ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Electronic Poster Session: MSK

4460 -4483 Bone & Soft Tissue
4484 -4507 Cartilage & Joints
4508 -4531 Muscle & Functional Imaging

Exhibition Hall 

14:30 - 15:30

    Computer #

25 Image Fusion of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Regional Anesthesia of the Hip: The Influence of MRI Scanning Position for Fusion Accuracy and Post Anesthesia Visualization of Anatomical Distribution of Local Anesthetics - Permission Withheld
Jennie Maria Christin Strid1, Erik Morre Pedersen2, Olga Vendelbo2, Niels Dalsgaard1, Yousef Nejatbakhsh3, Jens Randel Nyengaard4, Kjeld Søballe5, and Thomas Fichtner Bendtsen1
1Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark, 2Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark, 3Hospital Pharmacy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark, 4Electron Microscopy Lab and Stereology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark, 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark
Ultrasound guided lumbar plexus blocks holds the potential for reducing anesthesia related complications in hip surgery in the elderly punctum. The ultrasound guidance is, however, imprecise and associated with epidural spread of local anesthetic due to limited visualization. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the quality of lumbar plexus blocks using Fusion imaging between MRI and ultrasound. Here we report preliminary results of the impact of different MR scanning positions for the accuracy of fusion imaging and report on the feasibility of using gadolinium doped anesthetics for studying the distribution of local anesthetic fluid using MRI.  


26 PET/MRI molecular imaging in sports medicine: Assessment of ACL graft viability with combined  18F-FDG and 3T MR imaging
Katherine Binzel1, Robert Magnussen2, Christopher Kaeding2, David C Flanigan2, Wenbo Wei1, Melanie U Knopp3, and Michael V Knopp1
1Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 2Sports Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 3Sports Medicine, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, United States
Evaluation of ACL graft healing by combined PET/MR imaging is readily feasible but has limited quantitative accuracy with use of conventional PET systems. The application of next generation digital photon counting in PET improves the quantitative accuracy and precision of assessment of graft metabolic activity. This advanced imaging modality also holds potential for ultra-low dose PET imaging, enhancing the clinical utility of such a combined imaging approach for detailed assessment of ACL graft viability after reconstructive surgery.


27 Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the brachial plexus as an aid to the diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies: preliminary results.
Jos Oudeman1, Filip Eftimov2, Gustav J Strijkers3, Martijn Froeling4, Matthan W. A. Caan1, Ivo N. van Schaik2, Mario Maas1, Aart J Nederveen1, Marianne de Visser2, and Camiel Verhamme2
1Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4Radiology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Diagnosing  -treatable-  inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) can be challenging, especially  differentiating MMN from -untreatable- focal spinal muscular atrophy (fSMA). One of the reasons is that conduction studies cannot evaluate reliably the proximal part of the brachial plexus.  Therefore we investigated DTI of the brachial plexus in patients with CIDP, MMN, fSMA and healthy controls and found  significant differences, indicating DTI might be a valuable diagnostic tool in the clinic.


28 Comparison of vertebral bone marrow water ADC between young and old subjects: DW-MRS versus DWI
Michael Dieckmeyer1, Stefan Ruschke1, Hendrik Kooijman2, Ernst J. Rummeny1, Jan S. Kirschke3, Thomas Baum1, and Dimitrios C. Karampinos1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Philips Research Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany, 3Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of vertebral bone marrow has been proposed as a useful biomarker for differentiating between benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures and could potentially be beneficial for the understanding of physiological as well as pathological bone marrow changes. In this work we exploit the spectral resolution of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS) to exclusively quantify the ADC of the bone marrow water component and compare it to DWI based measurements. The results of two age groups are compared.


29 Using hyperpolarised 13C-MRS to explore murine skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise
M. Kate Curtis1, Brianna J Stubbs1, Vicky Ball1, Lowri E Cochlin2, Mark A Cole3, Jack J Miller1,4, David P O'Neill1, Kieran Clarke1, Peter A Robbins1, and Damian J Tyler1,5
1Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2PulseTeq Ltd, Surrey, United Kingdom, 3Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 4Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Previous techniques used to determine the hierarchy of skeletal muscle metabolic fuel selection have been unable to directly describe the changes in cellular metabolic flux during exercise. The aim of this project was to develop a technique that allows the simultaneous assessment of metabolism and function in exercising skeletal muscle in real-time, in an intact mouse, using hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate MRS. Our results demonstrate that the technique is sensitive enough to distinguish differences in metabolic flux between the resting and exercising states shown by a significant increase in 13C label incorporation into bicarbonate during exercise.


30 Radiation-induced Early Temporal Changes of IVIM-based Diffusion and Perfusion Patterns of Bone Marrow Predict the Likelihood of Hematological Toxicity
Elaine Yuen Phin Lee1, Jian He2, Jose Angelo Udal Perucho1, and Queenie Chan3
1The Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China, People's Republic of, 3Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted MRI offers the unique opportunity to simultaneously study the diffusion and perfusion changes in the bone marrow following whole-pelvis radiotherapy. We prospectively studied twenty-eight patients with cervical cancer who had paired IVIM MRI examinations before and at week-4 of treatment. We observed a distinctive positive trend of D (true diffusion coefficient) in patients who suffered hematological toxicity (HT), whilst D remained relatively stable in patients who did not suffer HT. In addition, f  (perfusion fraction) increased following treatment, but this pattern was not unique to patients who suffered HT. 


31 The value of BOLD-MRI in early diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the femoral Head in patients with steroid treatment - Video Not Available
Jing Li1, Zhuoli Zhang2, Yu Zhang3, Quan Zhang1, and Fei Yuan4
1Pingjin Hospital, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 2Northwestern Univerisity, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Philips Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 4MRI, PingJin Hospital, TianJin, China, People's Republic of
This study attempted to compare BOLD with conventional MRI sequences for determining the onset of osteonecrosis of the femoral head following steroid-related osteonecrosis. 112 patients who had received steroid treatment were scanned using conventional MRI and BOLD. The manifestation in BOLD-MRI is in accordance with the pathology of ONFH, which would allow early treatment of ONFH.



32 Associations between quantitative MRI biomarkers in the lumbar spine and pain in chronic low back pain patients with disc degeneration
Volkan Emre Arpinar1 and L Tugan Muftuler1,2
1Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Center for Imaging Research, Medical College of Wisonsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States
Associations between quantitative MRI biomarkers in the lumbar spine and pain in chronic low back pain patients (CLBP) were studied. These biomarkers are currently being explored as quantitative metrics of disc degeneration. Since most CLBP cases are associated with pathologic disc degeneration processes, these biomarkers might provide clues about the actual source of pain. For analysis, the discs from each subject were pooled from the least to the most degenerated one using a semi-quantitative metric. Results showed that these biomarkers might aid in identifying the source of pain in CLBP patients.


33 Quantitative assessment of lumbar disc degeneration by non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging - Permission Withheld
Masaki Katsura1,2, Yuichi Suzuki2, Akihiro Kasahara2, Harushi Mori1, Akira Kunimatsu1, Yoshitaka Masutani3, Masaaki Hori4, Shigeki Aoki4, and Kuni Ohtomo1
1Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 3Intelligent Systems, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima, Japan, 4Radiology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
We performed q-space imaging(QSI) analyses for lumbar intervertebral discs(IVDs) in patients suffering from lower back pain with different stages of degeneration. We evaluated the correlation between the quantitative QSI measurements and the qualitative grading(Pfirrmann's scale) of disc degeneration. Our results suggest that the degenerative process of IVDs involves narrowing of the space for free water movement and a generally higher degree of microstructural complexity, in which we are unable to assess with conventional quantitative MR measurements. QSI may provide sensitive biomarkers for IVD degenerative microstructural changes and can potentially become a tool to allow characterization of various IVD pathologies.


34 B1-insensitive high-resolution isotropic T2 mapping of the lumbar plexus with a T2-prepared 3D TSE
Dominik Weidlich1, Barbara Cervantes1, Nico Sollmann2, Hendrik Kooijman3, Jan S. Kirschke4, Ernst J. Rummeny1, Axel Haase5, and Dimitrios C. Karampinos1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 3Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany, 4Section of Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 5Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany
T2 mapping is a great candidate for quantitatively assessing inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. However, measuring T2 of the lumbar nerve roots is challenging because of the need for high isotropic resolution and the sensitivity of the region to transmit B1 inhomogeneities. The present work proposes a T2 preparation, based on a modified BIR-4 pulse, and combined with 3D TSE imaging for B1-insensitive high-resolution isotropic T2 mapping of the lumbar plexus. The feasibility of the method is shown in five healthy volunteers and a variation of T2 along the nerve root course is observed.


35 Feasibility of brachial plexus assessment using 3D fat suppression T2-weighted Cube combined with double inversion recovery at 3T
Shuji Nagata1, Hiroshi Nishimura2, Kimberly K Amrami3, Kazutaka Nashiki1, Tatsuyuki Tonan1, Uchiyama Yusuke1, Kiminori Fujimoto1, and Toshi Abe1
1Kurume University Hospital, Kurume, Japan, 2Saiseikai Futsukaichi Hospital, Chikushino, Japan, 3Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States
A high-resolution MR neurography using 3D fat suppression T2-weighted Cube combined with double inversion recovery (3D FS DIR Cube) was evaluated the feasibility of brachial plexus assessment. 15 normal volunteers were scanned 3D FS DIR Cube, 3D FS T2-weighted Cube (3D FS T2 Cube), and 2D IDEAL water on a 3T MRI scanner using a GEM NV coil. The 3D FS DIR Cube can provide excellent contrast between brachial plexus branch and surrounding tissues and increase the conspicuity of the nerves delineation with uniformed fat suppression and vessels signal suppression compared with 3D FS T2 Cube and 2D IDEAL water.


36 Quantitative MR Imaging of Vertebral Disc and Bone Marrow in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Rat Model Study
Chao-Ying Wang1, Yu-Juei Hsu2, Yi-Jen Peng3, Yi-Chih Hsu4, Shih-Wei Chiang4,5, Ming-Huang Lin6, Hsiao-Wen Chung5, and Guo-Shu Huang4,7
1Department and Institute of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Institute of BiomedicalSciences, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, 7Department of Medical Research, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
An animal study to investigate bone marrow changes in the lumbar spine by quantitative Magenetic Resonance Imaging


37 Differentiation of spinal lesions using monoexponential, biexponential, and gamma distribution diffusion-weighted MR Imaging: Initial clinical results
Miyuki Takasu1, Yuji Akiyama1, Chihiro Tani1, Yoko Kaichi1, Takayuki Tamura1, Koichi Oshio2, and Kazuo Awai1
1Diagnostic Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima-shi, Japan, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare various diffusion parameters obtained from monoexponential, biexponential, and gamma distribution models in differentiating vertebral lesions in human subjects. All MR parameters, except for ADCfast and frac > 3, were significantly different between normal bone marrow and lesions. Water molecular diffusion parameters may provide additional information and improve the differentiation of spinal lesions compared with conventional diffusion parameters. This also refers to differentiation of malignant lesions from acute spinal fracture, in which both PG (D) calculated from gamma distribution model and perfusion fraction f of the biexponential model proved to be useful.


38 Predictive patient assessment via T2 Mapping of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc at 3T: Correlation of T2 values with clinical reports, morphological grading, RMDQ, and VAS at a 5-year follow-up in patients with low back pain
Marcus Raudner1, David Stelzeneder2, Claudia Kronnerwetter1, Vladimir Juras1, Karin Pieber3, Reinhard Windhager2, and Siegfried Trattnig1
1High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Anatomical determination of cause for low back pain often remains impossible in the majority of patients. This study examined the diagnostic and predictive capabilities of T2 values of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs). Twenty-five symptomatic patients were examined via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T at baseline and 5-year follow-up (FU). Combining radiological reports, morphological grading, region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and patient assessment (VAS and Roland-Morris-Disability-Questionnaire), significant predictive capabilities were identified. 


39 High-Resolution DWI of the Lumbar Plexus using B1-insensitive Velocity-Compensated Diffusion-Prepared 3D TSE
Barbara Cervantes1, Dominik Weidlich1, Hendrik Kooijman2, Ernst Rummeny1, Axel Haase3, Jan S Kirschke4, and Dimitrios C Karampinos1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany, 3Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik, Garching, Germany, 4Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can describe the microstructure of nerve fibers and is therefore a powerful tool in the study of neuropathic changes. Diffusion imaging in the body faces challenges with motion and B0 and B1 field effects. Particularly, imaging of nerves has resolution requirements that can limit the performance of the acquisition method. The lumbar plexus is a particularly difficult region to image due to the complexity of the nerve geometry there and its susceptibility to motion and field inhomogeneity. Therefore, careful considerations need to be taken in the design of a diffusion-prepared sequence for imaging the lumbar plexus. The present work proposes an adiabatic diffusion preparation module in combination with a 3D TSE readout to achieve high-resolution DWI of the lumbar plexus.


40 Is intravoxel incoherent motion(IVIM) more helpful for differentiating benign from malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions comparing with the conventional DWI? - Permission Withheld
Xiaodong Zhang1, Yingjie Mei2, Jiewen Yan1, Yanjun Chen1, Yinxia Zhao1, and Shaolin Li1
1Department of medical radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of, 2Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of
The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for the differentiation between benign and malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions. The results of our study show that IVIM is potentially a promising and valuable non-invasive method in differentiating the spinal benign and malignant diseases. 


41 Postoperative Spinal Imaging Metal Artefact Reduction Using Ultrashort Echo Time MRI: A Feasibility Study
Amy Ming-Chun Tsai Sevao1, Alistair Young1, Benjamin Schmitt2, Hament Pandya3, Karen Billington3, Anthony Doyle3, David Grodzki4, and Brett Cowan5
1Anatomy with Medical Imaging, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 2Sydney, Australia, 3Auckland, New Zealand, 4Erlangen, Germany, 5University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Post-operative spine imaging with metal implants in situ are problematic because of the significant metal artefacts, in both CT due to beam hardening, and MRI fom signal loss. Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) MRI has potential to significantly reduce metal artefacts because of its method of acquisition. Significant differences in metal artefacts between conventional MR and UTE are found in our study, imaging sheep spine with spinal fusion hardware in situ, with importnat clinical implications.


42 Rapid and Distortion-Free Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Evaluation of Lumbar Nerve Roots Using Direct Coronal Single-Shot Turbo Spin-Echo Diffusion Sequence
Takayuki Sakai1, Atsuya Watanabe2,3, Kiichi Nose1, Daichi Murayama1, Shigehiro Ochi1, Masami Yoneyama4, and Noriyuki Yanagawa1
1Eastern Chiba Medical Center, Chiba, Japan, 2Chiba university graduate school of medicine, Chiba, Japan, 3Orthopaedic surgery, Eastern Chiba Medical Center, Chiba, Japan, 4Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan

The purpose of this study was to visualize the lumbar nerve roots and to measure their FA values in healthy volunteers and in patients with neurological symptom of leg by using TSE-DTI.   Tractography of the patients with symptomatic side of lumbar nerve roots indicated abnormalities such as narrowing, deformation, and disruption. The FA values of the symptomatic side of lumbar nerve roots were significantly lower than those of the asymptomatic side.   TSE-DTI might more accurately evaluate compressed lumbar nerve roots compared to conventional EPI-DTI. Additionally, tractography of TSE-DTI enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts and has a lower geometric distortion for diagnosing lumbar nerve compression than EPI-DTI.


43 Quantification of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction using time-interleaved multi-echo gradient-echo water-fat MRI: preliminary experience in children
Stefan Ruschke1, Amber Pokorney2, Holger Eggers3, Jan S. Kirschke4, Thomas Baum5, Dimitrios C. Karampinos1, and Houchun Harry Hu2
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Radiology, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, United States, 3Philips Research, Hamburg, Germany, 4Section of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 5Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
In this work, we describe our preliminary clinical experience using a previously reported time-interleaved six-echo gradient-echo (TIMGRE) acquisition for water-fat chemical-shift encoded MRI.  The acquisition scheme involved two interleaves that acquired three echoes each with fly-back gradients.  The pulse sequence was used to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat fraction in a pilot cohort of 12 pediatric patients  (age range: 1-13 years) at 3T with 1.2-1.6 mm in-plane resolution and 1.2-3 mm slices. The knowledge on bone marrow fat fraction may provide insight into adverse effects on bone health later in life, given that there is clinical relevance of vertebral osteoporotic fractures in adults.  


44 UTE-T2* detects matrix changes in Achilles tendon after tendon allograft reconstruction for old Achilles tendon rupture and the correlation with clinical score: a preliminary study
Hongyue Tao1, Yong Zhang2, Yang Qiao1, Ziying Wu3, Kui Ma3, Yinghui Hua3, and Shuang Chen1
1Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 2GE Healthcare, MR Research China, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 3Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of
This preliminary study used UTE-T2*, a novel quantitative technique with potential short-T2* relaxations that are not well captured by standard T2 mapping, to investigate T2* value in Achilles tendon (AT) after tendon allograft reconstruction (AT-R) and analyze the correlation between T2* value and AOFAS score. Six patients with AT-R and 6 sex, age, and BMI matched healthy controls were recruited for comparison. The results showed T2* values of middle (MID) and muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) regions in AT-R patients were statistically lower compared with the matched regions of controls and T2* value of MID region was negatively correlated with AOFAS score, which suggest T2* may be a promising marker for the detection of matrix changes in AT after AT-R. 


45 MR properties of cadaveric Achilles tendon enthesis with ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences and correlate with biomechanics - Video Not Available
Bimin Chen1,2, Erik Dorthe3, Michael Carl4, Hongda Shao1, Yajun Ma1, Darryl D'Dlima3, Graeme M Bydder1, and Jiang Du1
1Radiology Department, UCSD, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Radiology Department, The first affiliated hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of, 3The Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, CA, United States, 4GE Healthcare, san diego, CA, United States
Entheses are sites where tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules attach to bone. They may be fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. Entheses are adapted at both the macroscopic and the microscopic level to distribute stress over a wide area or volume. Entheses are very commonly involved in many diseases and the primary target of disease in the seronegative spondyloarthropathies .we aim to study the MR properties of cadaveric Achilles tendon enthesis using ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences and correlate them with biomechanics.


46 Accuracy evaluation of pulse sequences using inversion recovery pulse for T1 measurement.
Noriyuki Tawara1,2, Kanokvalee Ponkanist2, Shuichi Shiratori2, Anchali Krisanachinda2, and Toru Yamamoto1
1Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
It has been reported that T1 in skeletal muscles is proportional to the percentage of type?fibers which would be a determinant for athletic performance. However, the precision of the measured T1 values is unclear due to various pulse sequences used for the measurement. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of T1 measured by pulse sequences with inversion recovery technique that is believed to be most accurate in T1 measurement. A value of goodness of fitting was employed for the quantitative evaluation of the obtained data. The influence of SNR on the T1 measurement was also examined.


47 Depiction of deep fascia, epimysium and periosteum in 3 dimensional Ultrashort Echo Time MR Imaging (3D UTE) with histologic correlation in porcine model - Permission Withheld
Ah Rhm Woo1, Yeo Ju Kim1, Mi Young Kim1, Jang Gyu Cha2, Michael Carl3, Sangwoo Lee4, Moonjung Hwang4, and Dong Eun Kim4
1Department of radiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon, Korea, Republic of, 3GE Healthcare, San Diego, CA, United States, 4GE Healthcare, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
We evaluated the ability of depiction of deep fascia, epimysium and periosteum in 3 dimensional Ultrashort Echo Time MR Imaging (3D UTE) with histologic correlation in porcine model. In our study, the 3D UTE might depict deep fascia and periosteum as high signal intensities whereas the ability of visualization of epimysium was uncertain and high signal intensity of artifact remains in naked cortex without periosteum.


48 The Advantages of Spectrally Calibrated 3D-MSI in Assessments of Symptomatic Spinal Fusion
S Sivaram Kaushik1, Abhishiek Sharma2, Rajeev Mannem1, Cathy Marszalkowski1, Scott Rand1, Dennis Maiman2, and Kevin M Koch1
1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States
Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a commonly encountered clinical condition for which the root cause often remains elusive after lengthy clinical assessment. While MRI provides great potential utility for uncovering the causes of failed back surgery syndrome, it also is confounded by metal-induced artifacts. This study explores the benefits of a prospectively calibrated 3D-MSI metal artifact reduction technique in assessing instrumented FBSS. Residual artifacts and clinical diagnostic impact were assessed on a cohort of symptomatic FBSS subjects.  The results of the study indicate diagnostic advantages using calibrated 3D-MSI, even in the presence of lower-susceptibility titanium spinal hardware.
Exhibition Hall 

14:30 - 15:30

    Computer #

49 Multiparametric quantitative MRI of cartilage composition and bone blood perfusion applied in a case-control study of patellofemoral pain.
Rianne A van der Heijden1,2, Dirk HJ Poot1,3,4, Melek Ekinci2, Esther E Bron1,4, Jasper van Tiel1,5, Stefan Klein1,4, Peter LJ van Veldhoven6, Gabriel P Krestin1, Jan AN Verhaar5, Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra2,5, Marienke van Middelkoop2, and Edwin HG Oei1
1Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2General Practice, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3Imaging Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands, 4Medical informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 5Orthopedics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 6Sports medicine, MC Haaglanden, Leidschendam, Netherlands
Diminished patellofemoral cartilage composition and vascular problems are potential pathogenic mechanisms in patellofemoral pain (PFP). These mechanisms can be studied in depth using advanced MRI techniques. We are the first to successfully apply a wide range of quantitative MRI techniques for cartilage composition and bone blood perfusion in a case-control study on PFP. The results show no significant differences in patellofemoral cartilage composition and patellar bone blood perfusion between PFP patients and healthy controls.


50 MR texture analysis of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis
James MacKay1, Samantha Low1, Philip Murray1, Bahman Kasmai1, Glyn Johnson2, Simon Donell2,3, and Andoni Toms1,2
1Radiology, Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom, 2Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, 3Trauma & Orthopaedics, Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom
Subchondral bone (SB) plays an important role in osteoarthritis (OA). Texture analysis (TA) is a method of quantifying changes in SB and may be a useful OA biomarker. The optimum MR method to allow TA of SB is unclear. We compared TA using two sequences which demonstrated promise in depicting SB structure in three groups of participants: normal controls (n=10), individuals with early OA (n=10) and individuals with advanced OA (n=10). TA using a 2D T1-weighted spin echo sequence demonstrated more significant differences in texture features between groups and improved classification accuracy compared to a 3D gradient echo sequence.


51 T1 bi-component analysis across whole articular cartilage depth - from calcified cartilage to superficial cartilage
Hongda Shao1, Soorena Azam ZAnganeh1, Eric Chang1, Graeme Bydder1, and Jiang Du1
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
Articular cartilage is a highly ordered tissue with an organized layered structure that can be functionally and structurally divided into the superficial, transitional, radial and the calcified cartilage. By exploiting intrinsic magnetic resonance (MR) properties of cartilage, current techniques allow for the non-invasive assessment of many of the structural components. More recently, ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging sequences have been used to investigate the T2* relaxation times of bound and free water components in different layers of articular cartilage. However, the depth dependence of longitudinal relaxation times, or T1s are still unknown. In this study we aim to study the T1s of bound and free water in different layers of patella cartilage using UTE imaging sequences on a clinical 3T scanner.


52 T1? imaging in hip cartilage: A comparative study in hips with and without cam type deformity
Gerd Melkus1,2, Helen Anwander3, Kawan S Rakhra1,2, and Paul E Beaulé3,4
1Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
In this study we systematically investigated the analysis of hip cartilage T1ρ images in healthy as well as asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects with cam deformities. Hips with cam-type deformity showed a significant T1ρ prolongation compared to the healthy subjects indicating loss of proteoglycan in the lateral third of the anterosuperior quadrant. A significant correlation between entire hip cartilage T1ρ values and WOMAC subscore pain was found. The study shows that in the presence of a cam deformity, T1ρ has the ability to detect proteoglycan depletion, the earliest stage of cartilage degeneration, even before to symptoms occur.


53 Buy One, Get Two for Free: Simultaneous Knee T2 Mapping and Morphological Analysis On Synthetic Images Using GRAPPATINI
Patrick Omoumi1, Tom Hilbert1,2,3, Marion Roux1, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux1, Ruud B Van Heeswijk1, Reto Meuli1, and Tobias Kober1,2,3
1Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology (HC CMEA SUI DI BM PI), Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
A fast quantitative T2 mapping technique that additionally provides synthetic images for morphological assessment was validated by two experienced radiologists regarding (1) the T2 values through a phantom experiment and (2) the image quality through a quantitative and qualitative assessment for the knee joint in five healthy volunteers. 


54 Isotropic Three-Dimensional T2 Mapping of Knee Cartilage with T2-Prepared Segmented Gradient Echo at 3T
Roberto Colotti1, Patrick Omoumi1, and Ruud B. van Heeswijk1
1Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland
An isotropic three-dimensional T2 mapping technique with adiabatic T2 magnetization preparation for T2 relaxation time quantification was implemented and validated at 3T in phantoms and 6 healthy volunteers.


55 Repeatability and reproducibility of in vivo magnetic resonance T1rho relaxation time measurements of hip cartilage at 3T
Angéline Nemeth1, Lucy Di Marco2, Denis Grenier1, Michaël Sdika1, Olivier Beuf1, and Jean-Baptiste Pialat3
1CREATIS, Université de Lyon ; CNRS UMR5220 ; Inserm U1044 ; INSA-Lyon ; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France, 2Radiologie et Imagerie médicale diagnostique et thérapeutique, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon, France, 3Radiologie Pavillon B, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, INSERM U1033 and Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France
To detect early changes in cartilage, quantification methods were developed with Magnetic Resonance Imaging. T1rho sequence is a valuable tool to quantitatively access the proteoglycans content, complementary to T2 mapping technique that is correlated with the collagen content. The thin cartilage thickness and deep location of the hip joint require a strong compromise between SNR, pixel size and acquisition time. The aim of this study is to test the repeatability and reproducibility of in vivo (magnetic resonance) T1rho and T2 relaxation times measures in the hip joint cartilage of thirty healthy asymptomatic volunteers. 


56 Osteochondral lesion depth on MRI can help predict the need for a sandwich procedure
Razmara Nizak1, Joris Bekkers1, Pim de Jong2, and Daniel Saris1
1Orthopedics, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Radiology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Autologous subchondral bone grafting combined with ACI (sandwich procedure) is a well-accepted procedure for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee. This requires a different surgical technique and preoperative planning. Also pain from bone marrow donor site location is expected and should be part of patient consent and expectations. This study evaluates whether MRI is able to predict the need for a sandwich procedure to help in optimizing the preoperative planning and consent.


57 7 Tesla quantitative hip MRI: A comparison between TESS and CPMG for T2 mapping
Oliver Kraff1, Andrea Lazik-Palm1,2, Rahel Heule3,4, Oliver Bieri3,4, and Harald H Quick1,5
1Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MRI, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital, Essen, Germany, 3Division of Radiological Physics, Department of Radiology, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 5High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital, Essen, Germany
Purpose was the assessment of TESS T2 relaxometry in comparison to standard CPMG as a potential candidate to improve workflow in quantitative hip MRI protocols at 7T. A total of 8 healthy volunteers were included. T2 relaxation times were measured by manually drawing regions of interest in both acetabular and femoral cartilage in multiple regions of the hip joint. Compared to CPMG, TESS provides systematically reduced T2 values in both hip cartilage layers, in line with previously reported values. Nevertheless, with a 5-fold increase in spatial coverage TESS seems to be a good candidate to improve hip protocols at 7T.


58 Repeatability of R1?, R2, and R2* in Knee Cartilage
Joshua Kaggie1, Scott Reid2, Gavin Houston2, Kevin F King3, Ferdia Gallagher1, and Martin Graves1
1Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2GE Healthcare, Amersham, United Kingdom, 3GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, United States
R1ρ, R2, and R2* imaging have been considered as biomarkers of degenerative cartilage diseases.  In order to ensure the reliability of these measurements, we acquired data in eight subjects twice and compared measurements of variability.  R1ρ-measurements had lower variability (CVRMS=21%) and a higher correlation to age (r2-value=0.566) when compared to R2 (r2-value=0.183; CVRMS=25%) and R2* (r2-value=0.092; CVRMS=38%).  These measurements suggest that R1ρ is a more sensitive biomarker than R2 or R2*.


59 Diffusion Weighted MRI of the Fibrous Structure of the Meniscus of the Knee: In Vitro Studies at 11.7T
Qun He1,2, Jihye Baek1, Daryl D'Lima1, Jiang Du1, Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi1, and Graeme Bydder1
1University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Ningbo Jansen NMR Technology Co., Ltd., Cixi, Zhejiang, China, People's Republic of
In vitro high resolution diffusion weighted imaging of the meniscus of the knee at 11.7T shows detailed structure of fiber groups that has not previously be seen with MRI. There were clearly differentiated from cartilaginous areas of the meniscus. The diffusion contrast adds to that which results from the magic angle effect. This acts as a T2 filter. The diffusion contrast has more flexibility than magic angle contrast since it is not dependent on B0 and in principle any diffusion direction can be used. The results may be translatable to high field clinical systems.


60 Spotlight on gagCEST imaging in human menisci with MR-microimaging on ultra-high field 7T - a pilot study
Benedikt Hager1,2,3, Sonja Walzer3, Matthew DiFranco4, Vladimir Juras1,5, Vladimir Mlynarik1,2, Markus Schreiner3, Martin Zalaudek1, Stefan Domayer3, Esau Poblador Rodriguez1, Andreas Berg4, Reinhard Windhager3, and Siegfried Trattnig1,2
1High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 5Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
The purpose of this study was to examine whether gagCEST imaging reflects the histopathological changes concerning glycosaminoglycan in human meniscus in vitro.  All MRI acquisitions were performed on 7T MRI with a microimaging system.  Histological staining using safranin-O was performed for correlation to imaging findings. Qualitatively, the gagCEST map and the corresponding safranin-O image show the same relative regional intensity of glycosaminoglycans. In sum, gagCEST imaging in a 7T microimaging system allows a very detailed look into the glycosaminoglycan distribution in the human meniscus.




61 Diffusion Weighted 3D UTE in the Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Michael Carl1, Yajun Ma2, Graeme M Bydder2, and Jiang Du2
1Global MR Applications & Workflow, General Electric, San Diego, CA, United States, 2University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
In this work, we used a stimulated echo prepared diffusion 3DUTE sequence to image the posterior cruciate ligament. Volunteer scans in the knee were performed. We found that stimulated echo based diffusion weighted 3DUTE MR imaging can be used effectively to achieve useful b-values in short T2 MSK tissues. This initial proof-of-principle study shows good quantitative agreement with clinical EPI diffusion sequences.


62 Open MRI of FAI: Reader agreement of a new method for quantifying femoroacetabular clearance for hips in an impingement posture
Lawrence L Buchan1,2, Honglin Zhang1,2, Mark Harmon3, Elaine Ni Mhurchu3, Morgan Barber4, Shannon Jennifer Patterson5, Jacek Kopec4, Hubert Wong6, John Esdaile4, Jolanda Cibere4, Charles R Ratzlaff4, Bruce B Forster3, and David R Wilson1
1Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada,4Arthritis Research Canada, Richmond, BC, Canada, 5Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 6University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
In this study, we describe a novel open MRI method for evaluating femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in subjects with and without symptomatic FAI. First, we acquired images of subjects in postures suspected of inducing impingement using a T1-weighted gradient echo MR sequence. Second, readers measured β-angle to quantify clearance between the femur and acetabulum. Reader agreement for β-angle was equivalent or better to agreement when measuring α-angle, a similar structural measure. The open MRI method has the potential to assess functional relationships between the femur and acetabulum that otherwise cannot be assessed with closed-bore MRI scanners and conventional imaging protocols. This approach may be useful in addressing fundamental questions in FAI.


63 Rapid T2 Relaxometry of the Meniscus, Tendons, and Ligaments with an Ultrashort Echo-Time Double-Echo Steady State Sequence
Akshay S Chaudhari1,2, Bragi Sveinsson1,3, Marcus T Alley1, Emily J McWalter1, Garry E Gold1,2, and Brian A Hargreaves1,2,3
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
Quantitative MR imaging has the potential to provide information regarding the biochemical state of tissues and to track biochemical changes before the onset of morphological changes. However, with current MRI techniques, it is challenging to obtain signal from tissues with short-T2 relaxation times in the knee, let alone to perform quantitative imaging on them. Ultrashort echo-time double-echo in steady state (UTEDESS) is a pulse sequence that offers echo times of 50μs, and high resolution imaging with high SNR efficiencies. In this study, UTEDESS was also used to measure T2 relaxation times of the menisci, tendons, and ligaments in human knees. 


64 µMRI T2* mapping of degenerated human meniscal specimens compared to histology
Benedikt Hager1,2,3, Sonja Walzer2, Vladimir Juras1,4, Andreas Berg5, Matthew DiFranco5, Vladimir Mlynarik1,3, Markus Schreiner2, Martin Zalaudek1, Stefan Domayer2, Joachim Friske1, Reinhard Windhager2, and Siegfried Trattnig1,3
1High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imgaing and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria, 4Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 5Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
In this study, T2* maps of degenerated meniscal specimens were obtained using MRI on an ultra-high field scanner in combination with an MR microscopy insert and these images were compared to histological findings.  The results showed that all five investigated menisci specimens had very similar morphological appearance when comparing histological images, T2* weighted images and T2* maps. 


65 Measurement of Fast T2* of the ACL Using 3D UTE Imaging
Kenneth Wengler1,2, Mingqian Huang 2, Elaine Gould2, Mark Schweitzer2, Seth Korbin3, James Paci3, and Xiang He2
1Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 3Orthopaedic Surgery, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, United States
3D-UTE imaging was utilized to estimate the fast T2* component of ACL after graft repair surgery. The average fast T2* component in the grafted ACL 3 months post-surgery for eight subjects is 1.66 +/- 0.4 ms. Two subjects currently have both 3 and 6 month post-surgery images. The ACL average fast T2* component went from 2.55ms to 1.81ms at three and six months post-surgery respectively for the first subject, and 1.39ms to 1.24ms for the second subject. The results demonstrate promise for 3D-UTE T2* mapping of bound water to evaluate ACL repair.


66 Variable angle GLCM analysis for T2 maps of osteoarthritic knee cartilage with endpoint analysis: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis study
Arttu Peuna1,2,3, Joonas Hekkala1,3, Marianne Haapea1,2, Jana Podlipska1,3, Simo Saarakkala1,2,3, Miika T Nieminen1,2,3, and Eveliina Lammentausta1,2
1Medical Research Center, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, 3Research group of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Texture analysis methods based on gray level co-occurrence matrices can be optimized to probe the spatial information from knee MR T2 maps and of the changes caused by osteoarthritis. Curvature of the cartilage surfaces and relatively low resolution in relation to cartilage thickness set special requirements for texture analysis tools. Here we report an optimized analysis tool with customized point-wise offset angle and endpoint extrapolation for cartilage texture analysis. Method provides excellent performance compared to traditional texture analysis implementation.


67 Comparing The Performance Of 3D T1W-WATS Sequence With 2D T2* FFE Sequence In Cartilage Changes Of Pediatric Hemophilic Joints - Video Not Available
Yanqiu Lv1, Hua Cheng1, Ningning Zhang1, Kaining Shi2, Guangheng Yin1, Di Hu1, Huiying Kang1, Xiaojuan Tao1, Feng Guan1, Yang Wen1, and Yun Peng1
1Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated To Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Imaging systems Clinical Science,Philips Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Comparing the performance of 3D T1W-WATS sequence with 2D T2*W FFE sequence in the evaluation of cartilage damage in Pediatric hemophilia joints. 16 hemophiliac joints including 8 knees and 8 ankles were scanned on a 3.0 T, signal to noise of Cartilage, relative contrast between cartilage and surrounding tissue and the impact of hemosiderin were employed to compare.Our result showed that 3D T1W-WATS sequence had better relative contrast between cartilage and surrounding tissues and the immunity to hemosiderin compared with 2D T2*W sequence.3DT1W-WATS sequence can be performed in the evaluation of cartilage damage in hemophilia patients.


68 Effects of the acquisition window length on articular cartilage sodium MR image quality
Alireza Akbari1,2 and Michael Noseworthy1,2,3
1School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 2Imaging Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 3Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
We assessed articular cartilage sodium MR image SNR and blurring as a function of acquisition window length.  Increasing the acquisition window dramatically improved the SNR with minimal reduction in image quality as shown by minimal blurring.


69 Simultaneous Extraction of ADC and T2: Validation of Quantified DESS Sequence at 3T and 7T
Forrest Howell1, Haonan Wang1, Daniel Park2, Meredith Taylor1, Bragi Sveinsson3, and Neal Bangerter1
1Electrical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States, 2Biomedical Imaging, Electrical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Radioligy, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States
A modification of the dual-echo steady state (DESS) pulse sequence was recently proposed that allows the extraction of both T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps from a pair of DESS acquisitions (termed quantitative DESS, or qDESS).  A careful validation of the accuracy of the qDESS T2 and ADC estimates has not yet been performed.   The qDESS sequence produces accurate, high-resolution ADC and T2 maps.  This is especially notable at 7T, where transmit B1 inhomogeneity makes it very difficult to produce reasonable T2 maps using typical multi-echo spin echo techniques.  The qDESS technique shows great promise in providing both high-resolution morphological data and maps of T2 and ADC at 3 and 7 Tesla.


70 Diffusion MRI models for Cartilage: beyond the Diffusion Tensor
Uran Ferizi1, Ignacio Rossi2, Christian Glaser3, Jenny Bencardino1, and Jose Raya1
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiologisches Zentrum München-Pasing, Munich, Germany
The current DTI model has shown promise in capturing the early trends of change in cartilage. However, the model is very sensitive to the noise in the signal, hence blurring the contrast in the the anisotropy maps. Here we propose a simplification of the 6-parameter model to a 4-parameter one, called the "Zeppelin". The biophysical description that the Zeppelin makes remains the same and, additionally, provides fits that are more stable and provide better constrast. We also propose a new and simple 4-parameter multicompartment model (which is already known in neuroimaging). This provides an even more robust model fitting to the data, producing parameters that are analogous to those of Zeppelin, and promising more specificity to the early changes that occur in cartilage.


71 Loading Significantly Influences the Zonal T1 of Medial Tibial Cartilage Topographically
Ji Hyun Lee1,2, Farid Badar1,2, John Matyas3, and Yang Xia1,2
1Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 2Center for Biomedial Research, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, United States, 3Univeristy of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
This study aims to quantify the loading-modified T1 in articular cartilage using a canine model of early osteoarthritis (OA) at different degradation stages, at a 17.6µm resolution and with the use of Gd contrast agent. Both lesion and mechanical compression were found to alter T1 in cartilage at each sub-tissue zone and topographically, which provide a better understanding of the MRI properties of cartilage during joint loading. This result could help to design effective protocols in clinical MRI to better detect and manage the osteoarthritic diseases.


72 Chondral Injury from ACL Injury:  Monitoring Disease Progression
Matthew F. Koff1, Hollis G. Potter1, Sonja Eagle1, Scott Rodeo2, Kimberly Amrami3, Aaron Krych3, Xiaojuan Li4, and Sharmilla Majumdar4
1Department of Radiology and Imaging - MRI, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, United States, 2Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, United States,3Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 4University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States
this is a synopsis
Exhibition Hall 

14:30 - 15:30

    Computer #

73 Functional Changes in Medial Gastrocnemius from Unilateral Limb Suspension Induced Acute Atrophy: a 2D Strain Rate Study during Isometric Contraction
Vadim Malis1, Usha Sinha2, Robert Csapo3, and Shantanu Sinha3
1Physics, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
Unilateral limb suspension is a controlled method to generate acute atrophy. The loss of muscle force with acute atrophy may be due to changes in contractile elements and extracellular matrix (ECM); a study of the strain rate (SR) patterns could provide information on these changes.  Subjects were assessed at baseline (pre-ULLS) and post-ULLS using dynamic velocity encoded phase contrast MR imaging. The indices extracted from the SR tensor show at post-ULLS (i) a decrease in the asymmetry of deformation in the fiber cross-section and (ii) larger SR-muscle fiber angles. These findings may reflect a loss of integrity in the ECM.


74 Physiological insights into medial gastrocnemius function during eccentric contraction in normal and in acute atrophy – Quantification of 2D strain rate indices from Velocity Encoded Phase Contrast MR Imaging.
Usha Sinha1, Vadim Malis2, Robert Csapo3, and Shantanu Sinha3
1Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Physics, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
In-vivo studies of muscle function under different motion paradigms can elucidate the physiology of acute atrophy. This study maps the 2D strain rate tensor in subjects performing eccentric contractions before and after Unilateral Limb Suspension induced acute atrophy. As expected, strain rate values are smaller during eccentric compared to isometric contractions, since in the eccentric mode, muscle contraction occurs under lengthening conditions resulting in a net smaller local elongation. Changes of SR indices with atrophy are negligible possibly due to a balance of force loss from atrophy and greater force generation from a potentially stiffer matrix.


75 Feasibility study of interleaved multi-nuclear acquisitions on a 3 T clinical NMR scanner without hardware modifications
Alfredo Liubomir Lopez Kolkovsky1,2, Benjamin Marty1,2, Eric Giacomini1, and Pierre G Carlier1,2
1NMR Laboratory, Institut of Myology, Paris, France, 2NMR Laboratory, CEA/DSV/I2BM/MIRCen, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
NMR allows to investigate multiple aspects of physiological parameters like regional perfusion, blood and tissue oxygenation, intracellular pH or high-energy phosphate metabolism. In the past, interleaved multiparametric multinuclear dynamic NMR imaging and spectroscopy of skeletal muscle was developed on prototype scanners. Here we evaluated an interleaved pulse sequence combining the NMR acquisition of a 1H image and 31P spectrum on a clinical system without any hardware modifications from the customer. Having the possibility to run interleaved multinuclear sequences on unmodified clinical systems will greatly facilitate simultaneous measurements of tissue perfusion, oxygen content and mitochondrial ATP production in clinical research studies.


76 Comparison of T2-prepared 3D TSE with multi-echo spin-echo sequences for T2 mapping of thigh muscles in healthy volunteers
Elisabeth Klupp1, Dominik Weidlich2, Thomas Baum2, Barbara Cervantes2, Marcus Deschauer3, Hendrik Kooijman4, Ernst J. Rummeny2, Claus Zimmer1, Jan S. Kirschke1, and Dimitrios C. Karampinos2
1Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, München, Germany, 2Radiology, Technische Universität München, München, Germany, 3Neurology, Technische Universität München, München, Germany, 4Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany
There is a growing interest for applying T2 mapping for non-invasively tracking inflammatory changes in patients with neuromuscular diseases. T2 has been traditionally quantified using multi-echo spin-echo (MESE) sequences with known problems related to the refocusing pulses in presence of B1-inhomogeneity and slice profiles effects. The present work proposes the combination of an adiabatic T2-preparation with 3D TSE for B1-insenstive T2 mapping. The proposed method is compared with 2D-MESE and 3D-MESE, in terms of reproducibility on T2 quantification and sensitivity to B1 effects, in the thigh musculature of ten healthy subjects.


77 T2* Mapping of Lower Leg Muscles Following Single Brief Contractions at 3 T
Prodromos Parasoglou1, Tiejun Zhao2, Oleksandr Khegai1, Xuejiao Che1, and Jill M Slade3
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Siemens Healthcare, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States
Microvascular function in the skeletal muscle can be assessed through blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI signal changes after performing a brief exercise or following a period of induced ischemia. Such BOLD related relaxation changes are mainly attributed to intravascular mechanisms, such as changes in the hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation levels. In this work, we developed and implemented a rapid echo-planar imaging (EPI) method to map T2* changes, following a single maximum voluntary contraction on a 3 T whole body clinical scanner.


78 Quantitative Assessment of Muscle Fat in Sarcopenia Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS)
Alexandra Grimm1,2, Heiko Meyer2, Mathias Nittka2, Esther Raithel2, Andreas Friedberger1, Marc Teschler1, Michael Uder3, Wolfgang Kemmler1, Klaus Engelke1, and Harald H. Quick1,4
1Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen, Germany, 2Product Definition & Innovation, Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany, 3Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, 4Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
Sarcopenia describes muscle degeneration. In particular with increasing age, muscle tissue is replaced by fatty infiltrations. We developed an MRI sequence protocol (T1w TSE, PDw SPACE, PDw TSE Dixon, q-Dixon, and HISTO) for quantifying this degradation and applied it twice to 54 patients suffering from sarcopenia. Between both measurements three months of whole body electromyostimulation (EMS) training were performed. Initial results show that image data can be used for muscle segmentation and determination of muscle volumes, fat fractions, and fat distribution within the muscles. Muscle fat fractions correlate with muscle strength. In spectroscopy accurate voxel repositioning is challenging.


79 Foot Oximetry Angiosomes with MRI - Permission Withheld
Jie Zheng1, David Muccigrosso1, Xiaodong Zhang2, Hongyu An1, Andrew R Coggan1, Charles F Hildebolt1, Chandu Vemuri3, Patrick Geraghty3, Mary K Hastings4, and Michael J Mueller4
1Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 4The Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
     The objective of this study was to develop a non-contrast MRI based oximetry approach to assess the skeletal muscle microcirculation in diabetic and healthy feet. In both healthy and subjects with diabetes, the feasibility of the foot oximetry was examined when the subjects were at rest and during a toe-flexion isometric exercise. The percent difference in the areas of the oxygen extraction fraction within the 0.7 – 1.0 range between rest and exercise was significantly different between healthy subjects and subjects with diabetes. This is the first MRI foot oximetry developed for assessing regional skeletal muscle oxygenation.


80 Correlation between sodium and T1? dispersion in human calf muscle
Ping Wang1,2, Henry Zhu1,2, Hakmook Kang3, and John C. Gore1,2
1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States
Simultaneous acquisitions of sodium concentrations and T in muscles from different aged individuals show that sodium values increase with age and are accompanied by increases in the dispersion of spin-lock relaxation rates (i.e. the difference in R = 1/T at low and high locking frequencies).  A previous study has suggested that such differences in R at different fields reflects the contribution of chemical exchange to relaxation, which is known to dominate transverse relaxation at high fields, and potentially reflects GAG concentration in cartilage.  In this study, we found ΔR in muscle was smaller than in cartilage at 3T but was measureable and showed a strong correlation with sodium content in muscle.  The increase in sodium with age possibly corresponds to the loss of muscle mass and increase in extracellular volume within a voxel, but this appears to be accompanied by an increase in exchangeable protons as well.


81 Automatic segmentation for volume quantification of quadriceps muscle head in athletes during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon
Benjamin Gilles1, Charles de Bourguignon2, Pierre Croisille3, Grégoire Millet4, Magalie Viallon3, and Olivier Beuf5
1LIRMM; CNRS (UMR 5506) Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France, 2Radiology Dept, CHU de Saint Etienne, Saint Etienne, France, 3CREATIS, Université de Lyon ; CNRS UMR5220 ; Inserm U1044 ; INSA-Lyon ; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Saint Etienne, France, 4Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5CREATIS, Université de Lyon ; CNRS UMR5220 ; Inserm U1044 ; INSA-Lyon ; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
Acute loss of skeletal muscle mass is a common feature of several pathologies such as stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Having a none invasive method to accurately quantify muscle mass is of crucial interest to follow procedure that could prevent muscle wasting and restore physical capacity, mobility and optimize motor recovery. The aim of the current study is to propose an automatic segmentation technique to quantify muscle mass. The automatic segmentation of 3D quadriceps volumes was performed using a deformable registration technique applied to  3D isotropic in-phase (IN), out-phase (OUT), and calculated fat (F) and water (W) images obtained using a double-echo gradient echo Dixon coronal acquisition in order to test the best contrast channel for segmentation. The method was tested in a longitudinal study in athletes enrolled for the most extreme mountain ultra-marathon (The Tor des Géants, Courmayeur, Italy: +24000 positive elevation, 330km). 51 athletes were scans at departure, 27 finishers at the arrival and 2 days after recovery, leading to 105 datasets that were segmented in total. The best automatic segmentation accuracy was obtained when using the calculated Water image (DSC=0,946). 


82 Simultaneous quantitative susceptibility, PDFF and transversal relaxation time mapping in dystrophic skeletal muscle - Video Not Available
Benjamin Leporq1,2, Arnaud Le Troter3, Yann Le fur3, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana4, Maxime Guye3, Olivier Beuf2, and David Bendahan3,5
1Center of Research on inflammation; Inserm U1149, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France, 2CREATIS CNRS UMR 5220; Inserm U1044, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, 3CRMBM; CNRS UMR 7339, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France, 4Genetique Médicale et Génomique Fonctionelle; Inserm UMR S_910, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France, 5CEMEREM, Hopital de la Timone, Pôle d’imagerie médicale, AP-HM, Marseille, France
We have developed a dedicated algorithm allowing to quantify, from a single MR acquisition fat and muscle fractions together with magnetic susceptibility and transverse relaxation time (T2*). This approach was linked to a dedicated segmentation algorithm allowing to quantify specific indices which could be of interest for the assessment of disease severity and progression. Our results showed the feasibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in thigh muscles and demonstrated that its implementation into the fat-water separation reconstruction pipeline is possible. For dystrophies assessment, magnetic susceptibility-related information might provide a useful supplementary materials in comparison to relaxometry and fat fraction measurements.


83 Evaluation of Cuff-Induced Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Perfusion of Lower Extremity by ASL and IVIM MRI techniques
Qing Lu1, Shiteng Suo1, Hui Tang1, Jianxun Qu2, Yong Zhang2, and Jianrong Xu1
1Department of Radiology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 2GE Healthcare China, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) are both noninvasive MRI techniques that offer quantitative perfusion measurements. The current study showed that the ASL perfusion decreased while the IVIM vascular volume fraction increased compared to baseline under cuff compression paradigm in the lower extremity muscle, indicating that the two MRI techniques based on two completely distinct mechanisms provide complementary tissue perfusion characteristics.


84 Quantitative MR evaluation of fatty infiltration and edema-like processes in skeletal muscles of Myotonic Dystrophy type 1
Linda Heskamp1, Marlies van Nimwegen2, Barbara Janssen1, Baziel van Engelen2, and Arend Heerschap1
1Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Department of Neurology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands
We used quantitative MR to evaluate the extent of fatty infiltration and edema-like processes in muscles of patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Fat fractions were obtained using a DIXON method and the T2 of muscle water (T2water) was calculated using a bi-component extended phase graph model. The results show that fatty infiltration in DM1 is a slow gradual process whereby the distal part of the muscle is more heavily fat infiltrated than the proximal part. In addition, muscles that are in an active process of fatty infiltration have an elevated T2water, possibly from reactive edema. 


85 Rapid High Resolution 3D Musculoskeletal Imaging at 7T:  Contrast Optimization and Comparison of DESS, Phase-Cycled bSSFP, and 3D SPACE
Meredith Taylor1, Haonan Wang1, Antony JR Palmer2, Andrew J Carr2, Sion Glyn-Jones2, Daniel Park2, and Neal K Bangerter1
1Electrical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States, 2Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology, and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
In this study, we (1) implemented a two-acquisition 3D phase-cycled bSSFP protocol at 7 Tesla that achieves 0.31mm isotropic resolution in under 9 minutes of scan time, (2) implemented a 3D DESS protocol at 7 Tesla that achieves 0.36mm isotropic resolution in just under 7 minutes, (3) performed a contrast optimization to identify flip angles that maximize both cartilage/muscle and cartilage/synovial fluid contrast, and (3) compared to a 3D SPACE acquisition at 7T that achieves 0.55mm isotropic resolution in a scan time of 11:37.


86 1H MRS can detect and quantify acetylcarnitine in different human skeletal muscles at rest at 7T. - Permission Withheld
Radka Tušková1,2,3, Ladislav Valkovic1,3,4,5, Martin Gajdošík1,3, Thomas Heckmann6, Norbert Bachl6, Harald Tschan6, Siegfried Trattnig1,3, and Martin Krššák1,3,7
1High-Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Department of NMR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia, 3Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria, 4John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurements Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, 6Center of Sport Science and University Sport, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 7Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Carnitine plays an important role in fat metabolism. A long-echo time (TE of 350ms) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocol was implemented for detection of skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine at rest on a clinical 7T scanner in the calf (soleus) and thigh (vastus lateralis) muscle. T2 relaxation times of the 2.13 ppm signal of acetlylcarnitine at 7T were assessed as 137.8±47.7ms. Concentrations of acetylcarnitine in vastus lateralis muscle in four healthy volunteers were found to be 1.69±0.21mmol/kg wet weight, whereas lower concentrations (i.e., 0.54±0.19mmol/kg) were found in soleus muscle.       


87 A Low-Cost MR Compatible Ergometer For Assessing Lower Leg Muscle Metabolism
Xuejiao Che1, Ryan Brown 1,2, Leeor Alon1,2, Ravinder R Regatte1, and Prodromos Parasoglou1
1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2NYU WIRELESS, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, NY, United States
In this work, we designed and constructed an inexpensive MR compatible ergometer that can be used for studying lower leg muscle metabolism. This ergometer allows subjects to perform a plantar flexion exercise protocol while 31P-MR data are acquired. The device is easy to use, and it can be positioned inside the bore of the magnet in less than 10 min. The mechanical power exerted by the subject can be estimated from force and angle displacement signals that are continuously monitored, while the exersice intensity can be varied by changing the number and/or the material of the resistive elastic cords.


88 What is the Relationship between Vascular Disease Distribution in PAD and Exercise-Induced Hyperemia Pattern in Calf Muscle?
Christopher J Hanrahan1, Jeff L Zhang1, Gwenael Layec2, Corey Hart2, Michelle Mueller3, Daniel Kim1, Kristi Carlston1, Russell S Richardson2, and Vivian S Lee1
1Radiology, Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 2Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Utah Vascular Research Lab (UVRL), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 3Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
Calf muscle perfusion by first-pass gadolinium MRI provides objective measures to help understand the relationship between vascular pathology and muscle dysfunction in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. We compared perfusion in healthy and PAD subjects in exercise-recovery and, in the same PAD patients, related muscle perfusion pattern to hemodynamically significant vessel pathology found at MR arteriography.  We found no relation between specific stenosis/occlusion and the expected muscle perfusion downstream, but calf vascular pathology significantly decreased perfusion in the superficial posterior compartment muscles compared to abdominopelvic/thigh vessel abnormality.  Assessing muscle perfusion shows promise in assessing PAD disease severity and guiding treatment.


89 Magnetic resonance imaging estimates of muscle volume and inter-muscular fat in the thigh in sarcopenia population: correlation with physical performances
Yu Xin Yang1, Mei Sian Chong1, Laura Tay1, Suzanne Yew1, Audrey Yeo1, and Cher Heng Tan2
1Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
This study presented using MRI to quantify muscle and fat volumes in thigh for sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese (SO) populations. The correlation between different thigh components and patients’ physical performances was also assessed.  Results show that MRI is a promising tool for early detection of sarcopenia and SO. This may translate to use in clinical trials and in clinical practice. MRI measurement of inter-muscular fat volume is a valuable component in thigh to monitor patients’ physical performances.


90 Comparison of relative RF power deposition for shoulder MRI at 3.0T and 7.0T using 3D dual echo steady state imaging - Video Not Available
Marko Hoehne1, Andreas Graessl2, Antje Els2, Thomas Herold3, and Thoralf Niendorf4
1HELIOS Klinikum Berlin Buch, Radiology, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin,Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Berlin, Germany, 2Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Berlin, Germany, 3HELIOS Klinikum Berlin Buch, Radiology, Berlin, Germany, 4Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Berlin Buch, Humboldt University Berlin, Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Berlin, Germany
Technology advances in ultra-high field systems improve significantly diagnose of different musculoskeletal structures. A challenge of this work examines relative RF power deposition for shoulder MRI with dual echo steady state imaging at 3.0T and 7.0T. Volunteers (n=10, mean age 36.5 ± 8.51 years) were investigated at 3.0 T and 7.0 T. The flip angle was varied for each field strength. A comparison of  flip angle between 3.0T and 7.0T showed a SAR gain of approximately 2.6 for the local RF coil setup used at 7.0 T versus the body coil configuration employed at 3.0 T. It is important to considering a right choice of sequences and these parameters.


91 Fat infiltration is non-uniform along the proximodistal muscle axis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Melissa Hooijmans1, Nathalie Doorenweerd1, Jedrek Burakiewicz1, Jan Verschuuren2, Constantin Anastasopoulos1, Andrew Webb1, Erik Niks2, and Hermien Kan1
1Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
Progressive replacement of muscle tissue by fat is one of the main characteristics of DMD. This muscle degeneration process has been extensively studied in terms of differences between individual muscles, but not as a function of physical location within each individual muscle. This work showed non-uniform fat infiltration along the proximodistal muscle axis within individual muscles using the Dixon water/fat technique. These observations provide new insight into disease progression in DMD.


92 Towards Fast and Robust Bilateral Brachial Plexus Imaging
Kang Wang1, Ken-Pin Hwang2,3, Zac Slavens4, Adriana Kanwischer5, Kevin King5, Suchandrima Banerjee6, Pauline Worters6, and Ersin Bayram2
1Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Madison, WI, United States, 2Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Houston, TX, United States, 3Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 4MR Engineering, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States, 5Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States, 6Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States
MR imaging of bilateral brachial plexus has been challenging due to various reasons, such as fat suppression failures caused by B0 inhomogeneity, arms wrapping in arms-down imaging for patient comfort, and long scan time, etc. In this work, these aforementioned challenges were addressed by combining and utilizing novel MR imaging techniques, and a fast and robust protocol for bilateral brachial plexus MR imaging is proposed.


93 Fasciculation MR Imaging (faMRI) of the Lower Leg - Permission Withheld
Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi1 and Graeme M. Bydder1
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
Fasciculations are brief spontaneous contractions affecting a small number of muscle fibers.  We investigated how diffusion sensitized MR images were able to detect these contractions in the lower leg of healthy volunteers.  Large intensity decreases were observed (at random times) in random areas of muscle on images, acquired repeatedly using single shot (diffusion sensitized) EPI acquisitions over the course of several minutes.  Signal intensity reductions were attributed to intra-voxel incoherent-like motion due to displacement of tissue.  Quantification compared activated areas to total muscle area and frequency of activation on a per pixel basis.  Results were expressed as a fasciculation index parameter and in fasciculation frequency maps.


94 Towards high temporal resolution Creatine Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (Cr-CEST) during plantar flexion exercise: Preliminary results at 7T
Esaú Poblador Rodriguez1, Marek Chmelík1,2, Vladimír Mlynárik1,2, Siegfried Trattnig1,2, and Wolfgang Bogner1
1High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria
Once the technical limitations are cleared, Cr-CEST could replace 31P-MRS, becoming a powerful tool for assessment of treatment outcomes and diagnosis of muscular disorders, due to its superior spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom measurements show how Cr concentration and pH are linearly correlated with CEST contrast maps. The preliminary in-vivo measurements, with a time resolution of 13.1s per repetition, produce an enhancement of gastrocnemius muscle of 12% during plantar flexion exercise. However, a further increased time resolution is anticipated for dynamic studies, close to those routinely used in dynamic 31P-MRS.


95 High-Resolution DTI of Distal Peripheral Nerves Using Flow-Compensated Diffusion-Prepared 3D TSE
Barbara Cervantes1, Qinwei Zhang2, Kim van de Ven3, Hendrik Kooijman4, Ernst Rummeny1, Axel Haase5, Gustav J Strijkers2, Jan S Kirschke6, Aart J Nederveen2, and Dimitrios C Karampinos1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands,4Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany, 5Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik, Garching, Germany, 6Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
Quantitative MRI is becoming a promising tool in the assessment of peripheral nerve pathologies and anomalies. Peripheral neuropathy is frequently accompanied by neuropathic changes, which can be quantified with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Given the small sizes and oblique geometries of many peripheral nerves, peripheral-nerve DTI requires an acquisition method that can provide high-resolution, distortion-free images in acceptable clinical scanning times. The present work demonstrates isotropic- and sub-millimeter-resolution, artifact-free DTI of the nerves in the lower extremity using flow-compensated diffusion-prepared  3D turbo spin echo (TSE).


96 Volumetric Brachial Plexus Imaging at 3T with Dual-echo Dixon TSE: comparison against 3D STIR and 3D SPAIR
Xinzeng Wang1, Crystal E. Harrison1, Yogesh K. Mariappan2, Karthik Gopalakrishnan2, Avneesh Chhabra1,3, Robert E. Lenkinski1,3, and Ananth J. Madhuranthakam1,3
1Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Philips Innovation Campus, Philips Healthcare, Bangalore, India, 3Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
Volumetric Brachial Plexus imaging at 3T often suffers from incomplete fat suppression and reduced SNR with standard STIR and SPAIR due to increased B1 and B0 inhomogeneities. Dual-echo Dixon TSE has been shown to achieve uniform fat suppression without increasing total scan time or SNR penalty by acquiring two echoes in the same repetition. In this work, we compared 3D dual-echo Dixon TSE against current standard of care 3D STIR and 3D SPAIR for brachial plexus imaging with respect to fat suppression, blood suppression, nerve visualization and SNR at 3T. Overall, the 3D dual-echo Dixon TSE showed significantly improved performance.

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