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SMRT Educational Seminars
MR Physics: Gradient Echo & Parallel Imaging
Volume 15, Number 3
The SMRT Educational Seminars (Volume 15, Number 3), has been approved for 2.5 Category A Continuing Educational credits.

Read the SMRT Educational Seminars (Volume 15, Number 3), "MR Physics: Gradient Echo & Parallel Imaging" and complete the quiz and official Answer Form at the back of the article. To receive credit the quiz must be completed with a score of 75% or better. Completion of all questions with a passing score will earn a total of 2.5 category A Continuing Education credits.
SMRT members should send the completed Answer Form to the SMRT Education Department for scoring. The certificate will state the CE reference number and awarded CE credits. Members receiving a score less than 75% will be notified and given the option of taking the quiz an additional two times. Members should retain their CE Certificate for their Continuing Education registry requirements.
Educational Objectives

Gradient Echo Imaging

  • Review principles and concepts of gradient echo imaging;
  • Discuss dynamics of MR spin magnetization;
  • Describe relaxation effects in MR;
  • Explain spin and gradient echo formation;
  • Review basic GRE imaging (TR>>T2);
  • Show image contrast examples of flip angle comparisons;
  • Discuss fast GRE imaging (TR<T2) including unbalanced GRE, RF spoiled GRE, balanced SSFP, unbalanced GRE, and balanced SSFP;
  • Show image examples of GRE versus spin echo including PDweighted, T2*-weighted and T2-weighted;
  • Discuss T2* and off-resonance effects in GRE imaging;
  • Describe flow effects in GRE imaging; and
  • Explain Magnetization Preparation in GRE imaging.

Parallel MR Imaging

  • Review the relationship between k-space and the MR image;
  • Show image examples demonstrating the differences in resolution as acquired in k-space;
  • Discuss the relationship of undersampling and aliasing in MR imaging and k-space;
  • Describe parallel MR imaging methods;
  • Explain the relationship between RF receiver coil arrays and parallel imaging;
  • Review the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) technique, and show k-space and image examples;
  • Review the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition technique, and show image and k-space examples;
  • Discuss artifacts and mitigation in parallel imaging techniques; and
  • Review clinical applications of parallel imaging and show image examples.