oxygen challenge and hypercapnia. FA values decreased significantly in the somatosensory cortex and thalamus. We have demonstrated the use of MRI to evaluate structural and vascular changes in animals exposed to CIH consistent with results found in patients with sleep apnea.

 
2106.   Ex Vivo MR microscopic imaging identifies multiple neuroanatomical correlates of functional motor deficits in a rat model of bilirubin encephalopathy
Martin Herbert Schaffhauser1,2, Dominik Maria Reisinger1,2, Joel Marx1, Michael Porambo1, Jiangyang Zhang3, Michael V Johnston1, and Seyed Ali Fatemi1,2
1Neuroscience, Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

 
Despite the preventable nature of bilirubin encephalopathy, cases continue to occur and remain a significant problem in newborns. The Gunn rat is a rat model, featuring an enzyme deficiency resembling Crigler Najjar syndrome. Sulfadimethoxine was used to exaggerate bilirubin encephalopathy, leading to a dystonic phenotype. We evaluated the model in the chronic phase ex vivo through acquiring high-resolution images of T2-weighted sequences as well as DTI. While there were no FA changes, we show decreased cerebellar volumes in all mutant rats as well as decreased GP, ICP and MCP volumes in the dystonic animals.

 
2107.   A pathophysiological wiring defect in epileptic animals as depicted by DTI fiber tracking
Ulysse Gimenez1, Fanny Cavarec2, Antoine Depaulis2, Hana Lahrech1, and Colin Deransart2
1CEA-Clinatec, Grenoble, France, 2Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, La Tronche, France

 
The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) is a well-validated model of absence epilepsy, and dopamine has been shown to play a modulatory role on absence seizures. The fasciculus retroflexus (FR) is a white matter tract involved in the release of dopamine. A microscopic 3D-Diffusion Tensor Imaging sequence was developed on 7T Bruker MRI and applied ex vivo on GAERS and Non Epileptic Control (NEC) rats. DTI fiber-tracking showed a decrease in the number of fibers detected in the FR, suggesting a contribution of this tract in the modified dopaminergic tone observed in epileptic rats.

 
2108.   Long term 7 Tesla MRI and behavioral study on status-epilepticus induced neurodegeneration in rat and possible neuroprotective treatment
Xiao-Qi Ding1, Martin Meier2, Marion Bankstahl3, Xiangyu Tang1,4, Wolfgang Löscher3, Heinrich Lanfermann1, and Jens P. Bankstahl5
1Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany, 2Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany, 3Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany, 4Department of Radiology, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 5Preclinical Molecular Imaging, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany

 
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common insult that may lead to development of temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by hippocampal neurodegeneration, which is associated with psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. The present work investigated SE-induced neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction as well as possible neuroprotective treatment in rat by long term MRI follow-up study combined with a behavioral test battery. The results showed that SE-induced neurodegeneration is a long lasting process associated with behavioral changes that can be reduced by add-on treatment with phenobarbital.

 
2109.   In vivo MEMRI brain atlas for NOD/scid-lower case Greek gammacnull mouse model of neuroAIDS
Balasrinivasa R Sajja1, Aditya N Bade2, Biyun Zhou3, Mariano G Uberti1, Santhi Gorantla2, Larisa Y Poluektova2, Michael D Boska1,2, Howard E Gendelman2, and Yutong Liu1,2
1Radiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 2Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 3Anesthesiology, Tongji Medical College, Huanzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

 
Longitudinal morphological phenotyping of HIV-1 mouse model can provide an assessment of brain structural changes during disease progression and therapeutic responses. An in vivo MEMRI based NSG mouse brain atlas was generated to assess volumetric effects on brain structures from the process of generating humanized mice. Our results determined significant size reduction in humanized mice brain structures. This procedure will be extended to track structure-wise changes during progression of HIV-1 infection in NSG human cell transplanted mice.

 
2110.   Erythropoietin improves cerebral malaria outcome in mice by attenuating brain edema and enhancing perfusion
Raman Saggu1, Emilie Pecchi1, Guillaume Duhamel1, Dorothée Faille2, Frédéric Frassineti3, Laurent Daniel3, Georges Grau4, Monique Bernard1, Patrick J Cozzone1, and Angele VIOLA1
1Aix-Marseille Université-CRMBM UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille, France, 2Laboratoire d'Hématologie et d'Immunologie Biologiques - U698, Paris, France, 3Service d’Anatomie Pathologique, Hôpital la Timone, Marseille, France, 4The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia

 
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most lethal complication in the course of Plasmodium infection. Our purpose was to decipher the mechanisms by which EPO ameliorates CM in mice. We used an approach combining MRI techniques at high field (conventional MRI, perfusion MRI with the pCASL technique and angiography) for in vivo cerebral studies, with immunological and histological techniques. Our results show that administration of EPO prevents brain edema in responding animals, which is the cause of death in sham-treated CM mice. Our results demonstrate that EPO enhance brain perfusion via both short-term non-erythropoietic effects of EPO, and long-term erythropoietic effects.

 
2111.   Dorzolamide Restores Choroidal Blood Flow in the DBA/2J Mouse Model of Glaucoma
Saurav B Chandra1, Eric R Muir1, and Timothy Q Duong1
1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

 
Dorzolamide (DZ) is clinically used to treat glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure. However, its effect on blood flow is unknown. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of topical DZ application on retinal and choroidal blood flow in DBA/2J mice, an established mouse model of glaucoma. Results are compared with C57BL/6J mice, used as a control group. This study indicates increased blood flow in the choroid of both DBA/2J as well as C57BL/6J mice models following topical application of Dorzolamide.

 
2112.   High-resolution adult zebrafish brain model
Nyoman D. Kurniawan1, Andrew Janke1, Mario F. Wullimann2, David C. Reutens1, and Jeremy F.P. Ullmann1
1Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 2Department Biologie II - Neurobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany

 
We describe ex-vivo high spatial resolution adult zebrafish brain model at 7 micron resolution and super-resolution short-track track density map at 5 micron resolution from MRI data acquired at 16.4T.

 
2113.   The Evolution of Short-Term Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus
Shir Hofstetter1 and Yaniv Assaf2
1Sagol School Of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, Israel, 2Sagol School Of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel, Israel

 
DTI is a valuable method in exploring structural plasticity. Studies found changes following short tasks of only hours, but the initial temporal and spatial progression of this process is unknown. In the current study we used the Morris water maze paradigm to explore the evolution of plasticity in the hippocampus of adult rats at different stages of the learning process. Rats were scanned following diverse number of trials in the maze. Results show that the extent of change the tissue undergoes during the learning process is dynamic. Additionally, circular order of the spatial progression of these changes was found.