ISMRM 25th Annual Meeting & Exhibition • 22-27 April 2017 • Honolulu, HI, USA

Weekend Educational Course: CEST Imaging
Weekend Course

ORGANIZERS: Guoying Liu, Ph.D. & Peter van Zijl, Ph.D.

Sunday, 23 April 2017
Room 316BC  08:15 - 11:45 Moderators: Guanshu Liu, Ravinder Reddy

Skill Level: Basic to Intermediate

Slack Channel: #e_crosscutting
Session Number: WE25

After presentation of some basic background principles in CEST imaging and spectroscopy (3 talks), an overview will be given of different probes that can be designed (4 talks) for use in molecular imaging, followed by two talks covering applications of endogenous CEST (molecules native to the tissue) as well as applications to humans.

Target Audience
Scientists and clinicians interested in CEST imaging and designing CEST probes for assessing normal and diseased tissue.

Educational Objectives
Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to:
-Recognize exchange transfer and dipolar transfer as used in conventional magnetization transfer;
-Identify requirements for CEST data analysis; and
-Identify preclinical applications and human studies.

CEST, Basic Principles, Contributions To Z-Spectrum
Daniel Gochberg
The purpose of this lecture is to introduce the ideas underlying 1) exchange effects in MRI, and CEST in particular; 2) the contributions to CEST contrast; 3) CEST comparisons to spectroscopy; and 4) current issues in CEST research related to pulse sequence design, imaging metrics, and solute specificity.

CEST Theory, Exchange, T1p, T2 Relationship
Moritz Zaiss
Analytical solutions provide sound insight in the Bloch-McConnell equations that underlie every exchange-weighted contrast, be it CEST, T1p or T2. In this lecture we show that for all experiment affecting the water magnetization, a single eigenvalue solution is able to describe all these experiments. This knowledge forms the basis for interpretation of the outcomes of different exchange-weighted contrasts as well as quantification of exchange.

Pulsed Exchange Transfer Technologies
Xiang Xu
Creative applications of pulse techniques can provide a way to increase detectability and specificity of CEST contrast. In this presentation, we will discuss the advantages and limitations of several pulsed CEST techniques including pulsed saturation, chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT), frequency labeled exchange (FLEX), and variable delay multi-pulse (VDMP) methods. 

Break & Meet the Teachers
Designing ParaCEST Agents (BASIC, Responsive)
Marty Pagel
This presentation will review Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (ParaCEST) MRI contrast agents. These agents should be thoroughly characterized with regard to their dependence on saturation time, saturation power, concentration, pH and temperature.  Responsive ParaCEST agents can detect or measure enzyme activity, metabolites, metal ions, pH, redox state, temperature, and light. Some ParaCEST agents can also exhibit T2-Exchange relaxation. The intermediate exchange rate of a T2ex agent does not affect the T1 relaxivity of the agent.  Therefore, the T2/T1 ratio of a T2ex agent can be employed to detect a biomarker.  

LipoCEST, Basic Principles & Applications
Daniela Delli Castelli
DiaCEST Probes (Reporter Genes, Ion Detection, pH Etc)
Amnom Bar-Shir
In light of the recent demand for new tools that will allow better investigation of complex biological processes, a new field has evolved at the interfaces of synthetic chemistry, molecular engineering, and cellular imaging. Label-free molecular probes based on diaCEST agents for molecular and cellular imaging applications provide the scientific community with unprecedented versatility to monitor wide range of biological events in health and disease. Although diaCEST molecular sensors should be further developed, their performances marks the dawn of a new scientific era for molecular and cellular MRI

Break & Meet the Teachers
APT-Weighted MRI of Cancer & Ischemia
Hye-Young Heo
Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging, a variant of the CEST-based molecular MRI technique, is based on the chemical exchange between free bulk water protons and the amide protons (-NH) of mobile proteins and peptides. Theoretically, the APTw-MRI signal relies mainly on the mobile amide proton concentration and amide proton exchange rate which are related to tissue pH. Therefore, APTw-MRI has the potential to detect brain tumors (where many proteins are overexpressed) and ischemic strokes (where pH drop). Early pre-clinical and clinical data suggest that APTw imaging has unique features by which to detect and characterize brain tumors and strokes.

Other Endogenous CEST Studies: GagCEST, GluCEST, Cr, etc. - permission withheld
Alexej Jerschow
The aim of this presentation will be to give the MRI practitioner a good overview of the methods used in CEST and MT imaging, the current state of the art, and to outline the opportunities and limitations of the methods with respect to particular applications.

GlycoCEST, GlucoCEST, pH Agents, Translation to Humans
Xavier Golay, Moritz Zaiss, Steffi Thust, Mina Kim
CEST is a powerful technique to measure metabolites and other molecules in small concentration through indirect exchange of its labile protons by saturation transfer. In this presentation, a review of its use to indirectly assess metabolic processes is presented, based on amide proton transfer imaging, as well as GlucoCEST and GlycoCEST.


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