ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Electronic Poster Session: Neuro 1

3308 -3331 Normal Brain: Methods 1
3332 -3355 Normal Brain Methods 2
3356 -3379 Microstructure in Health & Disease
3380 -3403 Neurodegeneration
3404 -3427 The Aging Brain

Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

25 3D arterial spin labeling imaging with DANTE preparation pulse
Tsuyoshi Matsuda1, Hirohiko Kimura2, Masayuki Kanamoto3, and Hiroyuki Kabasawa1
1MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare Japan Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan, 3Radiological Center, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui, Japan
DANTE preparation pulse for the arterial spin-labeling (ASL) sequence was developed to reduce the intravascular signal based on the hypothesis that DANTE could enable sufficient vascular signal suppression without any technical drawback. Phantom and human volunteer experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed method. A similar level of vascular suppression effect was observed with both MSDE and DANTE-prepared ASL sequence from phantom experiment. A signal intensity uniformity of vascular suppressed perfusion weighted images was superior with DANTE compared to MSDE. These results indicated that DANTE-preparation could be used as a vessel signal suppression method for ASL.


Michael Wyss1, Laetitia Vionnet1, Mike Bruegger1,2, Bernd Daeubler3, Lars Kasper1,4, Daniel Nanz5, Marco Piccirelli3, David O. Brunner1, and Klaas P. Pruessmann1
1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Translational Neuromodeling Unit, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 5Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
The human brainstem anatomy is challenging to image in vivo on a single subject basis. The densely-packed interspersion of nuclei and white matter tracts cannot typically be imaged with an image contrast strong enough for differentiation of relevant substructures. We present an MR imaging approach at 7 Tesla that requires two high resolution MR acquisitions. From the two data sets, four image series with varying contrast weightings can be derived and used to delineate brainstem anatomy. The proposed strategy resulted in exceptionally high image quality enabling differentiation of several brainstem substructures that are hardly discernible in commonly acquired MR images. 


27 A Novel Diffusion Tensor Imaging Strategy for Delineating the Neuroanatomical Boundaries of the Amygdala
Andre Obenaus1,2, Eli Kinney-Lang1,3, Duke Shereen4, Ana Solodkin3,4, and Tallie Z Baram2,3
1Pediatrics, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States, 2Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States, 3Anatomy/Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States, 4Neurology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States
The amygdaloid complex, including the basolateral nucleus (BLA) are critically important in mediating emotional and adaptive responses to stress.  However, lack of contrast between the BLA and the surrounding gray matter (GM) has hampered routine imaging. We report a novel DTI paradigm to identify the BLA in the rodent brain. We derived BLA volumes and confirmed these with histological measures. Our approach can be used to study the morphological and functional consequences of emerging neuropsychiatric diseases, both in experimental and clinical studies.


28 Measurement of bolus arrival time and velocity in Circle of Willis using dynamic MR angiography
Isaac Huen1, Joanne Beckmann1, Yuriko Suzuki2, Maria A Zuluaga3, Andrew Melbourne3, Matthias JP van Osch4, David Atkinson5, Sebastien Ourselin3, Neil Marlow1, and Xavier Golay1
1Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Philips Medical Systems, Philips, Tokyo, Japan, 3Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 4C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 5Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom
The properties of the cerebral vasculature are of clinical relevance and thus of interest for investigation. Here an ASL-based 3D angiographic technique (CINEMA-STAR) is used to measure blood arrival times and blood velocities of a bolus labeled in the neck. Results are shown to be in broad agreement with existing methods.


29 Quantitative MRI explorations of the hyaluronan-based extracellular matrix in brain tissues
Riccardo Metere1, Markus Morawski2, Carsten Jäger2, and Harald E. Möller1
1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
The tissue composition of the brain can be related to different contrast sources in quantitative MRI. Particularly, myelin and iron are considered to be major sources of MRI contrast, with strong correlation to $$$T_1$$$ and $$$T_2^*$$$, respectively. However, other components, may also play a role in contrast generation. In this work, we present experiments in post-mortem human brain specimens to disentangle the potential contribution of the hyaluronan-based extracellular matrix from other contrast sources in quantitative relaxation maps. This was achieved by comparing images of digested and undigested samples that were otherwise subject to the same environmental conditions.  


30 Automatic assessment of corpus callosum malformation from structural MRI images to improve diagnosis reproducibility.
Denis Peruzzo1, Umberto Castellani2, Fabio Triulzi1,3, Andrea Righini4, Cecilia Parazzini4, and Filippo Arrigoni1
1Neuroimaging Unit, Scientific Institute IRCCS “Eugenio Medea”, Bosisio Parini, Italy, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Verona, Italy, 3Department of Neuroradiolody, Fondazione IRCCS “Ca’ Granda” Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy, 4Department of Pediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology, Children Hospital “Vittorio Buzzi”, Milano, Italy
The diagnosis of brain malformations is usually based on the visual inspection of MRI images by trained neuroradiologists. The resulting procedure is therefore subjective and mainly provides a qualitative description of the detected malformations. In this study, we propose an assisted diagnosis tool (ADT) for the analysis of the corpus callosum from structural T1-weighted images. The method detects and characterizes different kind of malformations (local/diffuse, homogeneous/heterogeneous). Inter-subject reproducibility experiments showed that the agreement rate significantly improved from 67.5% to 79.3% using the proposed method.


31 T2 mapping of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at 7 Tesla with comparison to 3T
Jolanda M Spijkerman1, Esben T Petersen2, Peter R Luijten1, Jeroen Hendrikse1, and Jaco J M Zwanenburg1
1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
The relaxation parameters of CSF may have potential as imaging markers in several diseases. In this work T2 mapping of CSF in the lateral ventricles and in the fourth ventricle was performed in six volunteers at 7T, with comparison to 3T. The sensitivity for B1 was assessed by comparing the T2s in both regions, with equal B1 at 3T and different B1 at 7T. T2 values were significantly lower at 7T compared to 3T. No significant difference was found between the lateral and the fourth ventricular T2s at 7T (and 3T), indicating negligible B1-sensitivity for the used T2-mapping sequences.


32 A Generic Supervised Learning Framework for Fast Brain Extraction
Yuan Liu1,2, Benjamin Odry2, Hasan Ertan Cetingul2, and Mariappan Nadar2
1Vanderbilt Institute in Surgery and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Medical Imaging Technologies, Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ, United States
Automatic brain extraction, as a standard pre-processing step, typically suffers from a long runtime and inaccuracies caused by brain variations and limited qualities of MR images. We propose a generic supervised learning framework that builds binary classifiers to identify brain and non-brain tissues at different resolution levels, hierarchically performs voxel-wise classifications for a test subject, and refines the brain boundary using narrow-band level set technique on the classification map. The proposed method is evaluated on multiple datasets with different acquisition sequences and scanner types using uni- or multi-contrast images and shown to be fast, accurate, and robust.


33 Reduced Distortion Artifact Whole Brain CBF Mapping using Blip-Reversed Non-Segmented 3D Echo Planar Imaging
Neville D Gai1, Yi Yu Chou1,2, Dzung Pham1,2, and John A Butman1
1Radiology & Imaging Sciences, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD, United States
Arterial spin labeling is typically performed with segmented k-space acquisition schemes to reduce B0 inhomogeneity related distortion. Non-segmented techniques offer the advantage of higher SNR/time allowing  greater brain coverage in shorter scan times. Here we use a modified 3D EPI acquisition scheme along with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to correct for B0 inhomogeneity related distortion. By employing phase encoding along opposite directions in alternating control-label pairs and with subsequent post-processing, we correct for the distortion. CBF images were compared with GM masks obtained from relatively distortion free MPRAGE images to show improved localization of the CBF maps. 


34 Imaging of thalamic substructures: T1 based approach using IR-EPI sequence at 7T
Se-Hong Oh1, Ken Sakaie1, Stephen E. Jones1, and Mark J. Lowe1
1Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, United States
Accurate identification of the thalamus sub-structures is therefore important for localization of specific nuclei and for the understanding of brain function. However, sub-structures of the thalamus are so small and have intermediate signal characteristics between grey/white matter it has been difficult to identify them with conventional MR imaging technique. In this work, in-vivo T1 value at 7T are measured using fast T1 mapping technique in less than 2 min and optimized inversion time to generate optimal contrast from the thalamus. The optimized results reveal markedly improved anatomical detail of the sub-structures of the thalamus, including their detailed locations.


35 Motion Range Grouping of Brain Regions Based on Displacement Measured with Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE)
Xiaodong Zhong1, Tucker Lancaster2, Zihan Ye3, Deqiang Qiu2, Brian M. Dale4, John N. Oshinski2,3, and Amit Saindane2
1MR R&D Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States, 4MR R&D Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Cary, NC, United States
In this work, we demonstrated that the DENSE technique can be used to measure and group motion of different brain regions. Preliminary results in 9 volunteers showed that the brain regions near the CSF (midbrain, pons, medulla and optic chiasm) had larger motion magnitude than regions far away (frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe and cerebellum). DENSE enables us to investigate brain motion to a level of detail that has not been previously possible. The findings in this study may bring new insight into brain motion and provide useful information to improve potential imaging and therapy techniques.


36 Motor Learning Induced Neuroplasticity, Revealed By fMRI-Guided Diffusion Imaging
Lee Bremner Reid1, Martin V Sale2, Ross Cunnington2,3, and Stephen E Rose1
1e-Health Research Centre, CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Brisbane, Australia, 2Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 3School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Detecting neuroplasticity requires highly sensitive measurements that may be outside the bounds of standard parcellation-seeded tractography. Earlier attempts to measure neuroplasticity induced by motor learning have utilised voxelwise analyses. Such analyses are reliant on precise registration, can have low statistical power, and provide little certainty as to the functional relevance of areas of detected change. We have measured motor-learning-induced neuroplasticity along corticomotor and thalamocortical tracts using fMRI-seeded diffusion-MRI, finding that changes uniquely occur in the corticomotor tract. Unlike previous analyses, we reveal that these changes occur throughout the corticomotor tract, not just near the grey-/white-matter interface.


37 Cerebral Tissue Characterization by Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Arterial Spin Labeling
Patric Birr1, Andreas Fehlner2, Sebastian Hirsch2, Florian Dittmann2, Jing Guo2, Jürgen Braun2, Ingolf Sack2, and Stefan Hetzer3
1Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Radiology, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, Berlin, Germany
Two imaging modalities, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and arterial spin labeling (ASL), were used to compare mechanical properties of brain tissue with regional perfusion across subcortical brain regions. An inverse correlation of stiffness (|G*|) and average perfusion (CBF) was observed in deep gray matter when accounting for structurally and functionally distinct areas. In the |G*|-CBF space, globus pallidus, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala clearly clustered from putamen and nucleus accumbens highlighting their anatomical differences in network density and vasculature. Differences in the microstructure between the striatum and other analyzed regions are not apparent by MRE or ASL alone.


38 A New High-Resolution Perfusion-Weighted Imaging Technique without exogenous tracer and Its Quantitative Model
Hyunseok Seo1, Dongchan Kim1, Jaejin Cho1, Kinam kwon1, Byungjai Kim1, and HyunWook Park1
1Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of
The proposed method is based on the perfusion model of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), which assumes that perfusion is a microcirculation of blood in the capillary network. The method introduces two-types of bi-polar gradients in a radial spin-echo sequence, a new ordering of bi-polar gradients for isotropic perfusion weighting, and signal models for quantitative analysis of perfusion. To verify the proposed method, in-vivo imaging in 3 T MRI was performed, and the proposed method offers the high-resolution quantitative perfusion map. 


39 Insula Cortex Parcellation with Q-ball Residual Bootstrap Tractography Algorithm - Permission Withheld
Maria Luisa Mandelli1, Matteo Paoletti2, Nico Papinutto3, Bagrat Amirbekian3,4, Roland G Henry3,4,5, Eduardo Caverzasi3,6, and Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini1
1Neurology, Memory Aging Center, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy, 3Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States,4Bioengineering Graduate Group, Berkeley, CA, United States, 5Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA, United States, 6Brain and Behavioral Sciences, Pavia, Italy
The insula cortex is involved in different functions, however its cortical connections have not yet been extensively explored. Whole brain tractography with Q-ball residual bootstrap algorithm was performed in 17 controls. Insula and the cortex regions were used as ending-ROIs. We found structural connections between the insula and 22 cortical regions for each hemisphere. After registered the images to the MNI space, the parcellation of the insula was obtained based on the ending-tract connected with each of the cortex region. Availability of a template atlas of insular structural connectivity would contribute to a better understanding of its multiple functions.


40 An Atlas Pre-selection Method for Multi-atlas Based Brain Segmentation - Video Not Available
Hengtong Li1, Heather T Ma1, Jingbo Ma1, Chenfei Ye1, and Shuai Mao1
1Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, People's Republic of
This study proposed 4L and LV-based methods to improve the brain segmentation accuracy and eddiciency of multi-atlas brain segmentation. The atlas database contains T1 images of brain from 77 subjects. These two methods were adopted to calculate the Dice between the target image and each atlas. We compared the proposed methods with MI-based method and randomly selected method for geriatric, adult and pediatric populations. The segmentation accuracy was evaluated by Dice and the results show that the accuracy of 4L and LV-based methods has great improvement. In addition, the proposed pre-selection is more efficient.


41 Characterizing Cerebral Arterial Pulsatility and Flow Waveforms from the Proximal Internal Carotid Artery to Distal Middle Cerebral Artery in Adult Volunteers Using 4D Flow MRI
Liliana E. Ma1, Can Wu1,2, Susanne Schnell1, Christophe Chnafa3, David Steinman3, and Michael Markl1,2
1Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Characterization of cerebral arterial flow waveforms in healthy subjects can help establish a comparison baseline in studies of cerebrovascular disease and provide key inputs for computational fluid dynamic studies. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize cerebral arterial waveforms in healthy adult subjects by extracting arterial pulsatility and flow waveforms along the ICA and MCA using 4D flow MRI. Our findings demonstrated no significant changes in arterial pulsatility from proximal ICA to distal MCA, although a decreasing trend was observed from the proximal to distal carotid siphon in young adults. 


42 Effect of window length on quasi-periodic pattern template correlation with fMRI data
Anzar Abbas1, Waqas Majeed2, Garth Thompson3, and Shella Keilholz4
1Neuroscience Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, 3Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 4Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States
Quasi-periodic patterns that include alternation between the default mode and task positive networks are known to occur in humans and their templates can be acquired using a previously developed QPP-finding algorithm. The algorithm, however, relies on a user-specified window length for the QPP, the optimal size of which is not known. We apply the QPP algorithm on rsfMRI scans using varying window lengths and compare properties of observed QPP templates. Our results indicate an optimal window length adequately depicting QPP occurrences in human functional data. This will allow us to accurately characterize QPPs and study how they may be affecting functional connectivity measurements and brain function.


43 Coupled fitting of T2 relaxometry and multi-shell diffusion weighted image data
Andrew Melbourne1, Enrico De Vita2,3, John Thornton2,3, and Sebastien Ourselin1
1Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom, 3UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
This work combines information from acquisitions of diffusion-weighted and T2 relaxometry data to allow improvements in separating out multiple compartments. This is particularly useful when fitting a multi-compartment diffusion model or a multi-component T2 relaxometry model. Work of this type might allow improved fitting of multi-modal derived parameters such as the g-ratio.


44 Regional variation of total sodium concentration in the healthy human brain
Ferran Prados1,2, Bhavana S Solanky2, Patricia Alves Da Mota2, Manuel Jorge Cardoso1, Wallace J Brownlee2, Frank Riemer3, David H Miller2, Xavier Golay4, Sebastien Ourselin1, and Claudia Angela Michela Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott2,5
1Translational Imaging Group, Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Brain Repair & Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 5Brain Connectivity Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy
Non-invasive measurement of in vivo total sodium concentration (TSC) has been possible due to advances in sodium MRI at clinical field strengths. Changes in white and grey matter concentrations have been reported in a number of different diseases like Multiple Sclerosis. However, the presence of regional differences in normal healthy brain TSC has not been yet investigated. Here we use Geodesic Information Flow technique for computing per subject brain parcellations to allow differentiation of these areas and subsequently characterization of  regional TSC in healthy controls. 


45 Effect of Gabapentin Administration on GABA and BOLD Signal in Visual Cortex of Healthy Men and Women
Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga1,2, Kosha Ruparel2, Dina Appleby2, Mark Elliott1, Hari Hariharan1, Ravinder Reddy1, and Neill C Epperson2,3,4,5
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Penn Center for the Study of Sex and Gender in Health, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 5Penn Center for Women’s Behavioral Wellness, Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
We explored the potential for sex differences in brain Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glut) and neural response to an acute dose of gabapentin by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) followed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T.


46 Brain volume changes during hypercapnia: Volume Reactivity
Jeroen C.W. Siero1, Jeroen H.J. de Bresser1, Lisa van der Kleij1, Jill B. de Vis1, and Jeroen Hendrikse1
1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Here we investigate brain volume changes upon a vasodilatory hypercapnic stimulus as a potential alternative to obtain cerebral tissue reactivity information. Using relatively standard 3D T1-weighted scans (MP-RAGE) and segmentation software we show significant volume changes (in all subjects) in subcortical deep gray matter areas which were paralleled by decreases in ventricular volume. This approach (volume reactivity) could yield novel insights on cerebral tissue reactivity in healthy and disease and be a potential alternative in cases where BOLD or ASL CVR interpretation can be ambiguous.


47 The IVIM signal: a combination of two vascular pools
Gabrielle Fournet1,2, Luisa Ciobanu1, Jing Rebecca Li2, Alex Cerjanic3, Brad Sutton3, and Denis Le Bihan1
1CEA Saclay/Neurospin, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 2INRIA Saclay, Palaiseau, France, 3Beckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Urbana, IL, United States
IntraVoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) imaging allows to extract perfusion parameters from a series of diffusion weighted images. We show that the standard mono-exponential model used to describe the IVIM signal can be improved by switching to a bi-exponential model. Multiple diffusion time rat brain images were acquired at 7T and compared to numerical simulations of blood flow through the microvascular network. Our results demonstrate that the bi-exponential model better describes the data especially at short diffusion times and suggest that the IVIM signal comprises the contributions from two different vascular pools: small vessels (capillaries) and medium sized-vessels.


1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, KK WOMEN'S AND CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL, SINGAPORE, Singapore, 2Singapore Bio-Imaging Consortium, A*STAR, SINGAPORE, Singapore,3Siemens Healthcare, Regional Headquarter, SINGAPORE, Singapore
We compared 3 versions of Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL) available ( single-TI 3D-PASL, multi-TI 3D-PASL and 2D-pCASL) on 3T Siemens MRI scanner Skyra  in 10 normal healthy adults with normal body mass index (BMI) at 3 different time points (baseline, 1 week later, 2 to 3 month later).  There was good replicability of all 3 ASL techniques (correlation coefficients range from 0.55 to 0.77). Values acquired with these ASL techniques agree with the published normal range of cerebral blood flow values in adults.  There is no significant difference in the CBF obtained with single-TI 3D-PASL, multi-TI 3D-PASL and 2D-pCASL.
Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

1 In-vivo Simultaneous Brain 18F FDG PET Imaging and 13C MR Spectroscopy: Initial Experience
Colm McGinnity1, Radhouene Neji2, Jane MacKewn1, James Stirling1, Sami Jeljeli1, Titus Lanz3, Christian Geppert4, Mark Oehmigen5, Harald Quick5, Gary Cook1, and Alexander Hammers1
1King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Siemens Healthcare, Frimley, United Kingdom, 3Rapid Biomedical, Wuerzburg, Germany, 4Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany, 5University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

We investigate the feasibility of in-vivo simultaneous brain 18F FDG PET imaging and 13C MR spectroscopy using a dedicated dual-tuned 1H-13C coil with low PET attenuation. Simultaneous in-vivo 18F FDG PET imaging and 13C unlocalized natural abundance MR spectroscopy were performed on three patients. Initial results show the technical feasibility of the simultaneous in-vivo measurement with good spectral and PET image quality.


2 Optimizing dynamic MRI of the orbit during eye movement for clinical use: patient aptitude considerations.
Marco Piccirelli1, Christopher Bockisch2, Marc Bovet3, and Roger Luechinger4
1Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3ICT, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
To improve neuro-ophthalmologic surgery, biomechanical inside about the pathophysiological dynamic of eye movements is needed. High spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MR imaging of the orbit during eye movement shall provide such information. To enable clinical use, the acquisition design needs to accommodate limited patient capabilities to perform repetitive eye movement accurately.


3 Highly-Accelerated, Self-Calibrated Stack-of-Spirals Arterial Spin Labeling Using 3D SPIRiT Reconstruction
Yulin V Chang1, Marta Vidorreta2, Ze Wang3, and John A Detre2
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, People's Republic of
3D coverage of the whole brain by using RARE-refocused stack-of-2D-spirals often suffers from low temporal/spatial resolution due to the long spiral readout or long echo train. In this work we present a method that allows whole-brain coverage at 3 mm isotropic spatial resolution with one- or two-segment, accelerated acquisitions in both partition and spiral directions. The technique was applied in conjunction with background-suppressed pCASL, resulting in improved temporal/spatial resolution for quantification of cerebral blood flow.


4 Quantifying cerebral blood flow with distortion-corrected pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling
Michael N Hoff1, Swati R Levendovszky1, and Jalal B Andre1
1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be quantified using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL), but pCASL suffers from image distortion due to its long echo planar imaging (EPI) readout.  Phase labeling for additional coordinate encoding (PLACE) is employed here to remove distortion.  EPI images and pCASL subtraction images show improved spatial accuracy when compared to a T1-weighted, anatomical reference image.  This results in improved accuracy in CBF quantification, which could potentially improve the assessment of disease-specific patterns indicated by regional CBF abnormalities.


5 Conductivity Determination of Deep Gray Matter Nuclei Utilizing Susceptibility-Based Delineation
Ulrich Katscher1, Mussa Gagiyev1, and Jakob Meineke1
1Philips Research Europe, Hamburg, Germany
Deep gray matter nuclei (DGMN) in the human brain play an important role for numerous diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, the characterization of DGMN in the framework of multiple MR-based physiologic parameters (like magnetic susceptibility or electric conductivity) is expected to be helpful for understanding these diseases. This study investigates – to the best of our knowledge, for the first time - the electric conductivity of DGMN in healthy volunteers, reflecting the electrolyte content of these nuclei. Conductivity determination is boosted by utilizing geometry information obtained from susceptibility maps during conductivity reconstruction.


6 Optimization of the tagging region profile in super selective arterial spin labeling
Jianxun Qu1, Bing Wu1, and Zhenyu Zhou1
1MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
This work investigates the gradient design scheme in ssASL labeling train to improve the labeling profile. Both numerical approach and MR studies were performed. Refocused labeling and unrefocused control could generate flatter labeling region compared to currently adopted method. This was verified in in-vivo MR study.


7 Acute effects of caffeine on grey matter haemodynamics
Alberto Merola1, Esther AH Warnert1, Michael A Germuska1, Sharmila Khot1,2, Daniel Helme2, Lewys Richmond2, Kevin Murphy1, and Richard G Wise1
1CUBRIC, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
The acute effects of caffeine on haemodynamics are not well characterized across the brain with MRI. We aim at measuring these in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study on sixteen healthy, moderate caffeine consumers using mTI PASL acquisitions and a two-compartment ASL model. Results show spatial variations in the CBF and TAT response across grey matter at different levels of resolution (grey matter, ROI and voxel), with the latter presenting mixed directions. Moreover we demonstrate that great attention must be paid to physiological assumptions when modelling ASL data to estimate CBF in studies on drugs that affect brain haemodynamics.


8 Blood flow velocity and pulsatility in perforating arteries of cerebral white matter during hypercapnia
Lennart Geurts1, Alex Bhogal1, Jeroen C.W. Siero1, Peter R. Luijten1, and Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg1
1Radiology, UMCU, Utrecht, Netherlands
An increased blood flow pulsatility index in large cerebral arteries is a prognostic factor in stroke and has been linked to small vessel disease. Along with increased pulsatility, these patients show decreased hypercapnia induced cerebrovascular reactivity. We hypothesize that dilated vessels lose their ability to stretch and passively dampen the pulse pressure wave. The aim of this study was to shed light on how autoregulation influences the damping of the pulse pressure wave in small vessels. Our approach was to measure blood flow velocity and pulsatility changes in the perforating arteries of the white matter, during a hypercapnic breathing challenge.


9 Pushing the limits of speed and accuracy for 7T GABA MR spectroscopy to reveal GABA level fluctuations in resting brain
Arjan D. Hendriks1, Natalia Petridou1, Catalina S. Arteaga de Castro1, Mark W.J.M. Gosselink1, Alessio Fracasso1, and Dennis W.J. Klomp1
1Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
By maximizing acquisition volume, using efficient semi LASER detection with editing and macro molecular nulling, GABA can be detected at high SNR within 3 minutes. GABA concentrations were measured in the visual cortex and in a phantom containing a known concentration of GABA. A bootstrapping method was used to determine the accuracy. The results indicate that the stability and fitting accuracy of the method is sufficient to detect concentration changes of GABA higher than 3% within a short scan time of less than 3 minutes. In resting state, GABA fluctuations up to 30% are found in in-vivo brain measurements.


10 Metabolic changes in the activated human visual cortex during mild hypoxia
Felipe Barreto1,2, Nicholas Evanoff3, Donald Dengel3, Petr Bednarik1,4,5, Ivan Tkac1, Lynn Eberly6, Carlos Salmon2, and Silvia Mangia1
1CMRR, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Department of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, 3School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 4Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, 5Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 6Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States
Previous fMRI studies have demonstrated reduced evoked vascular responses during mild hypoxia, which might indicate smaller neuronal recruitment during activation. Here we used fMRS at 7T to quantify the effects of mild hypoxia on stimulus-induced metabolic changes during visual stimulation. Our preliminary findings obtained on 6 healthy volunteers show that mild hypoxia does not result in detectable differences of functional metabolic changes as compared to normoxia, consistent with similar functional energy demands in both conditions. Together with previous fMRI findings, our results suggest that mild hypoxia alters the neurovascular coupling, but does not result in smaller neuronal recruitment during activation.


11 Quantification and normalization of Cerebral Blood Flow in rat brain using Pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling with phase-contrast-based flow measurement at 7 Tesla.
Sankar Seramani1, Xuan Vinh To1, Sakthivel Sekar1, Boominathan Ramasamy1, Kishore Bhakoo1, and Kuan Jin Lee1
1Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore, Singapore
pCASL is a modified form of CASL where a short train of RF pulses reproduces CASL. pCASL sequence uses flow driven adiabatic pulses to invert the spin. The labeling efficiency of the pCASL sequence has a dependency on the velocity of the blood at the labeling. Phase contrast MRI (PCMRI) was used to measure the velocity of the blood at the labeling plane and to normalize the CBF value. In this study, we tested pCASL and PCMRI acquisition on a cohort of control rats vs. hyperglycemic rats and documented effect of varied labeling efficiency.


12 High field imaging of large-scale neurotransmitter networks: concepts, graph theoretical metrics, and preliminary results
Tamar M van Veenendaal1,2, Desmond HY Tse1,3, Tom WJ Scheenen4, Dennis W Klomp5, Dominique M IJff2,6, Paul AM Hofman1,2,6, Rob PW Rouhl2,6,7, Marielle CG Vlooswijk2,6,7, Albert P Aldenkamp2,6,7, Walter H Backes1,2, and Jacobus FA Jansen1,2
1Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands, 3Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands, 4Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 5Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 6Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, Netherlands, 7Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands
Many studies are performed to assess structural or functional brain connectivity. However, these studies do not provide direct information on neurochemical imbalances, which underlie abnormal neuronal functioning. In this study, the concept of ‘large-scale neurotransmitter networks’ is proposed. The spatial neurotransmitter network was assessed in fifteen healthy participants who underwent 7T MR spectroscopic imaging. The average glutamate and GABA concentrations were computed in thirty brain regions, which were considered connected if the concentrations showed a significant correlation over all thirty participants. Both glutamate and GABA networks showed small-world characteristics, but further exploration of this concept is currently ongoing.


13 Cerebral Arterial Inflow and Venous Outflow: Flow Discrepancy and Relation to Cardiac Outflow in Children and Adult Volunteers
Can Wu1,2, Susanne Schnell2, Ryan Kuhn3, Samantha E Schoeneman4, Amir R Honarmand2, Michael Markl1,2, and Ali Shaibani2,3
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Medical Imaging, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL, United States
Abnormal cerebral venous outflow patterns may cause severe cerebrovascular disease. We aim to investigate the relationships between cerebral venous outflow and arterial inflow and between cerebral arterial inflow and cardiac outflow in adult and children volunteers using 4D flow and 2D phase-contrast MRI. The results demonstrate significant discrepancies between cerebra arterial inflow and venous outflow with larger discrepancies in children than adults. Additionally, we observed a significantly association of cerebral and cardiac flow parameters with age.


14 A Potential Global Brain Network Identified Using Resting State Arterial Spin Labeling
Weiying Dai1,2, Li Zhao1, and David Alsop1
1Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States, 2Computer Science, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, United States
ASL global signal fluctuations, uniformly correlated across gray matter, may reflect globally correlated neural activity that would suggest a global resting network. However, physiological noise, such as cardiac and respiratory motion, could potentially contribute to the global signal fluctuations. Our results indicate that the systemic noise does not contribute to the ASL global signal fluctuation significantly. Global signal fluctuations are the dominant resting fluctuations of the ASL signal, suggesting a separate globally correlated resting state network in addition to those region-specific resting state networks.


15 High Resolution quantitative T1 mapping under graded hyperoxia at 7T
Alex Bhogal1, Jeroen C.W. Siero1, Jaco Zwannenberg1, Marielle E.P. Philippens2, Peter R. Luijten3, and Hans Hoogduin4
1Radiology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 4Utrecht, Netherlands
We use native T1 (qT1) mapping to measure tissue T1 changes in response to precisely targeted, graded hyperoxic respiratory challenges at 7T.


16 Quantification of the effect of head-down tilt posture on intracranial condition using MRI - Permission Withheld
Naoki Ohno1, Tosiaki Miyati1, Shinnosuke Hiratsuka2, Shota Ishida3, Noam Alperin4, Satoshi Kobayashi1, and Toshifumi Gabata5
1Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Otsu, Japan, 3Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States,5Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
To quantify the effect of posture on intracranial condition, we assessed intracranial volume change (ΔICVC), pressure gradient (ΔPG), intracranial compliance index (ICCI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) change of the brain during the cardiac cycle (ΔADC) in head-down tilt (HDT) and horizontal supine positions. ΔPG was significantly increased on HDT compared with that in the horizontal supine position because of the intracranial pressure compensatory mechanism. However, there were no significant differences in other parameters between postures. ΔPG analysis in the HDT and horizontal supine positions makes it possible to evaluate intracranial conditions concerning the intracranial pressure compensatory faculty.


17 Dexamethasone Effects on Brain Function in Normal Healthy Subjects: a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Approach - Permission Withheld
Trina Kok1, Bernice Oh2, Fatima Nasrallah1, Mary Stephenson1, Chin-Ian Tay Tony2, Edwynn Kean-Hui Chiew2, Johnson Fam2, and Allen Eng-Juh Yeoh2
1A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Singapore, Singapore, 2National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
Dexamethasone (DEX) is commonly used at varying dosages to treat a range of diseases such as altitude sickness and leukemia. Current reports of neuropsychiatric and cognitive effects after DEX administration lack determination of the pathophysiological mechanism of such effects. This work aims to investigate the neurotoxic effects of DEX in healthy subjects by collecting MR structural and 1H spectroscopy data. Analysis showed a significant reduction in brain volume structures and hippocampal GABA/water (p < 0.02) ratio from start to end of DEX administration, which is recovered after a washout period.


18 High-Speed Whole-Brain Oximetry with a Golden-Angle Radial Imaging Sequence
Wen Cao1, Yulin Chang1, Suliman Barhoum1, Zachary B Rodgers1, Michael C Langham1, Erin K Englund1, and Felix W Wehrli1
1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
The OxFlow imaging approach allows simultaneous quantification of whole-brain venous oxygen saturation and total cerebral blood flow for the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. However, the current Cartesian rendition of the sequence is not ideal as the achievable temporal resolution is limited and needs to be chosen upfront. Here, we designed a golden-angle radial (GAR) encoding sequence that yields an effective temporal resolution of 1.29s and evaluated it in six subjects who underwent a paradigm of repeated breath-holds. Good agreement exists between the two methods but GAR provided superior SNR and better delineation of the temporal dynamics during the stimulus.


19 Cerebrovascular reactivity measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping and TRUST MRI under hypercapnia
Jean-Christophe Brisset1, Olga Marshall1, Louise E Pape1, Hanzhang Lu2, and Yulin Ge1
1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures the capacity of regulation of blood flow in response to vasoactive stimuli (e.g., CO2) via changes in cerebral arterial resistance. CVR is responsible for maintaining optimal blood flow to meet the energy demand by neurovascular coupling during neuronal tasks. The defected CVR can cause transient states of inefficient blood delivery during neural activity leading to subsequent neurodysfunction and degeneration. CVR is commonly measured with mild hypercapnia (5%CO2) ASL or BOLD MRI. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility to measure CVR using hypercapnia MRI with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) techniques.


20 Functional MRS at 7T and long TE
Petr Bednarík1,2,3, Ivan Tkác1, Dinesh Deelchand1, Felipe Barreto1,4, Lynn E. Eberly5, Shalom Michaeli1, and Silvia Mangia1
1CMRR, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, 3Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 4Department of Physics, University of Sao Paolo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, 5Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States
With the goal of evaluating whether relaxation influences functional MRS (fMRS) results, we conducted fMRS experiments at 7T during visual stimulation using semi-LASER at 7T at long TE and short TR. The functional concentration changes of lactate (37%±6%) and glutamate (~5%±1%) observed here were consistent with previous results obtained at long TR and ultra-short TE. Small functional changes in signal intensity of NAA and Cr were also found, consistent with small changes in relaxations of those metabolites during visual stimulation.  


21 T2 measurements during hyperoxia in the lateral ventricles and peripheral CSF
Jolanda M Spijkerman1, Jill B de Vis1, Esben T Petersen2, Jeroen Hendrikse1, and Jaco J M Zwanenburg1
1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
The oxygen tension in CSF and tissue is coupled, but may be easier to measure in CSF. This work investigated the effect of O2 administration on the T2 of CSF. In five subjects, T2s were mapped in the lateral ventricles and the peripheral CSF during administration of a hyperoxic gas mixture (end-tidal O2 level: 500mmHg). In the lateral ventricles no T2 change was observed, in the periphery a significant T2 reduction was found under O2 administration (T2=1.54s) compared to baseline (T2=1.61s), showing the feasibility to use CSF relaxation parameter mapping to detect oxygen tension changes.


22 Placebo modulation of brain activity associated with orthodontic pain: a single-blind fMRI Study
Jing Jiang1, Xin Yang2, Wenli Lai2, Qiyong Gong1, and Kaiming Li1
1Department of Radiology, Huaxi MR Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, People's Republic of, 2West China Hospital of stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, People's Republic of
To investigate the neural mechanism of placebo effects in orthodontic pain, we conducted a fMRI study where twenty-three volunteers, under orthodontic pain induced by separators, were scanned without placebos and followed by another scan with placebos a month later. During both scans, participants were instructed to perform a bite (with maximum strength)/no-bite block design fMRI task. Compared with the non-placebo condition, the participants with placebos demonstrated significant reduced brain activities in multiple regions, including precentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule and supramarginal gyrus. This study may provide new insights into the neural mechanism of analgesia by placebo.


23 Spatially inhomogeneous CBV-CBF relationship across human visual cortex
Jie Huang1
1Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States
Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is related with cerebral blood flow (CBF), and knowing this relationship may play an important role in quantitative BOLD-fMRI studies. A recent MRI study reports a varied CBV-CBF relationship both spatially and with sex. This study investigated the behaviors of CBV and CBF across the visual cortex at both rest and activation states, and the analysis showed a spatially inhomogeneous CBV-CBF relationship across the visual cortex.


24 To Investigate the Regional Functional Connectivity of DMN Alterations in Hypercapnia
Hou-Ting Yang1, Yi-Jui Liu1, Tzu-Cheng Chao2,3, Wen-Chau Chen4, Teng-Yi Huang5, You-Chia Cheng1, Hsiao-Wen Chung6, Chao-Chun Lin7, Chia-Wei Lin7, and Wu-Chung Shen7
1Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan,3Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 4Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Eletrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Department of Eletrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 7Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
To investigate the relationships among regional activity of DMN in different hypercapnia affect using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). 10 healthy males were enrolled in this study. A high-resolution T1WI image and BOLD-EPI were performed by a 3 Tesla MR scanner. The CO2 gas mixture (air, 3%, 5% and 7%) was given at the different hypercanpic for each experiment. Our results show that the functional connectivity of DMN is changed in hypercapnia. FC is slight change in 3% CO2 fractions and gradual reduction as the CO2 fraction increases.
Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

49 Hybrid Diffusion Imaging to Detect Acute White Matter Injury after Mild TBI
Sourajit Mitra Mustafi1, Chandana Kodiweera2, Laura A. Flashman3, Thomas W. McAllister4, and Yu-Chien Wu1
1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Dartmouth, NH, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and New Hampshire Hospital, Lebanon, NH, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, Indian University School of medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States
In the present study we used multi-shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) to study white matter changes in the acute stage of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).  Nineteen mTBI patients and 23 trauma-controlled subjects were recruited and studied within 1 month of injury.  Non-parametric diffusion analysis, q-space imaging as well as parametric analyses including conventional DTI and novel neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) were used to analyze the HYDI data.  Only intra-axonal volume fraction of the NODDI model showed significant and diffuse decrease in white matter of the mTBI patients. 


50 Aberrant Structural and Functional Networks Associated with Comorbidity of Depression and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Ping-Hong Yeh1,2, Cheng Guan Koay2, John Graner2, Jamie Harper2, Elyssa B. Sham2, Jeannine Mielke2, Tara Staver2, Wei Liu2, John Ollinger2, Terrence Oakes2, and Gerard Riedy2
1Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD, United States
Comorbid depression and PTSD are common among military traumatic brain injury population. This study assess brain structural and functional networks affected in military service members diagnosed with mild TBI. 


51 Acute white matter changes within 24 hours and at 8 days following sport-related concussion: a diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging study
Daniel V. Olson1, Melissa A. Lancaster2,3, Michael A. McCrea2,3, and L. Tugan Muftuler2
1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States
The aim of this study was to characterize acute white matter changes within 24 hours and at 8 days following sport-related concussion in a group of young adult athletes. Both diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis tensor parameters were compared between concussed athletes and controls. The concussed group demonstrated widespread decrease in mean, axial, and radial diffusivity and increased axial kurtosis compared to the controls. Although diffusion effects became more extensive between the two time points, clinical measure differences between groups were nonsignificant at the 8-day follow-up. These findings may have significant implications for the clinical management of sport-related concussions.


52 Finding biomarkers of cognitive decline in active professional fighters with multimodal MRI and exploring the longitudinal relationship of these biomarkers with cognitive decline
Virendra R Mishra1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Karthik Sreenivasan1, Zhengshi Yang1, Sarah Banks1, Charles Bernick1, and Dietmar Cordes1
1Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States
Several cross-sectional MRI studies have shown structural differences in professional fighters but there has been no results reported in longitudinal studies of such active fighters. The professional fighters brain health study (PFBHS) is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters with age-matched healthy controls using multimodal MRI methods. In this study, we show that the features/biomarkers predicting cognitive decline at baseline are sensitive and specific over time in our cohort of longitudinal active fighters. Our study opens a new window to predict and monitor cognitive decline in patients with traumatic brain injuries.


53 Robust fiber crossing invariant analysis of white matter microstructure in acute mild traumatic brain injury
Mehrbod Mohammadian1,2, Timo Roine3, Jussi Hirvonen2,4, Timo Kurki2, and Olli Tenovuo1,2
1Department of Rehabilitation and Brain Trauma, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, 3iMinds-Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 4Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
We used a robust diffusion MRI approach to analyze global microstructural abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) without confounding effects of complex fiber configurations. Microstructural properties of white matter skeleton were investigated, but only voxels with a single fiber orientation detected with constrained spherical deconvolution were included. In addition, whole-brain fiber tractograms were investigated. We studied 107 patients with mTBI and 28 age-matched control subjects. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly decreased in mTBI, while mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were increased. These differences were more significant when the analysis was restricted to single-fiber voxels.


54 Gray Matter Alterations Using Voxel-Based Morphometry May Not Reflect Changes In Morphometry: A Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Sohae Chung1,2, Yadi Li3, Jacqueline Smith1,2, Steven R Flanagan4, and Yvonne W Lui1,2
1Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R), Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Ningbo Medical Treatment Center Lihuili Hospital of Ningbo University, Zhejiang, China, People's Republic of, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis has been used to detect morphometric changes of the GM after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Spatially normalized and modulated GM density from VBM analysis is typically interpreted as GM volume. VBM is, however, sensitive not only to changes in volume but to variations in T1 relaxation. In this study, we investigated alterations in GM density using simulated images and VBM followed by an in vivo study of cortical GM morphometry using GM density and cortical thickness in mTBI patients and matched controls.


55 Bi-directional changes in fractional anisotropy are associated with altered fiber tracts after experimental TBI - Permission Withheld
Neil G Harris1, Derek R Verley2, Boris A Gutman3, and Richard L Sutton1
1Neurosurgery, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Engineering, Radiology, & Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
 Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is now widely used in both clinical and experimental research for studying pathology related to traumatic brain injury. However, studies report a wide range of DTI indices that are not easily ascribed to post-injury time-point, injury severity or developmental stage. In order to provide further information to help interpret these often complex changes we obtained DTI data before and after TBI using the well-known, clinically relevant rodent controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI. In addition to the expected decreases in fractional anisotropy (FA) around the primary injury site which were associated with myelin breakdown and neurofilament loss, we found significant increases in FA within subcortical regions that were not associated with gliosis or fiber tract degeneration. Fiber tract density was decreased in regions of lowered FA but significantly increased only in subcortical regions associated with increased FA. High FA region seeded for tractography yielded significantly increased fiber length compared to pre-injury. These data provide additional insight into the interpretation of DTI indices following TBI.


56 White Matter Integrity In Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Diffusion Kurtosis MRI Study
Sohae Chung1,2, Els Fieremans1,2, Dmitry S Novikov1,2, Jacqueline Smith1,2, Steven R Flanagan3, and Yvonne W Lui1,2
1Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R), Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a growing public health problem. Most patients recover quickly, but some patients may suffer from serious symptoms. In this study, we investigated white matter (WM) changes in mTBI in terms of compartment specific WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), such as intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon), extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities (De,a and De,r), and axonal water fraction (AWF). The observed decreases in Daxon and De,a suggest that increased restrictions along the axons, both inside and outside, such as possible axonal beading, could occur acutely after injury.


57 Diffusion tensor imaging analysis to assess stem cell therapy efficacy in traumatic brain injury
Nastaren Abad1,2, Abdol Aziz O. Ould Ismail1,2, Ali Darkazali3, Jens T. Rosenberg1, Cathy Levenson3, and Samuel Colles Grant1,2
1Center for Interdisciplinary MR, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL, United States, 2Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States,3Biomedical Sciences and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) interferes with the functionality of the brain due to heterogeneous complications that continue after the initial trauma. As a result, stem cell therapy is viewed as a potential treatment approach that can be instituted during the chronic phase of TBI. This study employs Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to non-destructively probe the pathological impacts of endogenous Neural Progenitor Cells (NPC) and exogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in a rodent model of TBI. This study represents the first investigation of the efficacy of MSC treatment in TBI and the potential synergistic effect of MSC and NPC.


58 Tract-based longitudinal analysis of microstructural diffusion changes of mild traumatic brain injury in sports
Maged Goubran1, Wei Bian1, Brian Boldt1, Mansi Parekh1, David Douglas1, Eugene Wilson1, Lex Mitchell1, Scott Anderson2, Gerry Grant3, Huy Do1, and Michael Zeineh1
1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Sports Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
While many cross sectional DTI studies have been performed for mild TBI in sports, very few longitudinal investigations have been performed. We present here a large longitudinal study assessing white matter integrity in high vs. low contact sports employing whole brain automated tractography and NODDI. We performed a tract-based analysis at baseline and longitudinally over 3 years, with both experiments localizing diffusion changes along the callosum forceps minor, left thalamic radiation and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We have also shown that diffusion metrics correlate with cognition as assessed by the SCAT scores.


59 Decrease in myelin water fraction of global white matter and white matter tracts in traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Bretta Russell-Schulz1, Irene Vavasour2, Jing Zhang2, Alex MacKay1,3, Shaun Porter4, Delrae Fawcett5, Ivan Torres5, William Panenka5, Lara Boyd6, and Naznin Virji-Babul4
1UBC MRI Research Centre, Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 5Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 6Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined using myelin water fraction (MWF) in global white matter and tracts for subjects undergoing intensive cognitive training (Arrowsmith Program) compared to age and gender matched controls. MWF was significantly lower in TBI subjects and correlations were found between MWF and cognitive scores of fluid and crystallized ability. However, after 3 months of cognitive training no significant differences were found in MWF in TBI subjects.


60 Cerebellar surface mapping using T1 and T2* relaxometry at ultrahigh-field MRI: from  macroscale to microscale?
Yohan Boillat1, Pierre-Louis Bazin2, Kieran O'Brien3,4, Mário João Fartaria de Oliveira5,6, Guillaume Bonnier1,6,7, Gunnar Krueger6,8, Wietske van der Zwaag1,9, and Cristina Granziera1,6,7,10
1Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 3Siemens Healthcare Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia,4University of Queensland, St-Lucia, Australia, 5University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 6Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology Group, Siemens, Lausanne, Switzerland, 7Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland, 8Healthcare Sector IM&WS S, Siemens Schweiz AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 9Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, Switzerland, 10Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States
The quantitative properties of the cerebellum were assessed by acquiring T1 and T2*contrasts at 7T and mapping these onto the cerebellar cortex. T1 maps showed medial-lateral alternating stripes of different intensities while T2* values were homogeneously distributed across the lobes. This study showed the heterogeneity of the cerebellar cortex in terms of tissue content, which in part parallels a well-established gene expression pattern.


61 Characterizing the cortical terminations of the arcuate fasciculus with diffusion microstructure
Kirsten Mary Lynch1, Arthur Toga1, and Kristi Clark1
1USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a group of association fibers consisting of 3 subcomponents that link perisylvian language centers in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The purpose of this study is to characterize the diffusion microstructural properties and functional outcomes of the cortical AF terminations in the right and left hemispheres. Multi-shell diffusion models were used to extract relative compartment densities, which were compared in cortical regions where AF fibers terminated. The results of this study show that perisylvian language centers exhibit differential cytoarchitecture that can be measured with in vivo MRI measures. 


62 A simple method to scale the macromolecular pool size ratio for computing the g-ratio in vivo
Mara Cercignani1,2, Giovanni Giulietti2, Nick Dowell1, Barbara Spano2, Neil Harrison1, and Marco Bozzali2
1Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy
previous work suggested that the myelin volume fraction (MVF) is proportional to the macromolecular pool size ratio, F, derived from Magnetization Transfer (MT). However the proportionality constant seems to be dependent on the specific MT model, and requires histological validation. Here we propose a simple method based to derive such a constant.


63 Axon Loss Detected by Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging (DBSI) in the Absence of Atrophy
Tsen-Hsuan Lin1, Peng Sun1, Yong Wang1,2,3,4, and Sheng-Kwei Song1,3,4
1Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Obstertic and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3The Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 4Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
The extent of axonal loss plays a significant role in irreversible neurological impairment in optic nerve crush (ONC). We detected significant 15% axonal loss in the absence of statistically significant atrophy using diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) 7 days after ONC in mice.   


64 Oral citicoline treatment improves visuomotor response and white matter integrity in the visual pathway after chronic intraocular pressure elevation
Yolandi van der Merwe1,2, Xiaoling Yang1,3, Leon C. Ho1,4, Yu Yu5, Christopher K Leung6,7, Ian P. Conner2,3, Seong-Gi Kim1,8, Gadi Wollstein3, Joel S Schuman2,3, Michael B Steketee3, and Kevin C Chan1,3
1Neuroimaging Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 5Division of Biomedical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 6University Eye Center, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 7Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, 8Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Kuwon, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that can cause irreversible blindness. Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only clinically approved treatment method for glaucoma, however the disease may still progress in some patients after lowering IOP. Citicoline has been suggested as a potential therapeutic for neurodegenerative diseases including glaucoma, but its neuroprotective effect remains incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the effects of oral citicoline treatment on visual function and white matter preservation in an experimental glaucoma model. The results show that citicoline treatment slowed the worsening of visual acuity and preserved white matter integrity along the visual pathway


65 G-ratio distribution within the healthy population: the effect of age and gender
Mara Cercignani1,2, Giovanni Giulietti3, Nick Dowell4, Matthew Gabel4, Rebecca Broad4, P Nigel Leigh4, Neil Harrison4, and Marco Bozzali3
1Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy, 3Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy,4Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom
This paper investigates the variability of the g-ratio (the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of a myelinated axon) as a function of age and gender in the healthy population. By combining magnetization transfer and diffusion MRI, the mean g-ratio of 20 white matter tracts was estimated, revealing no gender differences, and a systematic increase with age. Righ vs left hemisphere differences were also detected.


66 Transient Changes in White Matter Microstructure during Anesthesia
Cheuk Ying Tang1, Victoria X Wang2, Johnny C Ng2, Stacie Deiner3, Rafael O'Halloran2, Patrick McCormick3, Prantik Kundu2, Lazar Fleysher2, Angela Sanchez3, Kleopoulos Steven4, and Mark Baxter5
1Radiology & Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 3Anesthesiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 4Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 5Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States
The effect of general anesthesia was studied in brain white matter of healthy control elderly subjects.  DTI measures were compared between awake and general anesthesia conditions. We found significant transient decreases in Fractional Anisotropy and increases in Mean Diffusivities throughout the brain. 


67 Mouse Brain Microscopy with Loop Gap Resonator at 15T
Ouri Cohen1,2, Frederick A. Schroeder 1,2, and Jerome L. Ackerman1,2
1Athinoula A. Martinos Center, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
Construction of a loop-gap-resonator RF coil for MR microscopy of ex vivo mouse brains at 15T is described. The large signal obtained allowed acquisition of 20μm3 isotropic voxels, the highest resolution yet achieved in MR mouse brain imaging. Importantly, the high resolution allowed clear identification of multiple brain structures and will be of interest to researchers working with various mouse models. 


68 Super-Resolution MR imaging of ex-vivo eye-globe structures at 7T
Se-Hong Oh1, Stephen E. Jones1, Arun Singh2, and Mark J. Lowe1
1Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, United States
We demonstrate a high-resolution ex-vivo globe image using 7T. With voxel size of 250μm isotropic resolution, detailed structures of the globe were clearly identified. Our results show that the high-resolution MR imaging is particularly useful in helping to visualize inner structure of eye-globe. Moreover, it is successfully demonstrated the sensitivity to choroidal melanoma. In addition, we have performed MRI scans using human globe specimens to investigate the contribution of fixation to the evolution of T2 over time and measured SNR changes as function of the number of excitations to gain some insight into the optimal average number.


69 An automated pipeline for mouse brain morphometric MRI
Marco Pagani1,2, Mario Damiano1, Alberto Galbusera1, Sotirios A Tsaftaris3,4, and Alessandro Gozzi1
1Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rovereto, Italy, 2Center for Mind and Brain Sciences, Rovereto, Italy, 3IMT - Institute for Advanced Studies, Lucca, Italy, 4Institute of Digital Communications, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
We provide a detailed description of registration-based procedures for voxel based morphometry, cortical thickness estimation and automated anatomical labelling of the mouse brain. To illustrate our procedures, we described their application to quantify morphological differences in two inbred mouse strains characterised by different social behaviour. We show that our approach can reliably detect both focal and large scale gray matter alterations using complementary readouts. The operational workflows described here are expected to help the implementation of rodent morphoanatomical methods by non-expert users, and promote the use of these tools across the preclinical neuroimaging community.


70 Magnetic Resonance Myelin G-ratio mapping for the Brain and Cervical Spinal Cord: 10 Minutes Protocol for Clinical Application
Masaaki Hori1,2, Nikola Stikov3, Ryuji Nojiri2, Yasuaki Tsurushima2, Katsutoshi Murata4, Keiichi Ishigame2, Kouhei Kamiya5, Yuichi Suzuki5, Koji kamagata1, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 2Tokyo Medical Clinic, Tokyo, Japan, 3Ecole Polytechnique, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Siemens Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 5Radiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
The purpose of this exhibit is to present the feasibility of MR g-ratio mapping for whole brain and cervical spinal cord using a 10 minute protocol. This protocol is appropriate for clinical use and provides reasonable image quality for clinical diagnosis. In vivo MR g-ratio mapping warrants daily clinical use as it has potential to provide additional information about WM microstructure and its changes in pathology.


71 Macromolecular proton fraction as an ultimate source of brain tissue contrast in ultra-high magnetic fields
Anna V Naumova1,2, Andrey E Akulov3, Alexandr V Romashchenko 3, Oleg B Shevelev 3, Marina Yu Khodanovich 2, and Vasily L Yarnykh 1,2
1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russian Federation, 3Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
This study provides methodological background for neuroimaging applications of fast 3D MPF mapping in ultra-high magnetic fields and demonstrates that MPF presents the most effective source of high-field brain tissue contrast. Unique contrast features, high spatial resolution, and the capability to provide quantitative information about myelination make MPF mapping an ultimate tool for small animal neuroimaging in high magnetic fields.


72 Whole human brain diffusion MRI at 450µm post mortem with dwSSFP and a specialized 9.4T RF-coil
Francisco Lagos Fritz1, Sean Foxley2, Shubharthi Sengupta1, Robbert Harms1, Svenja Caspers3, Karl Zilles3, Desmond HY Tse1, Benedikt Poser1, Karla L Miller2, and Alard Roebroeck1
1Dept. of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology & Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany
The investigation of whole human brains post mortem with large bore systems can achieve a resolution considerably superior to that achievable in-vivo. However, the achievable resolutions and contrast are limited, especially for diffusion MRI (dMRI), by gradient performance, non-optimized RF-coils, and RF-field inhomogeneity and decreasing T2 with increasing B0. Here we report on ultrahigh resolution (450µm) diffusion imaging of the whole human brain showing exquisite spatial definition. This is achieved using a specialized 9.4T 8Ch parallel transmit (pTx), 24Ch receive RF-coil and a diffusion weighted steady state free precession (dwSSFP) sequence extended with a kt-points excitation pulse for B1+ homogenization
Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

73 Does tau pathology play a role in abnormal iron deposition in Alzheimer’s Disease? A quantitative susceptibility mapping study in the rTg4510 mouse model of Tauopathy
James O'Callaghan1, Holly Holmes1, Nicholas Powell1, Jack Wells1, Ozama Ismail1, Ian Harrison1, Bernard Siow1, Michael O'Neill2, Emily Catherine Collins3, Karin Shmueli4, and Mark Lythgoe1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd, Surrey, United Kingdom, 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, United States,4Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom
In this work, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and T2* mapping were used to investigate iron accumulation both in-vivo and ex-vivo in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease exhibiting tau pathology for the first time.  Magnetic susceptibility increases relative to controls were identified in grey matter and white matter brain regions and may indicate sensitivity to tissue iron content.  QSM in this mouse model may therefore provide a non invasive method by which to dissect the relationship between iron and tau pathology in Alzheimer's Disease.


74 T2-weighted imaging of substantia nigra pars compacta shows increased iron deposition in ventral lateral tier - Permission Withheld
Jason Langley1, Jan Sedlacik2, Daniel E Huddleston3, Xiaoping Hu1, Jens Fiehler2, and Kai Boelmans4
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University & Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg, Germany, 3Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 4Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Recent results found that the SN seen in neuromenalnin sensitive MRI and iron sensitive T2-weighted contrasts is located in disparate spatial positions in controls. Since iron is known to be deposited in the SN after onset of Parkinson's disease(PD), we re-examine iron sensitive measurements with respect to these new findings in this abstract. Specifically, we find that the SN seen in T2-weighted contrasts is enlarged in inferiorly and medially when compared to controls. Most of this discrepancy happens in the NM SN and we found the overlap to be an incredibly sensitive marker for PD (p<10-15).


75 Association of Brain Iron Deposition in Parkinson’s Disease with Comorbidities of Visual Hallucinations: An ROI-based Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Study
Darrell Ting Hung Li1, Edward Sai Kam Hui1, Queenie Chan2, Nailin Yao3, Siew-eng Chua4, Grainne M. McAlonan4,5, Shu Leong Ho6, and Henry Ka Fung Mak1
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 5Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Science, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom, 6Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Abnormal iron accumulation in the brain may cause oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration, which is one of the hypothesis of nigral cell death in PD. It was also believed that non-motor symptoms of PD patients are associated with the increased of brain iron content. This study examined the iron concentration in several subcortical structures of PD patients with visual hallucinations by using the QSM technique. Higher magnetic susceptibility was observed in the hippocampus of this patient group. The result supported the hypothesis that hippocampal abnormality could induce visuospatial memory impairment which may be the cause of visual hallucination in PD patients.


76 Evaluation of gray matter degeneration in Parkinson’s disease by using neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging: Analysis by gray matter-based spatial statistics
Koji Kamagata1, Kouhei Tsuruta2, Taku Hatano3, Keigo Shimoji4, Masaaki Hori1, Ayami Okuzumi3, Misaki Nakazawa2, Syo Murata2, Ryo Ueda2, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Neurology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
In this study, neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging were used to estimate structural changes of neurites in the gray matter of the brain, which is the earliest pathological change in patients with PD. The results showed a significant decrease in the intracellular volume fraction in the right amygdala and right putamen in PD, suggesting a decrease in neurite density that may reflect actual pathological change. Given that NODDI could detect pathological changes at the earliest stages in PD, it may be useful for early diagnosis.


77 Evaluation of different high-pass filter on the susceptibility in patients Parkinson’s disease and controls
Gerd Melkus1,2, Santanu Chakraborty1,2, and Fahad A Essbaiheen 1,2,3
1Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was found as a useful method to evaluate neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. For QSM reconstruction background field removed phase data is needed, but for retrospective studies only high-pass filtered data might be available. In this study we analyzed the influence of different high-pass filtered phase images on the susceptibility assessment for volunteers and Parkinson’s disease patients and compared the results to QSM estimation using background field removed phase data. With increasing high-pass filter strength consistently lower susceptibility results, but up to a certain filter strength differences in susceptibility can still be distinguished.


78 Imaging effects of memantine treatment in a mouse model of Huntington disease using evoked and resting-state fMRI
Wei-Tang Chang1, Fiftarina Puspitasari1, Ling-Yun Yeow1, Hui-Chien Tay1, Marta Garcia Miralles2, Katrianne Bethia Koh2, Liang-Juin Tan2, Mahmoud POULADI2,3, and Kai-Hsiang Chuang1
1SBIC, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore, 2TLGM, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore, 3Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. Recently, memantine (MMT) was found to be effective delaying the progression of disease phenotypes in a mouse model of HD. Here we applied resting-state fMRI to evaluate functional connectivity in HD and the MMT treatment effect and its behavioral correlates. The results of forepaw stimulation reduced evoked responses though significance was hampered by large individual variation. Interestingly, functional connectivity outside of DMN, but not within DMN, was decreased by HD. With MMT treatment, the connectivity increased in general. The FC relevant to the behavioral test also showed behavioral correlates.


79 Developmental White Matter Alterations in Monkey Brains with Huntington’s Disease
Yuguang Meng1, Anthony W.S. Chan2,3, and Xiaodong Zhang1,3
1Yerkes Imaging Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States
     This study examined the developmental changes of white matter integrity in rhesus monkey brains with the HD gene mutation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Widespread developmental alterations are seen in striatum, and the frontal, motor, sensory and visual brain areas. The findings reveal the temporal-spatial evolution of abnormal white matter maturation during the development of the brain with the Huntington’s Disease, and suggest altered neural substrates associated with motor and cognitive dysfunctions in HD patients.


80 Diffusion tensor imaging of the substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease revisited
Jason Langley1, Daniel E Huddleston2, Michael Merritt1, Xiangchuan Chen1, Rebecca McMurray2, Michael Silver2, Stewart A Factor2, and Xiaoping Hu1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University & Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States
Inconclusive results from prior diffusion tensor imaging-based studies can be attributed to variability in location of regions of interest used to define the substantia nigra and its subcomponents. We apply recent findings from neuromelanin sensitive MRI to standardize regions of interest for the substantia nigra. Differences in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were found in the neuromelanin sensitive substantia nigra but not in the substantia nigra defined in the b0 image.


81 Diagnosis of Parkinsonism Using Nigrosome 1 Imaging at 3T: Comparison of Interobserver Agreement between GRE Magnitude Images (MEDIC) and Susceptibility Map-weighted Images (SMWI)
Eung Yeop Kim1, Yoon Ho Nam2, Young Noh3, Young Hee Sung3, Byeong Ho Goh1, Joon Hyung Ann1, and Jongho Lee4
1Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea, Republic of, 2Radiology, Seoul St. Mary Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Neurology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea, Republic of, 4Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Susceptibility map-weighted imaging (SMWI) improves both CNR and SNR in comparison with conventional SWI. In this work, we compared SMWI with MEDIC (a multi-echo GRE imaging that combines magnitude images via sum of squares) for nigrosome 1 imaging at 3T in terms of interobserver agreement and diagnostic performance in 74 subjects (44 with Parkinson’s disease). Two experienced and two less-experienced reviewers visually assessed both imaging sets separately. Compared with MEDIC, SMWI showed higher kappa values and larger AUCs, regardless of level of experience. As a result, nigrosome 1 imaging using SMWI significantly improved diagnostic performance as well as interobserver agreement.


82 Sensitivity of volumetric MRI and MRS to onset and progression of neurodegeneration
Dinesh K Deelchand1, James M Joers1, Adarsh Ravishankar2, Tianmeng Lyu3, Uzay Emir1,4, Diane Hutter1, Christopher M Gomez5, Khalaf O Bushara6, Christophe Lenglet1, Lynn E Eberly3, and Gulin Oz1
1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States,3Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 4University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 6Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States
The goal of this study was to combine MRS with volumetric MRI to determine the sensitivity of these two techniques to onset and progression of neurodegeneration in patients with early-moderate spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Subjects were scanned at baseline and followed up at ~18 and ~36 months at 3T. Both MRI and MRS measures were found to be more sensitive to disease progression than standardized clinical scores. This study shows that volumetric MRI was most sensitive to disease progression while MRS might be more sensitive to detect the disease’s early stage.


83 QSM and T2* Mapping in a Six Month Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of the Iron Chelator Deferiprone in Parkinson’s Disease
Rexford Newbould1, Courtney Bishop1, Antonio Martin-Bastida2, and David Dexter2
1Imanova Centre for Imaging Sciences, London, United Kingdom, 2Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of an iron chelation therapy was performed in 25 subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 12 healthy matched controls.  Two MRI measures of brain iron at each of three visits at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months were derived from a high resolution 3D multiecho volume: T2* and QSM maps. T2* values significantly lengthened in six of nine pre-defined ROIs by the final visit in the highest dose group.  QSM values , however, did not change with treatment.  This differential trajectory between relaxation and susceptibility may result from ferritin’s complex relaxation behavior.


84 Characterizing neurodegeneration in progressive supranuclear palsy using VBM and SVM classification
Karsten Mueller1, Robert Jech2,3, Cecilia Bonnet2,3, Jaroslav Tintera4, Harald E Möller1, Klaus Fassbender5, Jan Kassubek6, Markus Otto6, Evžen Ružicka2,3, and Matthias L Schroeter1,7
1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic,31st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, 4Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic, 5Clinic and Polyclinic for Neurology, Saarland University Homburg, Homburg, Germany, 6Clinic and Polyclinic for Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany, 7Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Structural brain differences were investigated between patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and healthy controls with T1-weighted images (MP-RAGE) acquired at four centers with different 3T scanners (Siemens). Using voxel-based morphometry, we found a major decline in gray matter density in brainstem, insula, striatum, and frontomedian regions that is in line with the current literature. Support-vector-machine classification provided a high sensitivity of disease detection when using relevant brain regions in feature selection.


85 Robust global and widespread local white matter abnormalities in a longitudinal study of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN3)
Ulrika Roine1, Timo Roine2,3, Antti Hakkarainen3, Anna Tokola3, Marja H. Balk3, Minna Mannerkoski4, Tuula Lönnqvist5, and Taina Autti3
1Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland, 2iMinds-Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Antwerp), Belgium, 3HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, 4Child Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland,5Department of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN3), is a progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease of the childhood, which manifests with loss of vision, seizures and loss of cognitive and motor functions, and leads to premature death. We investigated global and local white matter microstructure with diffusion MRI in 14 children with CLN3 imaged at two time points. Robust global analysis was performed using whole-brain tractography and white matter tract skeleton. Local microstructural abnormalities were investigated using tract-based spatial statistics. Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy and increased diffusivity values were found in subjects with CLN3 both at the global and local scale.


86 Structural brain connectome and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease - Permission Withheld
Sebastiano Galantucci1, Federica Agosta1, Elka Stefanova2, Silvia Basaia1, Martijn van den Heuvel3, Tanja Stojkovic2, Elisa Canu1, Iva Stankovic2, Vladana Spica2, Vladimir S. Kostic2, and Massimo Filippi1,4
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 2Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia,3Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 4Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
To date, MRI biomarkers have been demonstrated extremely useful for detecting and monitoring the neurodegenerative processes. However, brain network analysis seems the most powerful approach to quantitatively describe the topological organization of the brain connectome even at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases.  This study provided promising biomarkers to detect features of neurodegeneration in PD-MCI, being able to distinguish it from PD without MCI. This study shows that the presence of subtle cognitive deficits not causing a dementia, produces a huge alteration of brain networks suggesting the importance of the study of connectomics in the investigation of neurodegenerative diseases.


87 fMRI reveals plasticity compensating for early dopaminergic loss at corticostriatal synapse
Chiao-Chi Chen1, Yi-Hua Hsu1, Nai-Wei Yao1, and Chen Chang1
1Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
The dopaminergic system possesses striking plasticity compensating for motor aberrations from neuronal loss. Little is known regarding the compensation mechanism during dopaminergic loss, preventing the aberration from being arrested and treated early. Here we present in vivo imaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging showing that, after dopaminergic depletion, the dorsolateral striatum (DOLS) exhibited an early and transient vasodilation cluster in response to specific forepaw stimulation. Activation of DOLS NMDA receptors causes this vasodilation, protects dopaminergic fibers from denervation, and counteracts motor deficits. The findings have clinical implications for early detection and intervention in brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.


88 Dopaminergic therapy modulates cortical perfusion in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia according to ASL perfusion MRI
Chien-Yuan Eddy Lin1, Wei-Che Lin2, Pei-Chin Chen2, Yung-Cheng Huang3, Nai-Wen Tsai4, Hsiu-Ling Chen2, Hung-Chen Wang5, Tsu-Kung Lin4, Kun-Hsien Chou6, Meng-Hsiang Chen2, Yi-Wen Chen2, and Cheng-Hsien Lu4
1GE Healthcare, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 4Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 5Department of Nuerosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 6Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
We examined the cerebral perfusion differences among 17 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, 17 PD with dementia (PDD) patients, and 17 healthy controls and used noncontrast arterial spin labelling MRI to assess the effects of dopaminergic therapies on perfusion in the patients. We demonstrated progressive widespread cortical hypoperfusion in PD and PDD and robust effects for the dopaminergic therapies. These patterns of hypoperfusion could be related to cognitive dysfunctions and disease severity. Furthermore, desensitization to dopaminergic therapies in terms of cortical perfusion was found as the disease progressed, supporting the concept that long-term therapies are associated with the therapeutic window narrowing.


89 Aberrant interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: converging evidences from DTI and resting-state fMRI - Permission Withheld
Jiuquan Zhang1,2, Bing Ji2,3, Zhihao Li2, Jun Hu4, Jian Wang1, Mingze Xu5, and Xiaoping Hu2
1Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University & Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 4Department of Neurology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, China, People's Republic of, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Perking University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
The corpus callosum (CC) involvement is a consistent feature of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), thus suggesting a pathopysiology of reduced interhemispheric neural connectivity. In the current study, we directly examined the interhemispheric functional and structural connectivities in ALS. In terms of functional connectivity, extensive alterations in voxel mirrored homotopic connectivity were found in ALS. With structural connectivity, while there were widespread reductions in DTI metrics, only the fiber probability index through CC subregion III in the ALS patients was significantly decreased compared with the controls. These findings provide further evidence for structural and functional interhemispheric connectivity impairment in ALS.


90 Investigation of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease with asymmetric onset using Voxel-Mirrored Homotopic Connectivity
Yong Zhang1, Naying He2, Hua-Wei Lin2, Ajit Shankaranarayanan3, Zhenyu Zhou1, and Fu-Hua Yan2
1MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 3GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States
This preliminary study used voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), a novel resting-state fMRI parameter to investigate inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) with asymmetric onset. Fifteen left side onset (LPD) patients, sixteen right side onset (RPD) patients and nineteen healthy controls were recruited for comparison. Both of LPD and RPD patients showed decreased VMHC in post-central gyrus responsible for motor functions. The decreased VMHC in the cuneus and middle occipital gyrus in LPD patients might affect visual processing function. For RPD patients, VMHC changes in the middle and superior frontal gyrus could be relevant to advanced cognitive impairment.


91 Can longitudinal diffusion-weighted imaging of the basal ganglia be used as a surrogate marker in preclinical Huntington’s disease?
Chris Patrick Pflanz1, Marina Charquero-Ballester2, Adnan Majid3, Anderson Winkler1, Emmanuel Vallee1, Mark Jenkinson1, Adam Aron3, and Gwenaelle Douaud1
1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Oxford, United Kingdom, 3San Diego, CA, United States
Huntington’s disease is a monogenetic, neurodegenerative movement disorder that is amenable to predictive genetic testing.  Here, we investigated whether longitudinal diffusion-weighted imaging of the basal ganglia could be used to detect early microstructural changes in participants with presymptomatic Huntington’s disease (preHD). We found the first results showing significant longitudinal changes in the microstructure of the basal ganglia within a preclinical HD population. We further showed that, while FA and MD might be less sensitive to longitudinal changes than volumetric measures, they provide mechanistic insights into the underlying physiopathological process that are complementary to the monotonic, non-specific changes in the volume of the basal ganglia.


92 Brain Iron Deficiency in Restless Legs Syndrome Measured by Quantitative Susceptibility and its Relation to Clinical Features
Xu Li1,2, Hongjun Liu1,2, Richard P Allen3, Christopher J Earley3, Richard A.E. Edden1,2, Peter B Barker1,2, Tiana Cruz3, and Peter C.M. van Zijl1,2
1F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States,3Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
Possible brain iron deficiency was assessed using quantitative susceptibility mapping at 7T in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and analyzed with clinical measurements including IRLS severity score, serum iron, serum ferritin and periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS). Using magnetic susceptibility as a brain iron index and compared to control group, significantly decreased iron was found in RLS patients in dentate nuclei and thalamus, and in substantia nigra in a subset of RLS patients with severe clinical symptoms with PLMS larger than 100 times per hour. Significant correlation between PLMS and brain iron was only found in substantia nigra in RLS.


93 Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of the “Swallow tail” in Parkinson disease
Santanu Chakraborty1,2, Gerd Melkus1,2, Fahad Essbaiheen1,2,3, David A Grimes4, and Tiago Mestre4
1Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 4Neurology, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Parkinson disease (PD) continues to be diagnosed based on clinical findings. Recently, in SWI images, the loss of ‘swallow tail’ appearance in dorsolateral substantia nigra in PD patients yielded high diagnostic accuracy. In our study we measured susceptibility values using QSM in the ‘swallow tail’ area in seven Parkinson’s disease patients and compared to five control subjects. The susceptibility in the swallow tail area was higher in the PD group (0.072 vs. 0.058). This likely suggests increased iron deposition causing a masking effect that contributes along with dopaminergic neurons loss to the disappearance of the ‘swallow tail’ in PD patients.


94 MRI signatures in the brain of patients with PD and iRBD
Silvia Mangia1, Philip Burton1, Alena Svatkova2,3, Igor Nestrasil4, Alejandra Sierra Lopez5, Karin Shmueli6, Lynn Eberly7, Michael Howell4, Paul Tuite4, and Shalom Michaeli1
1CMRR, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 3Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, 4Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 5A.I.Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 6Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 7Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States
The idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a condition that often evolves into Parkinson’s disease (PD), therefore by monitoring iRBD one can track the neurodegeneration of individuals that may progress to PD. Here we used a battery of MRI contrasts to characterize brain tissue properties such as microstructural integrity, iron loads, and functional connectivity in 10 iRBD, 10 PD and 10 age-matched healthy subjects. Rotating frame relaxation methods adiabatic T1,2ρ and RAFFn, along with DTI and rsfMRI detected heterogeneous abnormalities in several subcortical structures of PD and iRBD subjects.


95 A High b-Value Diffusion Study of Brainstem Abnormality in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Using a CTRW Model
Zheng Zhong1,2, Muge Karaman1, Douglas Merkitch3, Jennifer Goldman3, and Xiaohong Joe Zhou1,4
1Center for MR Research, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Radiology, Neurosurgery and Bioengineering, University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences system, Chicago, IL, United States
It has been known that the substantia nigra of brain stem shows structural abnormalities with the progression of Parkinson’s disease. While high b-value diffusion imaging has the potential to reveal such structural changes, single-shot EPI suffers from unwanted geometric distortion which may result in poor analysis of the diffusion data. In this study, we use a recently developed reduced field of view imaging technique and analyze the abnormalities occurring in the substantia nigra of the Parkinson’s disease patients by using the continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) model.


96 The Effect of Primidone on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentration in the Dentate Nucleus in Patients with Essential Tremor
Ulrike Dydak1,2, Ruoyun Ma1,2, Nora Hernandez3, Johnathan P Dyke4, and Elan Louis3,5,6
1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States,3Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Heaven, CT, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 5Center for Neuroepidemiology and Clinical Neurological Research, Yale School of Medicine, New Heaven, CT, United States, 6Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Heaven, CT, United States
Whether current use of the medication primidone affects dentate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations is unknown. Yet, this may be an important confounder in studies of the pathophysiology of essential tremor (ET). Using the MEGA-PRESS J-editing sequence, we found no difference in dentate GABA levels between patients taking primidone and patients not taking primidone. Furthermore, there was no association between daily primidone dose and dentate GABA concentration. These data suggest that it is not necessary to exclude ET patients on primidone from MRS studies of dentate GABA concentration.
Exhibition Hall 

14:30 - 15:30

    Computer #

1 Ex-Vivo Diffusion Anisotropy of Human Brain Hemispheres
Yingjuan Wu1, Robert J. Dawe2, Arnold Moya Evia2, Julie A. Schneider3, David A. Bennett3, and Konstantinos Arfanakis2
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, chicago, IL, United States,3Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, chicago, IL, United States
The aims of this work were to: 1) longitudinally assess the diffusion anisotropy of various white matter regions measured with ex-vivo MRI, and 2) investigate the relationship between FA values measured in-vivo and ex-vivo on the same subjects. This work demonstrated that brain white matter diffusion anisotropy measured ex-vivo decreases with time postmortem, and that diffusion anisotropy measured ex-vivo is linearly related to the diffusion anisotropy measured in-vivo on the same subjects. Combination of ex-vivo MR diffusion anisotropy and histopathology may become an effective tool for the assessment of the neuropathologic correlates of structural brain abnormalities observed in-vivo.


2 Faster brain atrophy is associated with accelerated cognitive decline in healthy older adults: the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Brain Study
June Chi-Yan Lo1, Ruth Li-Fang Leong1, Jesisca Tandi1, and Michael Wei-Liang Chee1
1Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
Although East Asia harbors the largest number of aging adults in the world, there is limited data on longitudinal changes in brain structure and its relationship with domain-specific cognition. We tracked changes in brain volume and 5 cognitive functions over 8 years among healthy older adults in the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study. After adjusting for intracranial volume, demographic factors, and blood pressure, total cerebral atrophy was associated with faster decline in verbal memory. Hippocampal atrophy and ventricular expansion were associated with greater decline in verbal memory and executive functions. These findings clarify the relationships between age-trends in neurobiology and cognition.


3 Age-related alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices
Pui Wai Chiu1, Edward S Hui1, Queenie Chan2, Raja Rizal Azman Raja Aman3, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang4, Raymond Chor Kiu Chan5, Leung Wing Chu6, and Henry Ka Fung Mak1
1Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 3Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 5Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 6Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Glutamatergic neurotransmission has an interesting role in aging. The anterior cingulate cortex(ACC) and posterior cingulate cortex(PCC) are focuses for aging research due to their implicated role in cognition. In this study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission during aging by measuring absolute Glx concentration([Glx]abs) in ACC and PCC in a local Chinese cohort at 3.0T. Significant age-related increases of [Glx]abs in ACC and PCC might indicate age-related alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Significantly higher overall [Glx]abs was found in ACC compared with PCC might be attributed to the abundant glutamatergic neurons in the forebrain.


4 Cumulative Mid-Life Framingham Stroke Risk Profile Predicts Reduced Structural Brain Integrity in Old Age - Permission Withheld
Eniko Zsoldos1, Nicola Filippini1, Abda Mahmood1, Archana Singh-Manoux2, Mika Kivimäki2, Clare Mackay1, and Klaus P Ebmeier1
1Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Research presented discusses the cumulative effects of Framingham Stroke Risk profile in mid-life on structural brain integrity reduction in older life.


5 Early aging effect on the function of human central olfactory system
Jianli Wang1, Xiaoyu Sun1, and Qing X Yang1
1Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States
We report an olfactory fMRI study of the aging effect on the functions of central olfactory system during normal adulthood and early aging. The smell identification function declined with age. Accordingly, the BOLD signal responding to odor stimulations was significantly decreased with age in bilateral DLPFC, left orbitofrontal cortex, and left insula. However, there was no significant age correlation was detected with the BOLD signal in the primary olfactory cortex. These results suggest that age-related olfactory functional decline in human brain is more prominent in the secondary and higher order central olfactory structures than the POC in early aging process. 


6 Distribution of principal diffusion direction orientations: a novel method to characterize age-related changes in the brain.
Maria Eugenia Caligiuri1, Aldo Quattrone1,2, and Andrea Cherubini1
1Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council, Catanzaro, Italy, 2Institute of Neurology, University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy
Diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain allows the assessment of tissue integrity at the microscale. The most commonly used technique to analyze diffusion-weighted data is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which relies on the reconstruction of the diffusion tensor at each MRI voxel by calculating its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. These quantities allow the estimation of scalar DTI maps measuring mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), which are considered markers of structural tissue integrity. To date, DTI has been extensively used in the field of neuroimaging to study brain microstructural integrity in healthy subjects and patients with several different neurological conditions. However, despite the three-dimensional nature of the tensor, existing studies have focused on changes in DTI-derived scalar indexes, such as MD and FA, not considering the orientation of the principal eigenvector of the tensor, which could provide invaluable insight on the nature of tissue changes, but is still only used for color-coding FA maps for qualitative, visual purposes.


7 Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) in Brain Regions: a Repeatability and Aging Study
Eric T Peterson1, Natalie M Zahr1,2, Dongjin Kwon1, Matthew Serventi1, Cheshire Hardcastle1, Edith V Sullivan2, and Adolf Pfefferbaum1
1Biosciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 2Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
This work investigates the inter- and intra-session repeatability and the effects of age on intra voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters. Atlas registration allowed for parcellation-based region specific brain analysis. A new and robust fitting approach reliably identified the perfusion fraction, diffusion, and pseudo-perfusion parameters from 15 healthy normal volunteers. The results show that IVIM is repeatable and that the perfusion fraction, diffusion, and pseudo-perfusion parameters are significantly higher in older than younger adults in several brain regions, most likely from perivascular CSF infiltration. This work serves to highlight how age is an important factor to consider when using IVIM.


8 Altered neurochemical profile in the healthy elderly measured via 7 T 1H MRS - Permission Withheld
Malgorzata Marjanska1, J. Riley McCarten2, Laura Hemmy2, Dinesh K Deelchand1, and Melissa Terpstra1
1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, United States
The goal of this work was to characterize differences in the concentrations of neurochemicals beyond tNAA, tCr, and tCho in the OCC and PCC regions of healthy young and elderly subjects. The key innovation was scanning at ultra-high field (7 T) at very short echo time. The observed differences are consistent with compromised neurons (NAA, NAAG, Glu and GABA), membrane turnover (PE and tCho), oxidative stress (lower GSH in the OCC), inflammation (mIns), altered energy metabolism (tCho and Glc), and changes in large molecules (Mac).


9 Frontal GABA concentrations predict cognitive function beyond age-related decline.
Eric C. Porges1, Adam J. Woods1, Richard A.E. Edden2,3, Nicolaas A.J. Puts2,3, Ashley D. Harris4,5,6, Amanda Garcia1, Huaihou Chen1,7, Damon G. Lamb1,8, John B. Williamson1,8, and Ronald A. Cohen1
1Aging and Geriatric Research, Institute on Aging, Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, University of Florida, gainesville, FL, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Kennedy Krieger Institute, FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 5CAIR Program, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 6Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 7Department of Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States, 8Brain Rehabilitation and Research Center, Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, United States
GABA levels measured with MRS have been associated with performance in numerous sensory and attention domains.  Here we demonstrate in a healthy aging cohort that frontal GABA levels are predictive of general cognitive function.  Furthermore, the previously reported age-related decrease in GABA levels continues into advanced age.


10 Reduced White Matter Integrity in Cognitively Normal HFE Mutation Carriers - Permission Withheld
Mark David Meadowcroft1,2, Jian-Li Wang2, Carson J Purnell1, Paul J Eslinger3, Elizabeth B Neely1, David J Gill3, Megha Vasavada2, Qing X Yang2, and James R Connor1
1Neurosurgery, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Radiology, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States,3Neurology, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States
Mutations associated with iron dysregulation in the brain include the H63D and C282Y HFE missense mutations and transferrin C2 mutation, all of which have been associated with development of neurodegenerative diseases.  Diffusion tensor metrics were further utilized to investigate the relationship between HFE/transferrin mutations and myelin integrity more precisely. The MRI data presented here demonstrate that cognitively normal H63D/C282Y HFE and transferrin C2 carriers have diffusivity changes in white matter compared to wild-type subjects. The observation that these alterations are located in late-myelinating frontal areas is hypothesized to be related to increased susceptibility within this region of HFE/Tf mutation carriers.


11 The Relationship between White Matter Structure and Clinical Behavior in Different APOE Genotypes: A Preliminary Study in Cognitively Intact Elderly.
Xiao Luo1, Yerfan Jiaerken1, and MinMing Zhang1
1Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China, People's Republic of
The purpose of this research was to study the relationship of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with cognitive performance in healthy elderly with different APOE genotypes. In total, 158 subjects were separated into 3 groups (ε2 carriers, ε4 carriers and ε3 homozygotes). Group differences of regional WMH volume were calculated. Subsequent correlation analysis between regional WMH burden and behavior data was performed. Detrimental effect of APOE ε4 allele on white matter structure was found while no protective effect of APOE ε2 was observed; WMH volume was significantly correlated with processing speed and executive ability, especially in APOE ε4 carriers.


12 Longitudinal relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity and processing speed in young and elderly individuals
Shin-Lei Peng1,2, Xi Chen3, Yang Li1, Karen Rodrigue3, Yamei Cheng4, Denise Park3, and Hanzhang Lu1
1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 3University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX, United States, 4University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
Processing speed is a fundamental building block of cognition that declines reliably with age. Therefore, the goals of this study were to examine whether changes in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to CO2 inhalation, a marker of cerebrovascular function, is associated with changes in processing speed. the results showed that, In elderly, but not young individuals, the rate of change in CVR over four years predicted decline in processing speed, indicating that declines in vascular brain health contribute to changes in the information processing speed in older but not young and middle-aged adults. 


13 Development and Aging of Superficial White Matter Myelin from Young Adulthood to Old Age: Mapping by Vertex-Based Surface Statistics (VBSS)
Minjie Wu1, Anand Kumar1, and Shaolin Yang1,2,3
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
Using Magnetization transfer imaging (MT) and innovative multimodal analysis approach, the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of superficial white matter (SWM) from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66).  Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, suggesting that myelin change in SWM occurs at varied paces across the cortex. SWM MTR regions including the rostral middle frontal and parahippocampus followed inverted U-shaped trajectories, with protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination after age 60 years, while the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory SWM regions did not show age-related deterioration.


14 The relationship between White Matter Hyperintensities volume and cognition in normal ageing women
Rowa Aljondi1, Patricia Desmond1,2, Chris Steward1,2, and Cassandra Szoeke3
1The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 2Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, 3Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

White Matter Hyperintesities (WMH) lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are common findings in elderly people and contribute to cognitive impairments. Here we examine volumetric MRI measures of WMH volume in relation to neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, executive function, semantic memory and visuospatial abilities in 116 elderly women, their mean age 69 years. Linear regression analysis showed that greater WMH volume was correlated with lower performance on tests involving measures of executive function and visuospatial abilities. These results help elucidate the pathological process leading to cognitive decline in ageing.  


15 Normal aging effect on commissure fibers assessed with template-based tractography
Pin-Yu Chen1,2, Jeng-Min Chiou3, Ya-Fang Yang3, Yu-Ting Chen3, Yu-Ling Chang4, Yu-Chun Lo1, Yu-Jen Chen1, Yung-Chin Hsu1, and Wen-Yih I. Tseng1,2,5
1Institute of Medical Device and Imaging, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Institute of Statistical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Molecular Imaging Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
This study used template-based diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography to analyze the microstructural integrity of commissure fiber tracts, and applied functional data statistics to analyze the age effect on the tract integrity. The anterior commissure fibers were highly sensitive to the aging effect across the lifespan. The poster commissure fibers became sensitive to the aging effect after 60 years old. In contrast, the age effect of poster commissure fibers appears to occur after age of 60 years old. In conclusion, our study provides evidences for specific degenerative patterns of the commissure fibers tracts in normal ageing which may serve as a useful reference for neurodegenerative diseases.


16 Coupled changes in hippocampal integrity and cognitive ability in later life
Devasuda Anblagan1,2, Maria C Valdés Hernández1, Stuart J Ritchie2,3, Benjamin S Aribisala1,2, Natalie A Royle1,2, Iona F Hamilton1, David A Dickie1, Susana Munoz Maniega1, Mark E Bastin1,2, Ian J Deary2,3, and Joanna M Wardlaw1,2
1Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom,3Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
We tested whether there were coupled changes in hippocampal volume, T1, MTR, FA and MD and three broad cognitive domains (Verbal Memory, Working Memory, and Speed) in a large sample of community-dwelling non-demented adults at 73 and 76 years of age. Hippocampal volume, FA, MTR and T1 declined from age 73 to 76, while MD increased with age. Higher baseline MD was correlated with steeper cognitive decline in all three cognitive measures, but individuals with higher MD increases (i.e. more apparent deterioration in tissue integrity) also tended to show increases in Working Memory.


17 White Matter Structural Integrity and Cerebral Arterial Pathology in Normal Aging
Roman Fleysher1, Michael L Lipton1, Tatjana Rundek2, Richard Lipton3, and Carol Derby4
1Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States, 2Departments of Neurology and Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States, 3Saul R Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States, 4Saul R Korey Department of Neurology and Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States
Normal aging is associated with changes both in micro-structure of white matter of the brain and in cerebral vasculature. We test the hypothesis that these processes are related by examining the association between fractional anisotropy (a di?usion tensor imaging measure of structural integrity) and  pulsitility index (a transcranial Doppler ultrasound measure of abnormal arterial flow) in 70 years old and older adults free of stroke and dementia. We identified clusters of significant correlations between the measures, supporting this hypothesis.


18 Metabolic changes upon supervised aerobic exercise in old adults monitored with 1H MRSI.
Ulrich Pilatus1, Bianca Lienerth2, Katharina Dietz3, Sina Schwarz4, Johannes Fleckenstein4, Silke Matura3, Tobias Engeroff4, Eszter Füzéki4, Valentina A. Tesky3, Elke Hattingen1, Ralf Deichmann2, Lutz Vogt4, Winfried Banzer4, and Johannes Pantel3
1Neuroradiology, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 2Brain Imaging Center, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 3Institute of General Practice, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 4Institute of Sport Sciences, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
In an interventional study changes in metabolic profiles (NAA/tCr, NAA/tCho) upon aerobic exercise were studied comparing two subgroups of volunteers who performed/not-performed supervised aerobic exercise. We observed a difference between both groups which can mainly be assigned to increased NAA/tCho in the group performing exercise.


19 Age-related variability of functional connectivity in the basal ganglia in healthy elderly subjects and its implications for research in Parkinson’s disease
Ludovica Griffanti1, Philipp Stratmann2,3, Michal Rolinski2, Nicola Filippini1,2, Eniko Zsoldos2, Abda Mahmood2, Mika Kivimäki4, Archana Singh-Manoux4, Klaus P. Ebmeier2, and Clare E. Mackay2
1FMRIB centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Department of Informatics, Technische Universität München, München, Germany, 4Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
This exploratory study aims to identify factors that may account for variability in functional connectivity within the basal ganglia resting state network (BGN) in healthy subjects, to help the development of an imaging biomarker for Parkinson’s disease. To this purpose we explored the relationship between functional connectivity measures derived from resting state fMRI and several demographic, behavioral and motor variables, in a large population-based sample of healthy elderly subjects, participating in the Whitehall II imaging sub-study.


20 Aging Increases Markers of Inflammation and Alters Brain-Gut Interactions
Jared Hoffman1, Vikas Bakshi2, Ishita Parikh2, Janet Guo3, Rachel Armstrong3, Steve Estes4, and Ai-Ling Lin1
1Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States, 2University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States, 3Lexington, KY, United States, 4Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States
Aging is the perhaps the greatest risk factor for the development of numerous health concerns, namely neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Recently, certain variations in the gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of neurological disease. We hypothesize that alterations of the gut microbiome from age may cause dysregulated brain-gut communication, promoting inflammation and ultimately, disease. Indeed, our preliminary data found old mice to have a distorted gut microbiota, decreased cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits, and distinct levels of certain brain metabolites than the young mice. 


21 The impact of HPG-axis activation to the brain morphometry: a combined surface-based and voxel-based study
Di Yang1, Yaxin Zhu1, Wenjing Zhang2, Su Lui2, and Zhihan Yan1
1Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China, People's Republic, Wenzhou, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Radiology, Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, People's Republic of China, Chengdu, China, People's Republic of
We investigated the impact of HPG-axis activity on brain morphometry. A total number of 52 subjects were recruited and scanned structural MRI.HPG-axis activated girls had less cortical thickness in the left inferiorparietal relative to comparison subjects. Meanwhile, gray matter volume was greater in the left precuneus in the focused group, relative to the control group. We found a positive correlation between circulating FSH and volume after excluded one outlier. This study demonstrates that there is some puberty-related maturation of the brain morphometry that is not confounded by age in the earlier stage of puberty.


22 Visceral Adiposity, Inflammation and Cortical Thickness in Midlife - Permission Withheld
Sonya Kaur1, Stephanie Oleson1, Evan Pasha2, Carolyn Cassill1, Hirofumi Tanaka2, and Andreana Haley1
1Psychology, University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX, United States, 2Kinesiology, University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX, United States
The number of individuals classified as obese or overweight has doubled in the last two decades . In addition to documented effects of obesity on physical health, obesity is also associated with significantly deleterious effects on the brain, including increased risk for dementia. It has been hypothesized that the negative effects of obesity on central nervous system functioning are driven by visceral fat, which is metabolically active. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are poorly understood. Here, we propose to directly test the role of systemic inflammation as a mediator of the relationship between visceral fat and brain structure in middle aged adults


23 Distinguishing Between Different Aging-Related Cognitive Impairments Using GABA and Glx
Dandan Huang1, Hongyan Ni2, Dan Liu2, and Tianyi Qian3
1First Central Clinical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 2Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 3Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Several previous studies have tried to use MRS to investigate changes in brain function. In this study, we used a MEGA-PRESS sequence to measure the GABA and Glx concentration of normal controls, normal elderly controls, and patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. In ACC, the Glx showed significant differences between each groups, and the GABA showed significant aging effects in normal subjects.


24 Diabetes Mellitus Alters Brain Iron Metabolism in Cognitive Impaired Patients: Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) Study
Won-Jin Moon1, Yeon Sil Moon2, Jin Woo Choi1, Won Sung Yoon1, Ju Yeon Park1, and Seol-Heui Han2
1Department of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
We found that the presence of DM is not associated with vacular risk factors on imaging and brain volumes, but associated with decreased susceptibility in left thalamus. Our results indicate that there may be a region-specific alteration of iron accumulation and iron metabolism in patients with both AD and DM.

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