ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Power Pitch Session: Neuroimaging: Novel Findings & Techniques

Tuesday, May 10, 2016
Power Pitch Theatre, Exhibition Hall
10:00 - 11:00
Moderators: Peter Barker, Peter Bandettini

Click Here to view the Power Pitch introductory session

Note: The videos below are only the slides from each presentation.
They do not have audio.

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1 Simultaneous evaluation of hemodynamic and functional connectivity in patients with chronic steno-occlusive disease of the cerebrovascular system: A study using BOLD with acetazolamide
Junjie Wu1, Seena Dehkharghani1, Tyler Gleason1, Fadi Nahab2, and Deqiang Qiu1
1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States
In this paper we applied a temporal-shift analysis of the BOLD signal to delineate regions with abnormal perfusion in patients with chronic steno-occlusive disease of the cerebrovascular system. We proposed an improved method of analysis based on an iterative approach for the temporal shift analysis. We further explored the effects of acetazolamide, a vasodilator, on the assessment of hemodynamic compromise using temporal-shift analysis and functional connectivity.

2 Electrical Conductivity Characteristics of Glioma: Noninvasive Assessment by MRI and Its Validity
Khin Khin Tha1,2, Ulrich Katscher3, Shigeru Yamaguchi4, Shunsuke Terasaka4, Toru Yamamoto5, Kohsuke Kudo2,6, and Hiroki Shirato1,2
1Department of Radiobiology and Medical Engineering, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan, 2Global Institution for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 3Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan, 5Graduate School of Health Sciences, Sapporo, Japan, 6Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan
Electric Properties Tomography was performed in 24 glioma patients, and the electrical conductivity characteristics of glioma were determined noninvasively. Diagnostic performance of electrical conductivity in distinguishing glioma grades was also evaluated. Validity of noninvasive electrical conductivity measurement was proved by correlating with the conductivity values measured ex vivo by a dielectric probe.

3 Quantifying differences in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) between controls, professional boxers and Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) fighters using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI
Virendra R Mishra1, Karthik Sreenivasan1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Zhengshi Yang1, Sarah Banks1, Dietmar Cordes1, and Charles Bernick1
1Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States
The professional fighters brain health study (PFBHS) is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters with age-matched healthy controls using multimodal MRI methods. Using ASL-MRI, we report for the first time that cerebral blood flow (CBF) is significantly lower in boxers and mixed-martial-arts fighters (MMA) than age-matched healthy controls. Most of the clusters were located in the fronto-temporal lobe, cerebellum and thalamus. No significant difference in perfusion between boxers and MMA suggests that type of combat sports have an indiscernible effect on CBF, further suggesting that perfusion may not account for different patterns of cognitive decline observed later in the life of these athletes.  

4 The Evolution of the Mammalian Connectome - Video Not Available
Yossi Yovel1, Omri Zomet1, Arieli Bonzach2, Assaf Marom1, and Yaniv Assaf1
1Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2Beit Dagan Veterinary institute, Beit Dagan, Israel
Despite its importance, little is known on the evolution of the mammalian brain. Previous work suggests that body size and behavioral function are intertwined in their influence on the evolution of the brain. Most previous studies focused on examining gray matter. Because the underlying white matter connectome facilitates the connections between gray matter areas, it must have simultaneously evolved to support gray matter evolution. In this work we used a wide comparative approach relying on diffusion MRI based fiber-tracking to reconstruct whole-brain structural connectomes and explore its evolution. 

5 Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) in Young Onset Alzheimer's Disease and Its Syndromic Variants - Permission Withheld
Jiaying Zhang1, Catherine F Slattery2, Ross W Paterson2, Alexander JM Foulkes2, Laura Mancini2, David L Thomas2, Marc Modat1, Nicolas Toussaint2, David M Cash2, John S Thornton2, Daniel C Alexander1, Sebastien Ourselin1, Nick C Fox2, Jonathan M Schott2, and Hui Zhang1
1Department of Computer Science and Centre for medical image computing, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Neurodegenerative disease, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now increasingly considered as a disorder of brain networks. Therefore, it is important to quantify the integrity of white matter (WM) connections in AD populations. Previous DTI studies have shown WM breakdown in patients with young onset AD (YOAD), but DTI parameters are not specific to any tissue property. Here we investigated WM changes using NODDI and DTI in YOAD patients using TBSS and explored whether unique patterns of WM changes exist in YOAD subtypes. We found NODDI was more sensitive than DTI and demonstrated different profiles of WM damage in YOAD syndromic subgroups.

6 Developmental processes on the neonatal brain revealed by white matter tract integrity metrics derived from diffusion kurtosis imaging
Xianjun Li1,2, Jie Gao1, Yumiao Zhang1, Yanyan Li1, Huan Li1, Mingxi Wan2, and Jian Yang1,2
1Radiology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, the Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, People's Republic of
To distinguish axon-related and myelin-related developmental processes, we tried to find a strategy for assessing white matter developmental processes by using white matter tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). The method was used on 41 neonates. The proposed strategy provided more processes than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method. Five change patterns were found for WMTI metrics, while 2 patterns for DTI metrics. WMTI metrics derived from DKI could provide more detailed developmental processes on neonatal white matter.

7 A serial microcompartment-specific T2* relaxation study of white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis at 7T
Xiaozhen Li1,2, Peter van Gelderen2, Pascal Sati3, Jacco de Zwart2, Daniel Reich3, and Jeff Duyn2
1Dept. NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, 2Advanced MRI Section, LFMI, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Translational Neuroradiology Unit, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease characterized by focal lesions.  Recent studies suggest the possibility of obtaining cellular microcompartment-specific information from three-component fitting of the T2* relaxation decay curve, allowing determination of the relative fractions of myelin water, axonal water and interstitial water. The microcompartment-specific T2* relaxation values of initially enhancing lesions were followed serially on 7T at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months. The changes over time that we observed in enhancing lesions are consistent with the presence of ongoing remyelination. This may lead to a better understanding of, and prognostic ability for, this complex disease.

8 Real-time fMRI Neurofeedback with Simultaneous EEG in Combat-related PTSD: Frontal EEG Asymmetry Variations as Measure of Treatment Response - Permission Withheld
Vadim Zotev1, Raquel Phillips1, Masaya Misaki1, Chung Ki Wong1, Brent Wurfel1, Matthew Meyer1,2, Frank Krueger1,3, Matthew Feldner1,4, and Jerzy Bodurka1,5
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2Laureate Psychiatric Clinic and Hospital, Tulsa, OK, United States, 3Neuroscience Dept., George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States, 4Dept. of Psychological Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States, 5College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States
We have performed a study of emotion regulation training in veterans with combat-related PTSD using real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG. Fifteen PTSD patients learned to upregulate their left amygdala activity using rtfMRI-nf during a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. Individual session-to-session variations in frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) changes during the rtfMRI-nf task significantly correlated with variations in PTSD severity (CAPS) and co-morbid depression severity (HDRS). These results suggest that variations in task-specific FEA changes during rtfMRI-nf training provide a sensitive measure of individual response to treatment in PTSD patients.

9 In-vivo detection of neuronal current using spin-lock oscillatory excitation at 7T
Yuhui Chai1, Guoqiang Bi2, Liping Wang3, Fuqiang Xu4, Xin Zhou4, Bensheng Qiu2, Hao Lei4, Bing Wu5, Yang Fan5, and Jia-Hong Gao1
1Center for MRI Research, Peking University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, People's Republic of, 3Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China, People's Republic of, 4Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China, People's Republic of, 5GE Healthcare, MR Research China, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
In-vivo detection of neuronal current remains a challenging and promising goal in fMRI. Previous work has demonstrated its feasibility in phantom and cell culture studies, but attempts in in-vivo studies remain few and far between. As neuronal current is usually comprised of a series of oscillatory waveforms rather than being a direct current, it is most likely to be detected using oscillatory current sensitive sequences. In this study, we explored the potential of using the spin-lock oscillatory excitation (SLOE) sequence to directly detect optogenetically evoked oscillatory neuronal current in vivo for the first time.

10 Rapid Myelin Water Imaging in Human Cervical Spinal Cord
Emil Ljungberg1, Irene Vavasour2, Roger Tam2,3, Youngjin Yoo3, Alexander Rauscher4, David Li2, Anthony Traboulsee5, Alex MacKay1,2, and Shannon Kolind5
1Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Myelin water imaging can quantify myelin in the cervical cord in vivo. However, the established 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) approach has a lengthy scan time. We used a 3D Gradient Spin Echo (GRASE) sequence to speed up cervical cord myelin water acquisition by a factor of three. Average GRASE and TSE myelin water estimates were similar (GRASE: 23±1.5%; TSE: 24±3%) and significantly correlated (R2=0.69, p<0.001). 3D-GRASE showed good reproducibility with an average myelin water coefficient of variation of 6%. Our findings demonstrate that cervical cord myelin water data can reliably be collected in clinical feasible scan times. 

11 Transcranial MRI-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Treatment of ?Essential Tremor: Initial Clinical Experience and Correlation of Clinical Outcome with Lesion Size, Localization, and Dose
Christian Federau1, Maged Goubran1, Jason Su1, Jaimie Henderson1, Veronika Santini1, Casey Harrison Halpern1, Brian Rutt1, Kim Butts Pauly1, and Pejman Ghanouni1
1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
Transcranial MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of the ventral division of the ventral lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (VLpv) is a promising, minimally invasive treatment method for essential tremor. We report our initial clinical experience in 11 patients, and correlate clinical outcome with lesion size, location, and thermal dose during treatment. We found a correlation between clinical outcome at 1 year follow-up and lesion size  (r = 0.73), as well as thermal dose in the VLpv (r = 0.65).

12 Neuroimaging of Acute Ebola Virus Disease in a Non-Human Primate Model
Margaret R. Lentz1, Jeffery R. Solomon2, Srikanth Yellayi1, Richard Bennett1, Dawn Traynor1, David Thomasson1, Anna Honko1, Lisa Hensley1, and Peter B. Jahrling1,3
1Integrated Research Facility, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, United States, 2Clinical Research Directorate/Clinical Monitoring Research Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, MD, United States, 3Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, United States
The purpose of this study was to use MRI to assess alterations in the brain that occur in rhesus macaques infected with a variant of the Ebola virus (EBOV) isolated from the most recent outbreak. EBOV was found to induce signal alterations in susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) along vasculature that correlate to venous congestion and perivascular hemorrhage. The use of SWI or other gradient echo based methods to examine vascular changes may be of interest when examining survivors of Ebola. Additionally, the identification of non-invasive imaging biomarkers of EBOV disease progression could help in development of medical countermeasures.

13 Structural variability in the human brain reflects functional architecture
Gwenaelle Douaud1, Eugene Duff1, Adrian Groves1, Thomas Nichols1,2, Saad Jbabdi1, Christian Tamnes3, Lars Westlye3, Andreas Engvig3, Kristine Walhovd3, Anders Fjell3, Heidi Johansen-Berg1, and Steve Smith1
1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
It is believed that the resting-state networks closely relate to the underlying anatomical connectivity and grey matter structure but cannot be understood in those terms alone. Here, we show that a purely data-driven approach used to co-model three complementary types of grey matter information on a large, healthy population covering most of the lifespan uncovers the entire repertoire of canonical functional networks. We further demonstrate that the modes of variation of grey matter volume across all participants forming these structural networks spatially co-vary with cortical area, except in primary sensory areas where they also partially co-vary with cortical thickness.

14 A constrained slice-dependent background suppression scheme for simultaneous multi-slice pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling
Xingfeng Shao1, Yi Wang1, and Danny J.J. Wang1
1Laboratory of FMRI Technology (LOFT), Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States
Compared to standard two-dimensional (2D) arterial spin labeling (ASL), simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) ASL imaging techniques can reduce T1 relaxation effect of the label; improve spatial coverage and resolution. However, existing 2D SMS ASL techniques are sub-optimal for the background suppression (BS) technique since multiple SMS excitations are required. In this study, we propose a novel constrained slice-dependent BS scheme for 2D multi-slice pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with SMS-EPI acquisition, to suppress background signal across a wide range of T1s. In vivo experiment showed that the BS scheme can increase temporal SNR of perfusion images 1.5-2 folds.

15 Brain Catalogue and its MRI of extinct species: the example of Thylacinus Cynocephalus
Mathieu David Santin1,2, Marc Herbin3, and Roberto Toro4
1Centre de NeuroImagerie de Recherche - CENIR, Paris, France, 2Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Paris, France, 3Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, 4Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
We present here an example of one of the application of the Brain Catalogue with an MRI of an extinct species: the Thylacine

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