ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 07-13 May 2016 • Singapore

Traditional Poster Session: Body

1574 -1598 Renal, Male & Female Pelvis & Fetal
1599 -1631 Lung, Hyperpolarised, Mediastinum
1632 -1646 Hepatobilliary & Pancreas
1647 -1650 Metabolism & Others

Detection and Analysis of Renal Cortical and Medullary T2* Heterogeneity with Minkowski Functionals
Sabrina Klix1, Andreas Pohlmann1, Jan Hentschel1, Karen Arakelyan1,2, Mandy Fechner3, Kathleen Cantow2, Bert Flemming2, Sonia Waiczies1, Erdmann Seeliger2, and Thoralf Niendorf1,4
1Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany, 2Institute of Physiology, Charité Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany, 3Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Virchow-Klinikum and Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicince, Berlin, Germany
Minkowski Functionals (MFs) allow a quantitative analysis of tissue heterogeneity – independent of absolute values, which can be biased by magnetic field strength, B0 homogeneity, voxel size, etc. Here we applied this technique to characterize renal cortical and medullary T2* heterogeneity in order to test the feasibility of a differentiation between healthy kidneys, and kidney injuries.

Assessment of Physiological Changes Associated with Renal Fibrosis in a Rat Model
Lei Jiang1, Paul Territo1, Brian McCarthy1, Amanda A. Riley1, Sourajit Mustafi1, Yu-Chien Wu1, Bruce Molitoris2, Gary Hutchins1, and Chen Lin1
1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States
The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of quantitative MRI techniques to measure physiological changes associated with changes in renal function in a rat model. Our investigation suggest that the results of T2* mapping, intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM), and T1ρ imaging are comparable to the published results. These techniques can be used to assess and monitor different aspects of physiological changes in kidney fibrosis.

MRI-based Evaluation of Renal Oxygenation Under the Influence of Carbogen Breathing
Chengyan Wang1, Rui Zhang2, Li Jiang3, Rui Wang4, Xiaodong Zhang4, He Wang3, Kai Zhao4, Lixin Jin3, Jue Zhang1,2, Xiaoying Wang1,4, and Jing Fang1,2
1Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Philips Healthcare, Suzhou, China, People's Republic of, 4Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Renal oxygenation plays a major role in the evaluation of renal function and has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a susceptibility-based MRI technique for measuring renal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) change under the influence of carbogen (97% O2, 3% CO2) breathing.  Significant decrease of renal OEF was found during carbogen challenge. Furthermore, the efficacy of this susceptibility-based method was proved by blood pO2 measurement.

Short-term Evolution of Renal Metabolic Rate of Oxygen (RMRO2) in an Animal Model of acute intra-renal ischemia Using qBOLD and ASL MRI
Xiaodong Zhang1, Yue Mi2, Jing Wang3, Jingyun Wu1, Rui Zhang4, Yan Sun1, Xiaoying Wang1,4, Jue Zhang4, and Hongyu An5
1Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 2Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Center for medical device evaluation, China Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 4Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 5Department of Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States
Quantitative measurement of renal oxygen metabolism level is of central importance in understanding and treating renal diseases and renal metabolic rate of oxygen (RMRO2) can provide a valid criterion for evaluation the renal tissue oxygen metabolism level under both normal and disease states. According to the Fick principle of arteriovenous oxygen difference, the RMRO2 can be estimated by using a qBOLD and ASL technique. In this study, we will demonstrate the ability to obtain absolute quantitative RMRO2 noninvasively in normal and unilateral renal artery stenosis rabbits.

Quantitative susceptibility mapping of kidney injury in a model of ischemia reperfusion
Luke Xie1, Vivian S. Lee2, Hongjiang Wei3, Yi Qi4, Susan B. Gurley5, G. Allan Johnson4, and Chunlei Liu3
1Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 2Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 3Brain Imaging Analysis Center, Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 4Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 5Medicine-Nephrology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
BOLD MRI via T2* mapping can detect changes in kidney injuries. However, BOLD MRI can be insensitive and the source of signal change is not clear. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is very sensitive to molecular composition and can identify sources as paramagnetic, such as deoxygenated hemoglobin. In this study, we applied QSM to characterize the source of signal change and compared it with BOLD T2* maps. We used a model of ischemia reperfusion in mouse kidneys and imaged at 1 hr, 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days after injury.

Evaluating Renal Allograft Function at an Early Stage after Transplantation Using Multiparametric MR Imaging
Tao Ren1, Pan-Li Zuo2, Thorsten Feiweier3, Niels Oesingmann4, Andre-de Oliveira3, Li-Hua Chen5, Cheng-Long Wen5, and Wen Shen5
1Radiology, Tianjin Medical University First Center Hospital, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 2Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Erlangen, Germany, 4New York, NY, United States, 5Tianjin, China, People's Republic of
We performed intravoxel incoherent motion(IVIM), arterial spin labeling(ASL) and T1 mapping MR imaging in 62 renal allograft recipients to determine the diagnostic values of each parameter in renal allograft function evaluation. We found that cortical ADC, ADCslow, ADCfast, PF and RBF were lower for allografts with impaired function than with good function, and T1 values were higher for allografts with impaired function than with good function (P <0.05). ADC derived from IVIM and RBF derived from ASL showed a higher diagnostic efficacy to discriminate between allografts with impaired function and allografts with good function. 

Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor and q-space imaging in an Animal Model of Chronic Kidney Disease.
Sourajit Mitra Mustafi1, Paul R. Territo1, Brian P. McCarthy1, Amanda A. Riley1, Jiang Lei1, Chen Lin1, Qiuting Wen1, Bruce A Molitoris2, Gary D. Hutchins1, and Yu-Chien Wu1
1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States
In this study, we used multi-shell diffusion-weighted imaging in an animal model of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).  We focus on the functional changes in the kidney using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and q-space imaging (QSI).  Four Wistar rats received surgical procedure to induce ischemic fibrosis in their left kidney.  The multi-shell diffusion-weighted imaging was performed on the acute stage, day 2 after the surgery.  In the acute stage, the renal medulla showed significant decrease in overall diffusivity measured by DTI and increase in tissue restriction measured by q-space imaging.

Assessing fibrotic damage to renal structure and function with T2-weighted and ASL MRI
Christopher Charles Conlin1,2, Yangyang Zhao2, Yufeng Huang3, and Jeff Lei Zhang1,4
1Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 2Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 3Nephrology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 4Radiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
This study examined the suitability of T2 and ASL-measured renal perfusion as biomarkers for fibrotic kidney disease. Renal perfusion was measured in healthy and fibrotic rats using a multi-TI ASL protocol and compared to renal T2 as well as urinary and histological fibrosis markers. Significantly reduced renal perfusion was observed in fibrotic rats, in parallel with increased renal T2, proteinuria, and mesangial matrix in the glomerular tuft. The sensitivity of T2 and perfusion to fibrotic kidney damage suggests that ASL and T2-weighted MRI may provide improved assessment of renal fibrosis and prove useful for the early detection of renal disease.

Combined Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Evaluation Renal Changes in Diabetic Nephropathy
Cheng long Wen1, Lihua Chen1, Fan Mao1, Yu Zhang2, and Wen Shen1
1Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin, China, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 2Philips healthcare, Beijing, China., Beijing, China, People's Republic of
The goal of this pilot study was to assess the ADC value in kidney of IVIM and DTI in distinguishing diabetic subjects and healthy controls. In our study, cortical ADC and D of patients with DN were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. The reduction of D values in the cortex and medulla was more obvious than ADC in patients. The results of this study suggested that cortical D and ADC, quantified by kidney IVIM and DTI could be potential imaging biomarkers for DN. IVIM could reflect the renal function more sensitive and accurate in DN patients.

Comparison of Perfusion Indices Derived from Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Results in Native and Transplanted Kidneys
Tao Ren1, Pan-Li Zuo2, Thorsten Feiweier3, Niels Oesingmann4, Andre-de Oliveira3, Li-Hua Chen5, Cheng-Long Wen5, and Wen Shen5
1Radiology, Tianjin Medical University First Center Hospital, Tianjin, China, People's Republic of, 2Beijing, China, People's Republic of, 3Erlangen, Germany, 4New York, NY, United States, 5Tianjin, China, People's Republic of
We collected 20 volunteers and 62 renal allograft recipients who underwent intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Comparing cortical perfusion indices, ADCfast and PF derived from IVIM with RBF derived from ASL in native and transplanted kidneys. We found that mean cortical RBF exhibited a significant correlation with PF (R =0.50, P <0.05) in the native kidneys, but both with ADCfast (R =0.26, P <0.05) and PF (R =0.32, P <0.05) in renal allografts. ADCfast and PF are effective indices for monitoring renal perfusion, as well as RBF.

Assessment of Variation induced by Physiological Motion in Multi-Slice Renal Diffusion-Weighted MRI at 3T
Iris FRIEDLI1, Lindsey Alexandra CROWE1, Sophie DE SEIGNEUX2, and Jean-Paul VALLEE1
1Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Department of Nephrology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) allows the non-invasive assessment of the whole kidney. However, multi-slice DWI remains challenging because of artifacts, such as motion, partly related to the multi-slice acquisition. Despite the use of physiological triggering schemes to limit respiratory artifacts, kidney images can be impacted by the presence of inhomogeneous signal dropout causing slice-to-slice signal variation of signal intensity and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC). In this study, we highlight the presence of signal dropout in DWI and ADC maps, and present feasibility of a novel motion and signal correction algorithm to provide robust renal DWI.

The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on healthy and diabetic rat kidneys measured with hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate
Thomas Stokholm Nørlinger1, Per Mose Nielsen1, Emmeli Mikkelsen1, Haiyun Qi1, Kasper Hansen2, Peter Kolstrup Agger3, Nikolaj Schmidt2, Michael Pedersen2, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen1, Frederik Palm4, and Christoffer Laustsen1
1Department of Clinical Medicine, MR Research Centre, Aarhus, Denmark, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus, Denmark, 3Dept. of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Aarhus, Denmark, 4Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research, Linköping, Sweden
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is a well-known adjuvant treatment for several medical conditions indicated by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. It is generally well tolerated and the kidneys display no adverse side effects after HBO. In diabetes hypoxia has been shown to be an important contributing factor in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this experiment we investigate whether HBO has a protective effect on the kidney by preventing metabolic derangement as a consequence of hypoxia in the diabetic kidneys.

Monitoring Progressive Kidney Disease in Folic Acid - Induced Nephropathy in Mice by MRI
Inna Linnik1, Parisa Ranjzad2, Adrian S Woolf2, and Steve R Williams1
1University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Scienses, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2University of Manchester, Institute of Human Development, Manchester, United Kingdom

To assess progressive kidney disease in a folic acid (FA) induced nephropathy model in mice, kidney T1 and volume were quantified using MRI. Mice were imaged at 7 T before and at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after FA orvehicle injection. One week after FA, T1 was significantly higher (P≤0.036) compared to control and correlated with kidney volume (R=0.90). Mice with marked T1 and volume increases 1 week after FA demonstrated severe  fibrosis on histology at week 6. In conclusion, T1 mapping may provide a marker of the initiation and severity of later chronic kidney disease.

Tumour heterogeneity assessment using histogram analysis of IVIM-based diffusion and perfusion characteristics of cervical cancer
Jose Angelo Udal Perucho1, Elaine Yuen Phin Lee1, and Queenie Chan2
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) could be a promising quantitative approach in assessing tumour heterogeneity. We retrospectively studied thirty-five treatment-naïve patients with cervical cancer who had IVIM MRI examinations to determine to the value of IVIM histogram analysis, as a means of assessing tumour heterogeneity, in relationship with clinical staging. We observed statistically significant differences in most histogram parameters of f (perfusion fraction) between patients with early and locally advanced disease but only three histogram parameters of D (true diffusion coefficient) were statistically different in patients with early and locally advanced cervical cancer. 

Features of Benign Mature Cystic Ovarian Teratomas
Marissa Albert1, Genevieve Bennett1, Jonathan Melamed2, and Nicole Hindman1
1Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Pathology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States
Mature cystic teratomas of the ovary are a common ovarian neoplasm, particularly in young patients. The majority of these neoplasms are benign; only a small minority demonstrates malignant potential. Distinguishing benign from malignant tumors is difficult on imaging alone, but has important clinical implications with regards to follow up and surgical excision. This study is the first in the literature to describe the incidence of, and type of, noduar enhancement within benign mature cystic teratomas.  Fat containing ovarian lesions with an internal nodule demonstrating peripheral enhancement and internal fat, along with acute angles and lack of extension beyond the cystic wall, can be confidently diagnosed as having a benign nodule and thus compatible with benign mature cystic teratoma. 

Feasibility of computed diffusion weighted imaging and optimization of b-value in cervical cancer.
Yusaku Moribata1, Aki Kido1, Koji Fujimoto1, Yuki Himoto1, Yasuhisa Kurata1, Fuki Shitano1, Kayo Kiguchi1, Ikuo Konishi2, and Kaori Togashi1
1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
There has been no previous report on the utility of computed DWI with b-values above 1000 s/mm2 for the evaluation of cervical cancer. We aimed to evaluate the utility of computed DWI in cervical cancer and investigate the optimal b-value using computed DWI with b-values of 800, 1000, 1300, 1600 and 2000 s/mm2. Computed DWI with b-values of 1300 or 1600 s/mm2 may be recommended for the clinical evaluation of the extent of cervical cancer.

Assessment of Cervical Cancer using BOLD MR Imaging - R2* Texture analysis
James Brittin1, Elizabeth Sadowski1, Kristin Bradley2, and Jessica Robbins1
1Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madision, WI, United States, 2Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madision, WI, United States
In our study of patients with cervical cancer, after initial treatment, tumors that recurred tended to have a higher heterogeneity on BOLD R2* maps, and tended to have a positive skew in their image histogram. As tumors undergo treatment, the AUC and skewness decreases significantly. Our findings indicate that BOLD MRI texture analysis can be used to assess long-term response to therapy after initial treatment and to follow tumors during treatment.  Further studies using BOLD MRI texture analysis in cervical cancer may help elucidate the utility of this technique in the course of treatment of women with cervical cancer.

Ovarian edema and lymphatic obstruction: increased incidence in patients with large fibroid uterus
Alana Amarosa Lewin1, Genevieve Bennett1, and Nicole Hindman1
1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States
The goal of this investigation was to determine the incidence of findings in asymptomatic patients which were suggestive of outflow obstruction (venous or lymphatic) as evidenced by dilated lymphatics and ovarian engorgement/signs of massive ovarian edema and to correlate these findings with the size of the fibroid uterus as compared to an age matched control population without fibroids.  Ovarian edema and/or lymphatic dilatation was noted with increased frequency in asymptomatic patients imaged for fibroid uterus over asymptomatic female patients without a fibroid uterus imaged for other causes (p< 0.0001).  Ovarian edema and/or dilated lymphatics in the setting of large fibroid uteri may be due to vascular congestion or lymphatic obstruction.  In the absence of pain and symptoms concerning for ovarian torsion, we postulate that these are incidental findings and recommend conservative management as opposed to immediate surgical exploration. 

The Quantification of the Iron Contents in the Ovarian Endometrial Cyst; R2 Measurement in Vivo and Vitro
Junko Takahama1, Hiroshi Kobayashi2, Chiharu Yoshimoto2, Hiroshi Shigetomi2, Masato Uchikoshi3, Takuya Iwabuchi4, Nagaaki Marugami1, and Kimihiko Kichikawa1
1Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan, 2Gynecology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan, 3Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany, 4Metallogenics Co., Ltd., Chiba, Japan
The measurement of R2 values to quantify the iron concentration in vivo and vitro.

Functional Imaging of the Non-Human Primate Placenta With Endogenous BOLD Contrast
Matthias C Schabel1,2, Victoria H.J. Roberts3, Jamie O. Lo3, Antonio E. Frias4, and Chris D. Kroenke1
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 3Division of Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 4Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States
We describe a non-contrast method for assessing placental perfusion and fetal oxygenation status utilizing quantitative T2* mapping and a novel spatial model, and validate our method using DCE-MRI measurement in pregnant rhesus macaques.

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging using a gamma distribution model for prediction of insignificant prostate cancer
Hiroko Tomita1, Hiroshi Shinmoto1, Shigeyoshi Soga1, Kentaro Yamada1, Tatsumi Kaji1, Tomohiko Asano2, and Koichi Oshio3
1Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan, 2Urology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the parameters obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging using a gamma model could distinguish a Gleason 6 from a Gleason≥7 disease, and help to improve the prediction of insignificant prostate cancer in active surveillance candidates. Fifty-nine patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were included in this study. ROC analyses for predicting adverse pathologic outcomes in active surveillance candidates showed that the AUC of the parameters of the gamma model were from 0.81 to 0.88. DWI using the gamma model might help to improve the prediction of insignificant prostate cancer in active surveillance candidates.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) Metabolite Ratio to Predict Malignancy in Patients with Prostate Cancer undergoing MRI-guided prostate biopsy
Juan C. Camacho1,2, Nima Kokabi1, Peter A. Harri1, Tracy E. Powell2, and Sherif G. Nour1,2
1Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Interventional MRI Program, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA, United States
The study objective is to investigate Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (1H-MRSI) in prostate lesions and to correlate the values with the results of MRI-guided prostate targeted sampling. A prospective cohort of patients presenting with persistently elevated or rising serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and at least one lesion suspicious for prostate cancer that underwent MRI guided targeted biopsy was evaluated. Thirty-five consecutive patients were recruited presenting with 179 suspicious lesions.  ROC curve analysis demonstrates a poor performance of 1H-MRSI as a non-invasive imaging biomarker.

Does Intramuscular Glucagon for Prostate MRI Improve Image Quality?
Stephanie T. Chang1, Shreyas S. Vasanawala1, and Andreas M. Loening1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States
We retrospectively investigated whether administration of 1 mg of intramuscular (IM) glucagon to decrease bowel peristalsis prior to prostate MRI decreases motion artifact. Two blinded, independent readers reviewed MRI prostate studies of 25 and 26 patients who did and did not receive glucagon, respectively, for motion-related blurring of the prostate, bowel, and lymph nodes on a five-point Likert scale. No significant difference was observed in all categories. Although European Society of Uroradiology (ESUR) and American College of Radiology guidelines recommend using antiperistaltic agents for prostate MRI, our results suggest that IM glucagon may not be necessary.

Detection of Prostate Cancer from Multi-parametric Regional MRI Features
Nelly Tan1, Nazanin Asvadi1, Amin Moshkar2, Steven Raman2, and Fabien Scalzo3
1Radiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States
Our preliminary results suggest that using a trained machine learning algorithm (spectral regression model) to analyze multiparametric is highly accurate for automatically localizing prostate cancer.

To evaluate the damage of renal function in CIAKI rats at 3T: Using ASL and BOLD MRI
Yuhao Dong1, Wenbo Chen1, Long Liang1, Bin Zhang1, and Shuixing Zhang1
1Radiology, Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences/Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of
Contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a common complication after the administration of contrast media.  The universally acknowledged mechanisms of CIAKI are the ischemia-mediated oxidative stress as well as the arteriolar vasoconstriction resulted from sustained contrast-induced, hypoxia in cortex and medulla. Our study aims to investigate noninvasive arterial spin-labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen level-dependent imaging (BOLD) sequences for measuring renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in different time points and different sites of kidney after contrast media administration. The results showed that ASL combining BOLD can further identify the primary cause of the decrease of renal oxygenation in CIAKI, which provides means for noninvasive monitoring renal function during the first 4 days of CIAKI in clinical routine work.

Comparison of bi-exponential and mono-exponential model of diffusion weighted imaging in evaluation of pulmonary nodules or masses: preliminary experience
Xinchun Li1, Qi Wang1, Yingjie Mei2, Jiaxi Yu1, Qiao Zou1, Yingshi Deng1, and Yudong Yu1
1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of, 2Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, China, People's Republic of
The differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions of the lung is a hot and difficult problem in daily chest imaging. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)–derived parameters as well as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating solitary pulmonary lesions.  The results demonstrate that IVIM-DWI could be more helpful for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions in lung. D has the best diagnostic efficiency.

MR imaging of saline flooded lung – A feasibility study in a large animal model
Frank Wolfram1, Thomas Lesser1, Harald Schubert2, Joachim Böttcher3, Jürgen R Reichenbach4, and Daniel Güllmar4
1Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Teaching Hospital of Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Gera, Germany, 2Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences and Welfare, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Teaching Hospital of Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Gera, Germany,4Medical Physics Group / IDIR, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany
MR imaging of ventilated lung is a challenging task. The low proton density with extremely short T2* and local field inhomogeneities on tissue-air interfaces are sub-optimal for MRI. Unilateral lung flooding replaces air content of one lung wing with saline. This experimental method enables sonographic guidance as well as therapeutic ultrasound ablation. The untoward properties of lung might change to ideal conditions with a homogen and high proton density after flooding. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of in-vivo unilateral lung flooding in MR environment and to evaluate the MR imaging capabilities of flooded lung in a large animal model.

Monitoring therapeutic response in anatomy and functions on pulmonary fibrosis by ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI in an orthotopic mouse model
Masaya Takahashi1, Keisuke Ishimatsu1, Shanrong Zhang1, Hua Lu2, and Connie C.W. Hsia2
1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of in vivo ultra-short echo time (UTE)-MRI for assessment of pulmonary microstructure and functions of ventilation-perfusion in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis in comparison with high-resolution MRI, physiological global measures and histomorphology.

Optimized four channel phased array coil for mice lung imaging at 11.7 T
Marta Tibiletti1, Dominik Berthel2, Michael Neumaier3, Dorothee Schüler2, Detlef Stiller3, and Volker Rasche1,4
1Core Facility Small Animal MRI, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany, 2Rapid Biomedical GmbH, Rimpar, Germany, 3Target Discovery Research, In-vivo imaging laboratory, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany, 4Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
Lung imaging with MRI is challenging, due to the low proton density in the tissue, short T2* values due to multiple air-tissue interfaces, and respiratory and cardiac motion. A major step for providing sufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) is the availability of dedicated coils optimized for the specific application. In this work, we present a 4-channel mouse phased-array coil optimized for the thoracic anatomy of mice. Depending on the field-of-view an average two- to threefold gain in SNR was observed in direct comparison to a conventional transmitt/receive quadrature volume coil at 11.7 T.

Three dimensional inversion recovery dual-echo ultrashort echo time imaging with k-space reordering for effective suppression of longer T2 species in lung parenchyma imaging
Neville D Gai1, Ashkan A Malayeri1, and David A Bluemke1
1Radiology & Imaging Sciences, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States
Effective imaging of short T2 species requires efficient suppression of longer T2 tisues to maximize short T2 contrast and dynamic range. While inversion with segmented k-space acquisition in Cartesian schemes is straightforward, inversion with segmented k-space UTE radial acquisition offers some challenges since the center of k-space is sampled with each acquisition resulting in magnetization modulation related artifacts. Here we perform 3D inversion recovery dual-echo UTE imaging of lung parenchyma using a reordered k-space radial scheme to perform artifact free high contrast imaging of native lung parenchyma.

A new CF-specific MRI-Score: can it predict loss of lung function?
Ilias Tsiflikas1, Matthias Teufel1, Sabrina Fleischer1, Dominik Hartl2, Konstantin Nikolaou1, and Juergen F Schaefer1
1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Germany, 2Pediatrics I - CF Center, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Germany
The study successfully evaluated a new developed CF-specific MRI score. Our results show that the MRI-Score can predict the loss of pulmonary function. Thus, our findings may help that MRI can serve as a novel predictive marker for loss of lung function in CF and thereby help to tailor individualized monitoring and treatment strategies.

Free Breathing Multi-parametric quantitative Assessment of Mesothelioma with MRI
Ravi Teja Seethamraju1, Noreen Dunham2, Donna Oka2, Aida Faria2, and Ritu Randhawa Gill2
1MR R&D, Siemens Healthcare, Boston, MA, United States, 2Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
We demonstrate that free breathing multi-parametric quantitative assessment of mesothelioma with MRI is feasible. DCE imaging of the thorax with 3D Radial stack of stairs gradient echo (radial VIBE) sequence can be acquired while free breathing and the resulting pharmacokinetic maps are of higher diagnostic value than current standard of 2D or 3D FLASH acquisitions without the need for co-registration. Similarly DWI with readout segmented EPI (RESOLVE) provides similar diagnostic value with a free breathing acquisition. These two biomarkers help improve the evaluation of tumor in mesothelioma patients.

Matrix pencil decomposition of time-resolved proton MRI for robust and improved assessment of lung ventilation and perfusion
Grzegorz Bauman1,2 and Oliver Bieri1,2
1Radiological Physics, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
In the contemporary Fourier decomposition lung MRI, time-resolved registered 2D image series are Fourier transformed to identify in a power spectrum the underlying respiratory and cardiac frequencies. Subsequently, the amplitudes corresponding to the respiratory and cardiac motion are extracted voxel-wise to eventually produce ventilation and perfusion images. However, the analysis of truncated oscillatory signals and the peak search in the Fourier spectrum is usually very unstable and inaccurate. Here, we propose to use a robust and fully-automated method of signal analysis using a matrix pencil decomposition in combination with a linear least squares analysis for improved quantitative pulmonary function assessment.

19F Ventilation Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Yueh Lee1, Esther Akinnagbe-Zusterzeel1, Jennifer Goralski1, Scott Donaldson1, Hongyu An2, H. Cecil Charles3, and Richard Boucher1
1The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States, 2Washinton University, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Duke University, Durham, NC, United States
19F MRI Ventilation imaging of cystic fibrosis patients demonstrates the disease heterogeneity using a straightforward dynamic protocol.

Non-cartesian SENSE reconstruction of 3D UTE Cones for fast MR lung imaging
Konstantinos Zeimpekis1,2, Klaas Pruessmann2, Florian Wiesinger3, Patrick Veit-Haibach1, and Gaspar Delso4
1Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland, 3GE Global Research, Munich, Germany, 4GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States
This study is about a first attempt to use CG-SENSE parallel reconstruction for non-cartesian 3D Ultra-short Echo Time Cones sequence for lung imaging. Primary goal is to test under-sampled data that reduce the scan time effectively to one quarter of the fully sampled acquisition and check if the reconstruction manages to capture lung density signal to be used for accurate PET Attenuation Correction on a PET/MRI since conventional sequences that are currently used do not capture any. We test also the possibility for high resolution lung imaging from the undersampled data reconstructed with CG-SENSE algorithm.

A Segmentation Pipeline for Measuring Pulmonary Ventilation Suitable for Clinical Workflows and Decision-making
Fumin Guo1, Khadija Sheikh1, Rachel Eddy1, Dante PI Capaldi1, David G McCormack2, Aaron Fenster1, and Grace Parraga1
1Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 2Department of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
Clinical translation of hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI for large-scale and multi-centre applications requires image analysis tools that can provide clinically-acceptable measurements of pulmonary information. Here we proposed a pipeline that consists of 1H-129Xe registration, segmentation and ventilation defects generation for regional and quantitative evaluation of 129Xe ventilation. 1H-129Xe registration was performed using a state-of-art registration approach. 1H MRI segmentation was performed using primal-dual analysis methods and modern convex optimization techniques with incorporation of region information from 129Xe MRI. We applied the pipeline across a range of pulmonary abnormalities and this computationally efficient pipeline demonstrated high agreement with reference standard, suggesting its suitability for efficient clinical workflows.

Quantitative Aerosol Deposition in Mechanically-Ventilated Healthy and Asthmatic Rats using UTE-MRI
Hongchen Wang1, Georges Willoquet1, Catherine Sebrié1, Sébastien Judé2, Anne Maurin2, Rose-Marie Dubuisson1, Luc Darrasse1, Geneviève Guillot1, Ludovic de Rochefort1, and Xavier Maître1
1Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique Médicale et Multi-Modalités (UMR8081) IR4M, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 2Centre de Recherches Biologiques, CERB, Baugy, France
Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease treated with inhaled therapy. However, aerosol deposition patterns are complex and imaging methods are needed to improve delivery efficiency. 3D UTE-MRI combined with aerosolized Gd-DOTA had been formerly applied onto spontaneous nose-only-breathing animals. Here, a mechanical administration system was developed to ventilate and nebulize rats. Resulting aerosol distribution and kinetics were compared with free-breathing in healthy and asthmatic animals.

Investigation of the Multiple T2* Compartments in Lung Parenchyma using a 3D Multi-Echo Radial sequence
Aiming Lu1, Xiangzhi Zhou1, Mitsue Miyazaki1, Masao Yui2, Masaaki Umeda2, and Yoshiharu Ohno3,4
1Toshiba Medical Research Inst., Vernon Hills, IL, United States, 2Toshiba Medical System Corp, Otawara, Japan, 3Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 4Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
T2* mapping with a single-exponential model have been demonstrated to be useful in accessing pulmonary functional loss.  However, the model does not fully explain the signal evolution at longer TEs. We propose to improve the T2* characterization in the lung parenchyma with a bi-exponential model. Using a 3D multi-echo radial sequence, our results demonstrated that short T2* values and the volume fractions of the two compartments could be obtained on a clinical 3T scanner. In addition to the improved accuracy of the short T2* measurement, the added fraction values could also potentially be used as biomarkers.

T1 relaxation time in lungs of asymptomatic smokers
Daniel Alamidi1, Simon Kindvall2, Penny Hubbard Cristinacce3, Deirdre McGrath3, Simon Young4, Josephine Naish3, John Waterton3, Per Wollmer5, Sandra Diaz5, Marita Olsson6, Paul Hockings7,8, Kerstin Lagerstrand1, Geoffrey Parker3,9, and Lars E Olsson2
1Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2Department of Medical Physics, Lund University, Translational Sciences, Malmö, Sweden, 3Centre for Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Imaging Institute, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 4AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park, United Kingdom, 5Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden, 6AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden, 7Medtech West, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden,8Antaros Medical, BioVenture Hub, Mölndal, Sweden, 9Bioxydyn Ltd, Manchester, United Kingdom
Tobacco smoking is the primary cause of COPD. MRI may improve the characterization of COPD where T1 of the lungs is a potential biomarker. We investigated whether smoking affects lung T1 in individuals with no known lung disease. Lung T1 measurements were performed in asymptomatic current and never smokers. T1 was shortened with age and an indication of shortened T1 in smokers was observed that most likely reflects early signs of smoking-induced lung pathology. Our results may be of utility to power future prospective studies with larger cohorts and improved regional analysis. 

Retrospective reconstruction using recorded cardiac and respiration data of 3D radial acquisition of a human torso
Daniel Güllmar1, Georg Hille2, Martin Krämer1, Karl-Heinz Herrmann1, Jürgen R Reichenbach1, and Jens Haueisen2
1Medical Physics Group / IDIR, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Automation, Technical University Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Germany
The aim of the study was to acquire 3D radially sampled k-space data of a human torso without breath hold and prospective cardiac triggering. Respiration and cardiac pulsation were continuously recorded simultaneously with MR imaging over a time frame of 1 h. Retrospective data motion triggering was used to reconstruct 8 up to 10 different respiration phases and 12 up to 20 different cardiac cycle phases, resulting in 96 up to 200 different phase combinations. Image quality was evaluated based on SNR, CNR and under sampling artifacts.

Asymmetric line broadening in lung tissue
Lukas Reinhold Buschle1, Felix Tobias Kurz1,2, Thomas Kampf3, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer1, and Christian Herbert Ziener1
1E010 Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Department of Experimental Physics 5, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
We analyze the local line shape in human lung tissue in dependence of the underlying microscopic tissue parameters such as diffusion coefficient, alveolar size and susceptibility difference. The interplay between susceptibility- and diffusion-mediated effects is discussed in several dephasing regimes. In vivo measurements for human lung tissue show an excellent agreement with simulations of the dephasing process. This allows an improved quantitative diagnosis of early pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

Dephasing and diffusion on the alveolar surface
Lukas Reinhold Buschle1, Felix Tobias Kurz1,2, Thomas Kampf3, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer1, and Christian Herbert Ziener1
1E010 Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Department of Experimental Physics 5, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
In lung tissue, the susceptibility difference between air-filled alveoli and surrounding tissue causes a strong dephasing of spin-bearing particles. The particles experience an averaged magnetic field due to diffusion effects. Thus, the dephasing process slows down. Both diffusion and susceptibility effects are described by the Bloch-Torrey equation that is solved for the local magnetization on the surface of alveoli. The analytical solution of the free induction decay is compared to in vivo measurements in human lung tissue.

Evaluation of three different VIBE Sequences for Pulmonary Lesions Detection in Patients with Lung Cancer
Hong Wang1, Xing Tang1, Panli Zuo2, Shun Qi1, and Hong Yin1
1Department of Radiology, Department of Radiology,Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, China, People's Republic of, 2Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaborations NE Asia, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
MR imaging is limited by poor evaluation of lung parenchyma due to rapid single decay, low tissue portion density and substantial respiratory motion. In this study, we evaluate three different approaches of VIBE sequences in pulmonary lesions detection, which including a short-TE breath-hold VIBE, DIXON VIBE and a free-breathing Radial VIBE. We found Breath-hold short-TE VIBE and Dixon VIBE sequences have better performance in lesion detection than radial VIBE.

Title: Breath-Hold Peripheral Pulse-Gated Black-Blood T2-Weighted Lung Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the Variable Refocusing Flip Angle Technique
Ryotaro Kamei1, Yuji Watanabe2, Koji Sagiyama1, Satoshi Kawanami2, Atsushi Takemura3, Masami Yoneyama3, and Hiroshi Honda1
1Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan, 2Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan, 3Healthcare, Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan
Breath-hold black-blood magnetic resonance imaging of the lung provides promising results in focal lesion screening. Using peripheral pulse gating, we intended to improve the image quality obtained with previously reported methods. Black-blood fat-saturated T2-weighted images were acquired for healthy volunteers at various time points during the pulse cycle. The degree of attenuation of the intraluminal signals was quantified. The longest trigger delay, which corresponds to the systolic phase, provided superior black-blood effects and was considered optimal for signal acquisition. Thus, peripheral pulse gating enabled convenient and effective attenuation of the signals within pulmonary vessels.

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging at 3T System: Influence of Contrast Media Concentration to Capabilities of Pulmonary Perfusion Parameter and Functional Loss Evaluations as Compared with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion Area-Detector CT
Yoshiharu Ohno1,2, Yuji Kishida2, Shinichiro Seki2, Hisanobu Koyama2, Shigeru Ohyu3, Masao Yui3, Takeshi Yoshikawa1,2, Katsusuke Kyotani4, and Kazuro Sugimura2
1Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 2Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 3Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Japan, 4Center for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan
    Quantification of perfusion parameter from dynamic CE-perfusion MRI at 3T system may be more difficult than that at 1.5T system, and contrast media concentration may have larger influence to measurement error of perfusion parameter on a 3T system.  We hypothesized that a bolus injection protocol with appropriately small contrast media volume can provide accurate pulmonary perfusion parameter on dynamic CE-perfusion MRI at a 3T system.  The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriate contrast media volume for quantitative assessment of dynamic CE-pulmonary MRI, when compared with dynamic CE-area-detector CT (ADCT) for quantitative evaluation of perfusion within whole lung.

High-resolution 3D ultra-short echo-time imaging of the lung in young children at 3T without sedation
Wingchi Edmund Kwok1,2, Clement Ren3, Gloria Pryhuber4, Mitchell Chess1, and Jason C. Woods5
1Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 2Rochester Center for Brain Imaging, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 4Departments of Pediatrics and Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States
Our purpose was to study the feasibility of high-resolution lung ultra-short TE imaging of young children at 3T without sedation and tackle potential challenges.  Two subjects aged 7 and 8 with mild cystic fibrosis were recruited.  They were supported by a child life specialist and the use of a mock magnet.  Siemens work-in-progress UTE and PETRA_D sequences were used for lung imaging.  The images depicted the lung parenchyma, airways and vessels, and revealed abnormalities such as bronchial wall thickening.  The techniques should be useful for the monitoring of lung development and evaluation of lung diseases in children.

Investigating the Correlation between Alveolar Surface-to-Volume Ratio and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient with Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI
Kai Ruppert1,2, Kun Qing2, Talissa A. Altes2,3, and John P. Mugler III2
1Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 2University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 3University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States
Chemical Shift Saturation Recovery (CSSR) MR Spectroscopy is a method for monitoring the uptake of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HXe) by lung parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the alveolar surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) as assessed by CSSR spectroscopy and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in subjects with chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease, healthy smokers and age-matched normals. Only for very short delay times (5 ms or less) a good correlation was established. Surprisingly, the best correlation, and presumably most accurate S/V value, was obtained by using just the red-blood cell peak at the shortest measured delay time of 3ms.

Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Lung 3D SB-CSI at 1.5 and 3 Tesla
Steven Guan1, Kun Qing1, Talissa Altes1, John Mugler III1, Borna Mehrad1, Michael Shim1, Quan Chen1, Paul Read1, James Larner1, Iulian Ruset2,3, Grady Miller1, James Brookeman1, William Hersman2,3, and Jaime Mata1
1University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 2University of New Hampshire, Duhram, NH, United States, 3XeMed, Duhram, NH, United States
3D Single-Breath Chemical Shift Imaging (3D SB-CSI) is capable of non-invasively assessing regional lung ventilation and gas uptake/exchange within a single breath-hold, typically less than 13 seconds.  From this study, we present preliminary clinical results of 3D SB-CSI from healthy, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial lung disease (ILD), and lung cancer (LC) subjects at 1.5T and 3T. Having novel information on regional changes in ventilation and gas uptake/exchange allows for a better understanding of lung physiology, disease progression, and treatment efficacy.

Spatial Fuzzy C-Means thresholding for semi-automated calculation of percentage lung ventilated volume from hyperpolarised gas and 1H MRI
Paul J.C. Hughes1, Helen Marshall1, Felix C. Horn1, Guilhem J. Collier1, and Jim M. Wild1
1Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Automating image analysis is key to accelerate quantitative image metric calculation and increase consistency between observers. This work presents a custom-built software to calculate percentage lung ventilated volume (%VV) from hyperpolarised gas and 1H MRI using spatial fuzzy c-means thresholding. The software developed reduced analysis time and user input resulting in significantly decreased interobserver variability when postprocessing image data.

Differentiating Early Stage and Later Stage Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis using Hyperpolarized 129Xe Ventilation MRI
Mu He1, Scott H. Robertson2, Jennifer M. Wang3, Craig Rackley4, H. Page McAdams5, and Bastiaan Driehuys5
1Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 3School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 4Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 5Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
The use of 129Xe MRI to characterize ventilation has received little attention in IPF because these patients exhibit few ventilation defect regions (VDR) compared to those with other obstructive lung diseases. Here, we evaluate other aspects of the ventilation distribution by optimized linear binning. Ventilation distributions were quantified to provide not only VDR, but also low and high-intensity regions (LIR, HIR). We found that HIR was reduced by 3-fold in patients with late versus early stage disease, as measured by GAP IPF stage. Thus, loss of HIR may be a useful marker of disease progression in IPF.

A Dual Loop T/R-Xenon Coil for Homogenous Excitation with Improved Comfort and Size
Wolfgang Loew1, Robert Thomen1, Randy Giaquinto1, Ron Pratt1, Zackary Cleveland1, Laura Walkup1, Charles Dumoulin1, and Jason Woods1
1Imaging Research Center, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States
Hyperpolarized gas MRI of lungs requires homogeneous RF excitation and high SNR for proper spin-density mapping with low flip angles. A dual loop T/R 129Xe coil was designed and constructed to provide flexibility for a wide range of patient sizes while maintaining high transmit/receive homogeneity for hyperpolarized 129Xe imaging and therefore provide high-quality images for identifying and quantifying functional pulmonary deficiencies. Electromagnetic field simulations were used to analyze excitation profiles.

Lobar Ventilation Heterogeneity in Asthma and Cystic Fibrosis Assessed with Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI and Computed Tomography
Wei Zha1, Jeffery N Kammerman1, David G Mummy2, Alfonso Rodriguez1, Robert V Cadman1, Scott K Nagle1,3,4, Ronald L Sorkness4,5,6, and Sean B Fain1,2,3
1Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 5Medicine-Allergy, Pulmonary & Critical Care, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 6Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States
Seven cystic fibrosis (CF) and 69 asthma subjects with different severities of disease underwent hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Lobar segmentation was performed on proton MRI by referencing corresponding MDCT. The lobar ventilation defect percent (VDP) was measured by adaptive K-means. Pairwise comparison showed that lobar VDP variation patterns were different in CF vs. asthma, although patterns were similar in severe vs. non-severe asthma. Disease-related lobar VDP variation patterns may provide a sensitive indicator for early detection and patterns of progression in obstructive lung disease.

Severity Evaluation in Cystic Fibrosis Using Oxygen-enhanced MRI: Comparison to Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI
Wei Zha1, Stanley J Kruger1, Robert V Cadman1, Kevin M Johnson1,2, Andrew D Hahn1, Scott K Nagle1,2,3, and Sean B Fain1,2,4
1Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States
Oxygen-enhanced MRI using 3D radial ultrashort echo time sequence (OE-MRI) is a promising alternative to evaluate ventilation and defects with wider accessibility and better affordability.  Eleven cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with different severities of disease underwent OE-MRI and HP-MRI. The disease severity ranks on the percent signal enhancement map (PSE) derived from OE-MRI was compared to the whole lung ventilation defect percent (VDP) measured from HP-MRI as a reference standard using Spearman rank correlation. The moderate association between VDP and PSE suggest OE-MRI shows promise for differentiating disease severity in CF.

Can the Forced Oscillation Technique and a Computational Model of Respiratory System Mechanics Explain Asthma Ventilation Defects?
Megan Fennema1, Sarah Svenningsen1, Rachel Eddy1, Del Leary2, Geoffrey Maksym3, and Grace Parraga1
1Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 2Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States, 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
In patients with asthma, MRI has provided evidence of ventilation-defects and heterogeneity.  The etiology of ventilation-heterogeneity is not well-understood, and neither is its relationship with clinically-relevant respiratory-system-impedance measurements.  We evaluated the potential relationships between MRI ventilation-defects and respiratory-system-impedance measured in vivo using oscillometry and in silico using a computational airway-tree-model, in subjects clinically diagnosed with asthma.  Both experiments suggested a significant relationship between MRI ventilation-defects and respiratory-system-reactance.  In vivoexperimental data presented here reinforced the validity of our computational airway-tree-model.  MRI-derived ventilation-defects in asthmatics can be explained by lung impedance, specifically reactance, measured experimentally and using a computational model.

Quantitative Gas Exchange using Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Ziyi Wang1, Scott Haile Robertson2, Jennifer Wang3, Elianna Ada Bier2, Mu He4, and Bastiaan Driehuys1,2,5
1Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 2Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 3School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 4Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, 5Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI exploits solubility and chemical shift to image regional alterations in gas exchange. These properties have been particularly promising for sensitive detection and monitoring of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here we seek to refine our analysis of regional gas exchange impairment by mapping the 129Xe uptake in blood and barrier tissues relative to gas-phase signal intensity. This work shows that gas exchange impairment is dominated by increased 129Xe uptake in barrier tissues. 

Evaluation of esophageal cancer: comparison of MRI and CT
Wei Wang1, Wei Li1, Xueqian Shang1, and Xiaoying Wang1
1Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
The study preliminary compared the ability of non-contrast-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced CT in detection, characterization and staging of esophageal cancer. Ten patients’ chest CT and MR images were subjectively evaluated. We found that MR was not inferior to CT, and showed superior capacity in detecting early unapparent cancer, delineating the tumor precisely and depicting perfect contrast of surrounding structures. Also MR was relatively safe than contrast-enhanced CT. MR may be a potential useful tool for evaluation esophageal cancer. 

In situ pH effects within Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Mice revealed by UTE-CEST MRI
Jiadi Xu1, Vincent DeMarco2, Supriya Pokkali 2, Alvaro Ordonez2, Mariah Klunk2, Marie-France Penet3, Zaver Bhujwalla3, Peter van Zijl1,3, and Sanjay Jain2,4
1F. M. Kirby Center, kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Center for Infection and Inflammation Imaging Research, Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
A UTE-CEST scheme was developed to acquire CEST spectrum on M. Tuberculosis lesions in mouse lung. The scheme repeats a selective saturation pulse together with an appropriate mixing time; MRI images are acquired using the UTE technique during the mixing times. The UTE readout is able to suppress the respiratory motion artifacts commonly seen in lung MRI. The pattern of the MTRasym spectra in the TB lesion, which is dominated by protein signals, was used to assess lesion pH. 

Design of a multimodal (1H MRI/23Na MRI/CT) anthropomorphic thorax phantom: Initial results at 3 T
Wiebke Neumann1, Florian Lietzmann1, Lothar R. Schad1, and Frank G. Zöllner1
1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
Anthropomorphic phantoms are an essential tool for the validation of image registration algorithms of multimodal data and are important for quantification experiments in 1H and 23Na MR imaging. A human thorax phantom was developed with insertable lung, liver, rib cage modules and tracking spheres. Evaluation regarding the tissue-mimicking characteristics with 1H and 23Na MR and CT imaging shows that the modules possess T1, T2 and HU values comparable to those of human tissues. This work presents an MR- and CT-compatible phantom which allows experimental studies for quantitative evaluation of deformable, multimodal image registration algorithms and realistic multi-nuclei MR imaging techniques.

Relationship between transient severe motion of the liver in gadoxetic acid-enhanced arterial phase imaging and changes of arterial oxygen saturation
Akihiko Kanki1, Tsutomu Tamada1, Ayumu Kido1, Kazuya Yasokawa1, Tomohiro Sato1, Daigo Tanimoto1, Minoru Hayashida1, Akira Yamamoto1, and Katsuyoshi Ito1
1Radiology, Kawaski Medical school, Kurashiki, Japan
The purpose of our study was to clarify the relationship between transient severe motion in arterial phase imaging (TSMA) and changes in SpO2 after contrast media administration during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI or CT. As the results, the decrease in SpO2 in arterial phase compared with other phases was less than 1% in both contrast media. The incidence of TSMA was 0% in iodinated contrast media and was 8.2% in gadoxetic acid, respectively. Our study suggests that the cause of TSM in dynamic gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging of the liver may be the ringing artifacts rather than the respiratory-related motion artifacts.  

Cholesterol gallstones can be depicted as positive signal using three dimensional ultra-short echo-time at 3T MR scanner
Mamoru Takahashi1, Yasuo Takehara2, Kenji Fujisaki1, Tomoyuki Okuaki 3, Yukiko Fukuma3, Norihiro Tooyama1, Katsutoshi Ichijo1, Tomoyasu Amano1, and Harumi Sakahara4
1Radiology, Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan, 2Hamamatsu University Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan, 3Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 4Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
Using 3D dual echo UTE sequence, all cholesterol gallstones were able to be detected as positive signal in-vitro. Our study may indicate that UTE has an added value of depicting impacted stones or hepatolithiasis as positive signal. In initial clinical experiences, cholesterol gallstones were also successfully visualized as positive signal with UTE.

Non-balanced spin-echo SSFP sequence in the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-MRI for the differential diagnosis of liver hemangiomas and metastatic liver tumors
Yukihisa Takayama1, Akihiro Nishie2, Yoshiki Asayama2, Kousei Ishigami2, Yasuhiro Ushijima2, Daisuke Okamoto2, Nobuhiro Fujita2, Masami Yoneyama3, and Hiroshi Honda2
1Department of Radiology Informatics and Network, Kyushu University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan, 3Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan
A non-balanced spin-echo steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence is a variant of the gradient echo (GRE) sequence. It provides T2-weighted contrast because it generates the spin echo. It also has high sensitivity to contrast agents’ T1-shortening effects. After the optimization of MR parameter settings, the non-balanced spin-echo SSFP sequence in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of Gd-EOB-MRI is useful for differential diagnoses of liver hemangiomas and metastatic liver tumors, based on the interpretation of the lesion signal intensity. Here we assessed the diagnostic performance of the non-balanced spin-echo SSFP sequence in the HBP of Gd-EOB-MRI.

Rapid Cartesian versus radial acquisition: comparison of two sequences for hepatobiliary phase MRI at 3 Tesla
Johannes Budjan1, Philipp Riffel1, Melissa Ong1, Stefan O Schoenberg1, Ulrike I Attenberger1, and Daniel Hausmann1
1Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
In patients with breath-holding difficulties, breathing artifacts can result in dramatically reduced image quality during hepatobiliary phase imaging. Rapid Cartesian as well as radial acquisition techniques are approaches to minimize these artifacts. In 21 patients, both techniques were used and compared regarding image quality and lesion conspicuity. For most patients, a high flip angle Cartesian sequence with short breath-hold interval was feasible and resulted in superior overall image quality. Radial techniques proved to be a valuable option for the few patients who were unable to hold even short breath-hold intervals.

Rapid registration of DCE-MRI for improved ROI-based analysis
Yajing Zhang1, Zhen Jiang2, Weiping Liu1, Feng Huang1, Ming Yang1, Allan Jin1, and Ping Yang1
1Philips Healthcare, Suzhou, China, People's Republic of, 22nd affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China, People's Republic of
Quantification of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is often hindered by motion during imaging. Multiple sources of motion require for a non-rigid 3D registration to align dynamic images. This study provided a rapid 3D non-rigid registration tool for DCE liver registration by optimizing the scheme of image matching. The results show that the dynamic images were well aligned in terms of whole liver area and the portal vein area. Meanwhile, the intensity plot demonstrated better representation from the registered images. Computation time of registration was about one minute for the entire scan, making it possible for clinical routine analysis.

Which is more favorable surrogate marker to predict liver fibrosis on Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 1.5T, ADC value on diffusion weighted imaging or quantitative enhancement ratio?
Taiyou Leopoldo Harada1, Kazuhiro Saito1, Yoichi Araki1, Jun Matsubayashi2, Toshitaka Nagao2, and Koichi Tokuuye1
1Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Shinjuku-ku, Japan, 2Pathology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Shinjuku-ku, Japan
This study is to evaluate which is favorable surrogate marker to predict the liver fibrosis, DWI or quantitative enhancement ratio measured at hepatobiliary phase on Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced-MRI. Eighty-three patients with 99 lesions were enrolled. ADC was measured at a distance of 5-10 mm from the tumor. Liver-to-muscle ratio (LMR), liver-to-spleen ratio (LSR) and contrast enhancement index (CEI) were calculated. ADC showed no significant difference among fibrosis grades. LMR and CEI showed significant differences between high stage and low stage fibrosis group (p<0.01 and p=0.04). In conclusion, LMR was best surrogate parameters to distinguish high stage from low stage fibrosis.

Anatomical and Hemodynamic Assessments of Hepatic Vasculatures using 4D-PCA Technique: Initial Experience
Takeshi Yoshikawa1, Katsusuke Kyotani2, Yoshiharu Ohno1, Shinichiro Seki3, Hisanobu Koyama3, Kouya Nishiyama2, and Kazuro Sugimura3
1Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 2Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan, 3Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
We introduced new assessment method of liver hemodynamics using 4D-PCA and new flow analytic technique including wall shear stresses. We found 4D-PCA can be clinically used as a non-contrast angiography and our approach enables detailed hemodynamic assessment for each hepatic vessel.

Transient severe motion (TSM) at gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI – Comparison of different contrast agent application protocols
Kristina Imeen Ringe1, Christian von Falck1, Hans-Juergen Raatschen1, Frank Wacker1, and Jan Bernd Hinrichs1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
The purpose of our present study was to evaluate the incidence of TSM at gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI using different contrast application protocols, i.e. by variation of contrast injection rate, dose and supplemental nasal oxygen application. In addition to quantitative SNR measurements, motion artifacts and arterial phase image quality were compared. The overall incidence of TSM in our study population was 11.5%, and neither variation of contrast application parameter was able to significantly reduce the occurrence of these artifacts.

MR angiography of congenital portosystemic shunts in mice
Hongxia Lei1,2, Ana Francisca Soares3, and Rolf Gruetter3,4
1Animal Imaging and Technology CIBM-AIT, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 3Laboratory of functional and metabolic imaging LIFMET, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Abnormal vascular connections within the liver, such as congenital portosystemic shunts occur sporadically in widely used strain of laboratory mice, i.e. the C57BL/6J strain. We showed that with the respiration gating, MR angiography yields vascular structures of mouse liver with excellent quality and thus allowing diagnosing such abnormality non-invasively.

In vivo 31P 3D MRSI of the hepatobiliary system with improved coverage due to the 8 channel receive array at 3T enables prospective assessment of phosphatidylcholine in the gallbladder.
Marek Chmelik1,2, Martin Gajdošík1,2, Emina Halilbasic3, Ladislav Valkovic1,4, Wolfgang Bogner1, Stephan Gruber1, Michael Trauner3, Siegfried Trattnig1,2, and Martin Krššák1,2,3
1High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria,3Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4OCMR, RDM Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
The purpose of this study was to acquire 31P-3D-MRSI data with extended coverage of the hepatobiliary system using a 8-channel receive array at 3T. This protocol enables prospective phosphatidylcholine (PtdC) assessment in the gallbladder. As the bile amount in the gallbladder changes according to dietary condition, the protocol was tested pre-/post-meal. After overnight fasting all volunteers had gallbladder filled with the bile visible in both 31P-MRSI data as strong PtdC signal at 2ppm and in T2 weighted images as hyperintense region. A reduced PtdC signal and volume of the gallbladder were visible after digestion of the high fat meal.

Effect of Betaine on Intrahepatic Triglyceride Levels: Reproducibility and Preliminary Results
Adrienne Lee1, Benjamin Rowland1, Huijun Liao1, Ana Maria Grizales2, Allison Goldfine2, and Alexander Lin1
1Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, United States
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an accurate, noninvasive method used to monitor intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) levels in four patients undergoing betaine treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).  Comparison of results in two of the patients with lower IHTG levels at baseline showed a decrease or improvement after betaine supplementation. However, two subjects with baseline elevated levels of IHTG did not show an improvement and in fact showed higher IHTG levels.  Reproducibility of primary lipid vs secondary lipid measurements were also obtained and demonstrated high and low reproducibility, respectively.

Application of Gradient Reversal Fat Suppression technology (LIPO) in diffusion–weighted MR imaging of normal pancreas at 3.0T
Jin Shang1, Qi-yong Guo1, Bing Yu1, Yu Shi1, Kai-ning Shi2, and Ying Liu1
1Department of Radiology,Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China, People's Republic of, 2Imaging Systems Clinical Science,Philips Healthcare, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
At present, traditional fat suppression still brings heavy chemical-shift artifacts in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in abdomen 3T magnetic resonance scan. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of two different DWI sequences for fat suppression on normal pancreas. From the above research, it can be concluded that DWI with LIPO may serve as an more effective method on improving the image quality of pancreas at 3.0T MR.

Multi-Institution Liver Mass Evaluation at 1.5 and 3 T Using Free breathing, Through-time Spiral GRAPPA and Quantitative Perfusion
Shivani Pahwa1, Hao Liu2, Yong Chen3, Sara Dastmalchian1, Ziang Lu1, Chaitra Badve4, Alice Yu1, Joshua Batesole4, Hamid Chalian4, Katherine Wright1, Shengxiang Rao5, Caixia Fu6, Ignacio Vallines7, Dean Nakamoto8, Mark Griswold9, Nicole Seiberlich10, Zeng Mengsu11, and Vikas Gulani12
1Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 3Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 4Radiology, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, United States, 5Zhongshan Hospital< Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 6Siemens, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 7Siemens Healthcare, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 8Radiology, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, United States, 9Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 10Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 11Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, People's Republic of, 12Radiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States
Breath holds and lack of a quantitative dimension are the two major challenges in liver MR imaging.  Free breathing, perfusion sequences created in academic institutions in the developed world have not been tested in busy and overloaded radiology practices worldwide. We evaluated free-breathing, 3D Through-time Spiral GRAPPA perfusion technique at two different field strengths in the US and China. We found that the perfusion parameters obtained for two most common hepatic lesions ie hepatocellular carcinoma and metastases were remarkably consistent across sites, though statistically different according to pathology. 

Rapid Liver Strain Assessment in a Single Breath-hold using MR Tagging and FastHARP
Nader S. Metwalli1,2, Ronald Ouwerkerk1, Ahmed M. Gharib1, and Khaled Z. Abd-Elmoniem1
1Biomedical and Metabolic Imaging Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Liver fibrosis occurs as a result of long standing chronic liver disease of various etiologies. Reversibility of liver fibrosis has generated considerable attention lately. Early detection of increased liver stiffness would potentially guide towards more effective treatments. Our accelerated acquisition of liver tagging MRI to assess liver mechanics allows larger volumetric coverage and a substantially shorter acquisition time (≈ 80% reduction of total acquisition) than conventional tagging whilst delivering comparable results.

Quantitative Hepatic Lesion Analysis using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ramin Jafari1, Martin R. Prince2, Yi Wang2, Shalini Chhabra3, Jonathan P. Dyke2, and Pascal Spincemaille2
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 3Nuclear Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States
Tissue Analysis

Predictive equations for abdominal fat depot volumes with MRI as reference in a multi-ethnic cohort of 4.5 year old Asian children
Suresh Anand Sadananthan1, Navin Michael1, Mya Thway Tint2, Kuan Jin Lee3, Jay Jay Thaung Zaw2, Khin Thu Zar Hlaing2, Pang Wei Wei2, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek4, Yap Kok Peng Fabian5,6, Peter D. Gluckman1,7, Keith M. Godfrey8, Yap Seng Chong1,2, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow9,10, Yung Seng Lee1,4, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry9, Marielle Valerie Fortier11, and S. Sendhil Velan1,3
1Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore, 2Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 3Singapore BioImaging Consortium, A*STAR, Singapore, 4Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 5Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 7Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 8MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit & NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton & University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom, 9Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore, 10Department of Endocrinology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, 11Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore
Longitudinal assessment of abdominal fat compartments in children can help delineate some of the early risk factors that can predispose an individual to high abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. While accurate determination of abdominal fat can be achieved using CT or MRI, it is often not performed in large cohort studies involving young children due to radiation exposure, high costs or poor compliance with scan procedures. The goal of this work is to develop and validate predictive equations for abdominal fat compartments from anthropometric values with MRI-based abdominal fat volumes as reference in multi-ethnic cohort of 4.5 year-old Asian children.

Abdominal Fat-Water Separation in Mice
Amir Moussavi1,2, Susanne Rauh3, Kristin Koetz1, Stefan Krautwald4, and Susann Boretius1,2
1Funktionelle Bildgebung, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, Germany, 2Molecular Imaging North Competence Center, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, 3Department of Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany, 4Department for Nephrology and Hypertension, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany
Obesity is currently one of the most relevant health problems and analyzing body-fat-distribution is of great importance in obesity research. Using radial encoded spoiled FLASH, data sets covering the entire abdomen of mice were obtained at 3 different echo times without any gaiting technique. Fat and water signals were separated using the three-point Dixon method and using IDEAL in comparison. Based on this, the visceral and subcutaneous fat compartments were successfully segmented.

Quantification of lipid contents using PRESS and STEAM sequences on magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T
Kyu-Ho Song1, Song-I Lim1, Chi-Hyeon Yoo1, and Bo-Young Choe1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
The objective of this study is to compare lipid contents using the point-resolved spectroscopy and stimulated echo acquisition mode sequences to assess lipid resonances in the liver, using in vivo high-resolution spectra at 9.4 T.

Measuring blood perfusion of brown adipose tissue through FAIR imaging
Clemens Diwoky1, Renate Schreiber1, and Rudolf Zechner1
1Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Interscapular brown adipose tissue plays an important role in the maintenance of core body temperature of small mammals through a process known as nonshivering thermogenesis. A dense vascular system delivers oxygen for the thermogenesis and is needed for the transport of produced heat from iBAT towards thoracic and abdominal areas. Therefore iBAT blood perfusion is an important parameter for analyzing iBAT activation and function.

The FAIR ASL protocol developed within this study accounts for the high lipid content in the interscapular area as well as the structure of the iBAT vascular system.

iBAT blood perfusion was determined in wildtype mice and the used protocol is justified based on perfusion numbers determined from skeletal muscle.


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