ISMRM 23rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 30 May - 05 June 2015 • Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Scientific Session • Pulmonary MRI - Proton & Non-Proton Applications

Friday 5 June 2015

Room 718 B

08:00 - 10:00


Scott K. Nagle, M.D.,Ph.D. & Samuel Patz, Ph.D.

08:00 1033.   
Fractional Ventilation Mapping using Inert Fluorinated Gas MRI in a Rat Model of Inflammation
Marcus J. Couch1,2, Matthew S. Fox3,4, Chris Viel1,2, Gowtham Gajawada1,2, Tao Li2, and Mitchell S. Albert1,2
1Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 2Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 3Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada, 4Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

19F MR imaging was performed in a rat model of pulmonary inflammation using SF6. Fractional ventilation maps and ventilation gradients were compared between controls and rats that were instilled with lipopolysaccharide. Ventilation gradients calculated from control rats showed the expected gravitational relationship, while ventilation gradients calculated from LPS-instilled rats showed the opposite trend. Inflammation may disrupt the expected gradient in lung compliance, and elevated alveolar wall thicknesses in LPS-instilled rats were confirmed by histology. Overall, 19F MRI may be able to detect the presence of inflammation using a simple and inexpensive approach that can potentially be translated to humans.

08:12 1034.   
In-vivo Imaging of the Spectral Line Broadening of the Human Lung in a Single Breath-Hold
Flavio Carinci1,2, Cord Meyer2, Felix A. Breuer1, and Peter M. Jakob1,2
1Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Würzburg, Bayern, Germany, 2Department of Experimental Physics 5, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Bayern, Germany

Susceptibility differences at air/tissue interfaces in the lung result in a broad NMR spectral line. The line broadening provides a quantitative fingerprint for lung inflation and may be used to diagnose air trapping or ventilation defects. Quantification of the line broadening of the lung has been previously proposed, using an asymmetric spin-echo (ASE) sequence. In this work, a fast technique based on a HASTE sequence with ASE preparation is presented. Quantification of the line broadening of the human lung in-vivo is feasible in a single breath-hold and may be suitable for clinical studies on patients with lung diseases. The results obtained in the lung parenchyma (about 1.5ppm) are in very good agreement with the ones predicted by numerical simulations.

08:24 1035.   
Non-contrast enhanced non-invasive detection and follow-up of lung tumors in mice
Andrea Bianchi1, Sandrine Dufort2,3, Pierre-Yves Fortin1,4, François Lux5, Gerard Raffard1, Nawal Tassali1, Olivier Tillement5, Jean-Luc Coll2, and Yannick Crémillieux1
1Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 2IAB-INSERM U823, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 3Nano-H, Saint Quentin – Fallavier, France, 4Institut de Bio-Imagerie (IBIO) CNRS/UMS 3428, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 5ILM UMR 5306, University Lyon 1, Lyon, France
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. MRI can play a major role being a noninvasive imaging technique, characterized by good soft tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and absence of ionizing radiation. We propose here an in vivo MRI longitudinal study of lung adenocarcinoma detection in tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice without the use of contrast agents. Free-breathing Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) MRI acquisitions were compared to standard gradient echo lung MR images using both respiratory-gated and free-breathing protocols. The results were validated against Bioluminescence Imaging (BLI) and histology.

08:36 1036.   Pulmonary Thin-Section 3D MR Imaging with Ultra-Short TE: Comparison of Capability for Radiological Findings Assessment with Thin-Section CT - permission withheld
Yoshiharu Ohno1,2, Shinichiro Seki3, Hisanobu Koyama3, Aiming Lu4, Masao Yui5, Mitsue Miyazaki4, Katsusuke Kyotani6, Yoshiko Ueno3, Takeshi Yoshikawa1,2, Sumiaki Matsumoto1,2, and Kazuro Sugimura3
1Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 2Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 3Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 4Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, IL, United States, 5Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan, 6Center for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Hospital, KObe, Hyogo, Japan

Pulmonary 3D MR imaging with ultra-short TE (UTE-MRI) has been suggested as having the potential for demonstration of lung structures and functions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no direct comparison of capability for radiological finding assessment has been made between UTE-MRI at 3T system and thin-section CT (TS-CT) in patients with various pulmonary diseases. We hypothesized that UTE-MRI has a potential to evaluate radiological findings as well as TS-CT. The purpose of this study was directly compare the capability of UTE-MRI for evaluation of radiological findings with TS-CT in patients with various pulmonary diseases.

08:48 1037.   
Functional 1H lung MRI in healthy and emphysematous rats using a self-gated golden angle UTE
Åsmund Kjørstad1, Marta Tibiletti2, Andrea Bianchi3, Michael Neumaier3, Andrea Vögtle3, Thomas Kaulisch3, Frank G. Zöllner1, Lothar R. Schad1, Volker Rasche2, and Detlef Stiller3
1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 2Core Facility Small Animal MRI, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany, 3Target Discovery Research, In-vivo imaging laboratory, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany

Using the 1H MRI signal difference in the lung parenchyma at inspiration and expiration during normal breathing is a promising method for assessing lung function. However, due to the difficulties of self-gating in rodents no animal studies have so far been performed using this method. For the first time we demonstrate here the feasibility of the method in small animals by evaluating the lung function in rats with emphysema using a self-gating golden angle 2D UTE sequence and a thorax-optimized phased-array coil.

09:00 1038.   Simultaneous imaging of lung structure and function using oxygen-enhanced MRI in a mouse model of emphysema
Magdalena Zurek1, Louise Sladen2, Edvin Johansson1, Sonya Jackson3, Gaell Mayer3, and Paul D Hockings2
1PHB, Imaging, AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden, 2Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden, 3RIA, Bioscience, AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden

An oxygen-enhanced MRI protocol that permits quantification of spatially matched ventilation and oxygen uptake was implemented and applied to assess the relationships between lung parenchyma density, oxygen delivery and uptake in a mouse model of elastase-induced lung emphysema. All parameters could be derived based on parameters obtained from an inversion-recovery experiment. Although no differences in global enhancement were detected between the groups, pixel-level analysis revealed differences between control and treated mice that depended on tissue density (damage). Significantly, treated animals showed larger variations in oxygen uptake suggesting the ability of the lung’s functional reserve to compensate for the non-performing regions.

09:12 1039.   
3He MRI and CT Parametric Response Mapping of Small Airways Disease: The Battle-Ground for Ground Truth
Dante Capaldi1,2, Nanxi Zha1, Damien Pike1,2, Khadija Sheikh1,2, David G McCormack3, and Grace Parraga1,2
1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 3Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

We compared hyperpolarized MRI ventilation and CT-derived parametric-response-mapping (PRM) measurements – surrogate measurements of small airways disease, in 40 COPD patients. In mild COPD, there were fewer, smaller ventilation defects, negligible category II (small airways disease) and no category III voxels (emphysema). Severe COPD was reflected by a greater number and volume of ventilation defects and a greater number of category III (emphysema) voxels. MRI VDP was significantly correlated with category II CT voxels in mild but not moderate-severe COPD supporting the use of CT-derived PRM measurements of gas trapping related to small airway remodeling in mild but not moderate-severe COPD.

09:24 1040.   Isotropic 1H and Hyperpolarized 129Xe Gas- and Dissolved-Phase MRI for Longitudinal Evaluation of Lung Cancer
Rohan S Virgincar1, Scott H Robertson2, Simone Degan3,4, Matthew S Freeman2, Mu He5, and Bastiaan Driehuys4
1Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 2Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 3Center for Molecular and Biomolecular Imaging, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 4Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 5Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

We present high-resolution and high-SNR isotropic 129Xe gas- and dissolved-phase MR imaging in mice to study lung cancer progression longitudinally. This was enabled by an optimized 3D radial image acquisition with 20% 129Xe polarization. Animals were scanned up to 3 times before being sacrificed for histology. 129Xe images showed significant impairment of ventilation and gas-exchange 4-6 weeks post tumor instillation that closely matched tumor distribution on 1H MRI. This non-invasive imaging capability is now well suited to study the progression of a variety of lung disorders and therapy response.

09:36 1041.   An Adaptive K-means Approach for Assessment of Ventilation Defects in Asthma and Cystic Fibrosis Using Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI
Wei Zha1, Stanley J Kruger1, Robert V Cadman1, David Mummy2, David J Niles1, Scott K Nagle1,3, and Sean B Fain1,3
1Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, United States, 3Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

A recent study proposed K-means-based defect segmentation (“Kirby method”) and evaluated its performance on 15 subjects. In our study, 83 asthma and 8 cystic fibrosis subjects underwent spirometry and hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI. The percent ventilation defect (%VD) was determined using manual segmentation and semi-automatically with the Kirby method and an improved adaptive K-means approach. The adaptive K-means approach corrected for B1 inhomogeneity, excluded pulmonary vasculature and determined defects adaptively. The %VD measured using either manual segmentation or this improved K-means-based approach was correlated with the spirometric measures, whereas correlation was not observed with the Kirby method.

09:48 1042.   
Feasibility of Human Lung Ventilation MR Imaging using Naturally-Abundant Xenon with Optimized 3D SSFP
Neil James Stewart1, Graham Norquay1, Paul David Griffiths1, and Jim Michael Wild1
1Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom

Diagnostic quality lung ventilation imaging with naturally-abundant hyperpolarized xenon gas has been demonstrated in healthy normal subjects and a healthy smoker at 1.5 T and 3 T for the first time. A 3D steady-state free precession sequence was optimized for maximal 129Xe image SNR via numerical simulations. SNRs of 25 - 40 were routinely achieved for a voxel size 4.2 x 4.2 x 8/10 mm3, with ~ 30% improvement at 3 T versus 1.5 T. Image quality was comparable to that obtained with 400 mL enriched xenon and 200 mL 3He, and was sufficient for identification of minor ventilation defects.