ISMRM 25th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 22-27 April 2017 • Honolulu, HI, USA

Weekend Educational Course: Frontiers in Neuroscience: Preclinical MRI-X
Weekend Course

ORGANIZERS: Guoying Liu, Ph.D. & Ed X. Wu, Ph.D.

Saturday, 22 April 2017
Room 315  08:15 - 12:15 Moderators:  Albrecht Stroh, Ed Wu

Skill Level: Basic to Intermediate

Slack Channel: #e_crosscutting
Session Number: WE13

This session will first review the existing preclinical neuroimaging methods available for basic neuroscience research. It will then introduce the emerging applications of MR neuroimaging in neuroscience, particularly in combination with various neuromodulation techniques (optogenetics, pharmacogenetics, optical, ultrasound, and electrical stimulations or manipulations). Such MR-X approaches are expected to contribute to our understanding of brain causal circuits, dynamics, and emerging therapeutic approaches.

Target Audience
Preclinical Imaging community; Neuroimaging physicists and clinicians; Neuroscientists.

Educational Objectives
Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to:

-Discuss the existing and emerging applications of MRI in basic neuroscience and brain therapies;
-Explain the basic concepts of various neuromodulation methods (X) that can be combined with large view MRI; and
-Assess the present and emerging MR-X approaches/methodologies, and the needs of basic neuroscience community.


Preclinical Neural MRI for Basic Neuroscience
Afonso Silva
Anatomical and functional MRI, complemented by optical imaging methods and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the brain. In this talk, we aim to show that high resolution anatomical MRI of the brain can be obtained with remarkable cytoarchitectonic detail, while fMRI can be used to study various sensory systems. Complimentary to MRI/fMRI, optical microscopy enables the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity from thousands of neurons with single cell spatial resolution. When combined together, the practical advantages of multi-modal neuroimaging techniques make preclinical imaging an invaluable avenue in neuroscience research.

Optogenetic fMRI Overview
Jin Hyung Lee
Optogenetic fMRI Application: Dissecting Brain Networks & Properties
Russell Chan
Understanding how individual cells and complex brain networks interact in both time and space has been one of the grand challenges in the 21st century. In 2010, Lee et. al. have demonstrated that optogenetic fMRI (ofMRI) within the living mammalian brain reveals BOLD signals in downstream targets distant from the stimulation site, indicating that this approach can be used to map the global effects of controlling a local cell-type specific neuronal population. Since then, multiple studies have utilized ofMRI to dissect brain networks and properties. In this session, technical considerations in the application of ofMRI will be examined. Studies dissecting brain networks and properties using ofMRI will be reviewed. The opportunities and challenges will be discussed.

Deep Brain Stimulation & Chemogenetic fMRI
Yen-Yu Ian Shih
Electrical deep brain stimulation and chemogenetics are increasingly used with simultaneous fMRI. This lecture will introduce both techniques, discuss the strengths/weaknesses, and make suggestions to pilot studies. 

Break & Meet the Teachers
Molecular fMRI: Imaging Probes for Brain Functions & Circuits
Alan Jasanoff
A new experimental approach termed “molecular fMRI” aims to provide direct, minimally-invasive measures of neural function based on the application of molecular probes detectable in time-resolved MRI experiments. In this talk, we discuss the design and application of suitable probes for molecular fMRI, including their initial deployment for imaging several types of signaling molecules in the living brain. By improving the technology with more sensitive contrast agents and better brain delivery strategies, it will be possible to measure and map an expanding array of neurophysiological processes in animals and ultimately in humans.

Origins of BOLD - Neuroscience Perspectives
Anna Devor
Our ability to study human brain is limited by the necessity to use noninvasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a detailed view of cellular-level brain function has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from noninvasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed “bottom-up” forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to noninvasive imaging signals. 

Ultrasound Neuromodulation with MRI for Brain Cirtcuitry in Non-Human Primates
Charles Caskey, Vandiver Chaplin, Pai-Feng Yang, William Grissom, Tony Phipps, Allen Newton, John Gore, Li Min Chen, Wolf Zinke, Jeffrey Schall
In this presentation, I will discuss ongoing work where we are using ultrasound in conjunction with fMRI to modulate and subsequently image brain circuits in non-human primates.

Concurrent TMS with Neuroimaging - Human Applications
Amit Etkin
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers



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