ISMRM 23rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 30 May - 05 June 2015 • Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Scientific Session • Developing & Aging Brain

Wednesday 3 June 2015

Constitution Hall 107

13:30 - 15:30


Christopher D. Kroenke, Ph.D., Pratik Mukherjee, M.D., Ph.D.

13:30 0642.   
In-utero localized diffusion MRI of the embryonic mouse brain microstructure and injury
Dan Wu1, Jun Lei2, Jason Rosenzweig2, Irina Burd2, and Jiangyang Zhang3
1Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 2Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, United States, 3Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, United States

In vivo diffusion MRI (dMRI) of the embryonic mouse brain is extremely challenging due to the complex motion and the demand for high-resolution to resolve the early brain microstructures. We proposed a localized imaging technique to achieve 3D dMRI in a reduced field-of-view, using spatially selective excitation pulses. Motion was reduced with the fast imaging, and further corrected by navigator echoes and retrospective registration. We were able to delineate major white and gray matter structures in the normal at 0.2 mm isotropic resolution, and detect embryonic brain injury in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation.

13:42 0643.   
Longitudinal in utero characterization of cerebral cortical surface area, curvature and fractional anisotropy in the rhesus monkey
Xiaojie Wang1, Colin Studholme2, and Christopher D. Kroenke1
1Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States, 2University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States

Longitudinal in utero MRI was performed on monkey fetuses at gestation days 85, 110, and 135. High resolution T2-weighted volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA) volumes were reconstructed from multiple sets of turbo-spin-echo acquired T2W and spin-echo EPI acquired DWIs. Cerebral cortical surface area (SA), curvature and FA were computed using CARET software. Curvature and SA increase while FA decreases with gestation age. Analysis of changes in FA, SA, and surface curvature revealed that morphological differentiation of cerebral cortical neurons, thought to underlie FA changes, correlates with changes in cortical curvature but not surface area.

13:54 0644.   Full 3D mapping of T2* relaxation times from mid to late gestation of the normal fetal brain
Anna I Blazejewska1, Sharmishtaa Seshamani2, Susan K McKown3, Jason S Caucutt3, Manjiri Dighe3, Christopher Gatenby3, and Colin Studholme2
1BICG, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2BICG, University of Washington, WA, United States, 3University of Washington, WA, United States

In this work, we examine an approach using one or more dual echo multi-slice acquisitions that are themselves then repeated and combined. Between-slice motion is then estimated and the multiple echoes combined, allowing 3D mapping of T2* values in the presence of fetal head motion. We applied the methods to a cohort of healthy fetuses from mid-gestation onwards. This importantly provides a full 3D image and extends previously published measurements below 26W into the 20-26W period where many clinical MRI’s are acquired after an earlier ultra-sound evaluation of pregnancy.

14:06 0645.   
Relating the structural and functional maturation of visual and auditory white matter pathways with diffusion imaging and event-related potentials in infants
Parvaneh Adibpour1,2, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz1,2, and Jessica Dubois1,2
1Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, INSERM, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 2NeuroSpin, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

White matter myelination is a long-lasting process occurring at different times and speeds depending on bundles and underlying networks. Since it both impacts DTI parameters and accelerates the neural transmissions between brain regions, we investigated whether transverse diffusivity measured in the tracts conducting the functional information would explain the conduction speeds measured with event-related potentials better than age. By considering the visual and auditory networks of 6- to 22-week old infants, we analyzed early lateralized responses in relation to projection bundles, and the inter-hemispheric transfer of responses in relation to corpus callosum fibers while taking into account the age effects.

14:18 0646.   
Developmental characterization of sub-cortical white matter tracts
Adeoye Oyefiade1, Stephanie Ameis2,3, Nadia Scantlebury1,2, Alexandra Decker2, Kamila U Szulc2, and Donald J Mabbott1,2
1Psychology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada,3Child and Youth Mental Health, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Neural communication is facilitated by white matter (WM) comprised of both short and long-range tracts. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has successfully described the developmental characteristics of long-range WM tracts. There remains a limited understanding of these characteristics in short-range tracts. Here, we used DTI and probabilistic tractography to reconstruct short-range white matter in a group of typically developing children and adolescents. DT-MR images were obtained for typically developing children and adolescents. Results indicate significant age-related changes in u-fibers across the brain with the exception of the occipital lobes. Future studies will investigate the relationship between these changes and cognitive function.

14:30 0647.   
Age-Related Changes in Total Cerebral and Cardiac Blood Flow in Children and Adult Volunteers from 7 months to 60 years
Can Wu1,2, Samantha Schoeneman3, Amir Honarmand2, Susanne Schnell2, Michael Markl1,2, and Ali Shaibani2,3
1Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States,3Medical Imaging, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

The purpose of this study was to quantify both cerebral arterial inflow using 4D flow and cardiac outflow with 2D phase-contrast MRI and investigate the age dependence of changes in total cerebral arterial flow in relation to aortic flow in a cohort of 40 normal subjects with ages from 7 months to 60 years. The results demonstrated age-related changes in both cerebral and aortic blood flow as well as changes in their relationship, indicating the importance of age-controlled control groups for the detection of abnormal hemodynamics in neurovascular diseases (e.g. cerebral arteriovenous malformations, vein of Galen malformations, intracranial atherosclerotic disease).

14:42 0648.   Cell Volume Fraction (“cell density”) is Stable despite Cerebral Volume Loss in Normal Human Ageing as Measured by Quantitative Sodium MR Imaging at 9.4Tesla
Elaine H Lui1,2, Jonathan Guntin3, Saad Jamil3, Ziqi Sun3, Ian C Atkinson3, and Keith R Thulborn3
1Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 2Centre of Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 3Centre of Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Illinois Chicago, Illinois, United States

The age dependence of cell volume fraction (CVF) has been determined in normal human brain. CVF is derived from tissue sodium concentration (TSC) measured by quantitative sodium MRI at 9.4T using the flexible twisted projection sequence with 3-point calibration and the two-compartment model of tissue sodium distribution. Regional analysis provided descriptive statistics of CVF and voxel number for specified brain regions to use in a linear correlation analysis of their dependence on age. CVF remains stable across cognitively normal ageing despite progressive cerebral volume loss. This methodology may be useful for monitoring progression of neurodegenerative diseases prior to clinical manifestation.

14:54 0649.   
Densely packed white matter regions are less prone to develop white matter hyperintensities - video not available
Robert S Vorburger1, Atul Narkhede1, Yunglin Gazes1, Vanessa A Guzman1, Yaakov Stern1,2, and Adam M Brickman1,2
1Taub Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

FLAIR and DTI have been widely used to investigate cerebral white matter changes of the aging brain. The relationship between parameters derived from the two techniques, such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and fractional anisotropy (FA), is still poorly understood. To investigate this relationship, a reference FA map from a sample of young subjects and a WMH probability map from a sample of elderly subjects was computed. Regions with a high FA value in the young brain show a significant lower WMH probability in the elderly brain, indicating that densely packed fiber tracts are less prone to develop WMH.

15:06 0650.   Correlation of brain atrophy to decreased CBF and CVR in coronary artery disease patients. - permission withheld
Udunna Anazodo1,2, Kevin Shoemaker3, Neville Suskin4, Danny JJ Wang5, and Keith S St Lawrence1,2
1Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada, 2Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, 3School of Kinesiology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, 4London Health Sciences Cardiology Rehabilitation Program, London, Ontario, Canada, 5University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States

The impact of cardiovascular disease on brain structure and function is not well known. In this study we present evidence of cortical thinning and cerebral hypoperfusion in brains of coronary artery disease patients including area often associated with cognitive function. Correlation of brain atrophy to hypoperfusion and decreased vascular dynamics, measured with cerebrovascular reactivity suggest that vascular disease can accelerate decline in brain structure and function.

15:18 0651.   Longitudinal relationship between amyloid burden and cerebrovascular health in healthy individuals: a combined MRI and PET study
Peiying Liu1, Karen Rodrigue2, Kristen Kennedy2, Shin-Lei Peng1, Yang Li1, Michael Devous3, Denise Park2, and Hanzhang Lu1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2Center for Vital Longevity, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, United States, 3Avid Radiopharmaceuticals Inc, Texas, United States

Accumulation of lower case Greek beta-amyloid (Alower case Greek beta) protein in the brain is a key process in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, but the relationship between Alower case Greek beta and vascular function in normal controls is unclear. In this work, we conducted a longitudinal study in healthy individuals at two time points 4-year apart. We found that Alower case Greek beta accumulation in the brain has a negative impact on cerebrovascular reactivity, and Alower case Greek beta accumulation may be the cause of cerebrovascular degeneration. We also found a positive correlation between Wave 1 Alower case Greek beta and Wave 2 CBF, suggesting neural compensatory processes may be present that result in elevated blood flow.