ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Scientific Session: Lung/Mediastinum

Friday, May 13, 2016
Nicoll 2
08:00 - 10:00
Moderator: Jens Vogel-Claussen

Clinical evaluation of the respiratory mechanics using accelerated 3D dynamic free breathing MRI reconstruction
Sampada Bhave1, Sajan Goud Lingala2, Scott Nagle3, John D Newell Jr4, and Mathews Jacob1
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States, 4Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States
Three-dimensional dynamic MRI (3D-DMRI) is a promising method to analyze respiratory mechanics. However, current 3D DMRI implementations offer limited temporal, spatial resolution and volume coverage. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of three compressed sensing reconstruction methods along with view-sharing method with clinical evaluation on 8 healthy subjects by expert radiologists. BCS scheme provides better performance than other schemes both qualitatively and quantitatively. The preliminary results on lung volume changes demonstrate the clinical utility of the BCS scheme.   

Soft-gating and Motion Resolved Reconstructions for Free-Breathing Pulmonary Imaging
Wenwen Jiang1, Frank Ong2, Kevin M Johnson3, Scott K Nagle4, Thomas Hope5, Michael Lustig2, and Peder E.Z Larson5
1Bioengineering, UC Berkeley/UCSF, Berkeley, CA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States, 3Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 5Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San francisco, CA, United States
Structural pulmonary imaging with MRI has many potential applications including lung nodule detection and interstitial lung disease assessments, but is limited by the challenges of short T2*, low proton density, and respiratory and cardiac motion. We propose a combination of an optimized 3D UTE acquisition with advanced reconstruction methods, including motion correction, parallel imaging, and compressed sensing, aiming to make MRI become a clinical option for pulmonary imaging.

Real-time dynamic fluorinated gas MRI in free breathing for mapping of regional lung ventilation in patients with COPD and healthy volunteers using a 16 channel receive coil at 1.5T
Marcel Gutberlet1,2, Till Kaireit1,2, Andreas Voskrebenzev1,2, Julia Freise3, Tobias Welte3, Frank Wacker1,2, and Jens Vogel-Claussen1,2
1Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, 2Plattform Imaging, German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Hannover, Germany, 3Clinic of Pneumology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Quantification of regional lung ventilation is of high relevance for several lung diseases like chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma. In this study real-time dynamic fluorinated gas MRI in free breathing for mapping of regional lung ventilation was applied in patients with COPD and healthy volunteers. A significant difference of washout kinetics between healthy volunteers and COPD patients was found. Dynamic fluorinated gas MRI highly correlated with lung function test which is used for COPD classification.  

Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of the Lungs with Multi-echo Radial MRI: Sensitivity to Pulmonary Oxygen Content
Zackary I. Cleveland1,2, Jinbang Guo1,3, Teckla Akinyi1,2, Hongjiang Wei4, S. Sivaram Kaushik5, Jason C. Woods1,3, Chunlei Liu4, Vivian S. Lee6, and Luke Xie6
11) Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 22) Department of Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 33) Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States, 4Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 5Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 66) Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
Magnetic susceptibility differences at gas-tissue interfaces within the lungs have long been considered a significant obstacle to performing high-resolution pulmonary MRI because of the resulting rapid T2*relaxation. However, susceptibility differences in the lungs originate from regional differences in blood oxygenation and alveolar O2 content. Thus, if these differences are mapped, they have the potential to provide fundamental information about regional lung function. Here we demonstrate that quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of the lungs is possible in vivo using multi-echo radial MRI.  Additionally, we demonstrate that the contrast observed in the lungs via QSM is sensitive to O2 partial pressure.

CEST Imaging Targeted APT vs. FDG-PET/CT: Capability for Differentiating Malignant from Benign Pulmonary Lesions - Permission Withheld
Yoshiharu Ohno1,2, Masao Yui3, Mitsue Miyazaki4, Yuji Kishida2, Shinichiro Seki2, Hisanobu Koyama2, Katsusuke Kyotani5, Takeshi Yoshikawa1,2, and Kazuro Sugimura2
1Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 2Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 3Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Japan, 4Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Vernon Hills, IL, United States, 5Center for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is suggested as a new technique for MR-based molecular imaging techniques in vivo and in vitro studies.  We hypothesized that newly developed CEST imaging, may have a similar potential for differentiating malignant from benign pulmonary nodules and masses, when compared with FDG-PET/CT.  The purpose of this study was to directly and prospectively compare the capability of CEST imaging targeted to amide groups (-NH) for differentiation of malignant from benign pulmonary lesions with FDG-PET/CT.

Ventilation Estimates in Severe Uncontrolled Asthma using 3D Single breath-hold Ultra-short Echo Time MRI
Khadija Sheikh1, Fumin Guo1, Alexei Ouriadov1, Dante PI Capaldi1, Sarah Svenningsen1, Miranda Kirby2, David G McCormack3, Harvey O Coxson2, and Grace Parraga1
1Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 2UBC Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Department of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
To accelerate clinical translation of pulmonary proton UTE MRI, the underlying structural determinants of UTE MR signal-intensity must be determined.  We regionally evaluated multi-volume UTE maps with direct comparison to thoracic CT in subjects with asthma. UTE MRI signal-intensity was related to CT radio-density, with a trend towards significance for pulmonary function tests, suggesting that changes in signal-intensity may reflect gas-trapping.  This is important, because UTE signal-intensity measurements may be used to identify regions of gas-trapping/ventilation abnormalities in severe asthma without the use of inhaled-gas contrast or ionizing radiation making this approach suitable for children where longitudinal monitoring may be required. 

Pulmonary Phase Imaging using Self-Gated Fourier Decomposition MRI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
Simon Veldhoen1, Andreas Max Weng1, Clemens Wirth1, Andreas Steven Kunz1, Janine Nicole Knapp1, Daniel Stäb1,2, Florian Segerer3, Helge Uwe Hebestreit3, Thorsten Alexander Bley1, and Herbert Köstler1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany, 2The Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 3Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Fourier Decomposition MRI provides functional lung imaging. Perfusion-weighted data carries information regarding the delay of maximal signal increase in the lung parenchyma during a cardiac cycle (pulmonary phase). Purpose of the study is to compare the pulmonary phase dispersion of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy controls. Functional maps were visually compared, phase values of the parenchyma were plotted on histograms and a peak-to-offset ratio was calculated. Ratios of CF patients were correlated with the forced expiratory volume (FEV1). CF patients showed more inhomogeneous maps and a significantly lower ratio (15.9±17.5 vs. 38.7±27.9, p=0.005), which correlated with their FEV1 (rs=0.72;p=0.001).

Invasive pulmonary fungal infection: assessment of antifungal treatment response with intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging
Chenggong Yan1, Jun Xu2, Wei Xiong1, Qi Wei2, Yingjie Mei3, and Yikai Xu1
1Department of Medical Imaing Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical Univeristy, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of, 3Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of
In this study, we evaluate the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of pulmonary invasive fungal infections (IFI), which were calculated using the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model. We found that a low perfusion fraction f might be a noninvasive imaging biomarker for unfavorable response.

129Xe pulmonary gas exchange spectroscopy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Scott H. Robertson1,2, Elianna A. Bier1,2, Rohan S. Virgincar1,3, and Bastiaan Driehuys1,2,3,4
1Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 2Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
Accurately characterizing the chemical shifts of 129Xe in the lung, enables probing pulmonary gas exchange at the micron scale interface between the alveoli and capillary beds. Doing so requires decomposing the dissolved phase 129Xe spectrum. Whereas previous work identified only two dissolved-phase 129Xe resonances associated with blood and barrier tissues, we now employ improved non-linear fitting techniques to decompose complex FIDs into three resonances. This enables us to report updated ratios of 129Xe uptake in blood and barrier resonances, many of which differ significantly between control and IPF groups. 

Assessing Functional Changes in Lungs with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis using Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI
Kun Qing1, Borna Mehrad1, John P. Mugler, III1, Kai Ruppert1,2, Jaime F. Mata1, Nicholas J. Tustison1, Steven Guan1, Y. Michael Shim1, Iulian C. Ruset3, F. William Hersman3,4, and Talissa A. Altes1,5
1University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 2Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 3Xemed LLC, Durham, NH, United States, 4University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States, 5University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease leading to 40,000 deaths each year in the US. Current clinical tools are remarkably limited in their ability to discriminate between subsets of IPF patients. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of a recently developed imaging tool, hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI, to detect pulmonary physiology highly relevant to pathology found in IPF with 3-D resolution. Xenon-129 MRI may represent a novel tool that can detect previously unrecognized subsets of patients with IPF relevant to treatment and prognosis of this disease.

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