ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Scientific Session: Imaging of Osseous Structure & Function

Wednesday, May 11, 2016
Room 334-336
13:30 - 15:30
Moderators: Xeni Deligianni, Tiffany Ting-Fang Shih

Whole Body Skeletal Imaging Using Zero TE
Florian Wiesinger1, Sandeep Kaushik2, Anne Menini1, Sangtae Ahn3, Lishui Cheng3, Cristina Cozzini1, Thomas Hope4, Jaewon Yang4, Peder Larson4, and Dattesh Shanbhag2
1GE Global Research, Munich, Germany, 2GE Global Research, Bangalore, India, 3GE Global Research, Schenectady, NY, United States, 4University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States
Recently we presented a method for zero TE MR bone imaging in the head.  In this abstract, we describe the extension of this work towards whole body skeletal imaging as required for applications like PET/MR Attenuation Correction, or MR-based Radiation Therapy Planning.

30-Second Bound- and Pore-Water Maps of Cortical Bone
Mary Kate Manhard1, Kevin D Harkins2, Daniel F Gochberg2, Jeffry S Nyman3, and Mark D Does1
1Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States
Imaging bound and pore water concentrations in cortical bone using UTE MRI has shown potential for evaluating fracture risk, but 3D methods require a relatively long scan time (~30 minutes total). 2D UTE with optimized half-pulses was implemented to acquire both bound and pore water maps in ~30 seconds and results were compared to 3D UTE, both ex vivo and in vivo. Mean differences in bound/pore water concentration were less than 10%. Applying these fast sequences in 2D has the potential to greatly increase the utility of these methods in clinical settings for evaluating fracture risk in patient populations.

On the Feasibility of Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping For Trabecular Bone Volume Density Mapping at 3 T
Maximilian Nikolaus Diefenbach1, Anh T. Van2, Jakob Meineke3, Hendrik Kooijman4, Axel Haase2, Ernst J. Rummeny5, Jan S. Kirschke6, Thomas Baum1, and Dimitrios C. Karampinos5
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Univeristät München, Munich, Germany, 2Zentralinstitut fu¨r Medizintechnik, Technische Universita¨t Mu¨nchen, Munich, Germany, 3Philips Research Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany, 4Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany, 5Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 6Section of Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
Trabecular bone imaging has a high clinical significance for predicting fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been recently emerging for mapping diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances.  Recent reports attempted to use QSM combined with ultra-short echo time imaging for mapping the susceptibility of cortical bone. However, it remains unknown whether QSM is feasible for measuring bone volume density in trabecular bone, where the bone density is much lower than cortical bone. The purpose of the present work is to study the feasibility of QSM for trabecular bone density mapping, using numerical simulations, specimen measurements and preliminary in vivo measurements.

High-Resolution MRI to Assess Trabecular Bone Microstructure in the Proximal Femur of HIV-Infected Men
Roland Krug1, Andrew Lai1, Lorenzo Nardo1, Luca Facchetti1, Misung Han1, Galateia Kazakia1, and Julio Carballido-Gamio1
1University of California, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States
MRI is currently the only modality to assess trabecular bone structure with high-resolution in the proximal femur in-vivo. We have optimized image acquisition and image analysis techniques to assess microstructural bone parameters in HIV-infected individuals compared to healthy controls. We have found significant differences in the femoral head, neck and trochanteric regions between patients and controls. We conclude that MRI can be an important tool to assess bone structure in the central skeleton at important fracture sites such as the proximal femur with very high resolution. 

Age-related loss of bound water in human trabecular bone
Mathilde Granke1, Kuniko Hunter2, Sasidhar Uppuganti1, Jeffry S Nyman1,3, and Mark D Does1
1Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, United States, 3VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, United States
1H NMR- derived bound water measurements in cadaveric human trabecular bone are sensitive to age-related changes in the quality of bone tissue, and therefore could be predictive of fracture risk in trabecular sites prone to fracture.  

Fast volumetric mapping of bound and pore water content in cortical bone in vivo using 3D Cones sequences
Jun Chen1, Michael Carl2, Hongda Shao1, Eric Chang1, Graeme Bydder1, and Jiang Du1
1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2GE Healthcare, San Diego, CA, United States
Bone water exists in the form of free water in the Haversian canals or lacunar-canalicular system, as well as bound water either loosely bound to collagen or more tightly bound to mineral. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences with TEs as short as 8 µs can potentially detect signal from pore water and loosely bound water. In this study, we introduce an approach for fast volumetric mapping of bound and pore water content in vivo using a clinical 3T MR scanner.

Quantitative and Functional Assessment of Red and Yellow Bone Marrow Using PET-MR Imaging
Chuan Huang1,2, Anuradha Janardhanan1,3, and Mark Schweitzer1
1Radiology, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 3Diagnostic Imaging, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Understanding the distribution of red marrow is important for various hematopoetic diseases and especially osseous metastases as areas of red marrow are the primary sites for hematogenous seeding of tumor cells, accounting for approximately 90% of skeletal metastases. Using a simultaneous PET-MR we sought to evaluate voxel of red marrow in the femora and pelvis using fat/water sequences correlated with FDG PET uptake. This quantitative assessment of red and yellow marrow was done in specific anatomic subregions.  The bone marrow composition and metabolism were found to be symmetric in each individual. Good correlation between SUV and %red were found for each ROI among all subjects. The metabolism (FDG uptake) was found to be different for the ROIs with the same amount of red marrow. Further research will study whether this leads to higher chance of tumor seeding.

Novel Approach in Detection of Bone Marrow Changes Related to Osteoporosis, Using a Stray Field NMR Scanner
Inbar Hillel1, Yifat Sarda1, Elad Bergman1, Itzhak Binderman2, and Uri Nevo1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2School of Dental Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by loss of bone mineral density, caused by loss of the equilibrium between osteogenesis and adipogenesis. In this work T2, T1 and ADC were measured using a low-field NMR scanner, for the detection of bone marrow changes related to osteoporosis. Results showed that this method is capable of significantly classifying between bones of rats that were ovariectomized, ovariectomized and treated with parathyroid hormone, and sham-operated rats.

A Method to Quantitatively Compare Bone and Cartilage Changes Post Knee Injury: Initial Results
Uchechukwuka Monu1, Feliks Kogan2, Emily McWalter2, Brian Hargreaves2, and Garry Gold2
1Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
New PET/MR systems have made the simultaneous acquisition and quantitative assessment of bone and cartilage possible. Using projection maps and cluster analysis, the comprehensive visualization and quantification of PET 18F-NaF uptake within an injured and contralateral knee are determined and compared with corresponding T2 and T1rho relaxation times within the cartilage. Significant increase in PET uptake is observed in the injured knee compared to the contralateral knee and some areas of high PET uptake correspond with elevated T2 and T1rho relaxation times. This developed tool shows promise in assessing bone metabolic activity and its relationship with quantitative MR parameters.

Validation of MRI-based Assessment of Mechanical Competence of Distal Tibia using Cadaveric Human Bone.
Chamith S. Rajapakse1, Benjamin T. Newman1, Wenli Sun1, Michael Ispiryan1, Michelle Slinger2, Elizabeth A. Kobe2, Kelly Borges1, Karyll Davis2, Keren De Jesus2, Jeremy Magland1, and Felix W. Wehrli1
1Laboratory for Structural NMR Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2University of Pennsylvania School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
High-resolution MRI-derived finite element analysis allows for the in vivo estimation of bone strength. This information is useful for planning treatments and interventions in individuals suffering from conditions that affect bone mineral homeostasis. However these methods have not been previously validated. This study subjected distal tibia specimens to both MRI-based finite element analysis and mechanical testing ex vivo. Estimated bone stiffness was strongly correlated to the experimental values (R2=0.84) supporting usefulness of MRI-based bone strength assessment in human subjects.

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