ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Electronic Poster Session: Neuro 3

4340 -4363 Human Brain Tumours 2: Response to Treatment
4364 -4387 Neuromuscular Disease & Stroke
4388 -4411 Spine Imaging
4412 -4435 Fetal, Neonatal & Pediatric Imaging
4436 -4459 Cool Studies Using Animal Models

Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

1 Investigation of Varied Readout Sequences Impact on the Amide Proton Transfer Contrast - Permission Withheld
Chien-Yuan Eddy Lin1,2, Bing Wu2, Rui Li3, and Ma Lin 3
1GE Healthcare, Taipei, Taiwan, 2GE Healthcare MR Research China, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3PLA general hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
The aim of this study was to understand whether amide proton transfer (APT) contrast on brain tumor patient will be impacted by applying three different imaging sequences, spin-echo EPI, single-shot FSE, and a recent developed 3D FSE spiral. Although our finding on APT contrast appears to be similar among various sequences, careful consideration may be required when choosing the appropriate CEST readout sequences for your own applications.


2 2HG Optimized PRESS MRS for Metabolic Profiling of IDH-mutant Gliomas in Patient-Derived Orthotropic Mouse Model of Human Brain Tumor
Vivek Tiwari1, Tomoyuki Mashimo2, Sandeep Kumar Ganji1, Zhongxu An1, Keith Hulsey3, Vamsidhara Vemireddy2, Shanrong Zhang1, Elizabeth Maher2, Robert Bachoo2, and Changho Choi1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States,3Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) is elevated in gliomas harboring IDH1 or IDH2 mutations, and can be a biomarker for the diagnosis of IDH-mutant gliomas. The present study was undertaken to develop PRESS MRS Methodology for 2HG-detection with enhanced precision, and studying 2HG kinetics together with metabolic profiling in Patient-Derived Xenograft Orthotropic Mouse model. In-vivo PRESS MRS was performed at an optimized long-TE of 96ms. A large inverted-signal of 2HG at 2.25-ppm was obtained from IDH-mutant gliomas, well separated from neighboring signals of positive-polarity, with minimal interference from macromolecules. The method was successfully employed to detect 2HG and brain metabolism with tumor progression.


3 Cerebral blood volume MRI elucidates the impact of ERK1 on high grade glioma growth and invasion
Min-Chi Ku1, Andreas Pohlmann1, Sonia Waiczies1, Joao dos Santos Periquito1, Till Huelnhagen1, and Thoralf Niendorf1
1Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany
Glioma progression involves complex interactions of tumor vasculature and infiltrating anti-tumor immune cells. As we previously found that mouse lacking ERK1 formed significantly smaller tumors, it was still not clear whether ERK1 deletion in the tumor vascular architecture might influence the outcome of glioma growth. To further study this, we examined the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in the glioma tumor. R2* changes induced by a blood-pool contrast agent, ferumoxytol, were quantified. Here, we established a model system to noninvasively monitor brain tumor angiogenesis, and found evidence supporting the role of ERK1 in regulating glioma growth via angiogenesis.


4 Dynamic Contrast Enhanced perfusion MRI in pediatric brain tumors
Rupsa Bhattacharjee1, Prativa Sahoo2, Pradeep Kumar Gupta3, and Rakesh Kumar Gupta3
1Healthcare, Philips India ltd, Gurgaon, India, 2Healthcare, Philips India ltd, Bangalore, India, 3Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, India
Perfusion Studies in Pediatric Brain Tumors is a less explored area due to technical challenges of performing contrast enhanced perfusion in infant and children. This study is the first preliminary study reported in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI perfusion involving both high grade and low grade brain tumors. Purpose of this study is to quantify the range of various perfusion metrics in high and low grade tumor as well as normal gray and white matter regions of brain. This ongoing study shows significant statistical difference in cerebral blood volume and fractional plasma volume in high grade and low grade tumor population. 


5 Adiabatic T2-Prepared 3D Fast Gradient Echo Imaging for Brain Tumor Studies at 7T
Peng Cao1, Angela Jakary1, Yan Li1, Sarah J. Nelson1, Doug Kelley2, and Peder E. Z. Larson1
1Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States
Mechanisms to create a homogenous T2 contrast at 7T should be robust to both B0 and B1 inhomogeneities. This issue was addressed by applying a zero-degree BIR-4 adiabatic pulse for T2 preparation. Simulation and in vivo experiments in mouse brain verified the robustness and contrast of the preparation scheme at 7T. Application of this method was further demonstrated in a study of a patient with a brain tumor. The adiabatic T2 weighting showed high intensity in the region of the tumor, suggesting that the proposed method is likely to be useful in screening and characterizing tumors.


6 Comparing the CEST imaging of Cerebral Glioma using APT and LOVARS
Taiyuan Liu1, Yan Bai2, Xiaolei Song3, Jinyuan Zhou3, Panli Zuo4, Benjamin Schmitt5, and Meiyun Wang2
1Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China, People's Republic of, 2Zhengzhou, China, People's Republic of, 3Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 5Macquarie Park, Australia
To evaluate the value of length and offset varied saturation (LOVARS) in the diagnosis of gliomas, and compared with amide proton transfer (APT), We  performed  the study using LOVARS and APT imaging technique .And we found that APT  images is useful in distinguishing  low-grade and high-grade glioma, while LOVARS phase images shows better contrast between glioma and peripheral tissue, and  the  internal heterogeneous components of the glioma.


7 Chemotherapy increases anti-correlation between default mode and attention networks - Permission Withheld
Suresh Emmanuel Joel1, Roberto Garcia Alvarez2, Juan Bachiller Egea3, Lucia Gonzalez Cortijo4, Vincente Martinez de Vega3, Rakesh Mullick1, and Mar Jimenez de la Pena3
1General Electric Global Research, Bangalore, India, 2General Electric Healthcare, Madrid, Spain, 3Departamento Diagnostico por la imagen, Hospital Universitario Quiron, Madrid, Spain, 4Departamento de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario Quiron, Madrid, Spain
More than three-fourth of chemotherapy treated cancer survivors have cognitive impairment, including memory loss, inability to think, lasting several years after completion of therapy, sometimes labelled as ‘chemobrain’. Previously, the default mode network (DMN) has been shown to be specifically vulnerable to chemotherapy. In this study we study changes in DMN connectivity after chemotherapy within the same patients. In healthy adults, the DMN is anti-correlated to task positive networks. We observe an increase in this anti-correlation between DMN regions and task positive network regions post-chemotherapy.


8 Predicting overall survival in glioblastoma patients from DTI, DCE and DSC MRI data acquired prior to surgery and post-chemoradiotherapy
Lawrence Kenning1, Martin Lowry2, Martin D Pickles1, Chris Roland Hill3, Shailendra Achawal3, and Chittoor Rajaraman3
1Centre for MR Investigations, Hull York Medical School at University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom, 2Hull York Medical School at University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom, 3Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, United Kingdom
DTI, DCE and DSC MRI parameters obtained pre-surgery and post-chemoradiotherapy were used to predict overall survival in a cohort of patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Results suggest that preoperative diffusivity measurements contain prognostic information about survival. Following chemoradiotherapy, Ktrans, ve, rCBV and tumour volumes were found to have significant prognostic value with higher values associated with shorter overall survival. Cox regression analysis identified 2 volumes and 2 MR parameters, confirming the Kaplan-Meier findings that preoperative DTI and post-chemoradiotherapy DCE parameters have added prognostic value to more traditional prognostic features such as tumour volume.


9 Optimizing Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo (MPRAGE) for Brain Tumor Detection
Jinghua Wang1, Mark Smith2, and Lili He3
1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 2Radiology, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States, 3Center for Perinatal Research, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
Gadolinium based contrast agents decrease T1 times in pathologic regions of the brain and improve image contrast and lesion visualization with increased sensitivity and specificity.  Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo (MPRAGE) sequence offer thinner slices, near seamless reformatting options, and lower specific absorption rates than 2D spin-echo based technique.  In this study, we optimize MPRAGE sequence using computer simulation to improve brain tumor enhancement and detection.  Compared with a Siemens default MPRAGE sequence, our optimized protocol greatly shortened scan time by around 60% without sacrificing tumor delectation sensitivity.


10 Diffusional kurtosis imaging for differentiating between high-grade glioma and primary central nervous system lymphoma
Haopeng Pang1, Yan Ren1, Zhenwei Yao1, Jingsong Wu1, Chengjun Yao1, Xuefei Dang2, Yong Zhang3, and Xiaoyuan Feng1
1Affiliated Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 2The 307th Hospital of Chinese People’s liberation Army, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
This study provided a new non-invasive method to better discriminate between high-grade gliomas and primary nervous system lymphomas. We found the kurtosis parameters (MK and K//) showed more obvious differences that can be used for differentiating between these two types of tumors than diffusion parameters (FA, MD, λ// and λ⊥). The ROC curve analysis showed MK and K// had the largest area under curve, which further confirmed that the kurtosis parameters MK and K// could better separate these tumors than traditional diffusion parameters.


11 Automated extraction of glioblastoma tumor sub-components using multi-modal MRI - Permission Withheld
Sushmita Datta1, Jay-Jiguang Zhu2, Roy F Riascos-Castaneda1, and Ponnada A Narayana1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States, 2Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States
Automated quantification of tumors and its components are important in monitoring disease status in glioblastoma patients. We have proposed an automatic segmentation procedure based on morphological grayscale reconstruction techniques to classify and identify tumor sub-regions using multi-modal MRI. 


12 Characterizing metabolic profiles in non-enhancing gliomas using 3D MRSI
Yan Li1, Tracy L Luks1, Jason C Crane1, Sarah J Nelson1, and Tracy R McKnight2
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program, University of California, Oakland, CA, United States
This study evaluated the metabolite profiles that were acquired using short and long echo time (TE) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) for forty patients with non-enhancing gliomas, including 25 grade 2 and 15 grade 3 gliomas. Metabolite differences were detected between the lesions and white matter, as well as between grades. There were also differences in the T2 values between metabolites within the lesions that could influence the Cho/NAA ratios between short and long TE MRSI.


13 Enhanced brain labeling by atlas registration in Neuro-oncology using virtual tumor shrinking - Permission Withheld
Hariharan Ravishankar1, Igor Barani2, Sheshadri Thiruvenkadam1, Marc Mabray2, KS Shriram1, SoonMee Cha2, Rakesh Mullick3, and Suresh Emmanuel Joel3
1General Electric Global Research, Bangalore, India, 2University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Diagnostic Imaging and Biomedical Technologies, General Electric Global Research, Bangalore, India
In this work, we address the problem of registration of brain images to atlases in presence of large, space-occupying tumor pathologies. We provide an integrated registration framework to address two types of tumors - a) infiltrating tumors - which penetrate the surrounding tissues b) extrinsic tumors - which grow and compress the surrounding tissues. We propose a mathematical model to shrink extrinsic tumors before registration, thereby reversing the compression effects.


14 Improved Modeling of Glioblastoma Proliferation and Necrosis using Growth Parameters Derived from MRI
Vishal Patel1 and Leith Hathout2
1University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States
We outline a new model for the proliferation and necrosis of glioblastoma multiforme.  Our approach uniquely accounts both for the anisotropic migration of tumor cells through brain parenchyma and for central tumor necrosis.  Model parameters relating to cell division, cell migration, and tumor necrosis are estimated directly from serial MR imaging to generate a customized growth profile for each tumor.  The proposed model is shown to replicate observed tumor growth more closely than existing techniques.  We anticipate that improved modeling of tumor growth profiles will enable more effective tailoring of treatment regimens.


15 Quantitative DCE-MRI for differentiating high grade glioma recurrence from treatment-related changes:  Effect of T1 mapping method
Greg O. Cron1,2,3, Beckie Manouchehri4, Andrew Boivin3, Nader Zakhari1,3, Brandon Zanette5,6, Gerard H. Jansen1,2,3, John Woulfe1,2,3, Rebecca E. Thornhill1,2,3, Andreas Greiser7, Ian G. Cameron1,2,3,4, and Thanh B. Nguyen1,2,3
1The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 4Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada,5University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 6Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 7Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany
After a patient has received treatment for a high grade glioma, a new enhancing lesion presents a common diagnostic dilemma:  Malignant tumor recurrence and benign treatment-related changes (TRC) appear similar on conventional MRI.  MRI tracer kinetic studies may help distinguish recurrence from TRC.  We investigated whether Ktrans measurements using quantitative DCE-MRI can accurately diagnose recurrence.  We also studied the effect of the DCE T1 mapping method (VFA versus LL).  Ktrans values in recurrent tumor were higher than in TRC, providing sensitivity of 69-77%, specificity of 100%.  The choice of T1 mapping had little effect on diagnostic accuracy.  


16 Differentiation of Glioblastoma from Brain Metastasis: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis using Pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging
Leonard Sunwoo1,2, Tae Jin Yun2,3, Roh-Eul Yoo2,3, Soo Chin Kim2,4, and Hye Young Sun2,4
1Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea, Republic of, 2Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 4Radiology, Seoul National University Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could be used to assess the tumor blood flow (TBF). To distinguish glioblastoma (GBM) from brain metastasis, we compared TBF between the two groups by using visual grading and quantitative analyses. Both intratumoral and peritumoral blood flow were significantly higher in GBM than in brain metastasis. We propose that ASL-TBF can aid in differentiating GBM from brain metastasis either by qualitative or by quantitative methods.


17 Changes in DTI and DSC Parameters as Markers for Assessing Treatment Response in Glioblastomas
Sumei Wang1, Sanjeev Chawla1, Maria Martinez-Lage2, Tianyu Yin1, Gaurav Verma1, Robert A Lustig3, Steven Brem4, Suyash Mohan1, Ronald L Wolf1, Arati Desai5, and Harish Poptani6
1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 5Hematology-Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 6Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
The study was performed to determine whether changes in DTI and DSC parameters can aid in differentiating glioblastomas with pseudo-progression (PsP) from true-progression (TP) and partial response. MRI data from thirty patients with these diagnoses (based on pathological evaluation and clinical follow-up) were included. All patients underwent two MR scans before pathological confirmation. A significant increase in median rCBV and rCBVmax value was noted in TP compared with PsP, while none of the DTI parameters showed significant differences between groups. Our preliminary results indicate that changes in rCBV may be helpful in identifying PsP from TP.


18 Which is the best predictor for histological grade of glioma: DWI, MRS, 11C-methionine -, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose -PET - Permission Withheld
Keiichi Kikuchi1, Yoshiyasu Hiratsuka1, Shiro Ohue2, Shohei Kohno2, and Teruhito Mochizuki1
1Radiology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan, 2Neurosurgery, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan
Various imaging modalities are commonly used for preoperative examinations of brain tumors. Here we evaluated the specificity of ADC, MRS, and PET-CT to predict the WHO glioma grade and identified potential correlations with the Ki-67 index as a marker of tumor cell proliferation. In this limited patients series, minimum ADC was the best predictor of the histological glioma grade and it was also significantly negatively correlated with the Ki-67 index indicating its potential as a reliable marker of cellular proliferation.


19 Histogram analytics and data mining of multiparametric FMRI (perfusion, diffusion) in   preoperative histologic prediction of posterior fossa tumors.
Shanker Raja1, Ali Daghriri2, Sadeq Wasil Al Dandan3, Tariq Ahmad Wani4, Muhammad Usman Manzoor5, Abdullah Ali Alrashed2, Sarah Farooq6, William Plishker7, and Sharad George8
1Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Bellaire, TX, United States, 2Medical Imaging, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 4KFMC-Riyadh, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 5Radiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 6King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 7IGI Technologies, College Park, MD, United States, 8Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
Histogram metrics derived from a combination   preoperative MRI: AFDC and perfusion maps, appear to be promising in differentiation of posterior tumors


20 Perfusion MRI as the predictive/prognostic and Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers in Recurrent Malignant Glioma Treated with Bevacizumab: A Systematic Review and a time-to-event meta-analysis
Kyung Won Kim1, Sang Hyun Choi1, Seung Chai Jung1, Ja Youn Lee2, Ho Sung Kim1, and Seong Ho Park1
1Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
The current evidence in the literature shows that the rCBV of DSC-MRI is the most widely used perfusion MRI parameter. The rCBV can be used to predict disease progression and overall survival in patients with recurrent malignant glioma treated with BVZ. Various perfusion MRI parameters from DSC-MRI and DCE-MRI could play a role as pharmacodynamic biomarkers to evaluate the drug’s anti-angiogenic effect on tumor.


21 Is there an optimal acquisition delay for postcontrast quantitative MRI of brain metastasis? - Permission Withheld
Koung Mi Kang1, Seung Hong Choi1, Moonjung Hwang2, Soo Chin Kim3, Ji-Hoon Kim4, Tae Jin Yun4, and Chul-Ho Sohn4
1Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare, Seoul, R.Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3SNUH healthcare system gangnam center, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 4Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
In the brain metastasis, T1 shortening after the administration of gadolinium contrast agent may vary with the timing of contrast administration. Synthetic MRI enables quantitative measurements with relatively short times. Our study aimed to determine the optimal acquisition delay for quantitative imaging of brain metastases with contrast-enhanced synthetic MRI. This study revealed that there was no significant difference and relationship in the histogram parameters between three different delay time points of immediately, 8 minutes and 20 minutes after the contrast injection. Therefore, postcontrast quantitative MRI might be acquired regardless of time within 20 minutes.


22 Differentiating radiation-induced brain necrosis from  glioma recurrence: using 3-Dimensional arterial spin labeling and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging - Permission Withheld
1Radiology, PLA General Hospital, beijing, China, People's Republic of
Perfusion made it possible to obtain measurements of vascularity within brain lesions. The vascularity of malignant tumor differs dramatically from that of radiation necrosis. Thus, tumor recurrence within irradiated lesions may be differentiated from regions of radiation necrosis with perfusion. 64 patients were prospectively entered into the study on the basis of the following criteria: previous treatment with radiation therapy after surgical resection for intraaxial tumors; new development of enhancing lesions within the radiation field. To compare 3D-ASL with DSC and to see whether 3D ASL-derived CBF values can be used as an alternative to DSC for their differentiation.


23 Can cerebral lymphomas and glioblastomas be differentiated based on histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images?
Tatsuya Yamamoto1, Yuriko Ohtani2, and Hirohiko Kimura1
1Department of Radiology, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan, 2Division of Radiology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui, Japan
Cerebral lymphomas are sometimes difficult to distinguish from glioblastomas based on routine magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Therefore, this study assessed the utility of a histogram analysis of the intratumoral enhanced region, using contrast-enhanced T1WI (CET1WI) with a 3D-spoiled gradient recalled aquisition in the steady state (SPGR) sequence, for cerebral lymphomas and glioblastomas, to determine whether the histogram parameters differed between the two tumors. There was significant difference (p < 0.01) in skewness between lymphomas and glioblastomas. This suggests the possibility of differential diagnosis of cerebral lymphomas and glioblastomas by histogram analysis of CET1WI.


24 Multiparametric quantitative MRI of meningiomas (H2O, T1, T2*, kurtosis) for microscopic tissue characterization
A.M. Oros-Peusquens1,2, M. Zimmermann3, E. Iordanishvili1, O. Nikoubashman4, F. Jablawi4, B Ulus4, G Neuloh4, H. Cluesmann5, M. Wiesmann4, and N.J. Shah1
1Institute of Medicine and Neuroscience (INM-4), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 2Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4 (INM-4), Research centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 3Institute of Medicine and Neuroscience (INM-4), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Georgia, 4University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany, 5university Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Differentiation between meningioma types has implications in preoperative planning but is seldom achieved by conventional MRI. We investigate a multiparameter quantitative characterization of meningioma in clinically acceptable measurement times characterizing each tumour by its “qMRI fingerprint”. The parameters included are water content, T1, T2* and diffusion maps (MD, FA, MK, axonal water fraction, tortuosity) derived from a diffusion kurtosis acquisition. The “qMRI fingerprints” are distinct for each tumour.
Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

25 Cell treatment improves recovery after stroke in type two diabetic rats measured by MRI
Guangliang Ding1, Jieli Chen1, Michael Chopp1,2, Lian Li1, Tao Yan1,3, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd1, Qingjiang Li1, Chengcheng Cui1, Siamak P.N. Davarani1, and Quan Jiang1
1Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 3Tianjin Geriatrics Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of
With a suture 2-hour occlusion and reperfusion stroke model and a low dose Streptozotocin injection combined with a high fat food diet diabetic model of young adult Wistar rats, longitudinal measurements of MRI demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cell treatment of stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats, compared with the saline treated control rats, not only significantly reduced blood-brain barrier leakage and hemorrhagic spots starting from 1 week and 3 weeks after stroke (p<0.05) measured by contrast enhanced T1WI with Gd-DTPA and identified by SWI, respectively; but also significantly improves white matter remodeling after stroke measured by DSI.


26 The MIPP study: Monitoring Intracranial atherosclerotic Plaque Progression using high resolution MRI - initial results
Chengcheng Zhu1, Xuefeng Zhang2, Andrew J Degnan3, Qi Liu2, Luguang Chen2, Zhongzhao Teng4, David Saloner1, and Jianping Lu2
1Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 3Radilogy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Intracranial large artery atheroma is a major cause of stroke, however its natural history is still poorly understood. In this study we followed 63 symptomatic patients who had intracranial atherosclerotic plaque for up to 3 years. Multi-contrast black blood vessel wall MRI and clinical brain imaging were performed. Initial results included 22 patients who were followed for 6 months showed an overall plaque volume progression rate of 0.8%, however with a large standard deviation (20.1%) and range (-45.9% to 40.1%). Patients with hypertension or low HDL tended to progress faster. The feasibility of MRI for monitoring intracranial plaque pathological changes was demonstrated.  


27 Simultaneous Time-Encoding for Bi-Polar (STEP) MRA combining Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) and Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery Black-Blood (PSIR-BB)
Tokunori Kimura1, Naotakata Sakashita1, and Mitsue Miyazaki2
1Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan, 2Toshiba Medical Research Institute, Vernon Hills, IL, United States
We proposed and assessed a simultaneous time-encoding for bipolar MRA technique (STEP-MRA), combining both the 4DASL-MRA of nulling background signals and PSIR BB-MRA with preserving Mz polarities and background stationary signals, which allows simultaneously providing using the same acquired data as the standard 4DASL-MRA. In addition, vessel visualization and SNR were improved by synthesizing multiple TI data. Although further parameter optimization and clinical evaluation are required, our proposed method has a potential to provide various information with limited acquisition data. 


28 High-resolution intracranial vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in an elderly asymptomatic population: comparison of 3.0T and 7.0T
Anita A. Harteveld1, Anja G. van der Kolk1, H. Bart van der Worp2, Nikki Dieleman1, Jeroen C.W. Siero1, Hugo J. Kuijf3, Catharina J.M. Frijns2, Peter R. Luijten1, Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg1,3, and Jeroen Hendrikse1
1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
In recent years, multiple intracranial vessel wall MRI sequences have been developed for direct evaluation of the intracranial vessel wall and its pathology in vivo. These studies have mainly been performed on 3T and 7T field strengths. In the current study, we compared 3T and 7T MRI for visualizing both healthy intracranial arterial vessel wall as well as possible vessel wall lesions. Vessel wall visibility was significantly better at 7T even though there were more artefacts hampering assessment. Overall, more lesions were scored on 7T images; however – surprisingly – only half of all 3T lesions were seen at 7T.


29 High Resolution Whole Brain Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging at 3T and 7T
Chengcheng Zhu1, Henrik Haraldsson1, Karl Meisel2, Nerissa Ko2, Michael Lawton3, John Grinstead4, Sinyeob Ahn4, Gerhard Laub4, Christopher Hess1, and David Saloner1
1Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Siemens Healthcare, San Francisco, CA, United States
High resolution MRI of the intracranial vessel wall provides important capabilities for the assessment of intracranial vascular disease including atherosclerotic plaques and aneurysms. This study developed and optimized 3D high resolution (0.5mm isotropic) techniques for intracranial vessel wall imaging at 3T and 7T. The abilities of 3T clinical scanners and 7T research scanners were systematically compared through theoretical simulations and in vivo patient studies. We found 3D T1-weighted SPACE sequence could be used for whole brain intracranial vessel wall evaluation at both 3T and 7T. 7T provides significantly better image quality and improves the confidence of diagnosis.


30 Altered Temporal Dynamics in BOLD Measurements of Vascular Reserve in Children with Sickle Cell Disease
Jackie Leung1, James Duffin2, and Andrea Kassner1,3
1Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measured with BOLD MRI can be robustly acquired by altering blood flow with a square-wave CO2 stimulus. However, the BOLD response to a step change is confounded by a temporal lag and transient period of signal change. Differences in temporal response between different tissues can lead to CVR underestimation. Transfer function analysis (TFA) provides a frequency domain analysis of CVR that is less sensitive to temporal variations. This study compares the results of TFA to conventional CVR analysis in children with and without sickle cell disease. 


31 Diffusion Corrected Aneurysm Wall Permeability as a Measure of Rupture Risk
Charles G Cantrell1, Parmede Vakil1,2, Sameer A Ansari3, and Timothy J Carroll1,3
1Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern, Chicago, IL, United States, 2College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Radiology, Northwestern, Chicago, IL, United States
We report the first evidence of diffusion corrected DCE-MRI modeled contrast permeability in intracranial aneurysms and show the diffusion model more accurately represents physiology than previous methods.  Permeability metrics, as measured in 23 patients, demonstrate a statistically significant trend with rupture risk as defined by anatomic imaging and clinical risk factors. 


32 Estimation of the Evolution of Cerebral Ischemia by MRI with T1 Relaxation Time in Rotating Frame and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient - Video Not Available
Yuefa Tan1, Ruiying Chen1, Bin Chen1, Juan Xu1, Daokun Ren1, Yingjie Mei2, Queenie Chan3, Yuankui Wu1, and Yikai Xu1
1Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of, 2Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of, 3Philips Healthcare, HongKong, China, People's Republic of
This study was to evaluate the abilities of T1ρ and ADC to estimate the duration of ischemia in human, and focus on clinical application. We take a cross-sectional study to collect patients with brain ischemia in period of time(March 2014 to February 2015), and exploit the characteristics of ADC and T1ρ in brain ischemia in various stages of ischemia and uncover their relationships with ischemia stages. Our results indicate that T1ρ parametric results were elevated in the ischemic lesion, and increased over time of ischemia in a linear fashion. 


33 Assessment of cortical cerebrovascular permeability using 3-dimension pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and T1 dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging in moyamoya disease - Permission Withheld
Yan Ren1, Qian Zhou1, Haopeng Pang1, Yong Zhang2, Zihua Su3, and Zhenwei Yao1
1Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 2MR Research, GE Healthcare, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 3Advanced application, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
In moyamoya disease (MMD), the compensatory collateralization from external cerebral artery or bypass artery is essential to evaluate the severity of disease and perfusion efficacy of surgical revascularization. And the leptomeningeal anastomoses were regarded as significant contributors to the collateral blood supply. However, the characteristic of the compensatory collateralization has not been clarified up to now, such as the permeability of vessels, which could be the reason of rehemarrhage and other complications after the surgical revascularization for MMD. We hypothesize the high permeability of collateralization leads to rehemarrhage in MMD. In this work, quantitative assessment of 3D-pCASL and DCE-MRI suggests no significant increased permeability in the cortical areas with collateral neovascularization in MMD.  


34 T1 weighted, black blood variable flip angle spin echo imaging utilizing variable density, distributed spirals and a low rank reconstruction
Kevin M Johnson1, Leonardo Rivera-Rivera1, and Patrick A Turski2
1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States


35 Intracranial vessel wall and cerebrovascular reactivity imaging provides evidence for mechanistic differences in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic stenotic disease
Petrice M Cogswell1, L Taylor Davis1, Megan K Strother2, Carlos C Faraco1, Lori C Jordan3, Blaise deB Frederick4, Jeroen Hendrikse5, and Manus J Donahue1
1Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2DXP Imaging, Louisville, KY, United States, 3Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4McLean Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 5University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
No study to date has assessed the relationship between intracranial vessel plaque and wall thickening and its impact on tissue-level function. A novel intracranial vessel wall imaging protocol and BOLD imaging were applied in patients with intracranial stenosis secondary to atherosclerosis and moyamoya disease (non-atherosclerotic stenosis).  The time of maximum correlation of BOLD data with the applied stimulus, the CVR time, calculated using a novel time regression technique, is prolonged in vascular territories with a proximal vessel wall lesion for both atherosclerosis and moyamoya patients.  The maximum z-statistic, a qualitative metric of CVR, is decreased in vascular territories with a proximal vessel wall lesion in moyamoya patients only.


36 Neurovascular Reactivity in Smokers and Nonsmokers Measured by High-Speed MR Flow Mapping During Volitional Apnea
Felix W Wehrli1, Yongxia Zhou1, Zachary B Rodgers1, and Michael C Langham1
1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
Smoking is well known to cause vasoconstriction as a result of the formation of reactive oxygen species, which reduce nitric oxide availability. Vasomotor reactivity can be measured in terms of the change in cerebral blood flow in response to a hypercapnic challenge. Here we measured the change in superior sagittal sinus flow at 2-second temporal resolution during breath-hold (a predominantly hypercapnic stimulus) and computed a breath-hold index (BHI) as the slope of the flow velocity-time curve in 20 nonsmokers and 13 chronic smokers. The data suggest reduced BHI in the smoking group (0.252±0.097 vs. 0.306±0.098 cm/s2, p<0.07) indicative of dysregulation of vascular reactivity.


37 Non-contrast enhanced 4D intracranial MR angiography based on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (PCASL) with the keyhole technique
Makoto Obara1, Osamu Togao2, Tomoyuki Okuaki3, Shuhei Shibukawa4, Masami Yoneyama1, and Marc Van Cauteren3
1Healthcare, Philips Electronics Japan Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 3Philips Healthcare, Tokyo, Japan,4Department of Radiology, Tokai University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan
A non-contrast enhanced intracranial three-dimensional dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (4D-MRA) based on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling with the  keyhole technique (4D-PACK) was implemented. Images acquired from three volunteers were compared with the data acquired without the keyhole technique. We show that the 4D-PACK can accelerate acquisition speed, while keeping flow dynamics information.


38 Feasibility of Combining Perforating Artery Imaging and Whole Brain Vessel Wall Imaging at 7T
Zihao Zhang1,2, Qi Yang3,4, Zhaoyang Fan3, Xianchang Zhang1,2, Yujiao Yang4, Jing An5, Zhentao Zuo1, and Rong Xue1,6
1State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Beijing MR Center for Brain Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Graduate School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 5Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, China, People's Republic of, 6Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
    In this study, we improved TOF-MRA and T1w-SPACE to a higher resolution for imaging perforating arteries and intracranial vessel walls at 7T. With the combination of the two techniques, we are for the first time able to depict the position of perforators and the vessel wall lesion in patients with ICAD. Small changes within the vessel wall may be revealed, and the certainty of the diagnosis may become better established, enabling better therapeutic management.


39 High-resolution whole-brain intracranial vessel wall MRI at 3T: Technical considerations toward a clinically practical imaging approach to stroke etiology assessment
Zhaoyang Fan1, Qi Yang1,2, Zixin Deng1,3, Shlee Song4, Xiuhai Guo5, Wouter Schievink6, Xiaoming Bi7, Gerhard Laub7, Patrick Lyden4, and Debiao Li1,3
1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Beijing, CA, United States, 5Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 6Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7MR R&D, Siemens Healthcare, Los Angeles, CA, United States
High-resolution MR using variable-flip-angle 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) has emerged as a promising intracranial vessel wall imaging technique. However, its typical implementations on clinically available MR systems have several limitations. This work aimed to develop a 3D FSE-based method that allows for CSF-attenuated T1-weighted whole-brain vessel wall imaging within 8 min. Volunteer studies were performed during technical optimization. Preliminary clinical validation was conducted in patients with various vessel wall pathologies. The technique demonstrated excellent vessel wall delineation quality, diagnostic accuracy, and patient tolerance. It may potentially become a clinically practical imaging approach to stroke etiology assessment.     


40 Iterative algorithm for the temporal decomposition of the cerebrovascular reactivity dynamic response in neurovascular patients.
Marco Piccirelli1, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik2, Oliver Bozinov2, Athina Pangalu1, Antonio Valavanis1, Luca Regli2, and Jorn Fierstra2
1Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Our iterative algorithm evaluates transient phases of BOLD fMRI signal dynamics during a CO2 pseudo-square wave challenge and optimizes CO2 arrival time determination to increase sensitivity and reliability of cerebrovascular reactivity analysis. On 25 healthy controls and unilateral internal carotid occlusion patients, all BOLD-derived parameters maps are normalized in MNI space and combined for reference atlases and assess alterations within single patient. The transient phase durations, temporal delay maps and dynamic and static CVR maps were calculated. We determined the optimal CO2 arrival time and found that excluding the transient phases resulted in the best fit to the physiological data.


41 Patterns of bold signal responses to progressive hypercapnia enhance the interpretation of underlying cerebrovascular pathologies
Joseph A Fisher1,2,3, Olivia Sobczyk1, Adrian P Crawley4, Julien Poublanc4, Paul Dufort1, Lashmi Venkatraghavan5, David J Mikulis1,4, and James Duffin2,3
1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Departments of Anaesthesia, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4Joint Department of Medical Imaging and the Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada, 5Department of Anaesthesia, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada
We surveyed the varied patterns of BOLD changes in response to a ramp CO2 stimulus ranging from hypocapnia to hypercapnia in 10 healthy individuals and 10 patients with steno-occlusive disease.  The patterns of response fell into 4 types, based on the two linear slopes fitted to each range.  Maps of these types on a voxel by voxel basis were compared to cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) calculated as the linear slope over the whole ramp.  We suggest that for assessing cerebrovascular reactivity, CVR and type scoring enhance the interpretation of each other, and that modeling the possible underlying patho/physiologies to explain the type patterns is the portal to further work.  


42 Evaluation of the cross flow for anterior communicating artery aneurysms using 4D-Flow MRI
Yoshiyuki Watanabe1, Hiroto Takahashi1, Hisashi Tanaka1, Atsuko Arisawa1, Chisato Matsuo1, Eri Yoshioka1, Hajime Nakamura2, and Noriyuki Tomiyama1
1Radiology, Osaka University, Suita, Japan, 2Neurosurgery, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
The purpose of this study was to elucidate in vivo analysis of the flow dynamics of ACOM aneurysms from both A1 arteries using 4D-Flow and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). 2 out of 8 ACOM aneurysms showed intra-aneurysm flow from both A1 arteries and 6 other patients showed the unilateral A1 inflow. Inflow findings of all patients are consistent with 4D-Flow and DSA. 4D-FLOW MRI is able to visualize cross flow in ACOM aneurysms.


43 Functional Reorganization of the Brain in Ischemic Stroke Patients after the Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: a fMRI Study
Jing Li1, Xuewei Zhang2, Jie Lu1, Zhentao Zuo3, Rong Xue3, Yong Fan4, Yuzhou Guan5, and Weihong Zhang1
1Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Interventional Radiology, China Meitan General Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Beijing MR Center for Brain Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 4Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 5Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
It is a resting-state fMRI( rs-fMRI) study of patients with motor disturbance after acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the functional connectivity (FC) changes of the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) within the brain before and after the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by rs-fMRI. The research not only gave theoretical support of the rTMS treatment in stroke patients but also investigated the cerebral functional changes in motor recovery.


44 Evaluation of perfusion and hypoxia parameters in healthy subjects and patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis
Stephan Kaczmarz1, Jens Göttler1, Anne Kluge1, Dimitrios C. Karampinos2, Claus Zimmer1, and Christine Preibisch1,3
1Department of Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 3Clinic for Neurology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
Severe intracranial arterial stenosis (SIAS) is a major health issue as it often accounts for strokes.  Here, we present preliminary data from a clinical study in patients with SIAS compared to healthy controls. The major aim was to evaluate the reliability of perfusion and oxygenation related measures by analyzing their hemispheric symmetry to assess their potential diagnostic capabilities. Preliminary results imply symmetry of all measures between hemispheres of healthy controls. Regarding patients, only pCASL-based CBF implies a reduced perfusion on the side of carotid artery stenosis which is in accordance to recent literature and is currently under further investigation.


45 Arterial Spin Labeling MRI Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Reserve with Acetazolamide in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease
Lena Václavu1, Henk Mutsaerts2, Pim van Ooij1, Bart J Biemond3, John C Wood4, Charles BLM Majoie1, Ed van Bavel5, and Aart J Nederveen1
1Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands,4Cardiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI was employed with an acetazolamide challenge to probe the cerebrovascular physiology in patients with sickle cell disease and matched controls. Cerebral blood flow was estimated at baseline and cerebrovascular reserve(CVR) was calculated after vasodilation with acetazolamide. We found that patients had limited CVR compared to controls, and that the patients with the highest CBF at baseline also had the smallest response to acetazolamide. ASL-based CBF measurements with ACZ showed robust CVR results indicating the cerebral hemodynamics of some patients may be impaired.


46 Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted MR Imaging Signal as Predictor of Non Thrombolysis Treatment Efficiency for Stroke - Permission Withheld
Chunmei Li1, Guodong Song1, Yuhui Chen1, Xuna Zhao2, Jinyuan Zhou2, and Min Chen1
1Beijing Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States
This study is to evaluate the longitudinal Amide Proton Transfer-weighted (APTw) signal changes in patients with stroke after treatment. APT weighted images of stroke patients was acquired, including non-treatment and post treatment. 91.7% patients (22/24) showed gradual increased APT values with the extension of time, accompanied with the clinical symptoms improvement. The other 2 patients (8.3%) showed further decreased APT values in the second scan (the first scan after treatment), accompanied with the clinical symptoms aggravation. The increase of APT weighted signal may indicate the improvement of clinical symptoms while the decrease may indicate the aggravating of clinical symptoms. 


47 Diffusion kurtosis imaging for preliminary analysis of micro-structural changes of brain tissue affected by acute ischemic stroke
Liuhong Zhu1, Zhongping Zhang2, Qihua Cheng1, Phillip Zhe Sun3, and Gang Guo1
1Radiology, Xiamen Second Hospital, Xiamen, China, People's Republic of, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States
One hundred and thirteen patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent DKI sequence scanning. 131 lesions were outlined and divided into six groups. The changed percentages of DKI indices (FA%, MD%, Da%, Dr%, MK%, Ka%, Kr%) relative to normal contra-lateral ROI were computed. The statistical analysis results illustrated that there was a trend that when the acute ischemic stroke affected tissue mostly contained white matter, the complexity of micro-structure changes of the tissue was much higher than other affected locations. Also, the kurtosis-derived parameters presented to have greater potential in distinguishing each group.


48 Evaluation of Retrograde Embolization in Cryptogenic Stroke by Aortic 4D flow MRI and 3D TOF MRA
Michael Markl1, Edouard Semaan1, LeRoy Stromberg 1, James Carr1, Shyam Prabhakaran1, and Jeremy Collins1
1Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States
The purpose of this study was to employ aortic 4D flow MRI and brain TOF MRA for the evaluation of retrograde diastolic flow from the descending aorta into the supra-aortic vessels as a mechanism for embolic stroke. In 35 cryptogenic stroke patients, 4D flow MRI demonstrated close to 50% concordance with stroke location on imaging with retrograde diastolic flow into the feeding vessels of the affected cerebral area, identifying a potential etiology for cryptogenic stroke. Our findings further document the importance of taking into account variants in cerebrovascular anatomy which identified retrograde embolization risk in an additional 14% of subjects.
Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

49 Characterization of Regional and Longitudinal Changes in Z-spectra of Spinal Cord Injury
Feng Wang1,2, Zhongliang Zu1,2, Tung-Lin Wu2,3, John C. Gore1,2,3, and Li Min Chen1,2
1Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States
Non-human primates provide a valuable pre-clinical model for studying spinal cord injuries. Here we examine the fingerprints in the Z-spectra of abnormal tissues and cysts surrounding the lesion site after spinal cord injury, regionally and longitudinally. Characteristic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) effects extracted from Z-spectra may enable the non-invasive assessment of spontaneous recovery from traumatic injury.


50 In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Reveals Metabolite Changes in a Rat Model of Kainic Acid Induced Spinal Cord Injury
Mingming Zhu1, Alice H Shum-Siu2, Emily Martin3, David S Magnuson2, and Chin K Ng1
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, United States, 2Departments of Neurological Surgery, Anatomical Sciences & Neurobiology, and Bioengineering, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, United States
Current study was to focus on the proton MRS detection of metabolite profile of spinal cord gray matter just caudal to a kainic acid injury in rats 14 days after administration of the excitotoxic agent, and further to correlate the MRS findings to the histopathology of the animal model.  Quantitative evaluations of different metabolites were also performed to identify potential MR based biomarkers of neurotoxicity.


51 In vivo T1 mapping of the spinal cord using a reduced Field-of-View Inversion Recovery sequence (IR-ZOOM-EPI)
Marco Battiston1, Torben Schneider2, Claudia Angela Michela Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,3, and Rebecca S Samson1
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Philips Healthcare, Guildford, United Kingdom, 3Brain Connectivity Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy
The T1 relaxation time is a fundamental quantitative Magnetic Resonance parameter widely used to characterize healthy and pathological tissue. However, investigation of quantitative T1 in the human spinal cord has been limited to date. In this work, we propose a scan time efficient protocol in the spinal cord for Inversion Recovery T1 mapping, which is considered the “gold-standard” method. The mean (± standard deviation) T1 for white matter and grey matter in the cervical spinal cord were found to be respectively 1096 (±26) ms and 1153 (±24) ms.


52 Demyelination and remyelination: frequency shift assessment in lysolecithin rat model - Permission Withheld
Evan I Wen Chen1, Andrew Yung2, Barry Bohnet1, Alexander Rauscher1,3, and Piotr Kozlowski1,3
1MRI Research Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Research Scientist, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
GRE images provide strong gray/white matter contrast that is determined by the local MR resonance frequency, which has been shown to be strongly influenced by the local tissue microstructure. While studies have looked at well-defined architectures in rat spinal cord to study this biophysical mechanism, the specific effects of axon/myelin microstructure on frequency shifts is difficult to evaluate independently. Using lysolecithin to induce chemical demyelination while preserving axonal integrity, we assess predominantly myelin-related effects on frequency shifts in rat dorsal column as it demyelinates/remyelinates, providing insight important to applications of frequency shift mapping to demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.


53 A comprehensive assessment of cervical cord lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis on T1-MPRAGE at 3T: relationship with cord atrophy and disability
Paola Valsasina1, Maria Assunta Rocca1, Paolo Preziosa1, Mohammad Ahmad Abdullah Ali Aboulwafa1,2, Mark Andrew Horsfield3, Giancarlo Comi4, Andrea Falini5, and Massimo Filippi1
1Neuroimaging Research Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 2Clinical Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt,3Xinapse System Ltd, West Bergholt, Essex, United Kingdom, 4Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 5Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
In this study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of cervical cord lesions in 133 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on 3D T1-weighted scans at 3.0 T. Lesion occurrence, regional distribution, influence on cord atrophy and disability were evaluated. T1 lesions were detected in a large proportion (85%) of MS patients, with a higher frequency of cord lesions in the progressive than in the relapsing forms of the disease. There was only a modest correlation between cord T1 lesions and atrophy. Both cord T1 lesions and atrophy were significant and independent contributors to patient disability. 


54 Single acquisition multiple contrast spine MRI using accelerated quantitative mapping
Suchandrima Banerjee1, Ken-Pin Hwang2,3, Peng Lai1, Marcel Warntjes4, and Ajit Shankaranarayanan1
1Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 2Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Houston, TX, United States, 3Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 4Synthetic MR Technologies AB, Stockholm, Sweden
Recently, several techniques for rapid simultaneous mapping of proton density and T1, T2 relaxation parameters from a single acquisition and generation of synthetic images of any desired image contrast have been demonstrated, mostly in the brain. Such an approach could potentially shorten a spine MRI exam which typically consists of multiple 2D acquisitions with different contrast weightings. But even routine spine MRI is fraught with technical challenges such as motion and inhomogeneity. So in this work we explore the feasibility of obtaining synthetic MRI images of usable image quality in the spine using a 2D quantitative mapping technique.


55 Detection of Stellate Ganglion and Thoracic Sympathetic Chain Ganglia on Non-contrast CISS MRI
Ammar Chaudhry1, Arash Kamali2, Daniel Herzka 3, Kenneth C Wang4, John carrino5, and Ari Blitz2
1Diagnostic Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Elkridge, MD, United States, 2Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Radiology, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Radiology, Hospital of Special Surgery, New York, NY, United States
Thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia can be readily seen and well characterized on pre-contrast 3D-CISS MRI. This technique can aid in initial evaluation of potential stellate and/or SCG pathology as well allow for post-treatment follow-up. 


56 Magnetisation Transfer Ratio (MTR) Measurements in the Lumbar cord: A Pilot Study using ZOOM-EPI at 3T
Rebecca Sara Samson1, Marco Battiston1, Claudia Angela Michela Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,2, and Marios C Yiannakas1
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Brain Connectivity Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy
The Magnetisation Transfer Ratio (MTR), and quantitative Magnetisation Transfer (MT) parameters have proven to be sensitive to the diseased spinal cord (SC), however in vivo quantitative imaging of the cord is challenging. Rapid acquisition sequences such as Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) are desirable but may suffer from artefacts and image distortions. Here we present results from the use of single-shot ZOOM-EPI to reduce acquisition time and distortions in SC MTR mapping. The mean SC MTR value for 9 subjects was 38.8 (±4.05). The mean scan-rescan coefficient of variation for measuring SC MTR (from 5 subjects) was 4.39%.


57 Functional connectivity in spinal cord for clinical translation
Robert L Barry1,2, Benjamin N Conrad1, Seth A Smith1,2, and John C Gore1,2
1Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States
Spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have previously used task-based paradigms, but we recently showed the existence of resting state networks within the cord at 7 Tesla. More recently we have successfully translated the acquisition, preprocessing, and analysis methods developed at 7 Tesla to more clinically relevant 3T scanners. Our results suggest that a run of approximately 6 mins is sufficient at 3T if resting state signals undergo bandpass filtering with frequencies up to 0.17 Hz. Thus, functional connectivity measures in the cervical cord are practical for widespread clinical applications for studying diseases of the central nervous system.


58 MRI of the thoracic spinal cord in multiple sclerosis at 7T
Jennifer Lefeuvre1,2, Qi Duan1, Jacco A de Zwart1, Peter van Gelderen1, Stéphane Lehericy2, Steven Jacobson1, Daniel S Reich1, and Govind Nair1
1NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2INSERM U1127/CNRS UMR7225, CENIR, Brain and Spine Institute, Paris, France
MRI of the thoracic spinal cord (t-spine) is challenging especially due to motion, flow, and susceptibility artifacts. Improving the image quality and resolution in t-spine has the potential to improve visualization of anatomy, as well as lesions in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Towards this end, we have developed high-resolution t-spine imaging techniques at 7T with a custom built RF transmit-receive coil and navigator based frequency correction. 


59 Spinal Perimedullary Vein Enlargement Sign: An Added Value for the Differentiation between Intradural-Extramedullary and Intramedullary Tumors on MR Imaging
Tao Gong1, Guangbin Wang1, and Weibo Chen2
1Shandong University, Jinan, China, People's Republic of, 2Shanghai, China, People's Republic of
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to narrow the differential diagnosis in the preoperative study of spinal cord tumors. The use of a medium in MRI is preferred to improve visualization of tumor’s intrinsic characteristics and boundaries, and to identify reactive changes (such as cysts and dilated veins) in adjacent tissues. Most times, it is easy to determine whether a lesion arises from the spinal cord itself or from the IDEM space according to common MRI findings, however, at other times, this might be difficult. There have been reported cases of schwannoma located at IDEM space misdiagnosed with IMT. Thus, radiologists must discern the characteristic imaging features of IDEMs to distinguish them from IMTs. The presence of vein enlargement is often a sign in some cases of intradural spinal tumors , most of which are extramedullary. A perimedullary vein enlargement sign around an intradural spinal tumor (without dilated veins in the tumor)has not been reported, which might be an imaging mark to differentiate IDEMTs from IMTs.The purpose of this study was to determine the added value of the perimedullary spinal vein enlargement sign on MRI in helping to distinguish IDEMTs from IMTs.


60 Comparison of 3D FSE Cube and 3D Fiesta-c sequences for image contrasts of the tissues on T2-weighted images in cervical spine MRI
Yumi Koizumi1, Masaru Sonoda1, Tsutomu Inaoka2, Hideki Nagatomo1, and Hitoshi Terada2
1Division of Radiology, Seirei Sakura Citizen Hospital, Sakura, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura, Japan
Currently, various 3D MR sequences such as 3D FSE, GRE, and steady-state sequences have been developed and used to obtain MR images of submillimeter thicknesses in the spine. However, the question,“which 3D sequence has a better image contrast of the tissues in spinal MRI?”, has come up. Therefore, we examined optimal imaging parameters of variable refocus flip angle 3D FSE (Cube) and 3D Fiesta-c sequences for T2-weighted images in cervical spine MRI and compared the two different 3D sequences for better image contrasts of the tissues on T2-weighted images in cervical spine MRI. In conclusion, 3D FSE Cube T2-weighted images has excellent image contrasts between the spinal cord versus other tissues except cerebrospinal fluid, vertebral body, and subcutaneous fat in the cervical spine compared to 3D Fiesta-c T2-weighted images. Therefore, 3D FSE Cube sequence is believed to be more appropriate for T2-weighted images in cervical spine MRI compared to 3D Fiesta-c sequence.


61 fMRI of lumbar spinal cord during electrical stimulation in diabetic patients
Zhiwei Shen1, Yanlong Jia1, Tingting Nie1, Tao Zhang1, Gen Yan1, and Renhua Wu1
1The 2nd Affilited Hosptial of Shantou Universtiy Medical College, Shantou, China, People's Republic of
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the main complications of long-term diabetes and the incidence is 60% to 90%. However, there is no objective  noninvasive method to detect the degree of damage of DPN and its pathogenesis remains unknown. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, which had been used to detect neuron activity. In this study, the activation in the lumbar spinal cord of by electric stimulation were detected. Elevated activation percentage changes of DPN were found and the activation changes have the correlated relatioship with blood biochemical indexes such as glucose, the total cholesterol and haemoglobin A1c.


62 The feasibility study of imaging lumbosacral spinal nerve roots by IDEAL sequence at 3.0T MR - Video Not Available
Lihua Sun1, Yunlong Song2, Huisheng Zheng1, and Lizhi Xie3
1Radiology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, HeFei, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of CT &MRI, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3GE Healthcare, MR Research China, Beijing, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
The IDEAL acquisition can generate a water, fat, in-phase and out-phase data sets for clear tissue differentiation in a single sequence. It offers a great opportunity for imaging the nerve root compression. In this work, we demonstrated the feasibility of IDEAL sequence to image the anatomic structure and the whole contort of the lumbosacral nerve roots as well as the microstructural of lumbosacral nerve on the canals of lumbar spinal nerves is possible.IDEAL imaging on lumbosacral nerve roots can be valuable for clinical diagnosis to estimate the nerve compression, and provide detailed information for the right treatment at early-stage.


63 Reduced Field-of-View Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Lumbosacral Enlargement: A Pilot In Vivo study of the healthy spinal cord using a clinical 3T MR system
Marios C Yiannakas1, Polymnia Louka1, Francesco Grussu1, Ferran Prados1,2, Rebecca S Samson1, Marco Battiston1, Sebastien Ourselin2, David H Miller1,3, and Claudia Angela Michela Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,4
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Translational Imaging Group, Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL-UCLH, London, United Kingdom, 4Brain Connectivity Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy
The use of imaging methods to study the lower spinal cord has been hindered by a number of technical challenges; hence the relative contribution of pathology affecting the lower spinal cord to the observed clinical symptoms remains largely unexplored. In this pilot study, we investigate the feasibility of obtaining tissue-specific (grey matter and white matter) diffusion tensor imaging metrics within the lumbosacral enlargement in vivo in healthy volunteers using reduced field-of-view echo planar imaging on a clinical 3T MRI system. Preliminary results show that such measures may be obtained reliably and within clinically acceptable scan times.


64 Right-handedness is associated with myelination asymmetry of the motor tracts in the human spinal cord
Manuel Taso1,2,3,4, Oliver M. Girard1,3, Guillaume Duhamel1,3, Maxime Guye1,3, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva1,3,4, and Virginie Callot1,3,4
1CRMBM UMR 7339, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Marseille, France, 2LBA UMR T 24, Aix-Marseille Université, IFSTTAR, Marseille, France, 3CEMEREM, AP-HM, Pôle d'imagerie médicale, Marseille, France, 4iLab-Spine international associate laboratory, Marseille/Montréal, France
Handedness is known to influence brain structure. However, no evidences of such influence in the spinal cord (SC) exist. Hence, we propose to use multi-parametric MRI (DTI and inhomogeneous MT, both sensible to microstructural properties), combined with atlas-based analysis in specific fascicles, to assess the influence of handedness on the SC structure. Results demonstrated that right-handers presented higher ihMTR/MTR values in the right motor tracts, suggesting an asymmetric myelination while left-handers did not present differences between left and right regions. This is consistent with brain findings suggesting that right-handedness is associated with higher structural asymmetry in the central nervous system.


65 Ultra-high-resolution postmortem imaging of marmoset EAE spinal cords
Jennifer Lefeuvre1,2, Joseph R Guy1, Nick Luciano1, Emily Leibovitch1, Mathieu D Santin2, Afonso C Silva1, Steve Jacobson1, Stéphane Lehericy2, Daniel S Reich1, and Pascal Sati1
1NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2INSERM U1127/CNRS UMR7225, CENIR, Brain and Spine Institute, Paris, France
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects the entire central nervous system, with more than 90% of patients showing focal or diffuse abnormalities in the spinal cord (SC). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmosets is an attractive animal model of MS due to its radiological presentation with brain lesions that mimic MS1. However, spinal cord lesions in marmoset EAE have not yet been well characterized. The proposed methodology allows high-quality, high-resolution imaging of SC lesions in autopsied marmosets with EAE. The artifact-free images allowed accurate detection of focal and confluent rim lesions along the edges of the SC.


66 Multiband Excitation Enables Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Brain Stem and Cervical Spinal Cord in Clinically Feasible Scan Times at 3T
Samantha By1,2, Ed Mojahed2,3,4, Robert L. Barry2,4, and Seth A. Smith2,4
1Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States, 4Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States
Multiband excitation with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was implemented at 3T to enable characterization of the cervical spinal cord and brainstem in a clinically feasible scan time.  The efficiency of the multiband acquisition (9 minutes) was compared to a standard acquisition (18 minutes), which included all of the same parameters except no multiband was applied. Results with multiband generated high-resolution images with similar SNR to the standard (whole cord: multiband – 6.60, no multiband – 6.14).  Additionally, DTI measurements from the multiband acquisition were in good agreement to the standard, yielding a percent difference of less than 3% for the cervical spine. 


67 Diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) reveals axon loss on spinal cord in RRMS and NMO
Peng Sun1, Kim J. Griffin1, Robert T. Naismith2, Anne H. Cross2, and Sheng-Kwei Song1
1Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
DTI failed to detect the extent of axonal loss which plays a significant role in irreversible neurological impairments in MS and NMO patients. Our results suggest diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) may serve as a useful method to quantify the extent of axonal loss and confounding pathologies in RRMS and NMO.    


68 Correlation of DTI Metrics to Spinal Cord Cross Sectional Area in Pediatric Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury
Devon M Middleton1, Shiva Shahrampour1, Scott H Faro1, Sona Saksena2, Mahdi Alizadeh1, Chris J Conklin2, Winston Liu3, Govind Nair4, Laura Krisa2, MJ Mulcahey2, and Feroze B Mohamed2
1Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States, 4National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States
As more advanced imaging techniques are used for the spinal cord (such as DTI) it is important to examine potential relationships to other injury biomarkers. This study was to examine correlations between DTI metrics and spinal cord cross sectional area in pediatric subjects with spinal cord injury. Cord cross section data was acquired using a recently developed technique for semi-automated spinal cord segmentation and measurement of spinal cord cross sectional area. Fractional anisotropy was found to be strongly significantly correlated with spinal cord cross sectional area in the injured subjects.


69 A Simple and Fast Approach for Spinal Cord Imaging at 3T with High In-Plane Resolution and Good Contrast
Matthias Weigel1 and Oliver Bieri1
1Dept. of Radiology, Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
For fast spinal cord images of high in-plane resolution and estimable contrast, an image combination of different inversion recovery (IR) prepared balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) images acquired by a Modified Look Locker IR (MOLLI) sequence with fixed RR-intervals is suggested. The strength of the approach lies in its simplicity and that for short acquisition times of currently about 2mins per slice already a good contrast can be achieved at the high in-plane resolution of 0.4mm.


70 Multisite feasibility study of spinal cord gray matter and total cord areas measurements on 2D Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery images
Nico Papinutto1, Esha Datta1, Alyssa H Zhu1, Julio Carballido-Gamio2, Regina Schlaeger1,3, Sinyeob Ahn4, Kevin Johnson4, Lara Stables5, William A Stern1, Gerhard Laub4, and Roland G Henry1
1Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States,3Neurology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 4Siemens Healthcare USA, San Francisco, CA, United States, 5Neuroscience Imaging Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States
The goal of the present work was to test the reliability of the C2-C3 spinal cord gray matter and total cord areas measurements performed using a 2D-PSIR sequence. Nine healthy subjects were scanned twice with repositioning in between the scans (test/retest) on three different 3T scanners with different hardware. On the phase sensitive-reconstructed images, total cord area was measured in a semi-automated way and gray matter area was estimated by using an automatic segmentation method. Evaluations of contrast to noise ratio, intra-scanner and inter-scanner reliability suggest that multicenter studies using a 2D-PSIR sequence are feasible.


71 Automatic Gray Matter Segmentation of the Spinal Cord in 2D Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery Images
Esha Datta1, Nico Papinutto1, Regina Schlaeger1, Julio Carballido-Gamio1, Alyssa Zhu1, and Roland G Henry1
1UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States
This study demonstrates the accuracy and reliability of a new method for automatic segmentation of spinal cord gray matter in 2D PSIR images at 3T of the C2-C3 spinal cord level in healthy controls.  This method deforms an initial contour, based on registration from a template, using an active contours algorithm to ultimately obtain the final gray matter segmentation.  When comparing the automatic segmentations with manual segmentations in 12 subjects, the Dice coefficients ranged from .82 to .93, with an average of .88.  In 8 additional subjects that were scanned twice, the percent changes ranged from 1% to 6%.


72 Towards Tissue Characterization of the Spinal Cord: High-Resolution T1 Relaxometry with Precise B1+-Mapping of the Spinal Cord at 3T
Matthias Weigel1, Orso Pusterla1, Monika Gloor1, and Oliver Bieri1
1Dept. of Radiology, Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
A high-resolution T1 mapping protocol for the spinal cord (SC) based on ultra-fast RF spoiled gradient echo sequences with initial precise B1-Tx mapping was developed. The measured T1 values for white matter (WM-SC) of 976ms and for gray matter (GM-SC) of 1154ms deviate notably from the corresponding T1 values found for the human cerebellum at 3T. This finding may partially explain the relatively low contrast between GM-SC and WM-SC frequently observed in SC imaging. Furthermore, the knowledge of these precise T1 values will allow to set up dedicated SC imaging protocols with an optimized GM-SC/WM-SC contrast in the future.
Exhibition Hall 

13:30 - 14:30

    Computer #

74 HASTE imaging with EPI volumetric navigators for real-time fetal head motion detection
Borjan Gagoski1,2, Patrick McDaniel3, André J. W. van der Kouwe2,4, Himanshu Bhat5, Lawrence L. Wald2,4,6, Elfar Adalsteinsson3,6, P. Ellen Grant1,2, and M. Dylan Tisdall2,4
1Fetal Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 4Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 5Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc, Charlestown, MA, United States, 6Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Institute of Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States
Although heavily used in clinical fetal imaging due to its encoding efficiency, the image quality of T2-weighted singe-shot fast-spin-echo (ss-FSE, or HASTE) acquisitions is often compromised by fetal head motion. We have implemented and tested an enhanced version of the HASTE acquisition scheme that includes EPI-based volumetric navigators (EPI-vNavs) played each TR, enabling detection and estimation of fetal head motion along six degrees of freedom in real time, while maintaining equivalent T2 contrast in the fetal head compared to the original HASTE acquisition. 


87 Distortion correction of fetal EPI using registration of orthogonal stacks with Laplacian constraint
Maria Kuklisova Murgasova1, Georgia Lockwood Estrin1, Rita G. Nunes1,2, Mary Rutherford1, and Jo Hajnal1
1King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
We present a novel method for correction of geometric distortions induced by static B0 field in fetal EPI. The method estimates distortion by including a distortion-correction step in the slice to volume reconstruction of orthogonal EPI stacks with orthogonal phase encoding directions, in the form of non-rigid registration with a Laplacian constraint. We show that the proposed method achieves better consistency with reconstructed ssFSE volumes than EPI volumes constructed from data corrected by B0 field map. The registration-based distortion correction is thus a viable alternative to acquisition of B0 field map.


92 Optimal Slice Planning of the Fetal Brain Using Interactive Real-Time MRI
Lau Brix1,2, Steffen Ringgaard1, Puk Sandager3, Olav Bjørn Petersen3, Thomas Sangild Sørensen4,5, Erik Lundorf1, and Brian Stausbøl-Grøn1
1MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus N, Denmark, 2Department of Procurement & Clinical Engineering, Region Midt, Aarhus N, Denmark, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus N, Denmark, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark, 5Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark
Diagnostic image quality of MRI can be hampered by fetal movements during data acquisition which may limit its diagnostic use (1;2). We propose an interactive real-time MRI technique which may serve as an alternative to traditional fetal MRI for anthropometrics or as a supplement for representation of fetal brain structures in cases in which fetal motion causes challenges in relation to obtaining optimal slice planes using conventional MRI techniques.


75 Free-breathing T1-weigthed gradient-echo imaging for fetus brain
bin zhang1
1Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, xi'an, China, People's Republic of
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appears to be increasing used for the diagnosis of abnormalities in fetuses because of the absence of ionizing radiation and superior contrast of soft tissues. However, the T1-weighted 3D MR imaging for fetus remains very challenging due to the respiratory motion of the mother and the movement of the fetus. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of a free-breathing 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial data sampling for fetus imaging, and compared with a standard breath-hold imaging with Cartesian k-space acquisition


76 HARDI Acquisition in Neonates and Children using Modular Multiband Multi-shell Sequence
Vincent Kyu Lee1, Meredith Monsour2, Sudhir Pathak2, Vincent Schmithorst3, Catherine Fissell2, Ashok Panigrahy1,3, and Walt Schneider2
1Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
High angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is the best imaging technique to distinguish crossing fibers and high turning angle neuronal tracts, which is critical for identifying and characterizing the microstructural changes in neuro pathology and traumatic brain injury.  Its main disadvantage has been the lengthy scan time needed to acquire analyzable images – a challenge especially in children and neonates who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. This study presents the preliminary fiber tractography of healthy neonatal and pediatric subjects acquired using multiband multi-shell HARDI sequence within a practicable scan time without sacrificing image quality.  


82 Parcellation of neonatal brain MRI into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood.
Manuel Blesa1, Ahmed Serag1, Alaistir G Wilkinson2, Devasuda Anblagan1,3, Emma J Telford1, Rozalia Pataki1, Sarah A Sparrow1, Gillian Macnaught4, Scott I Semple4, Mark E Bastin3, and James P Boardman1,3
1MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2Department of Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 4Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
We created a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired after birth from 25 neonates born at term. The SRI24/TZO atlas was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates (NIHPD), with the final atlas (the Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA25) constructed using iterative averaging of T1-weighted volumes. The computed transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, diffusion maps and tissue probability maps to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; and we have generated a symmetric version to facilitate studies of laterality.


89 A simple method for myelin mapping using T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted images
J-Donald Tournier1,2, Rui Pedro A. G. Teixeira1,2, Maria Murgasova1,2, A. David Edwards2,3, Joseph V. Hajnal1,2, and Serena J. Counsell2,3
1Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Perinatal Imaging and Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Myelin mapping is of great interest, particularly to study brain development. However, existing methods are time consuming and/or noisy. We propose a simple method to obtain semi-quantitative maps of myelin from routinely acquired T1-, T2- and proton density weighted images, by modelling the signal as a linear combination of non-exchanging tissue types: lipid, tissue water and free water. The method is calibrated empirically from the signal intensities in the data themselves. We show promising results in neonatal scans, showing the expected pattern of myelination in infants at term-equivalent age.


86 Variable Refocusing Flip Angle Single Shot Imaging For Anesthesia-Free Brain MRI - Video Not Available
Kristen W. Yeom1, Valentina Taviani1, Andreas M. Loening1, Michael Iv1, and Shreyas S. Vasanawala1
1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
Conventional single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) and variable refocusing flip angle SSFSE (vrfSSFSE) were compared for fast sedation-free pediatric brain MRI (N=33). Two neuroradiologists independently and blindly evaluated SSFSE and vrfSSFSE images for motion, perceived resolution (sharpness), contrast and lesion conspicuity on a five-point scale. vrfSSFSE gave less motion and misregistration artefacts than conventional SSFSE, due to the shorter scan duration. As for the other image quality metrics, vrfSSFSE was found to be either comparable or superior to conventional SSFSE.


83 Assessing the effects of pediatric subject motion on T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) cerebral oxygenation measurements using volume navigators (vNavs)
Jeffrey N Stout1, M. Dylan Tisdall2, Patrick McDaniel3, Borjan Gagoski4, Divya S Bolar2,5, Patricia Ellen Grant4, and Elfar Adalsteinsson1,3,6
1Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 4Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 6Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Cambridge, MA, United States
When using the T2-relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) technique on non-compliant subjects, motion has an unknown effect on estimations of cerebral oxygenation that are derived from an empirical mapping between T2 and blood oxygen saturation. Incorporating low resolution 3D-EPI volume navigators into the TRUST pulse sequence permits independent measurements of motion during scanning. We show that for static scans vNav modules have only small effects on resulting venous blood T2 estimates, that poor exponential goodness of fit is not a sufficient indicator of motion, and that T2 is biased upwards with increasing motion.


73 Improving the Quality of Neonatal Brain Structural MRI with Shorter Acquisition Train Length
Lili He1, Jinghua Wang2, Mark Smith3, Zhong-Lin Lu2, and Nehal A Parikh1,4
1Center for Perinatal Research, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States, 2The Ohio State Univeristy, Columbus, OH, United States, 3Radiology, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States, 4Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, United States
Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted sequences such as MP-RAGE are invaluable for evaluation of neonatal and infant brain injury/development. Sequence optimization for neonates has been historically challenging because neonatal brains exhibit reversed white matter–gray matter (WM-GM) contrast on T1-weighted scans, and the contrast is much lower than that of adult brains. In this study, we show in preterm neonates that shortening the acquisition train length of the MP-RAGE sequence significantly improved SNR and CNR efficiencies. The proposed optimization methodology can be easily extended to other populations (e.g. term infants, adults and elders), and different organs, field strengths and MR sequences.


93 A hybrid premature neonatal segmentation pipeline for clinical brain imaging acquired without dedicated neonatal coils.
Zachary Hill1, Mengyuan Liu1, Sandra Juul2, and Colin Studholme3
1Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 3Pediatrics, Bioengineering, Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
Due to the difference in individual cases, larger multi-site studies of brain injury after premature birth may be needed, but dedicated neonatal imaging technology isn't always available. The use of older scanners with coils not specifically aimed at imaging neonatal brains introduces a severe intensity variation across the field of view, which can cause conventional image analysis pipelines to fail. A robust hybrid tissue segmentation pipeline was developed and shown to improve tissue segmentations of four test subjects with manual segmentations for reference. This enables automated and consistent analysis to better quantitatively study early human brain development.


85 Age-specific gray and white matter DTI atlas for human brain at 33 and 36 postmenstrual weeks
Lei Feng1,2, Hang Li1,3, Kenichi Oishi4, Virendra Mishra5, Minhui Ouyang1, Tina Jeon1, Yun Peng3, Shuwei Liu2, and Hao Huang1,6
1Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China, People's Republic of, 3Department of Radiology, Beijing Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 4Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 6Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
The large brain morphological differences of the preterm brain at 33 or 36 postmenstrual week (PMW) to that at 40 PMW makes it necessary to establish age-specific atlases for preterm brains. In this study, with diffusion MRI (dMRI) data acquisition of 82 preterm and term normal neonates, we aimed to establish a comprehensive digital atlas including labeling of gray and white matter for preterm brains at 33 and 36 PMW. We demonstrated these atlases and showed the differences of the major neural structures including ganglionic eminence and uncinate fasciculus by comparison to JHU-neonate-SS atlas for brains at around 40PMW.


88 Age-related white matter changes on phase difference enhanced imaging in children
Tetsu Niwa1, Tetsuya Yoneda2, Shuhei Shibukawa1, Toshiki Kazama1, Taro Takahara3, and Yutaka Imai1
1Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan, 2Medical Physics in Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan, 3Biomedical Engineering, Tokai University School of Engineering, Isehara, Japan
Recent reports suggest that phase shift in the white matter may be related to myelin content. We assessed the age-related phase changes of the white matter in small children (age range, 0?6 years) on phase difference enhanced imaging (PADRE). PADRE showed progression of the phase changes in the white matter along with age, particularly in the pyramidal tract and subcortical region in Rolandic are. Whereas, less phase changes were noted in the subcortical white matter in the temporal lobe. PADRE showed age-related white matter phase shift, suggesting progression of myelination and myelin content.


91 Microstructural organization of the language connectome in typically developing left-handed children: a DTI tractography study
Marjolein Verly1, Robin Gerrits1, Lieven Lagae2, Inge Zink1, Stefan Sunaert3, and Nathalie Rommel1
1Dept. Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2Dept. Pediatrics, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 3Dept. Translational MRI, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the microstructural properties of language-related white matter (WM) tracts and hand preference in typically developing school-aged children. Our DTI tractography results provide evidence for a different structural connectivity pattern of the language connectome in left-handed children. Whereas right-handed children show a clear left-lateralized structural language network, our group of left-handed children seems to have a more bilateral organized language system. Those observed differences in WM microstructure and lateralization might reflect an interaction between handedness and the neural processing of language in children.


77 Gender-specific attention system subnetwork vulnerability in prematurely born children
Elda Fischi-Gomez1,2, Lana Vasung1, Sebastien Urben3,4, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa1, François Lazeyras5, Jean-Philippe Thiran2,6, and Petra Susan Hüppi1
1Division of Development and Growth. Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Signal Processing Laboratory 5, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Child Clinical Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 4Research Unit, University Service of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 5Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 6Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland
Within preterm-born children, being born male and at a lower gestational age have both been associated with a heightened risk for developmental difficulties. However, in this population little is known about the combined effect and the influence of these risk factors on the structural networks subserving attention and executive. Using a diffusion-based brain connectome approach, in this work we analyze the effect of these two factors in the brain networks of school-age preterm born children and provide evidence of a gender-specific vulnerability in the executive attentional subnetwork.


94 Utilization of Simultaneous Multi-slice Accelerated Turbo Spin Echo in Pediatric Epilepsy
Michael Kean1,2, Lee Coleman2,3, Simone Mandelstam3, Sonal Josan4, Benjamin Schmitt4, and Dingxin Wang5,6
1Children MRI Centre, Royal Childrens Hospital, Parkville, Australia, 2Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia, 3Royal Childrens Hospital, Parkville, Australia, 4Siemens Healthcare, Bayswater, Australia, 5Centre for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 6Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA, United States
The objective of our prospective study was to examine the clinical utility of Simultaneous Multi-Slice(SMS)  Accelerated TSE at 3T imaging paediatric patients who present with seizures.A randomly selected  cohort of patients were enrolled in the protocol covering a broad spectrum of clinical entities.

A direct comparison was undertaken with anatomically matched conventional TSE and SMS TSE acquisitions with matched in-plane and through plane resolution, echo train lengths and echo spacing.

Analysis of the data confirmed that although there were minimal variations in the quantitative measures recorded both sequences provided images of consistent image quality and diagnostic confidence with a significant scan time reduction attributed to the SMS TSE acquisition.


81 Iron deposition in the globus pallidus of healthy youth - Video Not Available
Karthik Prabhakaran1, David Roalf1, Mark Elliott1, Simon Vandekar1, Kosha Ruparel1, Ryan Hopson1, Efstathios D Gennatas1, Jeffrey Valdez1, Chad Jackson1, Theodore Satterthwaite1, Raquel Gur1, and Ruben Gur1
1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
R2*, the transverse relaxation rate was used to measure iron deposition in the globus pallidus of 815 youth and young adults between the ages of 8 and 22. Significant iron deposition occurs in the globus pallidus between the ages of 8 and 22 in accordance with previously described models of iron deposition in the brain throughout the lifespan. Among adolescents (age 12-16) females had lower iron deposition in the globus pallidus (p < 0.001) as compared to males, this may be related to adolescent females being especially susceptible to dietary iron deficiency because of poor dietary intake in conjunction with high iron requirements related to rapid growth and menstrual blood loss. 


84 Congenital sensorineural hearing loss affects the development of corpus callosum
Weiwei Men1, Tianbing Song2, Shuang Xia3, Yaoyu Zhang1, Jing Che4, and Jia-Hong Gao1
1Center for MRI Research, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Beijing cancer hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Tianjing First Central Hospital, Tianjing, China, People's Republic of, 4Aerospace Central Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Congenital sensorineural hearing loss (CSHL) is a common disease in newborns, which can affect the development of corpus callosum (CC). In this study, a novel method of CC thickness analysis was employed to compare the CC difference between deaf and control groups. The results indicate that after 24 months deaf group has thinner CC thickness in the anterior splenium of CC compared to control group, which means the development of deaf anterior splenium is slowed down. Our study suggests that 12~24 month old is the best time period for CSHL treatment and intervention.


78 White Matter Structural Alternations in Children with HIV Infection and Exposure
Marcin Jankiewicz1, Paul A. Taylor1,2,3, Martha Holmes1, Mark F. Cotton4, Barbara Laughton4, Andre J.W. van der Kouwe5, and Ernesta M. Meintjes1
1MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2Scientific and Statistical Computing Core, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Muizenberg, South Africa, 4Children’s Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, 5Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States
In this work we examine WM alterations in HIV infected children at age 7 years and compare those who initiated ART before and after 12 weeks of age.


96 Effects of pediatric HIV/antiretroviral therapy on basal ganglia metabolite-volume relationships
Frances C Robertson1, Martha J Holmes1, Emmanuel C Nwosu1, Francesca Little2, Mark F Cotton3, Els Dobbels3, Andre JW van der Kouwe4,5, Barbara Laughton3, and Ernesta M Meintjes1
1Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 3Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 4A.A. Martinos Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
HIV is associated with structural deficits in the basal ganglia (BG). Volumes from structural MRI may relate to metabolic changes measurable with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We investigated the relationship between BG NAA and Glutamate/Glutamine and caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens and subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes in 7-year old HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy and uninfected controls. Higher NAA was associated with smaller accumbens and left putamen in all children. Higher Glutamate/Glutamine was associated with greater subcortical GM in controls, but not HIV-infected children. Relationships between brain metabolites and volumes add to the description of effects of HIV/ART on the BG.


90 Reduced GABA levels and altered sensory function in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nicolaas AJ Puts1,2, Ericka L Wodka3,4, Ashley D Harris1,2,5,6, Deana Crocetti7, Mark Tommerdahl8, Richard AE Edden1,2, and Stewart H Mostofsky3,7,9
1Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2F.M. Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States,3Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Psychiatry and behavioral sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 6Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 7Laboratory for Neurocognitive and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 8Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States, 9Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States
Children with Autism often show difficulties processing sensory stimuli, but the underpinnings are poorly understood. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, plays a role in the pathophysiology of ASD. Here we show reduced GABA levels in children with ASD, which is associated with abnormal performance on vibrotactile tasks related to inhibition. We show that alterations in GABA can contribute to alterations in sensory processing in ASD.


95 Amide proton transfer imaging of neonatal brain development and brain injury: a preliminary study - Permission Withheld
Yang Zheng1, Xiaoming WANG1, Xuna Zhao2, and Jinyuan Zhou3
1Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China, People's Republic of, 2Philips Healthcare, Beijing, China, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, USA, Baltimore, MD, United States
Yang Zheng M.D. Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110004,PR China E-mail address: Tel.: +86 13889830846


80 Absolute metabolite concentration of Creatine in the deep gray matter measured using short echo 1H-MRS predict long-term prognosis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as excellent as NAA concentration
Noriko Aida1,2, Jun Shibasaki3, Moyoko Tomiyasu1,2, Yuri Nishi1,4, Naho Morisaki4, Takeo Fujiwara4, Katsuaki Toyoshima3, and Takayuki Obata2
1Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan, 2Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan, 3Neonatology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan, 4Social Medicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan
Absolute metabolite concentrations of N-acethylaspartate (NAA), Choline(Cho) and Creatine(Cr) in the deep gray matter of 44 near term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), measured using PRESS method short echo 1H-MRS within 2 weeks after birth, showed excellent prognostic values (AUC; NAA: 0.98, Cho: 0.96, Cr: 0.99) with the adverse outcomes having significantly lower measurements compared to those with favorable outcomes, while Lactate was less efficient (AUC 0.74). Moreover NAA and Cr concentrations measured at 24-96 hours revealed perfect prognostic values (AUC 1.00). Early measurement of absolute Cr and NAA concentrations can be excellent biomarkers of infants suffered with neonatal HIE.


79 Drum Training induces MR visible changes in the Cerebellum and Cortex
Muriel M.K. Bruchhage1, Ali Amad1, Stephen B. Draper2, Jade Seidman1, Flavio Dell'Acqua3, Luis Lacerda3, Pedro Luque Laguna3, Ruth G. Lowry4, Andrew Robertson5, Marcus S. Smith4, and Steven C.R. Williams1
1Department of Neuroimaging, King's College London, The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, United Kingdom, 2School of Sport and Exercise, University of Gloucestershire, Chichester, United Kingdom, 3NatBrainLab, Department of Neuroimaging, King's College London, The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Sport and Exercise, University of Chichester, Chichester, United Kingdom, 5Centre for Digital Music, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University, London, United Kingdom
Cerebellar networks show long-term plasticity and motor training has been shown to change cerebellar microstructure and cortical thickness. We used a combination of neuroimaging measures to visualise plastic changes in drumming - a demanding multilimb training method: cerebellar lobular volume and shape analysis, cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging. Drum training reorganises and reshapes the posterior cerebellum, expanding to connected parietal and prefrontal cortical structures through the inferior cerebellar white matter pathway. Thus, it may offer a novel method for cerebellar and cortical plasticity, relevant as an intervention method for psychiatric disorders connected to cerebellar dysfunction, including autism spectrum disorder.
Exhibition Hall 

14:30 - 15:30

    Computer #

1 Mapping Glutamate Changes in the Brain: GluCEST as a Biomarker to Study Localized Glial Function Derangements - Video Not Available
Puneet Bagga1, Rachelle Crescenzi1, Guruprasad Krishnamoorthy1, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga1, Damodara Reddy1, Sidyarth Garimall1, Kevin D'Aquilla1, Joel Greenberg2, John A Detre2, Hari Hariharan1, and Ravinder Reddy1
1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) causes selective dopaminergic death in the substantia nigra and striatum leading to dopamine loss in the basal ganglia. Here, we apply glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST), a novel non-invasive MRI technique, to investigate glutamate changes in MPTP mouse model. The data suggests elevation in GluCEST contrast in striatum and motor cortex of MPTP treated mice. Immunostaining experiments showed elevation of glial markers in the striatum, which correlates with the GluCEST contrast. Also, motor function was found to be negatively correlated with GluCEST.


2 Acute pressure changes in the brain are measurable with MR Elastography: Initial feasibility in an in vivo porcine model
Arvin Arani1, Paul Min1, Nikoo Fattahi1, Nicholas M Wetjen1, Clifford Jack1, Kendall H Lee1, Richard L Ehman1, and John Huston III1
1Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States
Hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that results from obstruction to the flow of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or resorption of CSF. No non-invasive method offers direct measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP). Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is capable of non-invasively measuring brain tissue stiffness in-vivo, and may act as a surrogate to ICP. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ICP on brain stiffness using MRE in a porcine model. This study shows that MRE brain stiffness changes directly correspond to changes in ICP, motivating future investigation into shunt-therapy monitoring in a patient population.


3 Long term high fat diet modifications of the neurochemical profile of the mouse hypothalamus
Blanca Lizarbe1, Joao M. N. Duarte1, Ana Francisca Soares1, and Rolf Gruetter1,2,3
1Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging (LIFMET), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland,3Department of Radiology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Obesity is a complex disorder that leads to reduced life expectancy, with increased risk of heart disease, type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure and some type of cancers.  To understand the mechanisms of obesity development, several animal models, such as high fat diet administered rodents, are being studied. We designed a longitudinal study to investigate the short and long term effects of high caloric diet intake in two populations of mice -high fat or regular fed- during 6 months, evaluating in vivo the changes in the neurochemical profile of the hypothalamus by 1H MRS.


Arsene Longin Ella1, José Delgadillo1, Philippe Chemineau1, and Matthieu Keller1
1Laboratory of Reproductive Physiology and Behavior, INRA - Centre Val de Loire, Nouzilly, France
The sheep model was first used in the field of reproductive physiology in agronomy to improve milk and meat production, and then was brought into fundamental and preclinical neurosciences. Since a decade, MR studies performed on this model are increasingly reported. To play an important role in MR translational neuroscientific research, a brain template and an atlas are therefore necessary. Simultaneously, two MR templates were proposed in 2015. To complete the set of MR tools, we computed a high resolution 3D in-vivo sheep brain atlas including: i) gyri and sulci   ii) inner structures iii) main external structures.


5 TBM and DTI reveal structural changes by memantine treatment in YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease
Xin Hong1, Marta Garcia-Miralles2, Ling Yun Yeow1, Xuan Vinh To1, Benjamin Chaik Meng Yeo1, Fiftarina Puspitasari1, Katrianne Bethia Koh2, Liang Juin Tan2, Mahmoud Abdul Pouladi2,3, and Kai-Hsiang Chuang1
1Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore, 2Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore, 3Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
T2 weighted structural and diffusion MRI together with behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of memantine treatment in YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease. In low-dose (2 mg/kg)-treated YAC128 mice, cognitive functions improved, and increased fractional anisotropy was found in major fiber tracts including the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and internal capsule. No significant gray matter volume change was detected in treatment groups, though the relative caudate putamen volume showed increasing trend with dose. Our results suggest that low dose memantine treatment had protective effects on white matter in YAC128 mice.


6 A step towards developing MR elastography and diffusion tensor imaging as complementary MR tools to improve the management of hydrocephalus.
Lauriane Jugé 1,2, Alice C. Pong1, Andre Bongers3, Ralph Sinkus4, Lynne E. Bilston1,5, and Shaokoon Cheng6
1Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia, 2School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia, 3Biological Resources Imaging Laboratory, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia, 4BHF Centre of Excellence, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 5Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia, 6Department of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia
Hydrocephalus is characterised by enlarged ventricles resulting in compression of surrounding tissues. Conventional imaging techniques depict ventricle size accurately. However, they are limited to detect changes in brain microstructure. The aim of this work was to quantify changes in brain mechanical and diffusion properties during the development of hydrocephalus in rats, using MR Elastography and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Results showed that both techniques have the potential to be complementary imaging tools for tracking the effects of hydrocephalus on the tissue microstructure and provided new insights on how the brain changes during the course of the disease.


7 Glymphatic clearance impaired in a mouse model of tauopathy: captured using contrast-enhanced MRI
Ian F Harrison1, Asif Machhada1, Niall Colgan1, Ozama Ismail1, James M O'Callaghan1, Holly E Holmes1, Jack A Wells1, Alexander V Gourine2, Tracey K Murray3, Zeshan Ahmed3, Ross A Johnson4, Emily C Collins4, Michael J O'Neill3, and Mark F Lythgoe1
1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, United Kingdom, 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, United States
The ‘glymphatic’ clearance system is a brain-wide pathway for removal of waste solutes from the brain. It has recently been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), due to discovery that both amyloid and tau, accumulations of which lead to AD development, can be cleared from the brain via this pathway. We therefore hypothesise that an impairment of ‘glymphatic’ clearance occurs in the initial stages of disease development, leading to accumulation of amyloid and tau in the brain. Here, we determine whether this is the case, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to quantify glymphatic clearance in the brain of a mouse model of AD. 


8 High Field MR Demonstrates Effect of Glucocorticoids in a Novel Murine Model of VEGF-Induced Vasogenic Brain Edema
Roger Murayi1, Martin Piazza1, Jeeva Munasinghe1, Nancy Edwards1, Stuart Walbridge1, Marsha Merrill1, and Prashant Chittiboina1
1Surgical Neurology Branch/NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States
The molecular mechanisms mediating the formation of peritumoral vasogenic brain edema (VBE) and its abrogation from glucocorticoid treatment is poorly understood.  In order to study the molecular underpinnings and temporal evolution of these processes we successfully developed a murine model of VBE confirmed by high field MRI and histopathologic studies.  Furthermore, we demonstrate a differential effect of systemic glucocorticoids on blood-brain-barrier breakdown and edema formation.  This in-vivo model will allow for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of VBE formation and potentially provide additional targets for its treatment.


9 Gray Matter Atrophy in A Rat Model of Chronic Hypoperfusion and The Effects of Environmental Enrichment: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study
Xuxia Wang1, Ronghui Li1, and Hao Lei1
1National Center of Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China, People's Republic of
Permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO) rat model can induce pathological changes in brain, do these changes induce MRI visible structural changes? The enriched environment, an useful paradigm of increasing brain structural plasticity, may have a structural effect on 2VO rat brain. In this study the structural changes of 2VO rat brain with and without enriched environment (EE) were studied by in vivo MRI. Our results showed that sensorimotor cortex, dorsolateral striatum, cingulate cortex and dentate gyrus represented significant atrophy after 2VO and EE effectively protected against the gray matter atrophy.


10 Neuroprotective Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Injury in Rats
Shiyu Tang1,2, Jaylyn Waddell3, Mary C. Mckenna3, Su Xu1,2, Prashant Raghavan1, and Gullapalli P. Rao1,2
1Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Core for Translational Research in Imaging, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
Cerebral hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a primary cause of perinatal brain injury. Infants surviving HI face risk of abnormal neurodevelopment, motor and intellectual disability. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is neuroprotective while its efficacy in perinatal HI treatment has yet to be shown. To test the neuroprotective efficacy of ALCAR and potential sex differences, we performed in vivo MRI and behavioral tests in a rat model of neonatal HI. Results revealed that ALCAR is neuroprotective in both morphological and behavioral outcomes. Males exhibit more consistent HI-induced functional impairments. ALCAR was effective in ameliorating functional impairments in both males and females.


11 Sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility weighted imaging to cerebral microbleeds: A radiologic-neuropathologic correlation study
Karthikeyan Subramanian1, David Utriainen1, Ewart Mark Kaacke1, Charbel Habib1, John Beaver2, and Rajasimhan Rajagovindan2
1Magnetic Resonance Innovations Inc., Detroit, MI, United States, 2Abbvie, North Chicago, IL, United States
This study uses cynomologus macaques, a non-human primate, as an animal model for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs).  The intent is to leverage histological slices stained for iron detection against an MRI protocol with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) systematically collected over the course of several weeks.   The radiologic-neuropathologic assessment of the CMBs was done separately on SWI, T2WI, T2*, SWI phase, and susceptibility weighted imaging and mapping (SWIM).  SWIM was also used to quantify the iron content in the basal ganglia structures, such as the caudate nucleus.  A quantified increase in CMBs and iron content was observed.


12 Acute high altitude exposure induces ADC change in rat brain
Sunil Koundal1,2, Sonia Gandhi1, Tanzeer Kaur2, and Subash Khushu1
1NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Delhi, India, 2Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
High altitude hypoxia poses a serious threat to human health. In the present study, rat were exposed to acute simulated high altitude exposure which resulted in apparent diffusion coefficient changes in brain regions including corpus callosum and hippocampus. The study suggested the occurrence of vasogenic edema in corpus callosum and delayed cytotoxic edema in hippocampus region of brain due to acute high altitude exposure. This study has potential in setting new insights to address high altitude related health problems effectively.


13 Identification of the nigrostriatal and pallidothalamic fiber tracts by high-resolution probabilistic diffusion tractography in Squirel monkey
Mathieu David Santin1,2, Thomas Samoyeau2, Romain Valabrègue1,2, Elodie Laffrat2, Chantal François2, and Stéphane Hunot2
1Centre de NeuroImagerie de Recherche - CENIR, Paris, France, 2Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Paris, France
This work present tractography of an ex vivo brain of a primate model. Parkinson's disease ralated tracts were clearly identified and can serve as biomarkers in our primate model.


14 MR GluCEST Study of Neuroinflammation
Chen Yanzi1, Dai Zhuozhi1, Shen Zhiwei1, Chen Miaomiao1, Ma Xilun1, and Wu Renhua1
12nd Affilicated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China, People's Republic of
Glutamate (Glu) plays a crucial role in the early stage of neuroinflammation, which requires early diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to explore Glu concentration changes in rats brain abscess model and patients with neuroinflammation using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI.


15 Effect of dystrophin levels on brain volumes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models
Bauke Kogelman1, Artem Khmelinskii2,3, Maaike van Putten4, and Louise van der Weerd1,4
1Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Division of Image Processing, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 3Percuros B.V., Enschede, Netherlands, 4Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
Besides muscle, Duchenne muscular dystrophy also affects the brain, resulting in memory and behavior problems. The consequences of dystrophinopathy on gross macroscopic alterations in the mouse brain are unclear. We used a number of mouse models that express either 0%(mdx), 100%(Bl10-WT) or a low amount of dystrophin(mdx-Xist?hs). We showed that while whole brain volume does not significantly differ between mdx and Bl10-WT mice, there are differences in volumes of individual brain substructures. These results are in line with human data, where brain volume was found to be reduced only in patients lacking both full-length dystrophin and the shorter isoform Dp140.


16 Follow-up analyses on the effects of long-term use of high fat diet on hippocampal volumes and hippocampal metabolite concentrations in Wistar rats: a voxel based morphology and 1H MRS approach
Piotr Majka1, Bartosz Kossowski2, Jaroslaw Orzel2, Piotr Bogorodzki2, Zuzanna Setkowicz3, and Stefan P. Gazdzinski4
1Nencki Institute for Experimenal Biology, Warsaw, Poland, 2Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, 3Neuroanatomy, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland, 4CNS Lab, Military Institute for Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
Our study of long-term use of high fat diet inducing mild ketonemia in Wistar rats showed improvements in learning and memory, as well as larger hippocampi and higher concentrations of tNAA (marker of neuronal viability), tCho (involved in metabolite turnover), and tCr (involved in cell energetics). Here, we applied voxel based morphometry (VBM) for structural images and used TARQUIN for1H MRS data obtained at 7T. Results of VBM and TARQUIN provided results consistent with previous analyses. However, the use of a literature-based template lead to tissue contractions not detectable with study specific template.


17 Feasibility of 50µm in vivo MR microscopy (µMRI) of mouse brain at 9.4 Tesla
Ferdinand Schweser1,2, Claire M Modica1,3, Nicola Bertolino1, Paul Polak1, Marilena Preda1,2, and Robert Zivadinov1,2
1Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States, 2MRI Molecular and Translational Research Center, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States, 3Neuroscience Program, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States
The technique of MR microscopy (μMRI) has evolved into an important tool for morphologic phenotyping and computational neuroanatomy research. However, due to the inherent challenges of mouse imaging, μMRI of mouse brain has so far mostly been limited to post mortem tissue, often relying on perfusion with a mixture of saline and a T1-shortening constant agent, which increases the MRI sampling efficiency.

In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo μMRI of mouse brain at 9.4 Tesla with a resolution of 50μm using a cryogenic brain coil and an optimized imaging sequence.


18 R1 Relaxation Mapping of Manganese Uptake and Wash-out in a Non-Human Primate Model of Chronic Mn Exposure
Chien-Lin Yeh1,2, Jennifer McGlothan Dziedzic3, Tomas R. Guilarte3, and Ulrike Dydak2,4
1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 2Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 3Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States, 4School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West lafayette, IN, United States
High exposure to manganese (Mn) causes motor impairments resembling Parkinson’s disease. Using R1 mapping we investigated the dynamics of brain Mn accumulation during and after chronic manganese exposure in nonhuman primates. The R1 in whole brain displayed a significant increase after 27-41 wks of exposure. The visual cortex was found to have continuous Mn accumulation over exposure duration, while R1 of substantia nigra was decrease at 66-81 wks. Some select brain areas still show hyperintensities ten months after cessation of exposure. Understanding the regional uptake and retention may help elucidating the relation of Mn exposure to neurological symptoms.


19 MR spectroscopy predicts injury in a variable rat model of epilepsy - Permission Withheld
Yijen Wu1, Patrice S Pearce2, Amedeo Rapuano3, Kevin Kelly2, Nihal de Lanerolle3, and Jullie W Pan4
1Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 3New Haven, CT, United States, 4University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
MR spectroscopy in a variable rat status epilepticus (kainate induced) model of epilepsy is shown to segregate between mildly and severely injured animals. As measured 3days after status epilepticus, animals with NAA/tCr values of less than 1.0 (kainate more injured, KMI) segregated with greater increases in Inositol/tCr, Glutamine/tCr and Lac/tCr, with these changes predicting the metabolic measured 3weeks after status. Although Inositol/tCr was elevated in the kainate less injured KLI group, the KLI group showed milder changes at 3days and at 3weeks. This metabolic classification was also sustained into histologic studies.


20 Assessment of intrauterine growth restriction on pup rat brain by DTI and NODDI at 9.4T
Yohan van de Looij1,2, Aline Rideau Batista Novais3, Olivier Baud3, Petra S Hüppi1, and Stéphane V Sizonenko1
1Division of Child Growth & Development, Department of Pediatrics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Inserm U1141 – DHU PROTECT, Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France
Experimental studies of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the rat, induced by protein or caloric restriction, have shown to have extensive effects on brain development including white and grey matter structural changes [1]. The aim of this work was to establish offspring cerebral structural changes following low protein diet in rats during gestation by using DTI and NODDI. LPD microstructural consequences on pup rats at P10/P21 were characterized. At P10, structural changes were mainly found in the white matter whereas at P21 cortical structure was abnormally developed. DTI and NODDI give accurate probing of the cerebral impairment following IUGR.


21 Probiotics as possible treatment in Chronic Liver Disease-induced Hepatic Encephalopathy, an in vivo longitudinal 1H MRS study in a rat model
Veronika Rackayova1, Olivier Braissant2, Corina Berset3, Jocelyn Grosse4, Daniela Capobianco5, Paola Mastromarino5, Valérie A. McLin6, and Cristina Cudalbu3
1Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Service of Biomedicine, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Laboratory of behavioral genetics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Public Health and Infectious diseases, Section of Microbiology, Rome, Italy, Rome, Italy, 6Swiss Center for Liver Disease in Children, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland
We investigated potential therapeutic effect of probiotic treatment with anti-inflammatory proprieties (VSL#3) in a rat model of Chronic Liver Disease induced Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE). 1H MRS at 9.4T revealed significantly lower increase of glutamine (typical sign of HE) and better osmoregulation in the hippocampus together with overall better performance in behavioural tests in treated animals. These results are very promising.


22 Monitoring Treatment Response to Gene Therapy in a Feline Model of Alpha-mannosidosis using 1H MRS - Permission Withheld
Sanjeev Chawla1, Manoj Kumar1,2, Sea-Young Yoon3, Harish Poptani4, and John H Wolfe3
1Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute, and Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States, 3Abramson Research Center, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
To evaluate the potential of in vivo proton MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) in monitoring treatment response to adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy to the cisterna-magna in a cat model of alpha-mannosidosis. Normal (n=3), untreated (n=3) and AAV-treated (n=3) cats underwent multivoxel 1H MRS. Significant elevations in resonances due to mannose-rich oligosaccharides (OG) and N-acetylated sugars (Glc-NAc) were observed in brain of untreated cats compared to normal controls. AAV treated cats demonstrated a decrease (normalization) in the OG and Glc-NAc resonances, which were not significantly different from untreated cats indicating some degree of positive response to this therapy.


23 Prenatal exposure to common insecticide Malathion selectively alters micro-structural architecture in male guinea pigs
Su Xu1,2, Shiyu Tang1,2, Roger J Mullins1,2, Edna FR Pereira3, Edson X Albuquerque3, and Rao P Gullapalli1,2
1Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure of guinea pigs to malathion, one of the few organophosphate insecticides that is still in residential use in the USA, disrupts axonal integrity. After the sub-acute maternal exposure to malathion, male offspring of exposed mothers had significantly decreased diffusion metrics and anisotropy in the corpus callosum. The findings reveal the lasting effect of prenatal exposure to malathion and the danger of mother to child transmission of malathion in the environment.


24 Radiation induced sub-acute, early delayed and late delayed changes in hippocampus: A successive MRS, DTI and behavioral evaluation after whole body radiation
Poonam Rana1, Mamta Arya Gupta1, Seenu Haridas2, Kailash Manda2, B S Hemanth Kumar1, and Subash Khushu1
1NMR Research Centre, INMAS, Delhi, India, 2Division of Radiation Biosciences, INMAS, Delhi, India
Nuclear accidents or terrorist activities may lead to moderate dose whole body radiation exposure to a mass population. Whole body radiation exposure may influence brain function but it has not been extensively studied. Present study was conducted on mice to look for whole body radiation induced delayed behavioural, metabolic and microstructural changes. The results illustrated changes in recognition memory, MRS and MD values till 8 months post-irradiation. At later time points (10 and 12 months post-irradiation), no profound effect of radiation exposure was observed which indicates that 5Gy whole body radiation dose exposure does not have late delayed radiation injury.

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